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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Development and Implementation of a Competency-Based Curriculum for Training in Global Health Research.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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The Fogarty International Center (FIC) Global Health Fellows Program provides trainees with the opportunity to develop research skills through a mentored research experience, increase their content expertise, and better understand trends in global health research, funding organizations, and pathways to generate support. The Northern Pacific Global Health Fellows Research and Training Consortium, which hosts one of the FIC Global Health Programs, sought to enhance research training by developing, implementing, and evaluating a competency-based curriculum that uses a modular, asynchronous, web-based format. The curriculum has 8 core competencies, 36 learning objectives, and 58 assignments. Nineteen trainees completed their 11-month fellowship, engaged in the curriculum, and provided pre- and post-fellowship self-assessments. Self-assessed scores significantly improved for all competencies. Trainees identified the curriculum as one of the strengths of the program. This competency-based curriculum represents a first step toward creating a framework of global health research competencies on which further efforts could be based.
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High Plasma Erythropoietin Levels are Associated With Prolonged Coma Duration and Increased Mortality in Children With Cerebral Malaria.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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?Elevated endogenous plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels have been associated with protection from acute neurologic deficits in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria (CM). Based on these findings and animal studies, clinical trials of recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) have been started in children with CM. Recent clinical trials in adults with acute ischemic stroke have demonstrated increased mortality with rHuEPO treatment. We conducted a study in children with CM to assess the relationship of endogenous plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) EPO levels with mortality and acute and long-term neurologic outcomes.
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Decline in childhood iron deficiency after interruption of malaria transmission in highland Kenya.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Achieving optimal iron status in children in malaria-endemic areas may increase the risk of malaria. Malaria itself may contribute to iron deficiency, but the impact of an interruption in malaria transmission on the prevalence of iron deficiency is unknown.
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Changes in antigen-specific cytokine and chemokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in a highland area of Kenya after a prolonged absence of malaria exposure.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Individuals naturally exposed to Plasmodium falciparum lose clinical immunity after a prolonged lack of exposure. P. falciparum antigen-specific cytokine responses have been associated with protection from clinical malaria, but the longevity of P. falciparum antigen-specific cytokine responses in the absence of exposure is not well characterized. A highland area of Kenya with low and unstable malaria transmission provided an opportunity to study this question. The levels of antigen-specific cytokines and chemokines associated in previous studies with protection from clinical malaria (gamma interferon [IFN-?], interleukin-10 [IL-10], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?]), with increased risk of clinical malaria (IL-6), or with pathogenesis of severe disease in malaria (IL-5 and RANTES) were assessed by cytometric bead assay in April 2008, October 2008, and April 2009 in 100 children and adults. During the 1-year study period, none had an episode of clinical P. falciparum malaria. Two patterns of cytokine responses emerged, with some variation by antigen: a decrease at 6 months (IFN-? and IL-5) or at both 6 and 12 months (IL-10 and TNF-?) or no change over time (IL-6 and RANTES). These findings document that P. falciparum antigen-specific cytokine responses associated in prior studies with protection from malaria (IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-10) decrease significantly in the absence of P. falciparum exposure, whereas those associated with increased risk of malaria (IL-6) do not. The study findings provide a strong rationale for future studies of antigen-specific IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-10 responses as biomarkers of increased population-level susceptibility to malaria after prolonged lack of P. falciparum exposure.
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Severe malarial anemia is associated with long-term neurocognitive impairment.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Cerebral malaria (CM) is associated with long-term neurocognitive impairment in children ?5 years of age. No prospective studies to date have assessed neurocognitive impairment in children with CM <5 years of age, or in children with severe malarial anemia (SMA), a form of severe malaria estimated to affect as many as 5 million children annually.
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Estimation of recent and long-term malaria transmission in a population by antibody testing to multiple Plasmodium falciparum antigens.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Tools that estimate recent and long-term malaria transmission in a population would be highly useful for malaria elimination programs.
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Performance of point-of-care diagnostics for glucose, lactate, and hemoglobin in the management of severe malaria in a resource-constrained hospital in Uganda.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Severe malaria is frequently managed without access to laboratory testing. We report on the performance of point-of-care tests used to guide the management of a cohort of 179 children with severe malaria in a resource-limited Ugandan hospital. Correlation coefficients between paired measurements for glucose (i-STAT and One Touch Ultra), lactate (i-STAT and Lactate Scout), and hemoglobin (Hb; laboratory and i-STAT) were 0.86, 0.85, and 0.73, respectively. The OneTouch Ultra glucometer readings deviated systematically from the i-STAT values by +1.7 mmol/L. Lactate Scout values were systematically higher than i-STAT by +0.86 mmol/L. Lactate measurements from either device predicted subsequent mortality. Hb estimation by the i-STAT instrument was unbiased, with upper and lower limits of agreement of -34 and +34 g/L, and it was 91% sensitive and 89% specific for the diagnosis of severe anemia (Hb < 50 g/L). New commercially available bedside diagnostic tools, although imperfect, may expedite clinical decision-making in the management of critically ill children in resource-constrained settings.
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Use of a three-band HRP2/pLDH combination rapid diagnostic test increases diagnostic specificity for falciparum malaria in Ugandan children.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria provide a practical alternative to light microscopy for malaria diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Three-band RDTs incorporating two parasite antigens may have enhanced diagnostic specificity, relative to two-band RDTs with a single parasite antigen (typically histidine-rich protein 2 [HRP2]).
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Sensitivity of fever for diagnosis of clinical malaria in a Kenyan area of unstable, low malaria transmission.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Malaria in highland areas of Kenya affects children and adults. Local clinicians include symptoms other than fever when screening for malaria because they believe that fever alone does not capture all cases of malaria.
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Hepatitis a screening for internationally adopted children from hepatitis a endemic countries.
Clin Pediatr (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Screening for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is not currently routinely recommended in internationally adopted children. International adoptees seen at the University of Minnesota International Adoption Clinic from 2006 to 2010 were assessed for acute HAV infection (positive HAV immunoglobulin M). Thirty of the 656 children screened (4.6%) were acutely HAV infected. HAV-infected children emigrated from Ethiopia (16), Guatemala (4), China (2), Colombia (2), Haiti (2), Philippines (2), Liberia (1), and Nepal (1). Infection was most frequent among children younger than 2 years (6.7%). No symptoms distinguished children with acute HAV infection from uninfected children. HAV infection caused significant social disruption, including separation of children from their ill adoptive parents during the initial weeks postarrival, a period important for postadoption adjustment and attachment. All international adoptees arriving from countries with high or intermediate HAV endemicity should be screened for HAV infection on arrival to the United States.
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Humoral and cellular immunity to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 and protection from infection with blood-stage parasites.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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?Acquired immunity to malaria develops with increasing age and repeated infections. Understanding immune correlates of protection from malaria would facilitate vaccine development and identification of biomarkers that reflect changes in susceptibility resulting from ongoing malaria control efforts.
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Infections in internationally adopted children.
Pediatr. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Thousands of international adoptees join families in the United States every year. Many have been in institutional care and are from countries or areas with a high risk of several infectious diseases. Focused infectious disease testing is important to ensure the health of the adoptee, as well as their new family and the larger community in which they now live. Newly arrived internationally adopted children should be screened for specific infections, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. They should ideally be seen shortly after arrival by a multidisciplinary team at a center specializing in international adoption.
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The association between cognition and academic performance in Ugandan children surviving malaria with neurological involvement.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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The contribution of different cognitive abilities to academic performance in children surviving cerebral insult can guide the choice of interventions to improve cognitive and academic outcomes. This studys objective was to identify which cognitive abilities are associated with academic performance in children after malaria with neurological involvement.
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Changes in B Cell Populations and Merozoite Surface Protein-1-Specific Memory B Cell Responses after Prolonged Absence of Detectable P. falciparum Infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Clinical immunity to malaria declines in the absence of repeated parasite exposure. However, little is known about how B cell populations and antigen-specific memory B cells change in the absence of P. falciparum infection. A successful indoor residual insecticide spraying campaign in a highland area of western Kenya, led to an absence of blood-stage P. falciparum infection between March 2007 and April 2008. We assessed memory B cell responses in 45 adults at the beginning (April 2008) and end (April 2009) of a subsequent 12-month period during which none of the adults had evidence of asymptomatic parasitemia or clinical disease. Antibodies and memory B cells to the 42-kDa portion of the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-142) were measured using ELISA and ELISPOT assays, respectively. B cell populations were characterized by flow cytometry. From 2008 to 2009, the prevalence of MSP-142-specific memory B cells (45% vs. 55%, respectively, P?=?0.32) or antibodies (91% vs. 82%, respectively, P?=?0.32) did not differ significantly, although specific individuals did change from positive to negative and vice versa, particularly for memory B cells, suggesting possible low-level undetected parasitemia may have occurred in some individuals. The magnitude of MSP-142-specific memory B cells and levels of antibodies to MSP-142 also did not differ from 2008 to 2009 (P>0.10 for both). However, from 2008 to 2009 the proportions of both class-switched atypical (CD19+IgD-CD27-CD21-IgM-) and class-switched activated (CD19+IgD-CD27+CD21-IgM-) memory B cells decreased (both P<0.001). In contrast, class-switched resting classical memory B cells (CD19+IgD-CD27+CD21+IgM-) increased (P<0.001). In this area of seasonal malaria transmission, a one- year absence of detectable P. falciparum infection was not associated with changes in the prevalence or level of MSP-142 specific memory B cells, but was associated with major changes in overall memory B cell subsets.
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Decreased prevalence of anemia in highland areas of low malaria transmission after a 1-year interruption of transmission.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Malaria control campaigns have reduced malaria transmission to very low levels in many areas of Africa. Yet the extent to which malaria interruption or elimination might decrease the prevalence of anemia in areas of low malaria transmission is unknown.
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Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement.
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Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding antigen-175 are associated with protection from clinical malaria.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2011
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Antibodies to blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum antigens have been associated with protection against clinical malaria in some studies but not others. Many of these studies have not assessed whether high-titer antibodies are associated with protection and have not adjusted for differences in malaria exposure.
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Cognition, behaviour and academic skills after cognitive rehabilitation in Ugandan children surviving severe malaria: a randomised trial.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Infection with severe malaria in African children is associated with not only a high mortality but also a high risk of cognitive deficits. There is evidence that interventions done a few years after the illness are effective but nothing is known about those done immediately after the illness. We designed a study in which children who had suffered from severe malaria three months earlier were enrolled into a cognitive intervention program and assessed for the immediate benefit in cognitive, academic and behavioral outcomes.
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Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens predict a higher risk of malaria but protection from symptoms once parasitemic.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Associations between antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens and protection against symptomatic malaria have been difficult to ascertain, in part because antibodies are potential markers of both exposure to P. falciparum and protection against disease.
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Nitric oxide for the adjunctive treatment of severe malaria: hypothesis and rationale.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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We hypothesize that supplemental inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) will improve outcomes in children with severe malaria receiving standard antimalarial therapy. The rationale for the hypothesized efficacy of iNO rests on: (1) biological plausibility, based on known actions of NO in modulating endothelial activation; (2) pre-clinical efficacy data from animal models of experimental cerebral malaria; and (3) a human trial of the NO precursor l-arginine, which improved endothelial function in adults with severe malaria. iNO is an attractive new candidate for the adjunctive treatment of severe malaria, given its proven therapeutic efficacy in animal studies, track record of safety in clinical practice and numerous clinical trials, inexpensive manufacturing costs, and ease of administration in settings with limited healthcare infrastructure. We plan to test this hypothesis in a randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01255215).
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Development of a competency-based curriculum in global child health.
Acad Med
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Resident interest in global health is increasing; however, a paucity of literature on competency-based curricula in global child health is available. A collaborative group including members from the University of Minnesota (UMN) Department of Pediatrics, the UMN College of Education and Human Development, and the Makerere University Department of Paediatrics and Child Health in Kampala, Uganda, developed a competency-based global child health curriculum for pediatrics residents at UMN. The group defined competencies for each of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competency domains and developed the curriculum via six steps: (1) defining competencies specific to global child health, (2) authoring goals and objectives for each competency, (3) assigning appropriate postgraduate training levels to each competency, (4) determining intended resident groups for each competency, (5) aligning the program with the existing residency education program, and (6) developing methods to evaluate acquisition of each competency. Faculty implemented the competency-based curriculum in 2009, and the curriculum is now freely available online for adaptation and use by other residency programs. Faculty are currently introducing evaluation methods, which will allow them, for the first time, to assess a trainees competency in global child health by the end of his or her residency. The authors believe that the development of this curriculum represents an important step forward in global health education for pediatric residents and that other residency programs, including those of nonpediatric specialties, can use the process as a model to develop global health curricula.
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Inhaled nitric oxide for the adjunctive therapy of severe malaria: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Severe malaria remains a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Despite the use of potent anti-parasitic agents, the mortality rate in severe malaria remains high. Adjunctive therapies that target the underlying pathophysiology of severe malaria may further reduce morbidity and mortality. Endothelial activation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of severe malaria, of which angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) has recently been shown to function as a key regulator. Nitric oxide (NO) is a major inhibitor of Ang-2 release from endothelium and has been shown to decrease endothelial inflammation and reduce the adhesion of parasitized erythrocytes. Low-flow inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) gas is a US FDA-approved treatment for hypoxic respiratory failure in neonates.
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Efficacy model for antibody-mediated pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines.
Proc. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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Antibodies to the pre-erythrocytic antigens, circumsporozoite protein (CSP), thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) and liver-stage antigen 1, have been measured in field studies of semi-immune adults and shown to correlate with protection from Plasmodium falciparum infection. A mathematical model is formulated to estimate the probability of sporozoite infection as a function of antibody titres to multiple pre-erythrocytic antigens. The variation in antibody titres from field data was used to estimate the relationship between the probability of P. falciparum infection per infectious mosquito bite and antibody titre. Using this relationship, we predict the effect of vaccinations that boost baseline CSP or TRAP antibody titres. Assuming the estimated relationship applies to vaccine-induced antibody titres, then single-component CSP or TRAP antibody-mediated pre-erythrocytic vaccines are likely to provide partial protection from infection, with vaccine efficacy of approximately 50 per cent depending on the magnitude of the vaccine-induced boost to antibody titres. It is possible that the addition of a TRAP component to a CSP-based vaccine such as RTS,S would provide an increase in infection-blocking efficacy of approximately 25 per cent should the problem of immunological interference between antigens be overcome.
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Adjunctive therapy for cerebral malaria and other severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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Severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum causes more than 800,000 deaths every year. Primary therapy with quinine or artesunate is generally effective in controlling P. falciparum parasitemia, but mortality from cerebral malaria and other forms of severe malaria remains unacceptably high. Long-term cognitive impairment is also common in children with cerebral malaria. Of the numerous adjunctive therapies for cerebral malaria and severe malaria studied over the past five decades, only one (albumin) was associated with a reduction in mortality. In this article, we review past and ongoing studies of adjunctive therapy, and examine the evidence of efficacy for newer therapies, including inhibitors of cytoadherence (e.g., levamisole), immune modulators (e.g., rosiglitazone), agents that increase nitric oxide levels (e.g., arginine) and neuroprotective agents (e.g., erythropoietin).
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Local topographic wetness indices predict household malaria risk better than land-use and land-cover in the western Kenya highlands.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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Identification of high-risk malaria foci can help enhance surveillance or control activities in regions where they are most needed. Associations between malaria risk and land-use/land-cover are well-recognized, but these environmental characteristics are closely interrelated with the lands topography (e.g., hills, valleys, elevation), which also influences malaria risk strongly. Parsing the individual contributions of land-cover/land-use variables to malaria risk requires examining these associations in the context of their topographic landscape. This study examined whether environmental factors like land-cover, land-use, and urban density improved malaria risk prediction based solely on the topographically-determined context, as measured by the topographic wetness index.
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Cerebral malaria: mechanisms of brain injury and strategies for improved neurocognitive outcome.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. With >575,000 cases annually, children in sub-Saharan Africa are the most affected. Surviving patients have an increased risk of neurological and cognitive deficits, behavioral difficulties, and epilepsy making cerebral malaria a leading cause of childhood neurodisability in the region. The pathogenesis of neurocognitive sequelae is poorly understood: coma develops through multiple mechanisms and there may be several mechanisms of brain injury. It is unclear how an intravascular parasite causes such brain injury. Understanding these mechanisms is important to develop appropriate neuroprotective interventions. This article examines possible mechanisms of brain injury in cerebral malaria, relating this to the pathogenesis of the disease, and explores prospects for improved neurocognitive outcome.
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TLR9 polymorphisms are associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with cerebral malaria.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms have been associated with disease severity in malaria infection, but mechanisms for this association have not been characterized. The TLR2, 4, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies and serum interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were assessed in Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM, N = 65) and uncomplicated malaria (UM, N = 52). The TLR9 C allele at -1237 and G allele at 1174 were strongly linked, and among children with CM, those with the C allele at -1237 or the G allele at 1174 had higher levels of IFN-gamma than those without these alleles (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). The TLR9 SNPs were not associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with UM or altered TNF-alpha levels in either group. We present the first human data that TLR SNPs are associated with altered cytokine production in parasitic infection.
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Possible interruption of malaria transmission, highland Kenya, 2007-2008.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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Highland areas where malaria transmission is unstable are targets for malaria elimination because transmission decreases to low levels during the dry season. In highland areas of Kipsamoite and Kapsisiywa, Kenya (population approximately 7,400 persons), annual household indoor residual spraying with a synthetic pyrethroid was performed starting in 2005, and artemether/lumefantrine was implemented as first-line malaria treatment in October 2006. During April 2007-March 2008, no microscopy-confirmed cases of malaria occurred at the sites. In 4 assessments of asymptomatic persons during May 2007-April 2008, a total of <0.3% of persons were positive for asexual Plasmodium falciparum by microscopy or PCR at any time, and none were positive by PCR at the last 2 sample collections. Our findings show that in such areas, interruption and eventual elimination of malaria transmission may be achievable with widespread annual indoor residual spraying of households and artemisinin combination therapy.
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Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome erythroderma is associated with superantigenicity and hypersensitivity.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
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Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) has rarely been reported without rash and desquamation. This study describes a patient who met all criteria for TSS except erythroderma and desquamation. The associated staphylococcal superantigen was enterotoxin B. We demonstrate that erythroderma depends on preexisting T cell hypersensitivity amplified by superantigenicity.
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Environmental, socio-demographic and behavioural determinants of malaria risk in the western Kenyan highlands: a case-control study.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
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To identify risk factors for uncomplicated malaria in highland areas of East Africa at higher risk of malaria epidemics, in order to design appropriate interventions.
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Stability of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 responses to Plasmodium falciparum liver stage antigen 1 and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein immunodominant epitopes in a highland population from Western Kenya.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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Long-term planning to prevent malaria epidemics requires in-depth understanding of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum in areas of unstable transmission. Cytokine responses to immunodominant epitope peptides from liver stage antigen 1 (LSA-1) and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) were evaluated over a nine-month interval in adults and children in Kenya from a malaria epidemic-prone highland area after several years of low transmission. The proportion and magnitude of interferon-gamma ELISPOT responses and the proportion of interleukin-10 responders to LSA-1 and TRAP peptides tended to be higher in adults than children. Frequencies of interferon-gamma responders to these peptides were similar at the two time points, but responses were not consistently generated by the same persons. These results suggest that T cell memory to pre-erythrocytic stage malaria antigens is maintained but may be unavailable for consistent detection in peripheral blood, and that these antigens induce both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in this population.
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Immediate neuropsychological and behavioral benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation in Ugandan pediatric cerebral malaria survivors.
J Dev Behav Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Our earlier studies on Ugandan children surviving cerebral malaria showed cognitive deficits mainly in attention and memory. We now present the first study in sub-Saharan Africa to investigate the feasibility and potential benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation training on neuropsychological and behavioral functioning of children surviving cerebral malaria.
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Reliability of the Luganda version of the Child Behaviour Checklist in measuring behavioural problems after cerebral malaria.
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2009
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No measure of childhood behaviour has been validated in Uganda despite the documented risks to behaviour. Cerebral malaria in children poses a great risk to their behaviour, however behavioural outcomes after cerebral malaria have not been described in children. This study examined the reliability of the Luganda version of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and described the behavioural outcomes of cerebral malaria in Ugandan children.
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Seizure activity and neurological sequelae in Ugandan children who have survived an episode of cerebral malaria.
Afr Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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Seizures are a common presenting feature in children with cerebral malaria (CM) and neurologic deficits have been described in survivors of CM. However few prospective studies have described the frequency of seizure activity and neurologic deficits in survivors of CM over time.
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Characterization of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite surface antigen MB2 in malaria exposed individuals.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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MB2 protein is a sporozoite surface antigen on the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. MB2 was identified by screening a P. falciparum sporozoite cDNA expression library using immune sera from a protected donor immunized via the bites of P. falciparum-infected irradiated mosquitoes. It is not known whether natural exposure to P. falciparum also induces the anti-MB2 response and if this response differs from that in protected individuals immunized via the bites of P. falciparum infected irradiated mosquitoes. The anti-MB2 antibody response may be part of a robust protective response against the sporozoite.
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Socioeconomic predictors of cognition in Ugandan children: implications for community interventions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
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Several interventions to improve cognition in at risk children have been suggested. Identification of key variables predicting cognition is necessary to guide these interventions. This study was conducted to identify these variables in Ugandan children and guide such interventions.
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Serum angiopoietin-1 and -2 levels discriminate cerebral malaria from uncomplicated malaria and predict clinical outcome in African children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Limited tools exist to identify which individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are at risk of developing serious complications such as cerebral malaria (CM). The objective of this study was to assess serum biomarkers that differentiate between CM and non-CM, with the long-term goal of developing a clinically informative prognostic test for severe malaria.
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Standardization and validation of a cytometric bead assay to assess antibodies to multiple Plasmodium falciparum recombinant antigens.
Malar. J.
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Multiplex cytometric bead assay (CBA) have a number of advantages over ELISA for antibody testing, but little information is available on standardization and validation of antibody CBA to multiple Plasmodium falciparum antigens. The present study was set to determine optimal parameters for multiplex testing of antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, and to compare results of multiplex CBA to ELISA.
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Immunomodulation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria: experiments in nature and their conflicting implications for potential therapeutic agents.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
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Effective Plasmodium falciparum immunity requires a precisely timed and balanced response of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune regulators. These responses begin with innate immune effectors and are modulated over the course of an infection and between episodes to limit inflammation. To date, there are no effective immunomodulatory therapies for severe malaria. Some of the most potent immunomodulators are naturally occurring infections, including helminthic and chronic viral infections. This review examines malaria coinfection with these organisms, and their impact on malaria morbidity and immune responses. Overall, there is compelling evidence to suggest that chronic coinfections can modulate deleterious malaria-specific immune responses, suggesting that therapeutic agents may be effective if utilized early in infection. Examination of the mechanisms of these effects may serve as a platform to identify more targeted and effective malaria immunomodulatory therapeutics.
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Development of clinical immunity to malaria in highland areas of low and unstable transmission.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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In highland areas of unstable, low malaria transmission, the extent to which immunity to uncomplicated malaria develops with age and intermittent parasite exposure has not been well characterized. We conducted active surveillance for clinical malaria during April 2003-March 2005 in two highland areas of western Kenya (Kapsisiywa and Kipsamoite). In both sites, annual malaria incidence was significantly lower in persons ? 15 years of age than in persons < 5 years of age (Kapsisiywa: incidence = 382.9 cases/1,000 persons among persons < 1-4 years of age versus 135.1 cases/1,000 persons among persons ? 15 years of age; Kipsamoite: incidence = 233.0 cases/1,000 persons in persons < 1-4 years of age versus 43.3 cases/1,000 persons in persons ? 15 years of age). In Kapsisiywa, among persons with malaria, parasite density and axillary body temperature were also significantly lower in persons ? 15 years of age than in persons < 5 years of age. Even in highland areas of unstable and low malaria transmission, age is associated with development of clinical immunity to malaria.
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Essential factors for the development of a residency global health track.
Clin Pediatr (Phila)
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There is increasing awareness of the importance of global health (GH) residency education but little guidance on what departmental, financial, and human resource support is required to develop a GH track. The authors aimed to identify essential factors and major obstacles to the development of a GH track.
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International electives at the university of Minnesota global pediatric residency program: opportunities for education in all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies.
Acad Pediatr
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Globally competent pediatricians are in demand because of the increasing numbers of children from immigrant families living in the United States and the shortages of health care workers in low-income countries where the majority of the worlds children live. This study sought to better understand the educational outcomes of international electives taken by pediatric residents training in global health.
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Recurrent Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections in Kenyan children diminish T-cell immunity to Epstein Barr virus lytic but not latent antigens.
PLoS ONE
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Plasmodium falciparum malaria (Pf-malaria) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infections coexist in children at risk for endemic Burkitts lymphoma (eBL); yet studies have only glimpsed the cumulative effect of Pf-malaria on EBV-specific immunity. Using pooled EBV lytic and latent CD8+ T-cell epitope-peptides, IFN-? ELISPOT responses were surveyed three times among children (10 months to 15 years) in Kenya from 2002-2004. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in association with Pf-malaria exposure, defined at the district-level (Kisumu: holoendemic; Nandi: hypoendemic) and the individual-level. We observed a 46% decrease in positive EBV lytic antigen IFN-? responses among 5-9 year olds residing in Kisumu compared to Nandi (PR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.99). Individual-level analysis in Kisumu revealed further impairment of EBV lytic antigen responses among 5-9 year olds consistently infected with Pf-malaria compared to those never infected. There were no observed district- or individual-level differences between Pf-malaria exposure and EBV latent antigen IFN-? response. The gradual decrease of EBV lytic antigen but not latent antigen IFN-? responses after primary infection suggests a specific loss in immunological control over the lytic cycle in children residing in malaria holoendemic areas, further refining our understanding of eBL etiology.
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Evidence of Endothelial Activation in Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia and Effect of Blood Group on Levels of von Willebrand Factor in Malaria.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
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Endothelial activation may contribute to development of severe disease from Plasmodium falciparum infection, but optimal markers of endothelial activation in severe malaria, the extent of endothelial activation in asymptomatic infection, and the effect of blood group O on endothelial activation have not been defined.
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Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and cerebral malaria: TLR2 ?22 polymorphism is associated with protection from cerebral malaria in a case control study.
Malar. J.
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In malaria endemic areas, host genetics influence whether a Plasmodium falciparum-infected child develops uncomplicated or severe malaria. TLR2 has been identified as a receptor for P. falciparum-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), and polymorphisms within the TLR2 gene may affect disease pathogenesis. There are two common polymorphisms in the 5 un-translated region (UTR) of TLR2, a 22 base pair deletion in the first unstranslated exon (?22), and a GT dinucleotide repeat in the second intron (GTn).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.