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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparison of Obliteration Materials Used for Revision Canal Wall-down Mastoidectomy with Mastoid Obliteration.
In Vivo
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Aim: To describe our surgical technique and compare the results of obliteration materials. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients over a 7-year period were evaluated retrospectively. Out of these 50 consecutive patients, 29 had recurrent chronic otitis media (COM) with or without cholesteatoma and 21 patients had old open cavities. Efficacy of mastoid obliteration was assessed by an electronic chart review, otoendoscopic findings, temporal bone computerized tomography (CT) images, and postoperative caloric test. Results: Among 50 patients, inferiorly-based periosteal flap was used in 25 patients (50%) and anteriorly-based periosteal flap was used in the other 25 patients. Tympanic membrane and newly-formed external auditory canal wall was intact in 48 patients (96%). The newly-formed EAC provided sufficient aeration, and satisfactory aesthetic appearance. None of our patients complained of vertigo triggered by cold air or water. There was no significant difference in the caloric test results between the operated ear and the normal ear. No difference was observed in the caloric test between the bone pate and costal cartilage groups. Conclusion: Our results indicate that mastoid obliteration using autogenous bone pate or costal cartilage is helpful in improving the outcomes of revision canal wall-down mastoidectomy in patients with an old radical cavity and recurrent COM or cholesteatoma.
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Romo1 is associated with ROS production and cellular growth in human gliomas.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Romo1 is a mitochondrial protein whose elevated expression is commonly observed in various types of human cancers. However, the expression status of Romo1 and its implication in the pathogenesis of human glioblastoma (GBM) remain largely undefined. To understand the role of Romo1 in the progression of GBM, we explored its expression in a series of GBM tissues and cell lines and determined its effect on ROS production, cell proliferation, and tumor growth. Romo1 was frequently overexpressed at the mRNA level in both primary tumors and cell lines and its elevation was more commonly observed in high grade tumors versus low grade tumors. Romo1 expression was associated with ROS production and its knockdown led to a marked reduction of in vitro cellular growth and anchorage-independent growth of GBM. Consistently, Romo1 depletion induced a G2/M arrest of the cell cycle that was accompanied with accumulation of phospho-cdc2. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft assay revealed that Romo1 depletion significantly decreased tumor formation and growth. Therefore, our data demonstrate that Romo1 upregulation is a common event in human GBMs and contributes to the malignant tumor progression, suggesting that Romo1 could be a new therapeutic target for human GBM.
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Expression of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) in human meningiomas and its roles in cell proliferation and survival.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) has recently been proposed to be involved in tumor development, invasion, and metastasis in several human cancers. However, the functional importance of AEG-1 expression in human meningioma has not been determined. We investigate the level of AEG-1 expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR, immunohistochemistry analysis, and western blotting in various human meningioma tissues and cells. To determine the suppressive effect of AEG-1 on meningioma progression, we inhibited AEG-1 expression using small interfering RNA and examined cell proliferation, apoptosis, colony formation and tumorigenicity in a mouse xenograft model. AEG-1 expression was frequently elevated at both mRNA and protein levels in meningioma tumor tissues and in meningioma-derived cells as well. This elevation was more commonly observed in high-grade tumors than in benign ones. The knockdown of AEG-1 led to a decrease in overall cell proliferation, as well as anchorage-independent growth of malignant meningioma. In addition, apoptotic cell death occurred in AEG-1 depleted meningioma cells through p-Akt and Bcl-2 suppression. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft meningioma model showed that inhibition of AEG-1 expression significantly decreased tumor growth. Altogether, these data show that the elevation of AEG-1 contributes to the malignant progression of meningiomas, suggesting that AEG-1 could be a novel therapeutic target against human meningiomas.
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Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in a clinical presentation of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: a case report with multigene diagnostic approach.
BMC Womens Health
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) is caused by inflammation of perihepatic capsules associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. In recent years, infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly occurring in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. However, NTM has never been reported in patients with FHCS. We present the first case of a patient with extrapulmonary NTM infection in a clinical presentation of FHCS.
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Extradural granulation complicated by chronic suppurative otitis media with cholesteatoma.
In Vivo
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Extrdural granulation or abscess is a possible complication of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) with cholesteatoma. However, due to development of newer antibiotics and advances in bacteriology and imaging techniques, the incidence of extradural granulation or abscess has significantly decreased. The present study analyzed the clinical presentation, imaging findings, and surgical treatment of eight patients with CSOM with cholesteatoma extending to the cranial fossa.
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Involvement of reactive oxygen species in cocaine-taking behaviors in rats.
Addict Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of behavioral sensitization following repeated cocaine exposure. We hypothesized that increased ROS following cocaine exposure would act as signaling molecules in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which might play an important role in mediating the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate cocaine enhancement of brain metabolic activity and the effects of ROS scavengers on cocaine self-administration behavior, cocaine-induced ROS production in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and cocaine enhancement of DA release in the NAc. Metabolic neural activity monitored by temperature and oxidative stress were increased in NAc following cocaine exposure. Systemic administration of the ROS scavenger N-tert-butyl-?-phenylnitrone (PBN) or 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), either pre- or post-treatment, significantly decreased cocaine self-administration without affecting food intake. Infusion of TEMPOL into the NAc inhibited cocaine self-administration. Increased oxidative stress was found mainly on neurons, but not astrocytes, microglia or oligodendrocytes, in NAc of rats self-administering cocaine. TEMPOL significantly attenuated cocaine-induced enhancement of DA release in the NAc, compared to saline controls. TEMPOL had no effect on the enhancement of DA release produced by the DA transporter inhibitor GBR12909. Taken together, these findings suggest that enhancement of ROS production in NAc neurons contributes to the reinforcing effect of cocaine.
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Glycyrrhizae radix methanol extract attenuates methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Glycyrrhizae Radix modulates the neurochemical and locomotor alterations induced by acute psychostimulants in rodents via GABAb receptors. This study investigated the influence of methanol extract from Glycyrrhizae Radix (MEGR) on repeated methamphetamine- (METH-) induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP). A cohort of rats was treated with METH (1?mg/kg/day) for 6 consecutive days, subjected to 6 days of withdrawal, and then challenged with the same dose of METH to induce locomotor sensitization; during the withdrawal period, the rats were administered MEGR (60 or 180?mg/kg/day). A separate cohort of rats was treated with either METH or saline every other day for 6 days in METH-paired or saline-paired chambers, respectively, to induce CPP. These rats were also administered MEGR (180?mg/kg) prior to every METH or CPP expression test. Pretreatment with MEGR (60 and 180?mg/kg/day) attenuated the expression of METH-induced locomotor sensitization dose-dependently, and 180?mg/kg MEGR significantly inhibited the development and expression of METH-induced CPP. Furthermore, administration of a selective GABAb receptor antagonist (SCH50911) prior to MEGR treatment effectively blocked the inhibitory effects of MEGR on locomotor sensitization, but not CPP. These results suggest that Glycyrrhizae Radix blocked repeated METH-induced behavioral changes via GABAb receptors.
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Efficacy of tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy on MRSA-infected chronic otitis media.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-infected chronic otitis media (COM) has been increasing, but to date, there has been no consensus on surgical treatment. Although there is a report that mastoidectomy is essential in treating MRSA-infected COM, in our experience, we found that tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy was sufficient. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy on MRSA-infected COM.
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The effect of platelet-rich plasma on composite graft survival.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Composite grafts are suitable for facial reconstruction because of good color matching, low donor-site morbidity, acceptable texture, and easy surgical techniques. However, their use is limited to small defects and by unpredictable survival rates. As platelet-rich plasma contains large numbers of growth factors and has been widely used for tissue regeneration, this study aimed to investigate platelet-rich plasma as an adjuvant to enhance composite graft survival.
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Immediate partial breast reconstruction with endoscopic latissimus dorsi muscle flap harvest.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Currently, breast conservation therapy is commonly performed for the treatment of early breast cancer. Depending on the volume excised, patients may require volume replacement, even in cases of partial mastectomy. The use of the latissimus dorsi muscle is the standard method, but this procedure leaves an unfavorable scar on the donor site. We used an endoscope for latissimus dorsi harvesting to minimize the incision, thus reducing postoperative scars.
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Acupuncture at HT7 suppresses morphine self-administration at high dose through GABA system.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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In the previous study, acupuncture at HT7 has shown to attenuate the self-administration of morphine at a low dose (0.1mg/kg). In this study, it was further investigated whether acupuncture at HT7 could attenuate the morphine self-administration at a high dose (0.5mg/kg). Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 270-300g were used. After surgery of catheterization, animals were trained to self-administer morphine solution (0.5mg/kg) using daily 1h session under fixed ratio 1 schedule for 3 weeks. Animals that had shown stable morphine-taking (establish baseline: variation less than 20% of the mean of three consecutive days) were subjected to the acupuncture treatment. Bicuculline and SCH 50911 were used to investigate the possible relation between the effect of acupuncture and the GABA receptor system. Acupuncture at HT7, but not at control acupoint, LI5, suppressed spontaneous morphine-taking behavior significantly. In addition, the effect of acupuncture was blocked by both GABA receptor antagonists. The results of this study suggest that acupuncture at HT7 suppresses morphine-taking behavior through the mediation of GABA receptor system.
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Involvement of amygdaloid neuropeptide Y in the anxiolytic effects of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal in rats.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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The role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) in the preventive effects of acupuncture against ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety was investigated. Rats were treated with 3g/kg/day of ethanol for 28 days, followed by 3 days of withdrawal. Bilateral acupuncture treatment at HT7 (Shen-Men), PC6 (Nei-Guan) or a non-acupoint was respectively added to the rats during the withdrawal once a day for three days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses showed there was a significant decrease in NPY protein and mRNA expression in the CeA during ethanol withdrawal, which was reversed by acupuncture at HT7 but neither at PC6 nor at a non-acupoint. Acupuncture at HT7 also greatly inhibited the decrease in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in the CeA. In elevated plus maze tests, a selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 into the CeA before the acupuncture abolished almost completely the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture at HT7. These results suggest that acupuncture at HT7 rescues the depletion of amygdaloid NPY and reverses the decrease in CREB phosphorylation to produce anxiolytic effects during ethanol withdrawal.
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Korean Red Ginseng attenuates anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal in rats.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is known to have antianxiety properties. This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic effects of KRG extract (KRGE) during ethanol withdrawal (EW) and the involvement of the mesoamygdaloid dopamine (DA) system in it.
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Plasma treatment of thin film coated with graphene flakes for the reduction of sheet resistance.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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We investigated the effects of plasma treatment on the sheet resistance of thin films spray-coated with graphene flakes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Thin films coated with graphene flakes show high sheet resistance due to defects within graphene edges, domains, and residual oxygen content. Cl2 plasma treatment led to decreased sheet resistance when treatment time was increased, but when thin films were treated for too long the sheet resistance increased again. Optimum treatment time was related to film thickness. The reduction of sheet resistance may be explained by the donation of holes due to forming pi-type covalent bonds of Cl with carbon atoms on graphene surfaces, or by C--Cl bonding at the sites of graphene defects. However, due to radiation damage caused by plasma treatment, sheet resistance increased with increased treatment time. We found that the sheet resistance of PET film coated with graphene flakes could be decreased by 50% under optimum conditions.
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Vascular leiomyoma in the head and neck region: 11 years experience in one institution.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Vascular leiomyoma is an uncommon benign tumor of smooth muscle origin that arises from the muscularis layer of blood vessel walls. We report our experiences with the clinical manifestations, pathologic characteristics, and management of vascular leiomyoma in the head and neck.
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Effects of saikosaponin A on cocaine self-administration in rats.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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We have previously demonstrated that saikosaponin A (SSA) attenuated morphine self-administration behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of SSA on cocaine-maintained responding using self-administration procedure. Rats self-administered cocaine (0.25mg/kg per infusion) under a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement during daily 3-h session. Once stable basal responses were obtained, rats were pretreated with each doses of SSA (1.0, 2.5, 5.0mg/kg) or its vehicle (5% Tween-80) by an intraperitoneal injection 30min before the start of self-administration testing. Additionally, different groups of rats received either the selective GABAB antagonist SCH 50911 or the GABAA antagonist bicuculline before systemic administration of SSA at dose of 2.5mg/kg. Results showed that SSA significantly reduced cocaine self-administration without affecting food consumption. SSA inhibition of cocaine reinforced-responding was blocked by SCH 50911, but not bicuculline. Results suggest that SSA may attenuate cocaine-reinforced behavior through activation of GABAB receptors.
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Sauchinone blocks methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion and place preference in mice.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Sauchinone is a phytochemical known as a nitric oxide (NO) inhibitor. NO is a kind of neurotransmitter and involved in psychotic effect of abuse drug. In present, we carried out a study on the effect of sauchinone on methamphetamine-induced alteration of behavior in mice. Locomotory activity and conditioned place preference (CPP) were used to evaluate behavioral changes. As a result, sauchinone inhibited the methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in dose-dependent manner, whereas sauchinone had no effect on normal locomotory activity. The inhibitory effect of sauchinone on methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion was reversed by treatment of molsidomine, a NO donor. Sauchinone also significantly blocked the acquisition and expression of CPP induced by methamphetamine in mouse. However, it did not produce place preference or place aversion, when it was treated alone in animals. Taken together, sauchinone blocked drug reward-related behavior as well as acute hyperlocomotion induced by methamphetamine treatment.
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Cerebral syphilitic gumma mimicking a brain tumor in the relapse of secondary syphilis in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Diagnosis of cerebral syphilitic gumma is frequently determined at the time of surgery, because imaging and laboratory findings demonstrate the elusive results. A 59-year-old woman presenting dysarthria showed a mass on her brain computed tomography. She was first suspected of brain tumor, but histological results from surgical resection revealed cerebral gumma due to neurosyphilis. After operation, she presented fever and rash with an infiltration on a chest X-ray. Histological assessment of skin was consistent with syphilis. Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed test IgG in cerebrospinal fluid was positive. She was successfully treated with ceftriaxone for 14 days.
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Simple acupoints prescription flow chart based on meridian theory: a retrospective study in 102 dogs.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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To help the clinicians prescribe acupoints easily and effectively, we developed one simple flow chart to select acupoints. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of flow chart to select acupoints in dogs. Total 102 dogs showing intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) (n = 12), vomiting (n = 11), diarrhea (n = 2), abdominal pain (n = 5), cough (n = 66), or epilepsy (n = 6) received acupuncture treatment according to the chart, and its outcomes were evaluated as regards clinical symptoms, duration, treatment numbers, and recovery time. Dogs (8/8) with IVDD from grades I to III recovered over periods of 5 days to 6 weeks after 1-12 treatments, while 1/4 dogs with grade IV recovered over 7 weeks after 15 treatments. Vomiting dogs with acute/subacute (n = 8) and chronic symptoms (n = 3) required about 1 and 7 treatments to recover fully, respectively. All dogs (n = 5) with abdominal pain showed fast relief within 24 hours after acupuncture. Two diarrhea cases recovered over 2-9 days after 1-2 treatments. Fifty-four of 66 coughing dogs were recovered by 1-2 treatments. And 5 of 6 epilepsy dogs under a regular acupuncture treatment had no epileptic episode during followup of 12 months. These results suggest that this flow chart can help the clinicians prescribe acupoints effectively.
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Amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor is involved in the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal in rats.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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In a previous study, acupuncture at acupoint HT7 attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats by normalizing amygdaloid catecholamines. In the present study, the involvement of amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture was investigated during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were intraperitoneally treated with 3 g /kg/day of ethanol for 28 days, and the CRF mRNA levels in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) were measured by using a RT-PCR analysis 72 hours after the last dose of ethanol. During ethanol withdrawal, the rats were bilaterally treated with acupuncture at acupoints HT7, PC6 or at a non-acupoint (Tail) for one min/day for three days. Also, rats were bilaterally injected with CRF into the CEA five minutes after the third acupuncture treatment, after which followed by the elevated-plus maze (EPM) test and the plasma corticosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) were administered. The RT-PCR analysis showed a significant increase in the amygdaloid CRF mRNA levels in the ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with both the saline-treated rats and the rats treated with acupuncture at HT7, but neither acupuncture at PC6 nor acupuncture at a non-acupoint significantly inhibited the increased mRNA expression. The EPM test and the RIA also showed that the post-acupuncture infusion of CRF greatly reduced the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture at HT7. These results suggest that during ethanol withdrawal, the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture may be mediated through the modulation of amydaloid CRF during ethanol withdrawal.
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Acupuncture suppresses reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by a complex cue in rats.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Morphine causes physical and psychological dependence for individuals after repeated-use. Above all, our previous study showed that acupuncture attenuated reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by pharmacological cue. In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture could suppress the reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by the combination of environmental and pharmacological cues and the possible neuronal involvement. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer morphine (1.0 mg/kg) for 3 weeks. Following the withdrawal phase (7 days), the effects of acupuncture on reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior were investigated. For the investigation of neuronal involvement, the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline and the GABAB receptor antagonist SCH 50911 were pre-treated. Morphine-seeking behavior induced by combination of re-exposure to the operant chamber and morphine injection was suppressed perfectly by acupuncture at SI5, but not at the control acupoint LI5 and this effect was blocked by pre-treatment with the GABA receptor antagonists. This study suggests that acupuncture at SI5 can be considered as a predominant therapy for the reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior in humans.
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Peripheral afferent mechanisms underlying acupuncture inhibition of cocaine behavioral effects in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Administration of cocaine increases locomotor activity by enhancing dopamine transmission. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment for drug addiction, we developed a novel mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI) for objective mechanical stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether acupuncture inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated through specific peripheral nerves, the afferents from superficial or deep tissues, or specific groups of nerve fibers. Mechanical stimulation of acupuncture point HT7 with MAI suppressed cocaine-induced locomotor activity in a stimulus time-dependent manner, which was blocked by severing the ulnar nerve or by local anesthesia. Suppression of cocaine-induced locomotor activity was elicited after HT7 stimulation at frequencies of either 50 (for Meissner corpuscles) or 200 (for Pacinian corpuscles) Hz and was not affected by block of C/A?-fibers in the ulnar nerve with resiniferatoxin, nor generated by direct stimulation of C/A?-fiber afferents with capsaicin. These findings suggest that HT7 inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated by A-fiber activation of ulnar nerve that originates in superficial and deep tissue.
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Suppression of inflammation by recombinant Salmonella typhimurium harboring CCL22 microRNA.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, puritic skin disorder. These syndromes result from multifactorial inheritance, with interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In particular, the macrophage-derived chemokine CCL22 is directly implicated in skin inflammatory reactions and its levels are significantly elevated in serum and correlated with disease severity in AD. We tested the suppression of the CCL22 gene by microRNA (miRNA) and observed the effects in mice with inflammation similar to AD. We used Salmonella as a vector to deliver miRNA. The recombinant strain of Salmonella typhimurium expressing CCL22 miRNA (ST-miRCCL22) was prepared for in vivo knockdown of CCL22. ST-miRCCL22 was orally inoculated into mice and the CCL22 gene suppressed with CCL22 miRNA in the activated lymphocytes. IgE and interleukin-4 were inhibited and interferon-? was induced after treatments with ST-miRCCL22 and CCL22 was suppressed. Further, Th17 cells were suppressed in the atopic mice treated with ST-miRCCL22. These results suggested that suppression of the CCL22 gene using Salmonella induced anti-inflammatory effects.
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Effect of acupuncture on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in morphine-experienced rats: the mediation of GABA receptors.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Repeated morphine administration increases extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, which results in behavioral sensitization that can be suppressed by acupuncture at Shenmen (HT7) points. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of acupuncture at HT7 on morphine withdrawal syndrome as well as to explore the role of GABA receptors in mediating the effects of HT7 acupuncture. We induced morphine withdrawal by injecting naloxone to rats that self-administer morphine and evaluated the effects of acupuncture and/or GABA receptor antagonists on their withdrawal symptoms. Acupuncture at HT7, but not at the control point LI5, significantly decreased symptoms of morphine withdrawal. HT7 inhibition of the withdrawal syndrome was blocked by pretreatment with either the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline or the GABA(B) antagonist SCH 50911. These findings suggest that the effects of acupuncture on suppression of morphine withdrawal syndrome are mediated, at least in part, through GABA receptors.
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Therapeutic effects of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium harboring CCL22 miRNA on atopic dermatitis-like skin in mice.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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Th-2-biased immune responses are known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. In particular, the macrophage-derived chemokine CCL22 is directly implicated in Th-2-associated skin inflammatory reactions, and its levels are significantly elevated in serum and are correlated with disease severity in atopic dermatitis. In this study, we tested the development of genetic therapeutic options to treat atopic dermatitis using bacteria expressing miRNA. We constructed a recombinant strain of Salmonella typhimurium expressing CCL22 miRNA (ST-miRCCL22) for the in vivo knockdown of CCL22. The CCL22 gene was downregulated with CCL22 miRNA in activated lymphocytes. In mice with a cutaneous disease similar to atopic dermatitis, interleukin-4 was inhibited and interferon-g was induced after treatments with ST-miRCCL22. Furthermore, CCL22 levels were suppressed in the atopic mice treated with ST-miRCCL22. These results suggest that ST-miRCCL22 may be an effective genetic agent for treating atopic dermatitis.
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Diagnosis of gastric epithelial neoplasia: Dilemma for Korean pathologists.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The histopathological diagnosis of gastric mucosal biopsy and endoscopic mucosal resection/endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens is important, but the diagnostic criteria, terminology, and grading system are not the same in the East and West. A structurally invasive focus is necessary to diagnose carcinoma for most Western pathologists, but Japanese pathologists make a diagnosis of cancer based on severe dysplastic cytologic atypia irrespective of the presence of invasion. Although the Vienna classification was introduced to reduce diagnostic discrepancies, it has been difficult to adopt due to different concepts for gastric epithelial neoplastic lesions. Korean pathologists experience much difficulty making a diagnosis because we are influenced by Japanese pathologists as well as Western medicine. Japan is geographically close to Korea, and academic exchanges are active. Additionally, Korean doctors are familiar with Western style medical terminology. As a result, the terminology, definitions, and diagnostic criteria for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia are very heterogeneous in Korea. To solve this problem, the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has made an effort and has suggested guidelines for differential diagnosis: (1) a diagnosis of carcinoma is based on invasion; (2) the most important characteristic of low grade dysplasia is the architectural pattern such as regular distribution of crypts without severe branching, budding, or marked glandular crowding; (3) if nuclear pseudostratification occupies more than the basal half of the cryptal cells in three or more adjacent crypts, the lesion is considered high grade dysplasia; (4) if severe cytologic atypia is present, careful inspection for invasive foci is necessary, because the risk for invasion is very high; and (5) other structural or nuclear atypia should be evaluated to make a final decision such as cribriform pattern, papillae, ridges, vesicular nuclei, high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, loss of nuclear polarity, thick and irregular nuclear membrane, and nucleoli.
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Supratentorial arachnoid cyst located in the brain parenchyma: case report.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Arachnoid cysts have not been reported to be located within the brain parenchyma. We present a case of an arachnoid cyst that was contained entirely within the right frontal lobe devoid of communication with the subarachnoid space and ventricle.
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Apoptogenic activity of 2?,3?-dihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is mediated via mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase cascade regulated by Bcl-2 in human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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The dried spikes of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina (Labiatae) have been used for traditional herbal medicine to treat fever, inflammation, dropsy, gonorrhea and cancer in Korea, Japan and China. The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of 2?,3?-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (DHURS), purified from the dried spikes on human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells.
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Acupuncture Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behavior by Normalizing Amygdaloid Catecholamines during Ethanol Withdrawal in Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Previously, we demonstrated acupuncture at acupoint HT7 (Shen-Men) attenuated ethanol withdrawal syndrome by normalizing the dopamine release in nucleus accumbens shell. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on anxiety-like behavior in rats and its relevant mechanism by studying neuro-endocrine parameters during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were treated with 3?g?kg(-1)day(-1) of ethanol (20%, w/v) or saline by intraperitoneal injections for 28 days. The rats undergoing ethanol withdrawal exhibited anxiety-like behavior 72?h after the last dose of ethanol characterized by the decrease of time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with the saline-treated rats (P < .05). Radioimmunoassay exhibited there were notably increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone in ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .05). Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the levels of norepinephrine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol were markedly increased while the levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were significantly decreased in the central nucleus of the amygdala of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .01). Acupuncture groups were treated with acupuncture at acupoint HT7 or PC6 (Nei-Guan). Acupuncture at HT7 but not PC6 greatly attenuated the anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal as evidenced by significant increases in the percentage of time spent in open arms (P < .05). In the meantime, acupuncture at HT7 also markedly inhibited the alterations of neuro-endocrine parameters induced by ethanol withdrawal (P < .05). These results suggest that acupuncture may attenuate anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal through regulation of neuro-endocrine system.
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Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on endotoxin-induced labyrinthitis.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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There are no reports on the therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on otitis media-induced labyrinthitis. The present study examined whether GBE can protect against cochlear damage induced by intratympanic instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced labyrinthitis.
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Effect of piperacillin-tazobactam coated ?-tricalcium phosphate for mastoid obliteration in otitis media.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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?-Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) has good biodegradability and osteoconductivity as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. Both block and granular forms are available; however, it has been associated with risk of infection and exposure. To this end, the study evaluated the effect of piperacillin-tazobactam coated ?-TCPs for mastoid obliteration in otitis media.
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Antitumor therapeutic effects of a genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium harboring TNF-? in mice.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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Although the use of TNF-? in the treatment of cancer is restricted due to its non-specific cytotoxicity and narrow range of applications to different cancers in clinical trials, we investigated a safe anti-cancer drug by the use of engineered bacterial capsule harboring TNF-?. The engineered bacterial capsule was designed to target cancer cells, promote a tumor-suppressive environment, and increase the efficacy of existing cancer treatments, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and cell therapy. The engineered bacterial capsule was constructed with Salmonella capsulizing TNF-? protein, which was produced and capsulized by Salmonella to reduce side effects of the protein. This bacterial capsule induced a tumor-suppressive environment through the activation of natural killer cells. Engineered bacterial capsule invaded tumor cells, released TNF-?, and induced apoptosis of tumor cells without apparent side effects. In a murine melanoma model, the bacterial capsule of TNF-? significantly inhibited tumor growth by 80-100% and prolonged the survival of the mice. When tested in combination with chemotherapy (cisplatin), antibiotics, and vaccine, recombinant microbial treatment increased the anti-tumor effects of existing therapies. The anti-tumor effects of the bacterial capsule of TNF-? were also observed in cervical cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, colon cancer, and renal carcinoma. These results suggest that the bacterial capsule of TNF-? is a promising strategy for TNF-? treatment.
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Acupuncture inhibits GABA neuron activity in the ventral tegmental area and reduces ethanol self-administration.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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Withdrawal from chronic ethanol enhances ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neuron excitability and reduces mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, which is suppressed by acupuncture at Shenmen (HT7) points (Zhao et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of HT7 acupuncture on VTA GABA neuron excitability, ethanol inhibition of VTA GABA neuron firing rate, and ethanol self-administration. A role for opioid receptors (ORs) in ethanol and acupuncture effects is also explored.
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Current trends in the epidemiological and pathological characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Korea, 2003-2004.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Despite remarkable progress in understanding and treating gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) during the past two decades, the pathological characteristics of GISTs have not been made clear yet. Furthermore, concrete diagnostic criteria of malignant GISTs are still uncertain. We collected pathology reports of 1,227 GISTs from 38 hospitals in Korea between 2003 and 2004 and evaluated the efficacy of the NIH and AFIP classification schemes as well as the prognostic factors among pathologic findings. The incidence of GISTs in Korea is about 1.6 to 2.2 patients per 100,000. Extra-gastrointestinal GISTs (10.1%) are more common in Korea than in Western countries. In univariate analysis, gender, age, tumor location, size, mitosis, tumor necrosis, vascular and mucosal invasions, histologic type, CD34 and s-100 protein expression, and classifications by the NIH and AFIP criteria were found to be significantly correlated with patients survival. However, the primary tumor location, stage and classification of the AFIP criteria were prognostically significant in predicting patients survival in multivariate analysis. The GIST classification based on original tumor location, size, and mitosis is more efficient than the NIH criteria in predicting patients survival, but the mechanism still needs to be clarified through future studies.
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RNA interference-directed caveolin-1 knockdown sensitizes SN12CPM6 cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and reduces lung metastasis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2010
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Human renal cell carcinoma (HRCC) is characterized by a high level of resistance to all treatment modalities. Therefore, the investigation of global gene expression in HRCC might help understand its biologic behavior and develop treatment strategies. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we initially compared gene expression profiles between HRCCs and adjacent normal tissues, and found that 87 were up-regulated and 127 genes were down-regulated. Next, a subset of genes, twofold differentially expressed, were validated by Northern blotting. Unexpectedly, caveolin-1, a gene reported to be a tumor suppressor gene, was found to be up-regulated in HRCC tissues. Expression level of caveolin-1 in SN12CPM6 (high metastatic clone) was higher than in SN12C (low metastatic clone), and SN12CPM6 was more resistant to doxorubicin (DXR) than SN12C. Caveolin-1 gene was slightly induced in surviving SN12C cells after DXR treatment. Furthermore, SN12CPM6-siCav1 cells, which were transfected with siRNA of cavelon-1 gene, were more sensitive to DXR, compared to SN12CPM6, but reduction of caveolin-1 gene expression did not affect tumor formation in subcapsule of kidney and lung metastasis. On the other hand, induction of caveolin-1 gene affected the production of lung metastasis under anti-cancer drug treatment: the incidence of pulmonary metastasis was significantly lower in SCID mice injected with SN12CPM6-siCav1 cells, and the number of pulmonary nodules decreased significantly (p?=?0.0004). The above results together suggest that caveolin-1 may confer a growth advantage to cancer cells during DXR chemotherapy and surviving HRCC cells eventually might develop lung metastasis.
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Assessment of the rewarding effects of dimenhydrinate using the conditioned place preference paradigm in mice.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Dimenhydrinate (DIM) is an over-the-counter antihistamine consisting of diphenhydramine (DIP) and 8-chlorotheophylline (CTP). Medical use of DIM is for prevention of nausea and motion sickness. Recently, it has been reported that DIM may be used alone or in combination with other drugs for recreational purposes due to its euphoric and hallucinogenic effects. To investigate the putatively rewarding properties of DIM and its constituents DIP and CTP, we used a conditioned place preference (CPP) test in mice. DIM significantly induced CPP at a dose of 30 mg/kg. Neither DIP (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) nor CTP (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) alone induced CPP. Because neither DIP nor CTP resulted in CPP, the rewarding property of DIM appears to be caused by the sum of the effects of its constituents. In addition, low doses of DIM (3 mg/kg), co-administered with low doses of cocaine (7.5 mg/kg), significantly induced CPP, while neither low-dose DIM (3 mg/kg) nor low-dose cocaine (7.5 mg/kg) administered separately induced CPP. This result suggests the liability of DIM use in combination with other abused drugs to create a stronger effect.
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Protective effects of isoliquiritigenin against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2009
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Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) suppresses cocaine-induced extracellular dopamine levels and has a neuroprotective effect in cocaine-treated rat brain. Here, we examine the effect of ISL on methamphetamine-induced striatal neurotoxicity. Repeated injections of methamphetamine cause the loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Intraperitoneal injection of ISL prior to methamphetamine injection significantly prevented methamphetamine-induced reduction of DAT and TH. ISL also suppressed methamphetamine-induced activation of glial cells. Moreover, ISL impeded the expression of nitric oxide synthase and the activation of NF-kappaB through blockage of its phosphorylation. Our results suggest that ISL protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity by inhibition of NF-kappaB activation.
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Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the traditional Indonesian medicine Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita L.) extract.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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We investigated the leaves of Kleinhovia hospita, a plant which has been traditionally used in Indonesia as phytotherapy to cure liver disease, to describe antioxidant materials from plant sources. K. hospita leaves were extracted with methanol and further partitioned into n-hexane, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate. The antioxidant activity of each fraction and the residue was assessed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and their cytotoxicity on HepG2 liver cancer cells was determined by a MTT assay. The K. hospita leaf methanol extract showed strong antioxidant activity (96%) compared with vitamin C (98%) by the DPPH method and the measured activity from the subsequent extracts of the methanol extract were 48.9% for n-hexane, 74.0% for diethyl ether, 84.3% for ethyl acetate, and 77.1% for the residue. The MTT assay showed the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract on HepG2 cells at 14%, 76%, and 80% at concentrations of 50 microg/mL, 87.5 microg/mL, and 125 microg/mL, respectively. Leaf extracts of the medicinal plant K. hospita showed potent antioxidant activity and moderate cytotoxicity on HepG2 liver cancer cells.
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Role for GABA agonists in the nucleus accumbens in regulating morphine self-administration.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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In the present study, functional roles of GABA receptors in the nucleus accumbens on morphine self-administration behavior were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to press lever for morphine (0.1 mg/kg per infusion) during daily 1-h self-administration session. After establishing stable baseline responses, rats were given microinjections of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (0, 250 and 500 ng/microl, bilateral) or the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (0, 100 and 250 ng/microl, bilateral) into the nucleus accumbens immediately before the morphine self-administration. Microinjection of muscimol (250 and 500 ng/microl) into the nucleus accumbens, but not baclofen, decreased morphine self-administration responses. These results suggest that activation of GABA(A) receptors, but not GABA(B) receptors, in the nucleus accumbens plays a critical role in modulating the reinforcing effects of morphine.
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Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression and lymphatic vessel density in supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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Regional lymph node metastases are very common findings of supraglottic cancer. The mechanism of lymphatic metastasis is as yet unknown because there have been no specific markers that could definitely distinguish lymphatic vessels from blood vessels. The aim of this study is to identify the prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression and lymphatic vessel density (LVD) in supraglottic cancer.
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A new cytotoxic guaianolide from Chrysanthemum boreale.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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A new cytotoxic guaianolide was isolated from Chrysanthemum boreale Makino. The structure of guaianolide was elucidated as 8-acetoxy-4,10-dihydroxy-2,11(13)-guaiadiene-12,6-olide (1). Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxic activity (IC(50)< or =4 microg/ml) against all five human cancer cell lines tested.
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Mollugin induces apoptosis in human Jurkat T cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated activation of JNK and caspase-12 and subsequent activation of mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade regulated by Bcl-xL.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2009
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Exposure of Jurkat T cells to mollugin (15-30 microM), purified from the roots of Rubia cordifolia L., caused cytotoxicity and apoptotic DNA fragmentation along with mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), activation of caspase-12, -9, -7, -3, and -8, cleavage of FLIP and Bid, and PARP degradation, without accompanying necrosis. While these mollugin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic events including activation of caspase-8 and mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase cascade were completely prevented by overexpression of Bcl-xL, the activation of JNK and caspase-12 was prevented to much lesser extent. Pretreatment of the cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk), the caspase-9 inhibitor (z-LEHD-fmk), the caspase-3 inhibitor (z-DEVD-fmk) or the caspase-12 inhibitor (z-ATAD-fmk) at the minimal concentration to prevent mollugin-induced apoptosis appeared to completely block the activation of caspase-7 and -8, and PARP degradation, but failed to block the activation of caspase-9 and -3 with allowing a slight enhancement in the level of JNK phosphorylation. Both FADD-positive wild-type Jurkat clone A3 and FADD-deficient Jurkat clone I2.1 exhibited a similar susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of mollugin, excluding involvement of Fas/FasL system in triggering mollugin-induced apoptosis. Normal peripheral T cells were more refractory to the cytotoxicity of mollugin than were Jurkat T cells. These results demonstrated that mollugin-induced cytotoxicity in Jurkat T cells was mainly attributable to apoptosis provoked via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated activation of JNK and caspase-12, and subsequent mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase-9 and -3, leading to activation of caspase-7 and -8, which could be regulated by Bcl-xL.
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Inhibitory Effects of Coptidis rhizoma and Berberine on Cocaine-induced Sensitization.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Substantial evidence suggests that the behavioral and reinforcing effects of cocaine can be mediated by the central dopaminergic systems. Repeated injections of cocaine produce an increase in locomotor activity and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the main dopaminergic areas. Protoberberine alkaloids affect neuronal functions. Coptidis rhizoma (CR) and its main compound, berberine (BER) reduced the dopamine content in the central nervous system. In order to investigate the effects of CR or BER on the repeated cocaine-induced neuronal and behavioral alterations, we examined the influence of CR or BER on the repeated cocaine-induced locomotor activity and the expression of TH in the brain by using immunohistochemistry. Male SD rats were given repeated injections of saline or cocaine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg, i.p. for 10 consecutive days) followed by one challenge injection on the 4th day after the last daily injection. Cocaine challenge (15 mg/kg, i.p) produced a larger increase in locomotor activity and expression of TH in the central dopaminergic areas. Pretreatment with CR (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and BER (200 mg/kg, p.o.) 30 min before the daily injections of cocaine significantly inhibited the cocaine-induced locomotor activity as well as TH expression in the central dopaminergic areas. Our data demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of CR and BER on the repeated cocaine-induced locomotor activity were closely associated with the reduction of dopamine biosynthesis and post-synaptic neuronal activity. These results suggest that CR and BER may be effective for inhibiting the behavioral effects of cocaine by possibly modulating the central dopaminergic system.
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Sudden atelectasis and respiratory failure in a neutropenic patient: atypical presentation of pseudomembranous necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
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Pseudomembranous necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis (PNBA) is a rare form of invasive aspergillosis with a very poor prognosis. The symptoms are non-specific, and the necrotizing plugs cause airway obstruction. Atelectasis and respiratory failure can be the initial manifestations. Recently, we treated an immunocompromised patient with PNBA, who presented with a sudden onset of atelectasis and acute respiratory failure. There were no preceding signs except for a mild cough and one febrile episode. Bronchoscopy revealed PNBA, and Aspergillus nidulans was cultured from the bronchial wash.
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Inhibitory effects of isoflavonoids on rat prostate testosterone 5?-reductase.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud
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Testosterone 5?-reductase inhibitors represent important therapeutic drugs for use against androgen-dependent diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia, male pattern baldness, and acne. We have searched for inhibitors of rat prostate testosterone 5?-reductase in the cultured broths of many kinds of soil bacteria, and have found that cultured soybean-casein digest broths of certain bacterial strains have a potent inhibitory effect on the enzyme. We tested 10 selected isoflavonoids, including isoflavones and O-methylated isoflavones, for inhibitory effects on rat prostate testosterone 5?-reductase to determine the important structural elements for inhibition of the enzyme. Genistein, biochanin A, equol, and 3,4,7-trihydroxyisoflavone showed considerably higher inhibitory effects whereas daidzein, formononetin, glycitein, prunetin, ipriflavone, and 4,7-dimethoxyisoflavone showed lower inhibitory effects. The IC(50) values of genistein, biochanin A, equol, 3,4,7-trihydroxyisoflavone, and riboflavin, a positive control, for rat prostate testosterone 5?-reductase were 710 ?m, 140 ?m, 370 ?m, 690 ?m, and 17 ?m, respectively. Daidzein, genistein, biochanin A, formononetin, and equol are already known to be testosterone 5?-reductase inhibitors, but this is the first characterization of 3,4,7-trihydroxyisoflavone as an inhibitor of the enzyme.
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Effect of Curculigo orchioides on reflux esophagitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
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This study was performed to investigate effects of Curculigo orchioides rhizome (curculiginis rhizome) on acute reflux esophigitis (RE) in rats that are induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation operation. Proinflammatory cytokine, as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 were all assayed and the expression of TNF-? and COX2 analyzed by RT-PCR. The esophagic tissue damage of reflux esophagitis rat was increased compared to that of normal intact group. However, the esophagic damage percentage from the extract of curculiginis rhizoma (ECR) 600 mg/kg and ECR 300 mg/kg were significantly lower than that of the RE control group. Administration of ?-tocopherol (30 mg/kg) and ECR (600 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 150 mg/kg) had a significant effect on the gastric acid pH in rats with induced reflux esophagitis (p < 0.05). The treatment with ECR significantly reduced the production of cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 levels compared to the model group (p < 0.05). The expression of TNF-? and COX2 in the intact esophageal mucosa was low while those of the RE control group were significantly higher due to an inflammatory reaction in the esophagus. Compare to the model group, treatment with ?-tocopherol or ECR significantly inhibited the expression levels of COX2 and TNF-? in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory and protective effects of ECR could attenuate the severity of reflux esophagitis and prevent esophageal mucosal damage.
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Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma to the parotid gland: Case report and review of the literature.
Int J Surg Case Rep
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Hepatocellular carcinoma, the most frequent primary hepatic tumor, metastasizes in more than 50% of cases. However, parotid gland metastatic HCCs are very uncommon. We report a patient in whom the finding of a left parotid mass revealed metastatic HCC.
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Acupuncture at SI5 attenuates morphine seeking behavior after extinction.
Neurosci. Lett.
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Our previous studies have shown that acupuncture attenuates morphine self-administration and sensitization behavior as well as withdrawal signs. The present study was designed to investigate the role of acupuncture in the reinstatement of morphine seeking. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 270-300 g were subjected to intravenous catheterization after food training. The animals were trained to self-administer morphine (1.0mg/kg, 3 weeks), followed by extinction (1 week). Extinction conditions were introduced by substituting saline for morphine. The rats were then tested for reinstatement of morphine self-administration by a priming injection of morphine (0.25mg/kg). To see whether acupuncture can reduce morphine reinstatement, acupuncture was performed at SI5 or LI5 for 1 min immediately before a morphine injection. To further test the involvement of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in acupuncture effects, GABA receptor antagonists were injected before acupuncture. In the present results, acupuncture at SI5, but not at control acupoint LI5 attenuated the reinstatement of morphine seeking behavior, which was blocked by the GABA receptor antagonists. It suggests that acupuncture can reduce the reinstatement of morphine seeking, possibly due to the mediation of GABA receptor system.
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Effect of saikosaponin A on maintenance of intravenous morphine self-administration.
Neurosci. Lett.
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In this study, we investigated the effects of saikosaponin A (SSA), a major compound of Bupleurum falcatum L., on morphine self-administration behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer intravenous morphine (0.1mg/kg per injection over 5s) during daily 1-h sessions under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. Rats were pretreated with SSA (0.25, 0.5, 1.0mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection 30 min prior to the start of the test session. Results demonstrated that pretreatment with SSA reduced morphine-maintained responding dose-dependently. Additionally, SSA inhibition of morphine-reinforced behavior was blocked by the selective GABA(B) receptor antagonist (2S)(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH 50911), but not the selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline. Together, these results suggest that SSA may effectively suppress morphine-reinforced behavior by activating GABA(B) receptors.
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Sauchinone suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses through Akt signaling in BV2 cells.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
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Activated microglial cells play an important role in inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS) that are involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Sauchinone has been shown to modulate the expression of inflammatory factors through nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway. Here, we examined the effect of sauchinone on the inflammatory responses of microglia cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and explored the mechanism underlying action of sauchinone. BV2 cells treated with LPS showed an up-regulation of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PGE(2)) release, whereas sauchinone suppressed this up-regulation. Sauchinone inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-? and IL-1?. In addition, sauchinone blocked the activation of NF-?B through its inhibition of I-?B phosphorylation. Interestingly, sauchinone had no effect on the LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAP kinases; ERK1/2, p38, JNK), but it did inhibit Akt phosphorylation. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of sauchinone on the LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediator in BV2 cells is associated with the suppression of the NF-?B and Akt signaling pathways. Therefore, sauchinone may be a useful treatment for neurodegenerative disease by inhibiting inflammatory responses in activated microglia.
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Assessment on the potential role of applying cryoprobe for tissue ablation.
Clin Endosc
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Cryotherapy is the therapeutic application for tissue ablation. Clinical applications of cryotherpy such as in pulmonology have increased. Until now, its development in gastroenterology has been insignificant. But, as clinical application such as mucosal ablation on Barretts esophagus became possible, various applications have been developed. Therefore, it is important to make standards of tissue injurys extent in cryotherapy prior to clinical trial. We evaluated the tissue injury according to the application of cryoprobe with a pig model.
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Cell density-dependent acetylation of ?Np63? is associated with p53-dependent cell cycle arrest.
FEBS Lett.
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?Np63? is a p63 isoform that is predominantly expressed in the epidermal stem cells and in cancer. To find the regulatory pathways of ?Np63?, we assessed whether ?Np63? is acetylated and determined the functional implications of acetylation. First, the hinge region of p63 was shown to be acetylated by PCAF, similarly to other p53 family members. Second, acetylation synergistically induced cytoplasmic localization of ?Np63?. Finally, acetyl-?Np63? was induced during high-density culture, suggesting that acetylation of ?Np63? may reinforce cell cycle arrest upon cell contact. Altogether, these findings suggest that acetylation of ?Np63? contributes to the epidermal homeostasis.
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Protective effect of sauchinone on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
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Sauchinone is a lignan isolated from Saururus chinensis known to suppress nitric oxide (NO) activity. Previous studies demonstrate that NO plays a key role in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Thus, we hypothesized that sauchinone could have a suppressive effect on the neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine. Repeated injections of methamphetamine cause degeneration of dopaminergic nerve terminals, whereas sauchinone treatment significantly prevented this degeneration. Sauchinone treatment also inhibited the methamphetamine-induced activation of glia cells and the production of NO via a blockade of inducible NO synthase protein expression. Our results suggest that sauchinone can prevent methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity through the suppression of NO production.
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Autolysis: a plausible finding suggestive of long ESD procedure time.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
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Autolysis is the enzymatic digestion of cells by the action of its own enzymes, and it mostly occurs in dying or dead cells. It has previously been suggested that prolonged procedure time could lead to autolytic changes from the periphery of the endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens. Recently, the authors have experienced a case of autolysis; due to the presence of ulcer, fibrosis, and frequent bleeding from the cut surface, it took 6 hours to complete the resection. More than halfway through the resection; bluish purple discoloration of the part of the dissected flap where the dissection was initiated was noticed. Histologic examination of this site showed diffuse distortion of epithelial lining and cellular architectures along with loss of cell components, compatible with autolysis. Because autolysis could theoretically pose a potential problem regarding the evaluation of resection margin, endoscopists and pathologists should communicate with each other for a reliable pathologic decision.
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Effects of acupuncture on stress-induced relapse to cocaine-seeking in rats.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
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Cocaine addiction is associated with high rates of relapse, and stress has been identified as a major risk factor. We have previously demonstrated that acupuncture reduces drug self-administration and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain structure implicated in stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior.
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Interferon regulatory factor 7 regulates glioma stem cells via interleukin-6 and Notch signalling.
Brain
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Inflammatory microenvironment signalling plays a crucial role in tumour progression (i.e. cancer cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis) in many types of human malignancies. However, the role of inflammation in brain tumour pathology remains poorly understood. Here, we report that interferon regulatory factor 7 is a crucial regulator of brain tumour progression and heterogeneity. Ectopic expression of interferon regulatory factor 7 in glioma cells promotes tumorigenicity, angiogenesis, microglia recruitment and cancer stemness in vivo and in vitro through induction of interleukin 6, C-X-C motif chemokine 1 and C-C motif chemokine 2. In particular, interferon regulatory factor 7-driven interleukin 6 plays a pivotal role in maintaining glioma stem cell properties via Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-mediated activation of Jagged-Notch signalling in glioma cells and glioma stem cells derived from glioma patients.? Accordingly, the short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of interferon regulatory factor 7 in glioma stem cells markedly suppressed interleukin 6-Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-mediated Jagged-Notch-signalling pathway, leading to decreases in glioma stem cell marker expression, tumoursphere-forming ability, and tumorigenicity. Furthermore, in a mouse model of wound healing, depletion of interferon regulatory factor 7 suppressed tumour progression and decreased cellular heterogeneity. Finally, interferon regulatory factor 7 was overexpressed in patients with high-grade gliomas, suggesting its potential as an independent prognostic marker for glioma progression. Taken together, our findings indicate that interferon regulatory factor 7-mediated inflammatory signalling acts as a major driver of brain tumour progression and cellular heterogeneity via induction of glioma stem cell genesis and angiogenesis.
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Comparison of hepatocellular carcinoma in American and Asian patients by tissue array analysis.
J Surg Oncol
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although some epidemiologic and etiologic differences between Asian and Western HCC are known, detailed comparative studies with pathologic correlations have not been performed.
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