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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Implant Survival Rate and Marginal Bone Loss of 6-mm Short Implants: A 2-Year Clinical Report.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate (1) the association between implant diameter and marginal bone loss (MBL) of short (6 mm) implants and (2) the survival rates of short implants.
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Interaction range of p-dopants in si[110] nanowires: determining the nondegenerate limit.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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It is well known that the activation energy of dopants in semiconducting nanomaterials is higher than in bulk materials owing to dielectric mismatch and quantum confinement. This quenches the number of free charge carriers in nanomaterials. Though higher doping concentration can compensate for this effect, there is no clear criterion on what the doping concentration should be. Using P-doped Si[110] nanowires as the prototypical system, we address this issue by establishing a doping limit by first-principles electronic structure calculations. We examine how the doped nanowires respond to charging using an effective capacitance approach. As the nanowire gets thinner, the interaction range of the P dopants shortens and the doping concentration can increase concurrently. Hence, heavier doping can remain nondegenerate for thin nanowires.
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Evaluation of the Osteogenic Potential of Growth Factor-Rich Demineralized Bone Matrix In Vivo.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Background: The study evaluated the osteogenic properties and biocompatibility of growth factor-rich demineralized bone matrix (GDBM) by comparing with cancellous mineralized bone matrix (CMBM) and anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABBM). Methods: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were utilized (n=6/group/time point). To assess the biocompatibility and osteoinductivity, the respective bone matrix were randomly placed in subcutaneous pouches for 7 and 28 days, and evaluated by histology and osteopontin expression. The osteoconductivity was assessed by randomly implanting respective bone matrix in osteotomies on femurs for 14 and 28 days, and evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histology. Results: Neither acute inflammation nor mineralized tissue was noted in any of the subcutaneous specimens, whereas osteopontin expressed more prominently in the GDBM group. Among the femoral specimens, greatest relative bone volume (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness was noted in the ABBM group at both time points, whereas less BV/TV was noted in GDBM group at day 14. Residual matrix particles were noted in all examined groups at both time points, without significant difference regarding defect fill among groups. GDBM group presented similar levels of newly-formed bone compartment and marrow space with those of ABBM group. Conclusions: GDBM demonstrated acceptable biocompatibility and comparable osteogenic potential as ABBM in vivo. Further investigations in a more clinically-relevant model were warranted.
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Microarchitectural Pattern of Pristine Maxillary Bone.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Purpose: There is limited evidence available on the influence of location on bone density in the maxilla. Therefore, this study was aimed at comparing the microarchitecture of bone harvested from different nonatrophic maxillary locations. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 partially edentulous subjects (aged 48.15 ± 15.85 years) were included in the study. A bone core biopsy specimen was obtained from one site per patient at the planned implant surgery location. Thirty-four specimens were used for microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Mann-Whitney U tests (independent samples) were performed to determine whether the distributions of the six bone-related parameters showed significant differences between sexes and site locations. Study sites were categorized as either anterior (incisors and canines) or posterior (premolars and molars). The possible associations among variables (bone volume fraction [BV/TV], age, and five bone-related parameters) were examined using Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: The mean BV/TV values showed no significant difference between the maxillary anterior (46.93 ± 26.2) and posterior (51.90 ± 28.42) locations. Statistically significant positive correlations were identified between BV/TV and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (r = 0.6, P < .001) and between BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N) (r = 0.49, P = .006). Statistically significant negative correlations were found between BV/TV and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (r = -0.65, P < .001), between BV/TV and trabecular pattern factor (Tb.Pf) (r = -0.7, P < .001), and between BV/TV and the structural model index (SMI) (r = -0.68, P < .001). However, no correlations between BV/TV and age or sex were found. Conclusion: Bone density was independent of the anatomical location, assessed by micro-CT in the pristine nonatrophic maxillary bone. Studies with a larger sample size and different population should be conducted to validate the findings of the current project.
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Troglitazone and ?2Troglitazone enhance adiponectin expression in monocytes/macrophages through the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Accumulating evidence indicates that the regimen to increase adiponectin will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we tested the effect of troglitazone (TG) and its newly synthesized derivative, 5-[4-(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-yl-methoxy)-benzylidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (?2troglitazone, (?2TG)), on the adiponectin expression in monocytes/macrophages and the relative mechanisms. The expression of adiponectin was located in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions from patients and cholesterol-fed rabbits. TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in THP-1 cells by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. TG induced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-dependent pathway whereas ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-independent pathway in THP-1 cells. Both TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. TG and ?2TG decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to TNF-?-treated HUVECs and the inhibitory effect was abolished by specific antiadiponectin antibodies. TG- and ?2TG-induced suppression on monocyte adhesion were inhibited by a selective AMPK inhibitor compound C. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of TG and ?2TG on monocyte adhesion might be at least in part through de novo adiponectin expression and activation of an AMPK-dependent pathway, which might play an important role in anti-inflammation and antiatherosclerosis.
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Emergence profile design based on implant position in the esthetic zone.
Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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One of the most challenging tasks in implant dentistry is to fulfill the esthetic expectations of patients. While implant positioning and adequate amounts of soft and hard tissues are essential for achieving an esthetic outcome, the emergence profile of an abutment/restoration also plays an important role in the definitive appearance of implant prostheses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to propose a clinical guideline for designing an abutment/prosthesis based on implant position. By customizing the emergence profile, the overlying soft tissues could be properly contoured and maintained, and pleasing implant prostheses could be achieved.
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[Effects of microcystins on growth and antioxidant system of rice roots].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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The effect of different concentrations (1, 100, 1000 and 3 000 microg x L(-1)) of microcystins (MCs) on growth, absorb activity, antioxidant system and its accumulation in roots of rice seedlings were studied. The results show that MCs accumulation was positively correlated with MCs concentration. After the treatment with 1 microg x L(-1) MCs, the root growth and activity increased. Meanwhile, catalase (CAT) activity was increased to maintain H2O2 at normal levels. After the treatment with 100 microg x L(-1) MCs, the root growth and activity were inhibited whereas CAT had no obvious change. High concentrations (1000 microg x L(-1) and 3000 microg x L(-1)) of MCs not only inhibited root growth and activity, but decreased CAT activity, leading to excessive H2O2 accumulation and membrane peroxidation. After a 7-day recovery, MCs accumulations in roots in all treatment groups were all lower than those measured during the stress period. For the 100 microg x L(-1) MCs treated group, the inhibition on root growth and root activity, and membrane peroxidation were alleviated, better than those measured during the stress period. However, for 1000 microg x L(-1) and 3000 microg x L(-1) MCs treated groups, inhibition on root growth, root activity, and CAT activity were heavier than those during the stress period, and oxidation stress intensified further, indicating that the damage caused by high concentrations (1 000 microg x L(-1) and 3000 microg x L(-1)) of MCs on rice roots was irreversible.
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Magnolol reduced TNF-?-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in endothelial cells via JNK/p38 and NF-?B signaling pathways.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Expression of cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium and the attachment of leukocytes to these cells play major roles in inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Magnolol, a major active component of Magnolia officinalis, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the effects of magnolol on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and the related mechanisms were investigated. TNF-? induced VCAM-1 protein expression and mRNA stability were significantly decreased in HAECs pre-treated with magnolol. Magnolol significantly reduced the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in TNF-?-treated HAECs. The decrease in VCAM-1 expression in response to TNF-? treatment was affected by JNK and p38 inhibitors, not by an ERK inhibitor. Magnolol also attenuates NF-?B activation and the translocation of HuR (an RNA binding protein) in TNF-?-stimulated HAECs. The VCAM-1 expression was weaker in the aortas of TNF-?-treated apo-E deficient mice with magnolol treatment. These data demonstrate that magnolol inhibits TNF-?-induced JNK/p38 phosphorylation, HuR translocation, NF-?B activation, and thereby suppresses VCAM-1 expression resulting in reduced leukocyte adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that magnolol has an anti-inflammatory property and may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.
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Endothelial progenitor cells derived from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord attenuate ischemic acute kidney injury by increasing vascularization and decreasing apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the kidney, a major cause of acute renal failure in humans, is associated with a high mortality, and the development of a new therapeutic strategy is therefore highly desirable. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of implantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) isolated from Wharton?s jelly of human umbilical cord in the treatment ofrenal I/R injury in mice. To visualize the localization of the transplanted EPCs, the cells were labeled with Q-tracker before injection into the renal capsule. Mice with renal I/R injury showed a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and these effects were decreased by EPC transplantation. The kidney injury score in the mice with I/R injury was also significantly decreased by EPC transplantation. EPC transplantation increased the microvascular density, and some of the EPCs surrounded, and were incorporated, into microvessels. In addition, EPC transplantation inhibited the I/R-induced cell apoptosis of endothelial, glomerular, and renal tubular cells, as demonstrated by TUNEL staining, and significantly reduced reactive oxygen species production and the expression of the inflammatory chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and keratinocyte-derivedcytokine, as shown by immunostaining and ELISA. Moreover, EPC transplantation reduced I/R-induced fibrosis, as demonstrated by immunostaining for S100A4, a fibroblast marker, and Jones silver staining. To our knowledge, this is first report that transplantation of EPCs from Wharton?s jelly of humanumbilical cords mightprovide a novel therapy for ischemic acute kidney injury by promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis.
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Implants for orthodontic anchorage: success rates and reasons of failures.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The aims of this study were to analyze the success rate of mini-implants and miniscrews and to report the reasons behind them.
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Clinical outcomes of using lasers for peri-implantitis surface detoxification: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The aim of this systematic review is to compare the clinical outcomes of lasers with other commonly applied detoxification methods for treating peri-implantitis. An electronic search of four databases and a hand search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were conducted. Comparative human clinical trials and case series with ? 6 months of follow-up in ? 10 patients with peri-implantitis treated with lasers were included. Additionally, animal studies applying lasers for treating peri-implantitis were also included. The included studies had to report probing depth (PD) reduction after the therapy.
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Incidence of implant buccal plate fenestration in the esthetic zone: a cone beam computed tomography study.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The aim of this cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) study was to investigate the incidence of fenestration and associated risk factors with virtual placement of an implant in the maxillary incisor region.
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Eupafolin inhibits PGE2 production and COX2 expression in LPS-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by blocking JNK/AP-1 and Nox2/p47(phox) pathway.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Eupafolin, a major active component found in the methanol extracts of Phyla nodiflora, has been used to treat inflammation of skin. We examined its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production associated with increased COX-2 expression in Hs68 cells. This effect was blocked by eupafolin, TLR-4 antibody, antioxidants (APO and NAC), as well as inhibitors, including U0126 (ERK1/2), SB202190 (p38), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and Tanshinone IIA (AP-1). In gene regulation level, qPCR and promoter assays revealed that COX-2 expression was attenuated by eupafolin. In addition, eupafolin also ameliorated LPS-induced p47 phox activation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity. Moreover, pretreatment with eupafolin and APO led to reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Further, eupafolin attenuated LPS-induced increase in AP-1 transcription factor binding activity as well as the increase in the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos. In vivo studies have shown that in dermal fibroblasts of LPS treated mice, eupafolin exerted anti-inflammation effects by decreasing COX-2 protein levels. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of eupafolin that involved inhibition of LPS-induced ROS generation, suppression of MAPK phosphorylation, diminished DNA binding activity of AP-1 and attenuated COX-2 expression leading to reduced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our results demonstrate that eupafolin may be used to treat inflammatory responses associated with dermatologic diseases.
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Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Reduce Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-1 ? Expression in Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells and in Thoracic Aortas in Mice.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The expression of inflammatory cytokines on vascular walls is a critical event in vascular diseases and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides (EORPs), which is effective against immunological disorders, on interleukin- (IL-) 1 ? expression by human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the underlying mechanism. The lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced IL-1 ? expression was significantly reduced when HASMCs were pretreated with EORP by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment with 10? ? g/mL EORP decreased LPS-induced ERK, p38, JNK, and Akt phosphorylation. But the increase in IL-1 ? expression with LPS treatment was only inhibited by pretreatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, while the JNK and p38 inhibitors had no effect. In addition, EORP reduced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF-) ? B p65 in LPS-treated HASMCs. Furthermore, in vivo, IL-1 ? expression was strongly expressed in thoracic aortas in LPS-treated mice. Oral administration of EORP decreased IL-1 ? expression. The level of IL-1 ? expression in LPS-treated or in LPS/EORP-treated group was very low and was similar to that of the saline-treated group in toll-like receptor 4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) mice. These findings suggest that EORP has the anti-inflammatory property and could prove useful in the prevention of vascular diseases and inflammatory responses.
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Impact of implantoplasty on strength of the implant-abutment complex.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Purpose: Implantoplasty, a procedure that is done to smooth contaminated implant surfaces, has been used in the treatment of peri-implantitis. It reduces the implant diameter, which might compromise the implants strength. This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effect of implantoplasty on implant strength. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two tapered implants were used; half were 3.75 mm in diameter (narrow) and the other half were 4.7 mm in diameter (wide). All implants were connected to 20-degree angled abutments. The apical half of each implant was embedded in acrylic resin. Eight 3.75-mm- and eight 4.7-mm-diameter implants were randomly assigned to receive implantoplasty. The remaining implants did not receive implantoplasty (control group). Implantoplasty was performed with a series of diamond and polishing burs. The specimens were then loaded 30 degrees off-axis in a universal testing machine until fracture failure occurred. Bending and fracture strength values were recorded and analyzed statistically (? = .05). The fractured surfaces were evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Results: All narrow implants failed by fracture at the implant platform. The mean bending strength of narrow implants was statistically significantly reduced by implantoplasty (511.4 ± 55.9 N versus 613.9 ± 42.8 N). Implantoplasty did not affect the strength of wide implants; fracture failures occurred at the abutment screw. The fracture mode was ductile and the crack growth was oblique in direction, indicating complex stress distribution and concentration under loading. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, implantoplasty appeared to weaken the strength of narrower implants. Therefore, this procedure should be performed with caution on narrower, freestanding implants that are subject to greater occlusal force (eg, posterior regions). Validation of these results is needed for different implant systems.
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Surgical Management of Peri-implantitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Treatment Outcomes.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Purpose: This systematic review was requested by the Task Force of the American Academy of Periodontology as a follow-up study of the 2013 report, with an aim to investigate the efficacy of different surgical approaches to treat peri-implantitis. Materials and methods: A search of 4 electronic databases from January 1990 until May 2013 was performed. Studies included were human clinical trials published in English that applied surgeries for treating peri-implantitis. Parameters evaluated included probing depth (PD) reduction, clinical attachment level (CAL) gain, bleeding on probing (BOP) reduction, radiographic bone fill (RBF) and mucosal recession. The weighted mean (WM) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the studied parameters were estimated with the random effect model. Results: A total of 1306 studies were initially identified, after reviewing titles, abstracts and full texts, 21 articles, 12 of which were case series, were finally included. Four treatment groups were identified: (1) access flap and debridement, (2) surgical resection, (3) application of bone grafting materials, and (4) guided bone regeneration (GBR). The mean initial PD ranged from 4.8 to 8.8 mm, with initial BOP ranging from 19.7% to 100%. Short-term follow-ups (3 to 63 months) revealed that the available surgical procedures yielded a WM PD reduction of 2.04 (Group 2) to 3.16 mm (Group 4), or 33.4 % to 48.2 % of the initial PD. The WM RBF was 2.1 mm for Groups 3 and 4. Conclusions: Within the limitation of this systematic review, the application of grafting materials and barrier membranes resulted in greater PD reduction and RBF, but there is a lack of high quality, comparative studies to support this statement. The results might be used to project treatment outcomes after surgical management of peri-implantitis.
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Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography Angle for Predicting the Outcome of Horizontal Bone Augmentation.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ridge morphology on the amount of horizontal bone augmentation achieved with the sandwich bone augmentation (SBA) technique in the reconstruction of buccal dehiscence defects on dental implants.
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Intracellular Dynamics of HIV Infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Early studies of HIV infection dynamics suggested that virus-producing HIV-infected cells had an average half-life of approximately 1 day. However, whether this average behavior is reflective of the dynamics of individual infected cells is unclear. Here, we use HIV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) constructs and flow cytometry sorting to explore the dynamics of cell infection, viral protein production, and cell death in vitro. By following the numbers of productively infected cells expressing EGFP over time, we show that infected cell death slows down over time. Although infected cell death in vivo could be very different, our results suggest that the constant decay of cell numbers observed in vivo during antiretroviral treatment could reflect a balance of cell death and delayed viral protein production. We observe no correlation between viral protein production and death rate of productively infected cells, showing that viral protein production is not likely to be the sole determinant of the death of HIV-infected cells. Finally, we show that all observed features can be reproduced by a simple model in which infected cells have broad distributions of productive life spans, times to start viral protein production, and viral protein production rates. This broad spectrum of the level and timing of viral protein production provides new insights into the behavior and characteristics of HIV-infected cells.
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The Effect of Flapless Surgery on Implant Survival and Marginal Bone Level: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Aims: The clinical outcomes of implants placed under the flapless approach have not yet been systematically investigated. Hence, the present systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to study the effect of the flapless technique on implant survival rates and marginal bone levels (MBL), compared with the conventional flap approach. Material and Methods: An electronic search of 5 databases (1965-2013 Mar), including PubMed, Ovid (MEDLINE), EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central, and a hand search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were performed. Human clinical trials with data on comparison of SR and changes of MBL between the flapless and conventional flap procedures, and with ? 5 implants in each study group a follow-up period of at least 6 months were included. Results: Twelve studies, 7 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 1 cohort study, 1 pilot study and 3 retrospective case controlled studies (CCTs), were included. SR of each study was recorded; weighted mean difference (WMD) and confidence interval (CI) were calculated and meta-analyses were performed for changes of MBL. The average SR is 97.0% (ranged from 90% to 100%) for flapless procedure and 98.6% (ranged from 91.67% to 100%) for flap procedure. Meta-analysis for the comparison of SR among selected studies presented a similar outcome (risk ratio= 0.99, 95% CI= 0.97 to 1.01, p= 0.30) for both interventions. Mean differences of MBL were retrieved from 5 RCTs and 2 retrospective CCTs and subsequently pooled into meta-analyses; however, none of the comparisons showed statistical significance. For RCTs, the WMD was 0.07, with a 95% CI= -0.05 to 0.20 (p= 0.26). For retrospective CCTs, the WMD was 0.23, with a 95% CI= -0.58 to 1.05 (p= 0.58). For the combined analysis, the WMD was 0.03, with a 95% CI= -0.11 to 0.18 (p= 0.67). The comparison of SR presented a low to moderate heterogeneity but MBL presented a considerable heterogeneity among studies. Conclusions: This systematic review revealed that the survival rates and radiographic marginal bone loss of flapless intervention were comparable to the flap surgery approach.
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Comparison of microstructures between block grafts from the mandibular ramus and calvarium for horizontal bone augmentation of the maxilla: a case series study.
Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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The primary purpose of this clinical study was to compare architectural metric parameters using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) between sites grafted with blocks harvested from the mandibular ramus and calvarium for horizontal bone augmentation in the maxilla. The second aim was to compare the primary stability of implants placed in both types of block grafts. Ten consecutive healthy partially edentulous patients requiring extensive horizontal bone reconstruction in the maxilla were included. A total of 14 block grafts (7 each from the mandibular ramus and calvarium) were studied. After 4 to 6 months of healing, 41 implants were placed: 24 implants (58.5%) in calvarial (group 1) and 17 (41.5%) in ramus grafts (group 2). A resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was performed to test implant stability. Furthermore, two biopsy specimens were randomly selected for histomorphometric analysis. Micro-CT analyses showed no significant difference in the morphometric parametric values analyzed between groups. Furthermore, RFA also showed no difference between groups. However, slightly higher RFA values were noted for implants placed in ramus grafts. Bone quality, as assessed by micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses, was similar in both ramus and calvarial block grafts. In addition, there was no difference in primary implant stability between groups.
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Hemojuvelin Modulates Iron Stress During Acute Kidney Injury: Improved by Furin Inhibitor.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Abstract Aims: Free iron plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) via the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Systemic iron homeostasis is controlled by the hemojuvelin-hepcidin-ferroportin axis in the liver, but less is known about this role in AKI. Results: By proteomics, we identified a 42?kDa soluble hemojuvelin (sHJV), processed by furin protease from membrane-bound hemojuvelin (mHJV), in the urine during AKI after cardiac surgery. Biopsies from human and mouse specimens with AKI confirm that HJV is extensively increased in renal tubules. Iron overload enhanced the expression of hemojuvelin-hepcidin signaling pathway. The furin inhibitor (FI) decreases furin-mediated proteolytic cleavage of mHJV into sHJV and augments the mHJV/sHJV ratio after iron overload with hypoxia condition. The FI could reduce renal tubule apoptosis, stabilize hypoxic induced factor-1, prevent the accumulation of iron in the kidney, and further ameliorate ischemic-reperfusion injury. mHJV is associated with decreasing total kidney iron, secreting hepcidin, and promoting the degradation of ferroportin at AKI, whereas sHJV does the opposite. Innovation: This study suggests the ratio of mHJV/sHJV affects the iron deposition during acute kidney injury and sHJV could be an early biomarker of AKI. Conclusion: Our findings link endogenous HJV inextricably with renal iron homeostasis for the first time, add new significance to early predict AKI, and identify novel therapeutic targets to reduce the severity of AKI using the FI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
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Ridge width gain with screw spreaders: a cadaver study.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The aim of this cadaver study was to evaluate the amount of ridge expansion with screw spreaders.
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Eupafolin, a skin whitening flavonoid isolated from Phyla nodiflora, downregulated melanogenesis: Role of MAPK and Akt pathways.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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In hyperpigmentation disorders marked by melanin overproduction in the skin, including melisma and freckles, melanogenesis is caused by tyrosinase overexpression. Natural medicinal resources, like Phyla nodiflora, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have been used for a long time to management of dermatological conditions, such as skin inflammation and melanogenesis. Eupafolin, a functional flavonoid isolated from Phyla nodiflora, is an herbal tea constituent and possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, molecular mechanisms of eupafolin-mediated antimelanogenesis remain unknown. We thus focused on its antimelanogenesis effects in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells.
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Classification and management of antral septa for maxillary sinus augmentation.
Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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The antral septum, a commonly found anatomical variation, has been related to the occurrence of membrane perforation during sinus augmentation. The aims of this study were to review features of antral septa and to propose a classification system and options for managing antral septa during sinus augmentation. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed to identify articles investigating antral septa. Manuscripts using three-dimensional computed tomography, providing direct measurements of human subjects or cadavers, and reporting features of antral septa besides the prevalence were included. Antral septa presented in approximately 20% to 35% of maxillary sinuses. Single septum was much more common than multiple septa. Mediolaterally (transversely) oriented septa were more frequently found than anteroposteriorly (sagittally) oriented septa. Their size varies and commonly increases from the lateral to medial segment within one septum. The proposed classification consists of three categories--easy (E), moderate (M), and difficult (D)--based on the location, number, orientation, and size of antral septa. Corresponding treatment approaches were suggested for each category. Sinus augmentation is complicated by the presence of antral septa, the features of which determine the degree of surgical difficulty. Based on the results of the included studies and clinical experiences, a classification system and treatment strategies of antral septa were proposed and may assist surgeons in managing antral septa during sinus augmentation.
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Alterations in bone quality after socket preservation with grafting materials: a systematic review.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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While the ability of various grafting materials to preserve extraction socket morphology has been adequately reviewed, the quality of the grafted bone in the socket is not as well understood. This systematic review aimed to compare the proportion of vital bone and connective tissue between grafted and naturally healed sockets.
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Characterization of periodontal structures of enamelin-null mice.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Background: Enamelin-null (ENAM(-/-)) mice have no enamel. When characterizing ENAM(-/-) mice, alveolar bone height reduction was observed, and it was hypothesized that enamel defects combined with diet are associated with the periodontal changes of ENAM(-/-)mice. The aim of the present study is to compare the dimension of interradicular bone of ENAM(-/-) (knock-out [KO]) with wild-type (WT) mice, maintained on hard (HC) or soft (SC) chow. Methods: A total of 100 animals divided into four groups were studied at 3, 8, and 24 weeks of age: 1) KO/HC; 2) KO/SC; 3) WT/HC; and 4) WT/SC. Microcomputed tomography was performed, and the following measurements were made between mandibular first (M1) and second (M2) molars: relative alveolar bone height (RBH), crestal bone width (CBW), bone volume (BV), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD). The position of M1 and M2 in relation to the inferior border of the mandible was also determined at 24 weeks. All variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett test for pairwise comparisons. Morphologic analyses were conducted on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Results: Radiographically, the enamel layer was absent in ENAM(-/-) mice. Interproximal open contacts were observed exclusively in ENAM(-/-) mice, and the prevalence decreased over time, suggesting that a shifting of tooth position had occurred. Additionally, in the two ENAM(-/-) groups, RBH was significantly lower at 8 and 24 weeks (P <0.02); CBW, BV, and BMC were significantly less (P <0.05) at 24 weeks. No differences in BMD were found among the four groups. The molars migrated to a more coronal position in ENAM(-/-) mice and mice on HC. Histologic findings were consistent with radiographic observations. After eruption, the junctional epithelium was less organized in ENAM(-/-) mice. Conclusion: The interdental bone density was not affected in the absence of enamelin, but its volume was, which is likely a consequence of alternations in tooth position.
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Effects of currently available surgical and restorative interventions on reducing midfacial mucosal recession of immediately placed single-tooth implants: a systematic review.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Background: Procedures to improve peri-implant soft-tissue outcomes of single, immediately placed implants are a topic of interest. This systematic review investigates the effect of various surgical and restorative interventions on implant mid-buccal mucosal level. Methods: An electronic search of five databases (January 1990 to December 2012) and a manual search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were performed. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs), prospective cohort studies, and case series with at least nine participants were included, with data on midfacial mucosal recession (MR) of immediately placed implants following various surgical and restorative interventions with a follow-up period of at least 6 months. Results: Thirty-six studies, eight RCTs, one cohort study, and 27 case series were eligible. Six interventions were identified and reviewed: 1) palatal/lingual implant position; 2) platform-switched abutments; 3) flapless approach; 4) bone grafts to fill the gap between buccal plate and fixture; 5) connective tissue grafts; and 6) immediate provisionalization. Three studies consistently showed that palatally/lingually positioned implants had significantly less MR when using tissue-level implants. Mixed results were reported for interventions 2, 3, 5, and 6. One study was available for intervention 4 and did not show a benefit. Conclusions: Some interventions might be adopted to reduce the amount of MR on implants with the immediate placement approach, as suggested by the included studies, with various levels of evidence. The conflicting results among studies might be a result of differences in patient and site characteristics, e.g., tissue biotype and buccal plate thickness. Therefore, the use of these interventions might be reserved for patients with moderate to high risk of esthetic complications.
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Norartocarpetin from a folk medicine Artocarpus communis plays a melanogenesis inhibitor without cytotoxicity in B16F10 cell and skin irritation in mice.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Many natural products used in preventive medicine have also been developed as cosmeceutical ingredients in skin care products, such as Scutellaria baicalensis and Gardenia jasminoides. Norartocarpetin is one of the antioxidant and antityrosinase activity compound in Artocarpus communis; however, the cytotoxicity, skin irritation and antimelanogenesis mechanisms of norartocarpetin have not been investigated yet.
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The significance of keratinized mucosa on implant health: a systematic review.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Background: Whether a minimal width of keratinized mucosa (KM) is required to maintain peri-implant tissue health has been a topic of interest. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate the effect of KM on various peri-implant health-related parameters. Methods: An electronic search of five databases (from 1965 to October 2012) and a hand search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were performed. Human cross-sectional or longitudinal studies with data on the relationship between the amount of KM around dental implants and various peri-implant parameters, with a follow-up period of at least 6 months, were included. Results: Eleven studies, seven cross-sectional and four longitudinal, were included. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and confidence interval (CI) were calculated with meta-analyses for each clinical parameter. The results showed statistically significant differences in plaque index (PI) and modified PI (WMD = -0.27, 95% CI = -0.43 to -0.11), modified gingival index (mGI) (WMD = -0.48, 95% CI = -0.70 to -0.27), mucosal recession (MR) (WMD = -0.60 mm, 95% CI = -0.85 to -0.36 mm), and attachment loss (AL) (WMD = -0.35 mm, 95% CI = -0.65 mm to -0.06 mm), all favoring implants with wide KM. However, comparisons of other parameters (bleeding on probing, modified bleeding index, GI, probing depth, and radiographic bone loss) did not reach statistically significant differences. The result of heterogeneity test showed only one parameter (AL, P value for the ?(2) test = 0.30 and I(2) test = 18%) had a low degree of heterogeneity among analyzed studies; meta-analyses of other parameters presented moderate-to-high degree of heterogeneity. Limitations of the present review include limited number of selected studies (n = 11), existence of heterogeneity and publication bias, and only English-written articles searched. Conclusion: Based on current available evidence, a lack of adequate KM around endosseous dental implants is associated with more plaque accumulation, tissue inflammation, MR, and AL.
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Do Implant Length and Width Matter for Short Dental Implants (<10 mm)? A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Background: This meta-analysis of prospective clinical trials was conducted to determine the effects of dental implant length and width on implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) implants. Methods: An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant studies published in English from November 1998 to March 2012 was performed. Selected studies were randomized clinical trials, human clinical trials, or prospective trials with a clear aim of investigating the success or survival rate of short (<10 mm) implants. Results: Eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. A total of 525 short (<10 mm) dental implants were analyzed, of which 253 were 3.5 mm in diameter (48.19%), 151 were 4.0 mm (28.76%), 90 were 4.1 mm (17.14%), 21 were 4.8 mm (4%), and 10 were 5.1 mm (1.9%). All implants included in this meta-analysis had a follow-up period of 12 to 72 months. The included studies reported on the survival rate and diameter of the implants. Six of the studies used "short implants" (7 to 9 mm), and the remaining were classified as "extra-short implants" (?6 mm). Five-year estimated failure rates were 1.61% and 2.92%, respectively, for extra-short and short implants (z = -3.49, P <0.001, 95% confidence interval = 0.51% to 4.10%). Furthermore, it was found that the wider the implant, the higher the failure rate (estimated failure rate = 2.36%, 95% confidence interval = 1.07% to 5.23%). Conclusions: Neither implant length nor width seemed to significantly affect the survival rate of short implants (<10 mm). Nonetheless, further well-designed randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.
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Endothelial progenitor cells derived from Whartons jelly of the umbilical cord reduces ischemia-induced hind limb injury in diabetic mice by inducing HIF-1?/IL-8 expression.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Peripheral arterial diseases, the major complication of diabetes, can result in lower limb amputation. Since endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in neovascularization, the aim of this study was to examine whether EPCs isolated from Whartons jelly (WJ-EPCs) of the umbilical cord, a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells, could reduce ischemia-induced hind limb injury in diabetic mice. We evaluated the effects of WJ-EPC transplantation on hind limb injury caused by femoral artery ligation in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We found that the ischemic hind limb in mice with STZ-induced diabetes showed decreased blood flow and capillary density and increased cell apoptosis and that these effects were significantly inhibited by an injection of WJ-EPCs. In addition, hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were highly expressed in transplanted WJ-EPCs in the ischemic skeletal tissues and were present at high levels in hypoxia-treated cultured WJ-EPCs. Moreover, incubation of the NOR skeletal muscle cell line under hypoxic conditions in conditioned medium from EPCs cultured for 16?h under hypoxic conditions resulted in decreased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. The inhibition of HIF-1? or IL-8 expression by EPCs using HIF-1? siRNA or IL-8 siRNA, respectively, prevented this change in expression of apoptotic-related proteins. Whartons jelly in the umbilical cord is a valuable source of EPCs, and transplantation of these EPCs represents an innovative therapeutic strategy for treating diabetic ischemic tissues. The HIF-1?/IL-8 signaling pathway plays a critical role in the protective effects of EPCs in the ischemic hind limb of diabetic mice.
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In acute kidney injury, indoxyl sulfate impairs human endothelial progenitor cells: modulation by statin.
Angiogenesis
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Renal ischemia rapidly mobilizes endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which provides renoprotection in acute kidney injury (AKI). Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-binding uremic toxin with a potential role in endothelial injury. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanisms of action of IS on EPCs in AKI. Forty-one consecutive patients (26 male; age, 70.1 ± 14.1 years) diagnosed with AKI according to the AKIN criteria were enrolled. The AKI patients had higher serum IS levels than patients with normal kidney function (1.35 ± 0.94 × 10(-4)M vs. 0.02 ± 0.02 × 10(-4)M, P < 0.01). IS levels were negatively correlated to the number of double-labeled (CD34(+)KDR(+)) circulating EPCs (P < 0.001). After IS stimulation, the cells displayed decreased expression of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, increased reactive oxygen species, decreased proliferative capacity, increased senescence and autophagy, as well as decreased migration and angiogenesis. These effects of IS on EPCs were reversed by atorvastatin. Further, exogenous administration of IS significantly reduced EPC number in Tie2-GFP transgenic mice and attenuated NO signaling in aortic and kidney arteriolar endothelium after kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice, and these effects were restored by atorvastatin. Our results are the first to demonstrate that circulating IS is elevated in AKI and has direct effects on EPCs via NO-dependent mechanisms both in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the IS-mediated pathways by NO-releasing statins such as atorvastatin may preempt disordered vascular wall pathology, and represent a novel EPC-rescued approach to impaired neovascularization after AKI.
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Updated clinical considerations for dental implant therapy in irradiated head and neck cancer patients.
J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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An increasing number of reports indicate successful use of dental implants (DI) during oral rehabilitation for head and neck cancer patients undergoing tumor surgery and radiation therapy. Implant-supported dentures are a viable option when patients cannot use conventional dentures due to adverse effects of radiation therapy, including oral dryness or fragile mucosa, in addition to compromised anatomy; however, negative effects of radiation, including osteoradionecrosis, are well documented in the literature, and early loss of implants in irradiated bone has been reported. There is currently no consensus concerning DI safety or clinical guidelines for their use in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. It is important for health care professionals to be aware of the multidimensional risk factors for these patients when planning oral rehabilitation with DIs, and to provide optimal treatment options and maximize the overall treatment outcome. This paper reviews and updates the impact of radiotherapy on DI survival and discusses clinical considerations for DI therapy in irradiated head and neck cancer patients.
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Thalidomide inhibits fibronectin production in TGF-?1-treated normal and keloid fibroblasts via inhibition of the p38/Smad3 pathway.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Keloids are characterized by the vigorously continuous production of extracellular matrix protein and aberrant cytokine activity in the dermis. There is a growing body of evidence that thalidomide, ?-N-phthalimidoglutarimide, has anti-fibrotic properties. The aims were to examine possible therapeutic effects of thalidomide on fibronectin expression in transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-treated normal fibroblasts (NFs) and keloid-derived fibroblasts (KFs) and the underlying mechanism of action, especially the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and Sma- and Mad-related family (Smads) pathways. In surgically removed human tissues, TGF-?1 and fibronectin immunoreactivity was high in keloid tissue, but barely detectable in normal tissue. TGF-?1 induced significant fibronectin expression in NFs and KFs and the effect was inhibited by pretreatment with thalidomide. TGF-?1 also induced phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and Smad2/3 and pretreatment with PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) inhibited TGF-?1-induced fibronectin expression. Furthermore, pretreatment with thalidomide inhibited the TGF-?1-induced phosphorylation of p38 and Smad3, but not that of ERK1/2, JNK, and Smad2. In addition, thalidomide pretreatment inhibited the TGF-?-induced DNA binding activity of AP-1 and Smad3/4, caused fibronectin degradation by increasing the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9, and decreased production of TGF-?1 and fibronectin and the number of fibroblasts in an in vivo keloid model. These results show that thalidomide has an antifibrotic effect on keloid fibroblasts that is caused by suppression of TGF-?1-induced p38 and Smad3 signaling. Our findings indicate that thalidomide may be a potential candidate drug for the treatment and prevention of keloids.
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The contribution of the endogenous TRPV1 ligands 9-HODE and 13-HODE to nociceptive processing and their role in peripheral inflammatory pain mechanisms.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) plays a fundamental role in the detection of heat and inflammatory pain responses. Here we investigated the contribution of two potential endogenous ligands [9- and 13- hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE)] to TRPV1-mediated noxious responses and inflammatory pain responses.
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Curcumin nanoparticles ameliorate ICAM-1 expression in TNF-?-treated lung epithelial cells through p47 (phox) and MAPKs/AP-1 pathways.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) involves adhesions between both circulating and resident leukocytes and the human lung epithelial cells during lung inflammatory reactions. We have previously demonstrated that curcumin-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (CURN) improve the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of curcumin in hepatocytes. In this study, we focused on the effects of CURN on the expression of ICAM-1 in TNF-?-treated lung epithelial cells and compared these to the effects of curcumin water preparation (CURH). TNF-?induced ICAM-1 expression, ROS production, and cell-cell adhesion were significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with antioxidants (DPI, APO, or NAC) and CURN, but not by CURH, as revealed by western blot analysis, RT-PCR, promoter assay, and ROS detection and adhesion assay. In addition, treatment of TNF-?-treated cells with CURN and antioxidants also resulted in an inhibition of activation of p47 (phox) and phosphorylation of MAPKs, as compared to that using CURH. Our findings also suggest that phosphorylation of MAPKs may eventually lead to the activation of transcription factors. We also observed that the effects of TNF-? treatment for 30 min, which includes a significant increase in the binding activity of AP-1 and phosphorylation of c-jun and c-fos genes, were reduced by CURN treatment. In vivo studies have revealed that CURN improved the anti-inflammation activities of CURH in the lung epithelial cells of TNF-?-treated mice. Our results indicate that curcumin-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles may potentially serve as an anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of respiratory diseases.
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Fabrication of a cast-based implant surgical guide using guide sleeves.
J Prosthet Dent
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2011
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A unique method for fabricating cast-based surgical guides is presented. A proposed position and mesiodistal angulation of the implant are verified with periapical radiography and registered with a commercially available guide sleeve. The sleeve is attached to a surgical guide made of light-polymerized acrylic resin. The surgical guide can be used in a broad range of situations and allows for accurate implant placement in a prosthetically driven position with surgical access and visibility, simplicity, and cost efficiency.
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Sinus pathology and anatomy in relation to complications in lateral window sinus augmentation.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Antral pathoses and anatomical variations increase the risk of surgical complications during a lateral window sinus augmentation procedure. Therefore, an understanding of maxillary sinus diseases and anatomies is imperative. In the first part of this article, common sinus diseases will be reviewed, which include acute/chronic rhinosinusitis, mucoceles, pseudocysts, retention cysts, and odontogenic diseases of the maxillary sinus. In addition, a treatment strategy will be proposed toward the management of these antral diseases. In the second part, anatomical variations of the maxillary sinus, for example, the septum and artery that is in approximation to the osteotomy site will be discussed. Knowledge of diagnosing and managing sinus pathoses and anatomies could assist surgeons in reducing the incidence of sinus augmentation complications.
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Guided tissue regeneration: a decision-making model.
J Int Acad Periodontol
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has the potential to promote periodontal regeneration, which is one of the goals of periodontal surgery. While many successful reports of periodontal regeneration using barrier membranes exist in the literature, considerable heterogeneity of GTR outcomes is more typical of current reports. The reasons for this variability are numerous, but could be attributed to differences in surgical skills and case selection. There is a need for a current analysis of the factors affecting success and the formation of evidence-based treatment guidelines for GTR.
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Protective effect of cerium ion against ultraviolet B radiation-induced water stress in soybean seedlings.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Effects of cerium ion (Ce(III)) on water relations of soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) under ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) stress were investigated under laboratory conditions. UV-B radiation not only affected the contents of two osmolytes (proline, soluble sugar) in soybean seedlings, but also inhibited the transpiration in soybean seedlings by decreasing the stomatal density and conductance. The two effects caused the inhibition in the osmotic and metabolic absorption of water, which decreased the water content and the free water/bound water ratio. Obviously, UV-B radiation led to water stress, causing the decrease in the photosynthesis in soybean seedlings. The pretreatment with 20 mg L(-1) Ce(III) could alleviate UV-B-induced water stress by regulating the osmotic and metabolic absorption of water in soybean seedlings. The alleviated effect caused the increase in the photosynthesis and the growth of soybean seedlings. It is one of the protective effect mechanisms of Ce(III) against the UV-B radiation-induced damage to plants.
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Risk of lingual plate perforation during implant placement in the posterior mandible: a human cadaver study.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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To determine the risk of lingual plate perforations using 2 different implants during implant installation in the posterior mandible, so as to avoid a potentially life-threatening situation and/or a compromise of the success of the surgical procedure.
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Endothelial progenitor cells in primary aldosteronism: a biomarker of severity for aldosterone vasculopathy and prognosis.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events, probably through mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent endothelial cell dysfunction, in comparison with essential hypertension (EH).
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Pigment epithelium-derived factor reduces the PDGF-induced migration and proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells through PPAR? activation.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Our previous study demonstrated that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) plays an important role in the proliferation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). In the present study, we examined whether PEDF inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated HASMC migration and proliferation. PEDF dose-dependently reduced PDGF-induced HASMC migration and proliferation in vitro and also arrested cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 phase, and this was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4, and p21(Cip1) and increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). The antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of PEDF were partially blocked by the PPAR? antagonist GW9662, but not by the PPAR? antagonist MK886. In in vivo studies, the femoral artery of C57BL/6 mice was endothelial-denuded and the mice injected intravenously with PEDF or vehicle. After 2 weeks, both the neointima/media area ratio and cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells) in the neointima were significantly reduced and again these effects were partially reversed by GW9662 pretreatment. Our data show that PEDF increases PPAR? activation, preventing entry of HASMCs into the cell cycle in vitro and reducing the neointimal area and cell proliferation in the neointima in vivo. Thus, PEDF may represent a safe and effective novel target for the prevention and treatment of vascular proliferative diseases.
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Low levels of SIV infection in sooty mangabey central memory CD?? T cells are associated with limited CCR5 expression.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Naturally simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected sooty mangabeys do not progress to AIDS despite high-level virus replication. We previously showed that the fraction of CD4(+)CCR5(+) T cells is lower in sooty mangabeys compared to humans and macaques. Here we found that, after in vitro stimulation, sooty mangabey CD4(+) T cells fail to upregulate CCR5 and that this phenomenon is more pronounced in CD4(+) central memory T cells (T(CM) cells). CD4(+) T cell activation was similarly uncoupled from CCR5 expression in sooty mangabeys in vivo during acute SIV infection and the homeostatic proliferation that follows antibody-mediated CD4(+) T cell depletion. Sooty mangabey CD4(+) T(CM) cells that express low amounts of CCR5 showed reduced susceptibility to SIV infection both in vivo and in vitro when compared to CD4(+) T(CM) cells of rhesus macaques. These data suggest that low CCR5 expression on sooty mangabey CD4(+) T cells favors the preservation of CD4(+) T cell homeostasis and promotes an AIDS-free status by protecting CD4(+) T(CM) cells from direct virus infection.
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Limits on passivating defects in semiconductors: the case of Si edge dislocations.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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By minimizing the free energy while constraining dopant density, we derive a universal curve that relates the formation energy (E(form)) of doping and the efficiency of defect passivation in terms of segregation of dopants at defect sites. The universal curve takes the simple form of a Fermi-Dirac distribution. Our imposed constraint defines a chemical potential that assumes the role of "Fermi energy," which sets the thermodynamic limit on the E(form) required to overcome the effect of entropy such that dopant segregation at defects in semiconductors can occur. Using Si edge dislocation as an example, we show by first-principles calculations how to map the experimentally measurable passivation efficiency to our calculated E(form) by using the universal curve for typical n- and p-type substitutional dopants. We show that n-type dopants are ineffective. Among p-type dopants, B can satisfy the thermodynamic limit while improving electronic properties.
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20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid inhibits ATP-induced COX-2 expression via peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-? in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), formed from arachidonate by cytochrome P450, regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. Because 20-HETE may activate peroxisome proliferator activator receptors (PPARs) and may participate in inflammatory responses, we asked whether 20-HETE may inhibit cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression by activating PPARs in VSMC.
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The accuracy of identifying the greater palatine neurovascular bundle: a cadaver study.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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The palate is a common site for harvesting subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTG). The size of SCTG that can be harvested is dictated by the position of the greater palatine neurovascular bundle (GPB). The aims of this cadaver study are to assess the accuracy of predicting the location of the GPB on study models and to evaluate anatomic factors that might influence the predictability.
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Viscolin reduces VCAM-1 expression in TNF-?-treated endothelial cells via the JNK/NF-?B and ROS pathway.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Viscolin, a major active component in a chloroform extract of Viscum coloratum, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. We focused on its effects on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The TNF-?-induced expression of VCAM-1 was significantly reduced by respectively 38±7 or 34±16% when HUVECs were pretreated with 10 or 30?M viscolin, as shown by Western blotting, and was also significantly reduced by pretreatment with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine, diphenylene iodonium chloride, and apocynin. Viscolin also reduced TNF-?-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and promoter activity, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, and significantly reduced the binding of monocytes to TNF-?-stimulated HUVECs. The attenuation of TNF-?-induced VCAM-1 expression and cell adhesion was partly mediated by a decrease in JNK phosphorylation. Furthermore, viscolin reduced VCAM-1 expression in the aorta of TNF-?-treated mice in vivo. Taken together, these data show that viscolin inhibits TNF-?-induced JNK phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65, and ROS generation and thereby suppresses VCAM-1 expression, resulting in reduced adhesion of leukocytes. These results also suggest that viscolin may prevent the development of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.
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Retrograde peri-implantitis: a case report introducing an approach to its management.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2010
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Although several potential etiologic factors associated with retrograde peri-implantitis (RPI) and potential treatment options have been discussed in the literature, the etiology has not been fully investigated and the definitive management methods remain undefined. We propose a decision-making protocol for the treatment of RPI and provide new insight into the etiology of this process based on the findings from two clinical cases.
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Implant primary stability determined by resonance frequency analysis in surgically created defects: a pilot cadaver study.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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Implant primary stability is a prerequisite for implant success. A dehiscence or a circumferential defect (CD) at the time of implant placement presents a challenge for achieving primary stability. The aim of this study was to examine the correlations between implant primary stability determined by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and periimplant bone levels.
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Cross-sectional analysis of the mandibular lingual concavity using cone beam computed tomography.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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To study the prevalence and the degree of lingual concavity in the edentulous first molar region from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of the mandibles.
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[Combined injured effects of acid rain and lanthanum on growth of soybean seedling].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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Combined effects of acid rain and lanthanum on growth of soybean seedling (Glycine max) and its inherent mechanism were studied in this paper. Compared with treatments by simulated acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.5) or rare earth La(III) (60, 100 and 300 mg x L(-1)), the decrease degree of growth parameters in combined treatments was higher, indicating that there were a synergistic effects between acid rain and La. Moreover,the inhibition effects of acid rain and La(III) were more obvious when pH value of acid rain was lower or the concentration of La(III) was higher. The changes of photosynthetic parameters were similar to those of growth, but the decrease degree of each parameter was not same in the same treatment group. The decrease degree of optimal PSII photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and chlorophyll content (Chl) were 9.35%-22.75% and 9.14%-24.53%, respectively, lower than that of photosynthetic rate Pn (22.78%-84.7%), Hill reaction rate (15.52%-73.38%) and Mg2+ -ATPase activity (14.51%-71.54%), showing that the sensitivity of photosynthetic parameters to the combined factors was different. Furthermore, relative analysis showed that the change of Pn were mainly affected by Hill reaction rate and Mg2+ -ATPase activity, and was less influenced by Chl and Fv/Fm. It indicates that the effect of acid rain and La on each reaction in photosynthesis was different, and the inhibition of combined treatments on photosynthesis in plants was one of the main factors affecting growth of plant.
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Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides attenuate endotoxin-induced intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in cultured smooth muscle cells and in the neointima in mice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2010
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The expression of adhesion molecules on vessels and subsequent leukocyte recruitment are critical events in vascular diseases and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides (EORP), which is effective against cancer and immunological disorders, on adhesion molecule expression by human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the underlying mechanism. EORP significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and protein expression and reduced the binding of human monocytes to LPS-stimulated HASMCs. Immunoprecipitation and real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that EORP markedly reduced the interaction of human antigen R protein (HuR) with the 3-UTR of ICAM-1 mRNA in LPS-stimulated HASMCs. EORP treatment also suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and reduced the density of the shifted bands of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB after LPS-induced activation. In an endothelial-denuded artery model in LPS-treated mice, daily oral administration of EORP for 2 weeks decreased neointimal hyperplasia and ICAM-1 expression in the plasma and neointima. These results provide evidence that EORP attenuates LPS-induced adhesion molecule expression and monocyte adherence and that this protective effect is mediated by decreased ERK phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation. These findings suggest that EORP has anti-inflammatory properties and could prove useful in the prevention of vascular diseases and inflammatory responses.
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Dental imaging in implant treatment planning.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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Proper implant treatment planning remains the first priority for implant success. Dental imaging is an important tool to accomplish this task. Traditional radiographs provide adequate information about proposed implant sites; however, limited film size, image distortion, magnification, and a 2-D view restrict their use in some cases. The purpose of this study is to provide an update about recent advancements in implant imaging to facilitate ideal implant treatment planning.
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Risk assessment of lingual plate perforation in posterior mandibular region: a virtual implant placement study using cone-beam computed tomography.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Lingual plate perforation at the time of implant placement in posterior mandible is a potential surgical complication, and presence of a lingual concavity is considered a risk factor. Little is known about the spatial relationship between implant and lingual plate. The role of lingual concavity in the risk of lingual perforation has not yet been fully studied. This computer-simulated study investigates the incidence of lingual plate perforation in edentulous mandibular first molar region and the risk of perforation in the area of lingual concavity.
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Limited CD4+ T cell proliferation leads to preservation of CD4+ T cell counts in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys.
Proc. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections result in chronic virus replication and progressive depletion of CD4+ T cells, leading to immunodeficiency and death. In contrast, natural hosts of SIV experience persistent infection with high virus replication but no severe CD4+ T cell depletion, and remain AIDS-free. One important difference between pathogenic and non-pathogenic infections is the level of activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. We analysed the relationship between CD4+ T cell number and proliferation in HIV, pathogenic SIV in macaques, and non-pathogenic SIV in sooty mangabeys (SMs) and mandrills. We found that CD4+ T cell proliferation was negatively correlated with CD4+ T cell number, suggesting that animals respond to the loss of CD4+ T cells by increasing the proliferation of remaining cells. However, the level of proliferation seen in pathogenic infections (SIV in rhesus macaques and HIV) was much greater than in non-pathogenic infections (SMs and mandrills). We then used a modelling approach to understand how the host proliferative response to CD4+ T cell depletion may impact the outcome of infection. This modelling demonstrates that the rapid proliferation of CD4+ T cells in humans and macaques associated with low CD4+ T cell levels can act to fuel the fire of infection by providing more proliferating cells for infection. Natural host species, on the other hand, have limited proliferation of CD4+ T cells at low CD4+ T cell levels, which allows them to restrict the number of proliferating cells susceptible to infection.
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Cervical enamel projections in unusual locations: A case report and mini-review.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Background: Periodontitis is primarily a bacteria-induced disease that can be modified by tooth-related local factors. Cervical enamel projections (CEPs) are a common tooth anomaly that can act as a contributing factor in the development of periodontitis. They are most commonly found at the buccal surfaces of mandibular molars. Methods: A 57-year-old female was referred to our clinic for treatment of chronic periodontitis. Clinical examination revealed moderate attachment loss that was localized to the palatal side of the maxillary secondary molars. The rest of the dentition was less affected, with a diagnosis of generalized slight chronic periodontitis. Initial non-surgical periodontal treatment was provided, followed by apically positioned flap surgery in the maxillary right and left posterior areas. At the time of surgery, CEPs were found where the periodontium was most affected. Results: Due to the fact that surgical intervention exposed the CEPs, they were not removed. After the active therapy, which resulted in inflammation resolution and maintainable probing depth, the patient was placed on a three-month recall for periodontal maintenance. Conclusions: This case report presents CEPs in an unusual location in the palatal roots of maxillary secondary molars. CEPs confirm their role as a local contributing factor in localized chronic periodontitis.
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Cervical enamel projections in unusual locations: a case report and mini-review.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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Periodontitis is primarily a bacteria-induced disease that can be modified by tooth-related local factors. Cervical enamel projections (CEPs) are a common tooth anomaly that can act as contributing factors in the development of periodontitis. They are most commonly found at the buccal surfaces of mandibular molars.
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Tissue biotype and its relation to the underlying bone morphology.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Tissue biotypes have been linked to the outcomes of periodontal and implant therapy. The purpose of this study is to determine the dimensions of the gingiva and underlying alveolar bone in the maxillary anterior region and to establish their association.
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Sesamin attenuates intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in vitro in TNF-alpha-treated human aortic endothelial cells and in vivo in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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Sesame lignans have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. We focused on the effects of the lignans sesamin and sesamol on the expression of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). When HAECs were pretreated with sesamin (10 or 100 microM), the TNF-alpha-induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was significantly reduced (35 or 70% decrease, respectively) by Western blotting. Sesamol was less effective at inhibiting ICAM-1 expression (30% decrease at 100 microM). Sesamin and sesamol reduced the marked TNF-alpha-induced increase in human antigen R (HuR) translocation and the interaction between HuR and the 3UTR of ICAM-1 mRNA. Both significantly reduced the binding of monocytes to TNF-alpha-stimulated HAECs. Sesamin significantly attenuated TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression and cell adhesion by downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38. Furthermore, in vivo, sesamin attenuated intimal thickening and ICAM-1 expression seen in aortas of apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. Taken together, these data suggest that sesamin inhibits TNF-alpha-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p38 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65, cytoplasmic translocalization of HuR and thereby suppresses ICAM-1 expression, resulting in reduced adhesion of leukocytes. These results also suggest that sesamin may prevent the development of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.
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The significance of the lingual nerve during periodontal/implant surgery.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Understanding the position of the lingual nerve is important when performing third molar extractions and periodontal and implant surgeries in the mandible. The careless management of the lingual flap can potentially cause damage to the lingual nerve. The location of the lingual nerve in the third molar region was described in the literature; however, to our knowledge, its course mesial to the third molar region was not reported. The aim of this study is to identify and measure the location of lingual nerves in relation to mandibular teeth in fresh cadaver heads.
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Controlling diffusion of lithium in silicon nanostructures.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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The ability to control the diffusion of dopants or impurities is a controlling factor in the functionalization of materials used in devices both at the macro- and nanoscales. At the nanoscale, manipulating diffusion of dopants is complicated by a number of factors such as the role of quantum confinement and the large surface to volume ratio. Here we examine Li in Si nanostructures, as atoms with low atomic mass such as Li can be used as a carrier for energy storage with high specific energy capacity. Specifically, Li-ion batteries with specific energy capacity as high as 4200 mA h g(-1) using Si nanowires as anodes have been achieved. Using ab initio calculations, we determine how the factors of size and dimensionality can be used to achieve an optimal diffusion of Li atoms in Si nanostructures.
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Role of confinement on diffusion barriers in semiconductor nanocrystals.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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We find that quantum size effects not only play an important role in the electronic properties of defects in semiconductor nanocrystals, but also strongly affect the incorporation of defect atoms into the nanocrystals. In particular, using ab initio methods based on density functional theory, we predict that Mn defects will be energetically driven towards the surface of CdSe and ZnSe nanocrystals, and that the diffusion barrier of a Mn interstitial defect in a CdSe nanocrystal will be significantly lower than that in the bulk.
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Melanogenesis Inhibitor(s) from Phyla nodiflora Extract.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Overexpression of tyrosinase can cause excessive production of melanin and lead to hyperpigmentation disorders, including melasma and freckles. Recently, agents obtained from plants are being used as alternative medicines to downregulate tyrosinase synthesis and decrease melanin production. Phyla nodiflora Greene (Verbenaceae) is used as a folk medicine in Taiwanese for treating and preventing inflammatory diseases such as hepatitis and dermatitis. However, the antimelanogenesis activity and molecular biological mechanism underlying the activity of the methanolic extract of P. nodiflora (PNM) have not been investigated to date. Our results showed that PNM treatment was not cytotoxic and significantly reduced the cellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Further, PNM exhibited a significant antimelanogenesis effect (P < 0.05) by reducing the levels of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), inhibiting the synthesis of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2, and decreasing the cellular melanin content. Moreover, PNM significantly activated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, including phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and phospho-p38, and inhibited the synthesis of MITF, thus decreasing melanogenesis. These properties suggest that PNM could be used as a clinical and cosmetic skin-whitening agent to cure and/or prevent hyperpigmentation.
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Marginal bone loss around tilted implants in comparison to straight implants: a meta-analysis.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
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The primary aim of this systematic review was to compare the amount of marginal bone loss around tilted and straight implants. As the secondary aim, the incidence of biomechanic complications was compared.
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Palatonasal recess on medial wall of the maxillary sinus and clinical implications for sinus augmentation via lateral window approach.
J. Periodontol.
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Anatomic variations of the maxillary sinus determine the degree of difficulty in performing sinus augmentation. Whereas some variations, e.g., the septum and morphology of the sinus, have been extensively studied, the structure of the medial wall has never been investigated. The aims of this study are to measure the location and angulation of the palatonasal recess (PNR) on the medial wall and identify risk sites that are related to the shape of the PNR.
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Evaluation of maxillary sinus width on cone-beam computed tomography for sinus augmentation and new sinus classification based on sinus width.
Clin Oral Implants Res
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PURPOSE: The degree of difficulty in performing lateral window sinus augmentation may depend on the morphology of the maxillary sinus. The aim of this was to measure the distances between the medial and lateral sinus wall (sinus width [SW]) at different levels and apply those SW values to formulate a new sinus classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Edentulous sites adjacent to maxillary sinuses with inadequate ridge height (RH; <10 mm) were included from cone-beam computed tomography database in the University of Michigan. SW was measured at the heights of 5, 7, 10, 13, and 15 mm from alveolar crest at the edentulous sites. Mean SW was stratified by residual RH into three different groups (group 1: <4 mm, group 2: ?4 and <7, and group 3: ?7 and <10), study sites (first and second premolars and molars), and measurement levels. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty subjects (mean 50.1 years old) with 422 edentulous sites were included. Mean SW was wider at molar sites, higher measurement levels, and sites with shorter residual RH. Mean SW at the lower (average 2.3 mm from sinus floor) and higher boundary (15 mm from the alveolar crest) of lateral window osteotomy was 9.0 (2.8) and 16.0 (4.4) mm, respectively. Narrow, average, or wide sinuses were classified when the SW was <8, 8-10 and >10 mm at the lower boundary or <14, 14-17 and >17 mm at the upper boundary, respectively. CONCLUSION: SW at levels that were relevant to lateral window sinus augmentation was measured. The proposed sinus classification could facilitate communication between health providers and determine the degree of easiness of sinus augmentation. It might be particularly useful for the selection of grafting materials and surgical approaches. Further studies are required to test its clinical implications.
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Are short dental implants (<10 mm) effective? a meta-analysis on prospective clinical trials.
J. Periodontol.
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This study aims to compare the survival rate of short (<10 mm) and standard (?10 mm) rough-surface dental implants under functional loading.
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Epidemiologic and economic burden of influenza in the outpatient setting: a prospective study in a subtropical area of China.
PLoS ONE
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To understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients families.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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