Exposure to high concentration of oxygen (hyperoxia) leads to lung injury in experimental animal models and plays a role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. The major goal of this study was to characterize the changes in the pulmonary transcriptome following hyperoxia exposure and further elucidate the sex-specific changes. Male and female (8-10 wk) wild type (WT) (C57BL/6J) mice were exposed to hyperoxia (FiO2>0.95) and gene expression in lung tissues was studied at 48 h. A combination of fold change ?1.4 and false discovery rate (FDR)<5% was used to define differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Overrepresentation of gene ontology terms representing biological processes and signaling pathway impact analysis (SPIA) was performed. Comparison of DEG profiles identified 327 genes unique to females, 585 unique to males and 1882 common genes. The major new findings of this study are the identification of new candidate genes of interest and the sex-specific transcriptomic changes in hyperoxic lung injury. We also identified DEGs involved in signaling pathways like MAP kinase and NF-kappa B which may explain the differences in sex-specific susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury. These findings highlight changes in the pulmonary transcriptome and sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury, and suggest new pathways, whose components could serve as sex-specific biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets for acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress (ARDS) in humans.
The aim of this study was to evaluate correlation of 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) size and function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and young adults.
Somatic growth pattern in infants undergoing staged palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (Norwood procedure [NP], stage 2 palliation [S2P], and Fontan procedure [FP]) during transition toward a more energy efficient series circulation is not well understood.
In the past decade, many advances in the care of patients undergoing the Norwood procedure (NP) have been reported, but management remains nonstandardized at many institutions. We studied the impact of a standardized management protocol for neonates undergoing NP.
Free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) are relatively short-lived and are difficult to measure directly; so indirect methods have been explored for measuring these transient species. One technique that has been developed using Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae systems, relies on a connection between elevated superoxide levels and the build-up of a high-spin form of iron (Fe(III)) that is detectable by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at g = 4.3. This form of iron is referred to as "free" iron. EPR signals at g = 4.3 are commonly encountered in biological samples owing to mononuclear high-spin (S = 5/2) Fe(III) ions in sites of low symmetry. Unincorporated iron in this study refers to this high-spin Fe(III) that is captured by desferrioxamine which is detected by EPR at g value of 4.3. Previously, we published an adaptation of Fe(III) EPR methodology that was developed for Caenorhabditis elegans, a multi-cellular organism. In the current study, we have systematically characterized various factors that modulate this unincorporated iron pool. Our results demonstrate that the unincorporated iron as monitored by Fe(III) EPR at g = 4.3 increased under conditions that were known to elevate steady-state ROS levels in vivo, including: paraquat treatment, hydrogen peroxide exposure, heat shock treatment, or exposure to higher growth temperature. Besides the exogenous inducers of oxidative stress, physiological aging, which is associated with elevated ROS and ROS-mediated macromolecular damage, also caused a build-up of this iron. In addition, increased iron availability increased the unincorporated iron pool as well as generalized oxidative stress. Overall, unincorporated iron increased under conditions of oxidative stress with no change in total iron levels. However, when total iron levels increased in vivo, an increase in both the pool of unincorporated iron and oxidative stress was observed suggesting that the status of the unincorporated iron pool is linked to oxidative stress and iron levels.
Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone or Q) is an essential lipid component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. In Caenorhabditis elegans Q biosynthesis involves at least nine steps, including the hydroxylation of the hydroquinone ring by CLK-1 and two O-methylation steps mediated by COQ-3. We characterize two C. elegans coq-3 deletion mutants, and show that while each has defects in Q synthesis, their phenotypes are distinct. First generation homozygous coq-3(ok506) mutants are fertile when fed the standard lab diet of Q-replete OP50 Escherichia coli, but their second generation homozygous progeny does not reproduce. In contrast, the coq-3(qm188) deletion mutant remains sterile when fed Q-replete OP50. Quantitative PCR analyses suggest that the longer qm188 deletion may alter expression of the flanking nuo-3 and gdi-1 genes, located 5 and 3, respectively of coq-3 within an operon. We surmise that variable expression of nuo-3, a subunit of complex I, or of gdi-1, a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, may act in combination with defects in Q biosynthesis to produce a more severe phenotype. The phenotypes of both coq-3 mutants are more drastic as compared to the C. elegans clk-1 mutants. When fed OP50, clk-1 mutants reproduce for many generations, but show reduced fertility, slow behaviors, and enhanced life span. The coq-3 and clk-1 mutants all show arrested development and are sterile when fed the Q-deficient E. coli strain GD1 (harboring a mutation in the ubiG gene). However, unlike clk-1 mutant worms, neither coq-3 mutant strain responded to dietary supplementation with purified exogenous Q(10). Here we show that the Q(9) content can be determined in lipid extracts from just 200 individual worms, enabling the determination of Q content in the coq-3 mutants unable to reproduce. An extra-chromosomal array expressing wild-type C. elegans coq-3 rescued fertility of both coq-3 mutants and partially restored steady-state levels of COQ-3 polypeptide and Q(9) content, indicating that primary defect in both is limited to coq-3. The limited response of the coq-3 mutants to dietary supplementation with Q provides a powerful model to probe the effectiveness of exogenous Q supplementation as compared to restoration of de novo Q biosynthesis.
Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets.
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