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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Metallosphaera tengchongensis sp. nov., a novel species of acidothermophilic archaeon isolated from a hot spring.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Two novel acidothermophilic archaea, strain Ric-A(T) and Ric-F, were isolated from the muddy water samples of a sulfuric hot spring located at Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. They were aerobic and facultatively chemolithoautotrophic. Both strains could oxidize S(0) and K2S4O6 for autotrophic growth, and also could use organic materials for heterotrophic growth. Growth was observed at 55-75 °C and pH 1.5-6.5. The strains could oxidize metal sulfide ores, showing their potential in bioleaching. The DNA G+C content of Ric-A(T) and Ric-F were 41.8 and 41.6 mol%, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains share 99.8% sequence similarity to each other, but < 97% to the other known species of the genus Metallosphaera. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the isolates were different strains of a novel species of the genus Metallosphaera. Strains Ric-A(T) and Ric-F also shared a number of physiological and biochemical characteristics that distinguished them from the recognized species of the genus Metallosphaera. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons with their relatives, it was concluded that the strains Ric-A(T) and Ric-F represent a novel species of the genus Metallosphaera, for which the name Metallosphaera tengchongensis is proposed. The type strain is Ric-A(T) (=NBRC109472(T)=CGMCC1.12287(T)).
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Role of Serotonin in MODS: Deficiency of Serotonin Protects Against Zymosan-induced Multiple Organ Failure in Mice.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a multi-factorial pathology that involves the deterioration of function in several organs. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a small monoamine molecule that is primarily known for its role as a neurotransmitter. Previous studies have shown that 5-HT could serve as an important inflammatory mediator in the peripheral immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 5-HT on the development of non-septic shock caused by zymosan in mice. Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 knockout mice (TPH1-/-, leading to the absence of 5-HT), TPH1-/- plus 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, precursor of 5-HT) treatment mice, wild-type (TPH1+/+) mice, and wild-type plus p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, TPH1 inhibitor) treatment mice received zymosan intraperitoneally at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Organ failure and systemic inflammation in the mice were assessed 18 hours after the administration of zymosan. Deficiency of 5-HT caused a significant reduction of the (1) peritoneal exudate formation, (2) neutrophil infiltration, (3) multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, (4) nitrosative stress and (5) cytokine formation. In addition, at the end of the observation period (7 days), deficiency of 5-HT in the mice was shown to be able to alleviate the severe illness characterized as a systemic toxicity, significant loss of body weight and high mortality caused by the zymosan. In conclusion, the lack of 5-HT by genetic knockout or by pharmacologic inhibition of the TPH1 enzyme significantly attenuated zymosan-induced MODS.
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A short-range ordered-disordered transition of a NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 pair induces switchable wettability.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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By virtue of its amorphous structure with a short-range order feature, the inorganic nanoporous nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) can reversibly and rapidly switch wettability by alternate treatments of environmental chamber (superhydrophobic) and UV/ozone (superhydrophilic). The switchable mechanism of the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 pair arising from its exceptional intrinsic short-range order-disorder transition together with chemical composition change is highlighted for the first time, which significantly differs from the current stimuli-responsive materials. This distinct multifunctional thin film not only possesses reversible wettability but also is optically patternable/repairable and electrically conductive, which could be applicable in the manufacturing of various micro- and nanostructures. We demonstrate this potential in the rewritable two-dimensional (2D) microfluidic channels and wetting-contrast enhanced selective electroplating.
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Ophiopogonin D Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Autophagic Cell Death by Relieving Mitochondrial Damage in vitro and in vivo.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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It has been reported that Ophiopogonin D (OP-D), a steroidal glycoside and an active component extracted from Ophiopogon japonicas, promotes antioxidative protection of the cardiovascular system. However, it is unknown whether OP-D exerts protective effects against DOX-induced autophagic cardiomyocyte injury. Here, we demonstrate that DOX induced excessive autophagy through the generation of ROS in H9c2 cells and in mouse hearts, which was indicated by a significant increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and up-regulation of the expression of GFP-LC3. Pretreatment with OP-D partially attenuated the above phenomena, similar to the effects of treatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In addition, OP-D treatment significantly relieved the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential by anti-oxidative effects through down-regulating the expression of both phosphorylated JNK and ERK. The ability of OP-D to reduce the generation of ROS due to mitochondrial damage and, consequently, to inhibit autophagic activity partially accounts for its protective effects in the hearts against DOX-induced toxicity.
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Genome-wide analysis of local chromatin packing in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The spatial arrangement of interphase chromosomes in the nucleus is important for gene expression and genome function in animals and in plants. The recently developed Hi-C technology is an efficacious method to investigate genome packing. Here we present a detailed Hi-C map of the three-dimensional genome organization of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We find that local chromatin packing differs from the patterns seen in animals, with kilobasepair-sized segments that have much higher intra-chromosome interaction rates than neighboring regions, representing a dominant local structural feature of genome conformation in A. thaliana. These regions, which appear as positive strips on two-dimensional representations of chromatin interaction, are enriched in epigenetic marks H3K27me3, H3.1 and H3.3. We also identify over 400 insulator-like regions. Furthermore, although topologically associating domains (TADs), which are prominent in animals, are not an obvious feature of A. thaliana genome packing, we found over 1,000 regions that have properties of TAD boundaries, and a similar number of regions analogous to the interior of TADs. The insulator-like, TAD-boundary-like, and TAD-interior-like regions are each enriched for distinct epigenetic marks, and are each correlated with different gene expression levels. We conclude that epigenetic modifications, gene density, and transcriptional activity combine to shape the local packing of the A. thaliana nuclear genome.
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The Effects of Aging on Speech Perception in Noise: Comparison between Normal-Hearing and Cochlear-Implant Listeners.
J Am Acad Audiol
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Speech understanding in noise is comparatively more problematic for older listeners with and without hearing loss, and age-related changes in temporal resolution might be associated with reduced speech recognition in complex noise.
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A unified mechanism for aminopeptidase N-based tumor cell motility and tumor-homing therapy.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Tumor cell surface aminopeptidase N (APN or CD13) has two puzzling functions unrelated to its enzymatic activity: mediating tumor cell motility and serving as a receptor for tumor-homing peptides (peptides that bring anti-cancer drugs to tumor cells). To investigate APN-based tumor-homing therapy, we determined the crystal structure of APN complexed with a tumor-homing peptide containing a representative Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif. The tumor-homing peptide binds to the APN enzymatic active site, but resists APN degradation due to a distorted scissile peptide bond. To explore APN-based tumor cell motility, we examined the interactions between APN and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. APN binds to, but does not degrade, NGR motifs in ECM proteins that share similar conformations with the NGR motif in the APN-bound tumor-homing peptide. Therefore, APN-based tumor cell motility and tumor-homing therapy rely on a unified mechanism in which both functions are driven by the specific and stable interactions between APN and the NGR motifs in ECM proteins and tumor-homing peptides. This study further implicates APN as an integrin-like molecule that functions broadly in cell motility and adhesion via interacting with its signature NGR motif in the extracellular environment.
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Efficacy and Safety of Semicircular Canal Occlusion for Intractable Horizontal Semicircular Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Some studies have suggested that semicircular canal occlusion is effective and safe for treating intractable posterior semicircular benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (PSC-BPPV), and adverse effects of canal occlusions for intractable horizontal semicircular BPPV (HSC-BPPV) were rarely reported. The aim of this study was to retrospectively discuss the efficacy of semicircular canal occlusion for intractable HSC-BPPV with at least 2 years of follow-up.
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[Application of serum thymidine kinase 1 of 26 055 cases in health screening for early detection of premalignant/early malignant tumors].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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To determine the application of serum thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) in general health screening for early detection of premalignant/early malignant tumors.
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Pretreatment Plasma D-Dimer, Fibrinogen, and Platelet Levels Significantly Impact Prognosis in Patients With Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Independently of Venous Thromboembolism.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of pretreatment plasma dimerized plasmin fragment D (D-dimer), fibrinogen, and platelet levels in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) after adjusting for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and to screen out the patients with the greatest risk for poor prognosis.
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Comparison of sample introduction methods for continuous chemical purification in two-dimensional electro-fluid-dynamic devices.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Two-dimensional electro-fluid-dynamic (2-D EFD) devices, in which both electric field and hydrodynamic pressure are used to drive the analyte and fluid migration, enable chemical separation to proceed in two-dimensional channel networks instead of a one-dimensional column and provide better control on the migration and distribution of analyte in complex channel networks. We have reported the use of a 2-D EFD device to continuously purify multiple components from complex samples ( Liu et al. Anal. Chem. 2010 , 82 , 2182 - 2185 and Liu et al. Anal. Chem. 2011 , 83 , 8208 - 8214 ). A continuous solution stream containing a mixture can be separated into different channels, each containing a pure compound. In previous studies, the sample mixture was introduced into the device by applying an electric field, also known as electrokinetic sample introduction. The initial separation junction requires three separate voltages and one pressure source. In this study, we investigated the mass transfer at the separation junction when the hydrodynamic pressure is used to deliver the sample. The initial separation junction has two voltages and two pressure sources. Continuous chemical purification is demonstrated in EFD devices with different geometries, and the comparison of both sample introduction approaches indicates that hydrodynamic sample introduction is superior to electrokinetic sample introduction.
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Control of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by the Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein is involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, although its role remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that hepatic PLZF expression was induced in fasted or diabetic mice. PLZF promoted gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose output, leading to hyperglycemia. In contrast, hepatic PLZF knockdown improved glucose homeostasis in db/db mice. Mechanistically, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? and the glucocorticoid receptor synergistically activated PLZF expression. We conclude that PLZF is a critical regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. PLZF manipulation may benefit the treatment of metabolic diseases associated with gluconeogenesis.
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Overexpression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha promotes tumor progression and indicates poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Dysregulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) has been documented in various cancers. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. We and others have examined that upregulation of PDGFR? might be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we report that PDGFR? plays a critical role in HCC progression and prognosis. The expression of PDGFR? was markedly higher in human HCC compared to adjacent liver tissues. Although PDGFRA mRNA was decreased in HCC, but PDGF-A mRNA was dramatically increased in HCC. Overexpression of PDGFR? was strongly correlated with microvessel density (MVD) of HCC (p<0.05), as well as macroscopic vascular invasion of the tumors (p<0.05). HCC patients with high PDGFR? expression displayed a shorter overall survival and a higher recurrence rate than those with low PDGFR? expression (p<0.05, respectively). Additionally, stable overexpression of PDGFR? in hepatoma cells promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro. Similarly, an in vivo assay showed that PDGFR? overexpression in hepatoma cells exhibited remarkably tumorigenic potential in tumor size and weight in vivo, which displayed markedly elevated MVD than controls. Thus, our study provided the evidence that PDGFR? may serve as a candidate prognostic marker and a novel therapeutic target for HCC.
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[The preliminary study of structure variation related to keloid based on the whole-gene resequencing technique].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To investigate the genome structure variation (SV) related with keloid using the whole-gene resequencing technology.
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The influence of binary processing additives on the performance of polymer solar cells.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In this study, we report the investigation of the influence of binary processing additives, 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT) and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). It was found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be enhanced to 8.55% from the PSCs processed with binary processing additives as compared with ?6.50% from the PSCs processed with either ODT or CN processing additives. With binary processing additives, the crystallinity of the electron donor polymer, poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2 ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]], was elevated, which in turn facilitated charge transport within the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer, resulting in a high short-circuit current and large fill factor. By photophysical studies, we further found that the high PCE is majorly attributed to the minimized nongeminate recombination by controlling the kinetic film morphologies of the BHJ composite by binary solvent processing additives.
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Differential Susceptible Loci Expression in Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars in the Chinese Han Population.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Hypertrophic scars (HSs) and keloids (KDs) are commonly seen as 2 different diseases. We aimed to find potential genes associated with KD and HS formation.
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The Discovery of a Highly Selective 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one SIRT2 Inhibitor that is Neuroprotective in an in vitro Parkinson's Disease Model.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Sirtuins, NAD(+) -dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs), have recently emerged as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The discovery of potent and isoform-selective inhibitors of this enzyme family should provide chemical tools to help determine the roles of these targets and validate their therapeutic value. Herein, we report the discovery of a novel class of highly selective SIRT2 inhibitors, identified by pharmacophore screening. We report the identification and validation of 3-((2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)methyl)-7-((pyridin-3-ylmethyl)amino)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (ICL-SIRT078), a substrate-competitive SIRT2 inhibitor with a Ki value of 0.62±0.15??M and more than 50-fold selectivity against SIRT1, 3 and?5. Treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with ICL-SIRT078 results in hyperacetylation of ?-tubulin, an established SIRT2 biomarker, at doses comparable with the biochemical IC50 data, while suppressing MCF-7 proliferation at higher concentrations. In concordance with the recent reports that suggest SIRT2 inhibition is a potential strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, we find that compound ICL-SIRT078 has a significant neuroprotective effect in a lactacystin-induced model of Parkinsonian neuronal cell death in the N27 cell line. These results encourage further investigation into the effects of ICL-SIRT078, or an optimised derivative thereof, as a candidate neuroprotective agent in in vivo models of Parkinson's disease.
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[Research progress of emodin anti-gallbladder carcinoma].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Emodin is an effective active ingredient extracted from Chinese herbal medicine, which has the function of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and scavenging oxygen free radicals, inhibiting platelet aggregation, improving microcirculation, protecting various organs and tissues as well as a wide range of anti-tumor effect. Primary biliary gallbladder is a common malignant tumor resection rate and lack of effective adjuvant treatment. It has been confirmed that emodin has broad spectrum antitumor effect, whereas, whether it has curative effect in the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma there is no reliable clinical trials confirmed that its resistance to gallbladder carcinoma function needs further experimental research. In this review, we report the research progress of emodin anti-gallbladder carcinoma.
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[Immunohistochemical detections of EGFR mutations in NSCLC].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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In recent years, it has been well known that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) response better to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Although DNA-based assays (e.g. DNA sequencing) are the most frequently used and a relatively reliable method to detect EGFR mutations, they are complex, time-consuming and relatively expensive for routine use in clinical laboratories, besides they require high quality tumor samples. In contrast, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods make up fully for the above shortcomings and can serve as screening tests for EGFR mutations. However, there are many factors that can influence the results of IHC methods, such as different staining procedures, different antigen retrieval solutions and different sets of criteria, etc. Thus the IHC methods for detecting EGFR mutations have not been widely used in clinic and only in the research stage. This article reviews the use of IHC methods by different researchers and further discusses how to make the IHC methods work best for the detection of EGFR mutations.
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Interaction between the human cytomegalovirus?encoded UL142 and cellular Snapin proteins.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can cause severe illness in immunocompromised and immunodeficient individuals. As a novel HCMV?encoded major histocompatibility complex class I?related molecule, the UL142?encoded protein (pUL142) is capable of suppressing natural killer (NK) cell recognition in the course of infection. However, no host factors that directly interact with HCMV pUL142 have been reported so far. In order to understand the interactions between HCMV pUL142 and host proteins, the current study used yeast two?hybrid screening, a GST pull?down assay and an immunofluorescence assay. A host protein, the SNARE?associated protein Snapin, was identified to directly interact and colocalize with HCMV pUL142 in transfected human embryonic kidney?293 cells. Snapin is abundantly expressed in the majority of cells and mediates the release of neurotransmitters through vesicular transport in the nervous system and vesicle fusion in non?neuronal cells. It is hypothesized that HCMV pUL142 may have an impact on the neurotransmitter release process and viral dissemination via interaction with Snapin.
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Grain setting defect1, Encoding a Remorin Protein, Affects the Grain Setting in Rice through Regulating Plasmodesmatal Conductance.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Effective grain filling is one of the key determinants of grain setting in rice (Oryza sativa). Grain setting defect1 (GSD1), which encodes a putative remorin protein, was found to affect grain setting in rice. Investigation of the phenotype of a transfer DNA insertion mutant (gsd1-Dominant) with enhanced GSD1 expression revealed abnormalities including a reduced grain setting rate, accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves, and lower soluble sugar content in the phloem exudates. GSD1 was found to be specifically expressed in the plasma membrane and plasmodesmata (PD) of phloem companion cells. Experimental evidence suggests that the phenotype of the gsd1-Dominant mutant is caused by defects in the grain-filling process as a result of the impaired transport of carbohydrates from the photosynthetic site to the phloem. GSD1 functioned in affecting PD conductance by interacting with rice ACTIN1 in association with the PD callose binding protein1. Together, our results suggest that GSD1 may play a role in regulating photoassimilate translocation through the symplastic pathway to impact grain setting in rice.
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Efficiently loading a single photon into a single-sided fabry-perot cavity.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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We demonstrate that a single photon with an optimal temporal waveform can be efficiently loaded into a cavity. Using heralded narrow-band single photons with exponential growth wave packet shaped by an electro-optical amplitude modulator, whose time constant matches the photon lifetime in the cavity, we demonstrate a loading efficiency of (87±2)% from free space to a single-sided Fabry-Perot cavity. We further demonstrate directly loading heralded single Stokes photons into the cavity with an efficiency of (60±5)% without the electro-optical amplitude modulator and verify the time reversal between the frequency-entangled paired photons. Our result and approach may enable promising applications in realizing large-scale quantum networks based on cavity quantum electrodynamics.
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Knockdown of PSF1 expression inhibits cell proliferation in lung cancer cells in vitro.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Partner of sld five 1 (PSF1) is a member of the heterotetrameric complex termed GINS. Previous studies have shown that PSF1 is unregulated in several cancer and associated with tumor malignant characters. However, the effects of PSF1 in lung cancer are still unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of PSF1 on the proliferation capacities of lung cancer. To start with, expression of PSF1 in 22 human lung cancer samples and adjacent non-tumor samples were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed that PSF1 was overexpressed in lung cancer samples compared to adjacent non-tumor samples. To achieve better insights of PSF1 functions in lung cancer cells, we used PSF1-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) successfully inhibit the expression of PSF1 in messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. In addition, we used lung cancer cell lines with different p53 gene background (p53 null and p53 wild-type). The results showed that knockdown of PSF1 inhibited cell proliferation and caused cell cycle arrest of lung cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Our data indicated that PSF1 is functionally involved in lung cancer cell proliferation and is a potential target for lung cancer therapy.
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Effect of Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Nuclear Hardness on Maintenance of Mydriasis During Phacoemulsification Surgery.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To compare the effects of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on pupil dilation maintenance during phacoemulsification cataract surgery and quantify the relationships between pupil size change and nuclear hardness. Methods: This prospective randomized clinical observation study was single centered and double-masked. We studied 239 cases undergoing uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery in the absence of significant ocular comorbidity. Cases were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 groups receiving the following treatments: (1) diclofenac (0.1%); (2) pranoprofen (0.1%); (3) control, physiological normal saline solution; (4) diclofenac (0.1%) and epinephrine; (5) pranoprofen (0.1%) and epinephrine; (6) control, physiological normal saline and epinephrine solutions. Pupil diameter was measured at 3 intervals of cataract surgery: before the first incision, at the end of nucleus fragmentation, and at the end of cortex irrigation/aspiration. Results: Compared with patients who were not treated, there was a significant difference in maintaining pupil dilation throughout the operation when the patients were treated with either diclofenac or pranoprofen, P<0.001 and P<0.03, respectively. From the first incision to postnucleus fragmentation, the change in pupil size in both diclofenac and control groups was significantly associated with the hardness of the crystalline lens, P=0.001 and P=0.012, respectively. At the end of irrigation/aspiration, the change in pupil size in only the control groups was significantly associated with the hardness of the crystalline lens, P=0.022. Diclofenac treatment was most effective at inhibiting pupil miosis when the hardness of the nucleus was grade 3, P=0.009. Pupil miosis was not related to the hardness of the nucleus when the patients were treated with epinephrine. Conclusions: Both diclofenac and pranoprofen treatment inhibit surgical-induced miosis. There is a negative correlation between the hardness of the crystalline lens and pupil diameter maintenance at the early stage of phacoemulsification.
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[In vitro effect of osthole on ultrastructure of Giardia lamblia].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Giardia lamblia trophozoites were cultivated axenically in TYI-S-33 modified medium containing 1.345 mg/ml of osthole (24 h IC50). The parasites were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopes after treated with osthole for 24 h. The surface of the trophozoites treated with osthole was rough. The surface of ventral sucker and median body had obvious lesions, the cell membrane was damaged and the content spilled out. There were a lot of vacuoles in the cytoplasm. And the nuclear was severely deformed with a serrated edge and marginated nuclear chromatin. The microtubules of sucker had partially disintegrated.
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[The preliminary study of gene copy number variation association with scar hyperplasia based on the whole-gene resequencing].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To investigate the genome copy number variation (CNV) related with keloid using the whole-gene resequencing technology.
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Overexpression of PSF1 is correlated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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PSF1 is a subunit of the GINS complex which is essential for establishment of DNA replication forks, and the progression of the replisome. Previous studies have shown a close relationship between PSF1 and cell cycle in the proliferation of immature cells as well as tumors. The purpose of this study was to measure PSF1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, and determine the effects of down-regulation of PSF1 expression on growth of cancer cells, the cell cycle, apoptosis and cell invasiveness.
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Growth of metal-catalyst-free nitrogen-doped metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using SiOx nanoparticles as a catalyst and ethylenediamine as the source of both carbon and nitrogen. The N-doped SWCNTs have a mean diameter of 1.1 nm and a narrow diameter range, with 92% of them having diameters from 0.7 to 1.4 nm. Multi-wavelength laser Raman spectra and temperature-dependent electrical resistance indicate that the SWCNT sample is enriched with metallic nanotubes. These N-doped SWCNTs showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction and highly selective and sensitive sensing ability for dopamine detection.
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A novel approach for evaluation of prostate deformation and associated dosimetric implications in IGRT of the prostate.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Prostate deformation is assumed to be a secondary correction and is typically ignored in the planning target volume (PTV) margin calculations. This assumption needs to be tested, especially when planning margins are reduced with daily image-guidance. In this study, deformation characteristics of the prostate and seminal vesicles were determined, and the dosimetric impact on treatment plans with different PTV margins was investigated.
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ITS1: a DNA barcode better than ITS2 in eukaryotes?
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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A DNA barcode is a short piece of DNA sequence used for species determination and discovery. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS/ITS2) region has been proposed as the standard DNA barcode for fungi and seed plants and has been widely used in DNA barcoding analyses for other biological groups, for example algae, protists and animals. The ITS region consists of both ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Here, a large-scale meta-analysis was carried out to compare ITS1 and ITS2 from three aspects: PCR amplification, DNA sequencing and species discrimination, in terms of the presence of DNA barcoding gaps, species discrimination efficiency, sequence length distribution, GC content distribution and primer universality. In total, 85 345 sequence pairs in 10 major groups of eukaryotes, including ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, liverworts, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, monocotyledons, eudicotyledons, insects and fishes, covering 611 families, 3694 genera, and 19 060 species, were analysed. Using similarity-based methods, we calculated species discrimination efficiencies for ITS1 and ITS2 in all major groups, families and genera. Using Fisher's exact test, we found that ITS1 has significantly higher efficiencies than ITS2 in 17 of the 47 families and 20 of the 49 genera, which are sample-rich. By in silico PCR amplification evaluation, primer universality of the extensively applied ITS1 primers was found superior to that of ITS2 primers. Additionally, shorter length of amplification product and lower GC content was discovered to be two other advantages of ITS1 for sequencing. In summary, ITS1 represents a better DNA barcode than ITS2 for eukaryotic species.
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An electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, based on signal amplification of graphene and a gold nanoparticle-polyaniline nanocomposite.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Due to its low growth rate and its fastidious nature, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is difficult to identify. Its rapid and sensitive detection is, however, critical for the control of tuberculosis. Molecular biology, and more recently electrochemical technology, have been exploited for the detection of this pathogen. In the present study, a novel DNA biosensor was developed for the highly sensitive detection of the specific DNA insertion sequence IS6110 of M. tuberculosis, using reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticles (rGO-AuNPs) as a sensing platform and gold nanoparticles-polyaniline (Au-PANI) as a tracer label for amplification. Reduced graphene oxide, which has a large surface area, provided a biocompatible matrix. Gold nanoparticles were electrodeposited on the surface of the rGO modified electrode, which not only increased immobilisation of the capture probe but also promoted electronic transfer. The Au-PANI nanocomposite exhibited good biocompatibility and excellent electrochemical activity. It was therefore used as a tracer label for electrochemical detection, which provided a simple preparation process for a signal-on DNA biosensor. With the excellent electroactivity of the Au-PANI nanocomposite, the resulting DNA biosensor exhibited high sensitivity for the detection of M. tuberculosis over a broad linear range, between 1.0 × 10(-15) and 1.0 × 10(-9) M. The DNA biosensor showed good stability and high specificity and provides a new strategy for clinical M. tuberculosis diagnostics and probably also for pathogenic bacteria in general.
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Tissue-engineered ribs for chest wall reconstruction: a case with 12-year follow-up.
Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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We hereby report on a case in which a huge chest wall defect generated by resection of a massive aggressive tumor (desmoplastic fibroma) was repaired with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells embedded in a bone-derived biomaterial. In this case, there were three challenges to overcome: reconstruction of the soft tissue, repair of the skeletal defect of the thoracic wall and repair of the defect in the pleural cavity. The defects of soft tissue and pleural cavity were reconstructed, respectively, with an ipsilateral abdominal flap and a diaphragm muscular flap. The huge defect in the chest wall was successfully repaired with the tissue-engineered ribs, which was confirmed by long-term follow-up with computerized tomography and histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. In view of its effectiveness and safety, tissue-engineered bones may have a broad application for the repair of large skeletal defects and bone regeneration.
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Investigation of MicroRNA Expression in Human Serum During the Aging Process.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Although serum microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in the diagnosis of various diseases, little is known about circulating miRNAs in the aging process.
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An exploration of evolution, maturation, expression and function relationships in mir-23 ? 27 ? 24 cluster.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The study aims to explore the potential relationships of evolution, maturation, expression and function between homologous/clustered miRNAs. mir-23 ? 27 ? 24 gene cluster, including the two gene clusters (mir-23a and mir-23b) and the three miRNA gene families (mir-23, mir-27 and mir-24), was typically selected as an example. These related miRNAs show similar evolutionary patterns and various expression patterns. Most of them show consistent isomiR expression pattern, and the "switching" phenomenon can be found between different abundant isomiR species. These findings suggest that these sequence or location related miRNAs show the similar miRNA processing and maturation processes, and the robust selection of the most dominant isomiR exists in specific tissues. Functional analysis show that these miRNAs show similar distributions of enriched gene categories, suggesting the close functional prelateships via direct or indirect coordinate regulation in biological processes. The study reveals the close evolutionary, expression and functional relationships between related homologous/clustered miRNAs, which will further enrich miRNA studies and understand direct or indirect interactions between miRNAs.
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[The in vitro anti-atherosclerotic activity of compound IMB-1680].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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In the previous study, a high-throughput screening method was established to find the antagonists of CD36. In the present study, a new compound named IMB-1680 was found using this method. The anti-atherosclerotic activities of IMB-1680 were then evaluated. Dose-dependent activities of IMB-1680 were detected by using Sf9 [hCD36] and CHO [hCD36] models. Fluorescence microscopic photography and flow cytometry were used to analyze uptake of mLDL. Foam cell test with RAW264.7 macrophages was used to examine lipid accumulation. The results showed that IMB-1680 inhibited CD36 activity with IC50 of 2.80 and 8.79 micromol x L(-1) in Sf9[hCD36] and CHO [hCD36] cells, respectively. Fluorescence microscopic photography and flow cytometry revealed that IMB-1680 could significantly reduce DiI-AcLDL uptake. Meanwhile, IMB-1680 also could reduce lipids accumulation in RAW264.7 macrophages. In all, the data indicated that IMB-1680 might be a potent effective anti-atherosclerotic leading compound.
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Platelet-derived growth factor blockade on cardiac remodeling following infarction.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Cardiac repair and remodeling occur following myocardial infarction (MI). Our previous study demonstrated that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-A/-D and PDGF receptors (PDGFR) are increased in the infarcted heart, with cells expressing PDGFR primarily endothelial and fibroblast-like cells. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that PDGF contributes to cardiac angiogenesis and fibrogenesis post-MI. Rats with experimental MI were treated with either a PDGFR antagonist (Imatinib, 40 mg/kg/day) or vehicle by gavage, and sham-operated rats served as the controls. Cardiac fibrogenesis, angiogenesis, and ventricular function were detected at weeks 1 and 4 post-MI. We found that (1) transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1/-2, and type I collagen mRNA were all significantly increased in the infarcted heart at week 1 post-MI, while PDGFR blockade significantly reduced these fibrogenic mediators in the noninfarcted myocardium as compared to controls; (2) fibrosis developed in both the infarcted and noninfarcted myocardium at week 4 with PDGFR blockade significantly suppressing collagen volume in the noninfarcted myocardium; (3) angiogenesis was activated in the infarcted myocardium, particularly at week 1, and was not altered by treatment with imatinib; and (4) ventricular dysfunction was evident in MI rats at week 4, and mildly improved with imatinib treatment. These observations indicated that PDGF can contribute to the development of cardiac interstitial fibrosis in the noninfarcted myocardium, but does not alter scar formation in the infarcted myocardium. Further, this study suggests the potential therapeutic effects of PDGFR blockade on interstitial fibrosis of the infarcted heart.
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Mechanical tests on the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament fixed with allogenetic cortical bone cross-pin on the femoral side.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has developed dramatically in the last century. Now, ACLR has become a reliable and productive procedure. Patients feel satisfied in >90% cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of allogenetic cortical bone cross-pin (ACBCP) used as a clinical fixation method in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on the femoral side based on biomechanical tests in vitro.
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Observation of monolayer valence band spin-orbit effect and induced quantum well states in MoX2.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Transition metal dichalcogenides transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted much attention recently due to their potential applications in spintronics and photonics because of the indirect to direct band gap transition and the emergence of the spin-valley coupling phenomenon upon moving from the bulk to monolayer limit. Here, we report high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on MoSe2 single crystals and monolayer films of MoS2 grown on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite substrate. Our experimental results resolve the Fermi surface trigonal warping of bulk MoSe2, and provide evidence for the critically important spin-orbit split valence bands of monolayer MoS2. Moreover, we systematically image the formation of quantum well states on the surfaces of these materials, and present a theoretical model to account for these experimental observations. Our findings provide important insights into future applications of transition metal dichalcogenides in nanoelectronics, spintronics and photonics devices as they critically depend on the spin-orbit physics of these materials.
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Targeting RPTP? with lentiviral shRNA promotes neurites outgrowth of cortical neurons and improves functional recovery in a rat spinal cord contusion model.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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After spinal cord injury (SCI), the rapidly upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), the prominent chemical constituents and main repulsive factors of the glial scar, play an important role in the extremely limited ability to regenerate in adult mammals. Although many methods to overcome the inhibition have been tested, no successful method with clinical feasibility has been devised to date. It was recently discovered that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTP?) is a functional receptor for CSPGs-mediated inhibition. In view of the potential clinical application of RNA interference (RNAi), here we investigated whether silencing RPTP? via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference can promote axon regeneration and functional recovery after SCI. Neurites of primary rat cerebral cortical neurons with depleted RPTP? exhibited a significant enhancement in elongation and crossing ability when they encountered CSPGs in vitro. A contusion model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats (the New York University (NYU) impactor) was used for in vivo experiments. Local injection of lentivirus encoding RPTP? shRNA at the lesion site promoted axon regeneration and synapse formation, but did not affect the scar formation. Meanwhile, in vivo functional recovery (motor and sensory) was also enhanced after RPTP? depletion. Therefore, strategies directed at silencing RPTP? by RNAi may prove to be a beneficial, efficient and valuable approach for the treatment of SCI.
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Maximum surface charge density for triboelectric nanogenerators achieved by ionized-air injection: methodology and theoretical understanding.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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For the maximization of the surface charge density in triboelectric nanogenerators, a new method of injecting single-polarity ions onto surfaces is introduced for the generation of surface charges. The triboelectric nanogenerator's output power gets greatly enhanced and its maximum surface charge density is systematically studied, which shows a huge room for the improvement of the output of triboelectric nanogenerators by surface modification.
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Preparation of a push-pull osmotic pump of felodipine solubilized by mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a core-shell structure.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The purpose of this study was to use mesoporous silica nanoparticles to improve drug dissolution after releasing from a push-pull osmotic pump. Felodipine was selected as the model drug and it was first incorporated into mesoporous silica nanoparticles prepared previously by the solvent evaporation method after we had examined a series of drug-silica ratios to load the drug into the mesoporous silica nanoparticles in order to find the optimum ratio for drug loading. Then, the drug-carrier was added to the drug-layer of the push-pull osmotic pump. PEO (Mw 100,000) was used as a suspending agent and PEO (Mw 6,000,000) was used as an expanding agent. The core tablets were coated with cellulose acetate (CA) as a semipermeable membrane containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 to control the membrane permeability. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the self-made osmotic pump tablets were able to deliver felodipine in an approximately zero-order manner in 12h. A pharmacokinetic study was carried out to compare the new system with reference sustained-release tablets. It was found that the half-life of felodipine in the push-pull osmotic pump tablets was prolonged 1.8-fold, the bioavailability was increased 18% and the maximum plasma concentration reduced by 25%. In conclusion, using the self-made push-pull osmotic pump in combination with mesoporous silica nanoparticles was able to effectively increase the bioavailability of felodipine and reduce fluctuations in its plasma concentration.
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Botulinum Toxin Type A Inhibits ?-Smooth Muscle Actin and Myosin II Expression in Fibroblasts Derived From Scar Contracture.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Scar contracture (SC) is one of the most common complications resulting from major burn injuries. Numerous treatments are currently available but they do not always yield excellent therapeutic results. Recent reports suggest that botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) is effective at reducing SC clinically, but the molecular mechanism for this action is unknown. ?-Smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and myosin II are the main components of stress fibers, which are the contractile structures of fibroblasts. The effects of BTXA on ?-SMA and myosin II in SC are still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of BTXA on ?-SMA and myosin II expression in fibroblasts derived from SC and to elucidate its actual mechanism further.
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Prognosis evaluation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy: comparison of BCLC, TNM and Hangzhou criteria staging systems.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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This study is to evaluate the Hangzhou criteria (HC) for patients with HCC undergoing surgical resection and to identify whether this staging system is superior to other staging systems in predicting the survival of resectable HCC.
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Sensitive detection of acetylcholine based on a novel boronate intramolecular charge transfer fluorescence probe.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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A highly sensitive and selective fluorescence method for the detection of acetylcholine (ACh) based on enzyme-generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a new boronate intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) fluorescence probe, 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-N-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide (BN), was developed. This strategy involves the reaction of ACh with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to produce choline, which is further oxidized by choline oxidase (ChOx) to obtain betaine and H2O2. The enzyme-generated H2O2 reacts with BN and results in hydrolytic deprotection of BN to generate fluorescent product (4-hydroxyl-N-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide, ON). Two consecutive linear response ranges allow determining ACh in a wide concentration range with a low detection limit of 2.7nM (signal/noise=3). Compared with other fluorescent probes based on the mechanism of nonspecific oxidation, this reported boronate probe has the advantage of no interference from other biologically relevant reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the detection of ACh. This study provides a new method for the detection of ACh with high selectivity and sensitivity.
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Receptor usage and cell entry of bat coronavirus HKU4 provide insight into bat-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) currently spreads in humans and causes ? 36% fatality in infected patients. Believed to have originated from bats, MERS-CoV is genetically related to bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5. To understand how bat coronaviruses transmit to humans, we investigated the receptor usage and cell entry activity of the virus-surface spike proteins of HKU4 and HKU5. We found that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), the receptor for MERS-CoV, is also the receptor for HKU4, but not HKU5. Despite sharing a common receptor, MERS-CoV and HKU4 spikes demonstrated functional differences. First, whereas MERS-CoV prefers human DPP4 over bat DPP4 as its receptor, HKU4 shows the opposite trend. Second, in the absence of exogenous proteases, both MERS-CoV and HKU4 spikes mediate pseudovirus entry into bat cells, whereas only MERS-CoV spike, but not HKU4 spike, mediates pseudovirus entry into human cells. Thus, MERS-CoV, but not HKU4, has adapted to use human DPP4 and human cellular proteases for efficient human cell entry, contributing to the enhanced pathogenesis of MERS-CoV in humans. These results establish DPP4 as a functional receptor for HKU4 and host cellular proteases as a host range determinant for HKU4. They also suggest that DPP4-recognizing bat coronaviruses threaten human health because of their spikes' capability to adapt to human cells for cross-species transmissions.
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Upregulation of CRMP4, a new prostate cancer metastasis suppressor gene, inhibits tumor growth in a nude mouse intratibial injection model.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed male cancer in North America, has a high incidence of bone metastasis. Our previous study showed collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) gene inhibited prostate cancer migration and invasion. In this study, we investigated whether overexpression of CRMP4 gene in prostate cancer cells inhibit tumor bone metastasis. The stable prostate cancer cells overexpressing the CRMP4 gene were constructed using lentivirus infection. Prostate cancer bone metastasis nude mouse model was built though orthotopic prostate implantation, intracardiac injection and intratibial injection with CRMP4 overexpress and control cancer cells. Small animal PET/CT scanning results showed no difference of bone metastatic capacity in orthotopic and intracardiac injection models between CRMP4 overexpression and control group, while CRMP4 overexpression inhibited tumor growth in the intratibial injection model. Moreover, our in vitro study showed CRMP4 overexpression downregulates the Neuropilin1 (NRP1) expression and upregulate the Noggin expression. Immunohistochemical staining of the hind limbs of intratibial injection model was confirmed with cytological experiments. Taken together, our research indicated CRMP4 inhibits prostate cancer cells growth in the nude mouse bone microenvironment and this effect may relate with regulation of NRP1 and Noggin expression.
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Durations of American English vowels by native and non-native speakers: acoustic analyses and perceptual effects.
Lang Speech
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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The goal of this study was to examine durations of American English vowels produced by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers and the effects of vowel duration on vowel intelligibility. Twelve American English vowels were recorded in the /hVd/ phonetic context by native speakers and non-native speakers. The English vowel duration patterns as a function of vowel produced by non-native speakers were generally similar to those produced by native speakers. These results imply that using duration differences across vowels may be an important strategy for non-native speakers' production before they are able to employ spectral cues to produce and perceive English speech sounds. In the intelligibility experiment, vowels were selected from 10 native and non-native speakers and vowel durations were equalized at 170 ms. Intelligibility of vowels with original and equalized durations was evaluated by American English native listeners. Results suggested that vowel intelligibility of native and non-native speakers degraded slightly by 3-8% when durations were equalized, indicating that vowel duration plays a minor role in vowel intelligibility.
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Nuclear factor Y-mediated H3K27me3 demethylation of the SOC1 locus orchestrates flowering responses of Arabidopsis.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a conserved heterotrimeric transcription factor complex that binds to the CCAAT motifs within the promoter region of many genes. In plants, a large number of genes code for variants of each NF-YA, B or C subunit that can assemble in a combinatorial fashion. Here, we report the discovery of an Arabidopsis NF-Y complex that exerts epigenetic control over flowering time by integrating environmental and developmental signals. We show that NF-Y interacts with CONSTANS in the photoperiod pathway and DELLAs in the gibberellin pathway, to directly regulate the transcription of SOC1, a major floral pathway integrator. This NF-Y complex binds to a unique cis-element within the SOC1 promoter to modulate trimethylated H3K27 levels, partly through a H3K27 demethylase REF6. Our findings establish NF-Y complexes as critical mediators of epigenetic marks that regulate the response to environmental or intrinsic signals in plants.
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Potential effect of matrix stiffness on the enrichment of tumor initiating cells under three-dimensional culture conditions.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Cancer stem cell (CSC) or tumor initiating cell (TIC) plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. Biophysical forces in tumor microenvironment have an important effect on tumor formation and development. In this study, the potential effect of matrix stiffness on the biological characteristics of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) TICs, especially the enrichment of HNSCC TICs, was investigated under three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions by means of alginate gel (ALG) beads with different matrix stiffnesses. ALG beads with soft (21kPa), moderate (70kPa) and hard (105kPa) stiffness were generated by changing alginate concentration. It was found that significant HNSCC TIC enrichment was achieved in the ALG beads with moderate matrix stiffness (70kPa). The gene expression of stemness markers Oct3/4 and Nanog, TIC markers CD44 and ABCG2 was enhanced in cells under this moderate (70kPa) stiffness. HNSCC TIC proportion was also highly enriched under moderate matrix stiffness, accompanying with higher tumorigenicity, metastatic ability and drug resistance. And it was also found that the possible molecular mechanism underlying the regulated TIC properties by matrix stiffness under 3D culture conditions was significantly different from 2D culture condition. Therefore, the results achieved in this study indicated that 3D biophysical microenvironment had an important effect on TIC characteristics and alginate-based biomimetic scaffolds could be utilized as a proper platform to investigate the interaction between tumor cells and 3D microenvironment.
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[Effect of different volume loading of aerobic/anaerobic zone on nitrogen and phosphorus removal by biofilm and granular sludge coupling process].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The effect of different aerobic/anaerobic zone volume loading on nitrogen and phosphorus removal by biological film and granular coupling process was investigated using a self-designed Biofilm/Granular sludge coupling reactor. Three operating modes were conducted in the experiment. In operating mode I ,the volume of aerobic zone was 9. 66 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 15. 34 L. In operating mode II , the volume of aerobic zone was 12. 56 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 12. 44 L. In operating mode III , the volume of aerobic zone was 15.42 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 9.58 L. Three operating modes expressed different volume loading of the reactor because of different aerobic/anaerobic zone. The results showed that the performance of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus removal was a bit poor in operating mode I , the effluent nitrate nitrogen was higher in operating mode III compared with other modes, which brought the total nitrogen removal efficiency lower. The operating mode II was optimal for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In operating mode II , the ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency was about 80. 63% , the volume loading rate of nitrogen removal was about 150. 27 g(m3 d)-1, and the COD removal efficiency was higher than 83.24%; the amounts of phosphorus release and uptake under anaerobic conditions were 7. 23 mg L-1 and 11. 93 mg L-1.
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[Assessment of tooth bleaching efficacy with spectrophotometer].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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To analyze the changes in CIE L*, a*, and b* at cervical, body, and incisal sites after tooth bleaching by using a spectrophotometer.
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Live cell integrated surface plasmon resonance biosensing approach to mimic the regulation of angiogenic switch upon anti-cancer drug exposure.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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In this work, we report a novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based live-cell biosensing platform to measure and compare the binding affinity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and VEGF to bevacizumab. Results have shown that bevacizumab binds VEGF with a higher association rate and affinity compared to VEGFR. Further, this platform has been employed to mimic the in vivo condition of the VEGF-VEGFR angiogenic switch. Competitive binding to VEGF between VEGFR and bevacizumab was monitored in real-time using this platform. Results demonstrated a significant blockage of VEGF-VEGFR binding by bevacizumab. From the results, it is evident that the proposed strategy is simple and highly sensitive for the direct and real-time measurements of bevacizumab drug efficacy to the VEGF-VEGFR angiogenic switch in living SKOV-3 cells.
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Production of salidroside in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Salidroside (1) is the most important bioactive component of Rhodiola (also called as "Tibetan Ginseng"), which is a valuable medicinal herb exhibiting several adaptogenic properties. Due to the inefficiency of plant extraction and chemical synthesis, the supply of salidroside (1) is currently limited. Herein, we achieved unprecedented biosynthesis of salidroside (1) from glucose in a microorganism. First, the pyruvate decarboxylase ARO10 and endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases were recruited to convert 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (2), an intermediate of L-tyrosine pathway, to tyrosol (3) in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, tyrosol production was improved by overexpressing the pathway genes, and by eliminating competing pathways and feedback inhibition. Finally, by introducing Rhodiola-derived glycosyltransferase UGT73B6 into the above-mentioned recombinant strain, salidroside (1) was produced with a titer of 56.9?mg/L. Interestingly, the Rhodiola-derived glycosyltransferase, UGT73B6, also catalyzed the attachment of glucose to the phenol position of tyrosol (3) to form icariside D2 (4), which was not reported in any previous literatures.
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Expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-? and the corresponding receptors are correlated with trauma severity.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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This study investigated the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and the expression levels of TNF receptors (TNFRs) in patients with multiple trauma, together with the association between the levels of this cytokine and these cytokine receptors with the severity of traumatic injury. Blood samples were obtained from 60 multiple trauma patients at hospital admission (within 2 h of injury), and 6-8 h and 1-5 days after admission. The plasma levels of TNF-? and TNFR1/TNFR2 were detected using enzyme immunoassay. TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression levels on leukocytes, including neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes, were determined by flow cytometry. Clinical parameters were determined by injury severity score (ISS). At hospital admission, the plasma TNF-? and soluble TNFR levels in the trauma patients were elevated compared with those of healthy controls. Increased expression levels of TNFR1 and TNFR2 were also detected on leukocytes, particularly on lymphocytes and monocytes. The expression levels of the cytokine and the corresponding receptors were correlated with the ISS. TNF-? and TNFR expression levels remained significantly elevated for up to the third to fifth day following the traumatic injury. In the trauma patients, increased levels of TNF-? and TNFRs were correlated with the severity of traumatic injury in the early post-injury period, supporting the hypothesis that trauma-provoked organ dysfunction may be caused by an overwhelming auto-destructive inflammatory response.
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1,4-Benzoxazine-3(4H)-ones as potent inhibitors of platelet aggregation: design, synthesis and structure-activity relations.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A series of novel potentially platelet aggregation-inhibiting 1,4-benzoxazine-3(4H)-one derivatives was designed and synthesized through Smiles rearrangement, reduction and acetylation reactions. The antiaggregatory activities of the target molecules on arterial blood samples from rabbits, expressed by IC?? values (?M), were then evaluated in vitro against ADP induced platelet aggregation. The favorable IC?? values of compound 8c (IC??=8.99?µM) and 8d (IC??=8.94?µM) indicated that these two compounds were the most potent molecules among all the synthesized compounds. A detailed molecular docking study to explore the interaction of compounds 8c and 8d with GP IIb/IIIa receptor showed that they these two compounds were docked into the active site of GPIIb/IIIa receptor. These results suggest that the 1,4-benzoxazine-3(4H)-one derivatives are promising lead compounds to develop new platelet aggregation inhibitors.
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Evolution of the BBAA component of bread wheat during its history at the allohexaploid level.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence.
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Role of three-dimensional matrix stiffness in regulating the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was the most common primary liver cancer, resistance to anti-tumor drugs often caused the death of HCC cancer patients. Matrix stiffness was reported to be closely related to tumor chemoresistance, however, the relationship between HCC drug resistance and 3D matrix stiffness was still unclear at present. In this study, alginate gel (ALG) beads with controllable matrix stiffness were used to mimic tumor tissue rigidity, and the role of 3D matrix stiffness in regulating the chemoresistance of HCC cells was investigated by using these ALG beads. It was found that HCC cells in ALG beads with 105 kPa stiffness had highest resistance to paclitaxel, 5-FU, and cisplatin. Although the mechanism was still uncovered, ABC transporters and ER stress-related molecules were highly expressed in ALG bead-encapsulated HCC cells compared with two dimensional (2D)-cultured cells, which suggested a very complex mechanism underlying HCC drug resistance in 3D culture conditions. In addition, in order to mimic the specific stiffness of HCC tumor tissue, or other tumor tissues in vivo, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to build up a prediction mathematical model so that ALG beads with desired matrix stiffness could be prepared by simply changing three factors: molecular weight, G content and alginate concentration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Up-regulation of integrin ?6?4 expression by mitogens involved in dairy cow mammary development.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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In dairy cows, the extracellular microenvironment varies significantly from the virgin state to lactation. The function of integrin ?6?4 is dependent on cell type and extracellular microenvironment, and the precise expression profile of ?6?4 and its effects on mammary development remain to be determined. In the present study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression and localization of integrin ?6?4 in Holstein dairy cow mammary glands. The effects of integrin ?6?4 on the proliferation induced by mammogenic mitogens were identified by blocking integrin function in purified dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). The results showed that the localization of ?4 subunit and its exclusive partner the ?6 subunit were not consistent but were co-localized in basal luminal cells and myoepithelial cells, appearing to prefer the basal surface of the plasma membrane. Moreover, ?6 and ?4 subunit messenger RNA (mRNA) levels changed throughout the stages of dairy cow mammary development, reflected well by protein levels, and remained higher in the virgin and pregnancy states, with duct/alveolus morphogenesis and active cell proliferation, than during lactation, when growth arrest is essential for mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Finally, the upregulation of integrin expression by both mammogenic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 and the inhibited growth of DCMECs by function-blocking integrin antibodies confirmed that integrin ?6?4 was indeed involved in dairy cow mammary development.
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Optimization of Rutaecarpine as ABCA1 Up-Regulator for Treating Atherosclerosis.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key transporter and receptor in promoting cholesterol efflux, and increasing the expression level of ABCA1 is antiatherogenic. In our previous study, rutaecarpine (RUT) was found to protect ApoE(-/-) mice from developing atherosclerosis through preferentially up-regulating ABCA1 expression. In the present work, a series of RUT derivatives were synthesized and examined as ABCA1 expression up-regulators. Compounds CD1, CD6, and BCD1-2 were found to possess the most potential activity as antiatherosclerotic agents among all compounds tested.
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Positive temperature coefficient thermistors based on carbon nanotube/polymer composites.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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In order to explore availability of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors in practical application, we prepared carbon nanotube (CNT) filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites by using conventional melt-mixing methods, and investigated their PTC effects in details. The CNT-based thermistors exhibit much larger hold current and higher hold voltage, increasing by 129% in comparison with the commercial carbon black (CB) filled HDPE thermistors. Such high current-bearing and voltage-bearing capacity for the CNT/HDPE thermistors is mainly attributed to high thermal conductivity and heat dissipation of entangled CNT networks. Moreover, the CNT/HDPE thermistors exhibit rapid electrical response to applied voltages, comparable to commercial CB-based thermistors. In light of their high current-bearing capacity and quick response, the CNT-based thermistors have great potential to be used as high-performance thermistors in practical application, especially in some critical circumstances of high temperature, large applied currents, and high applied voltages.
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Electrochemical degradation of refractory pollutants using TiO2 single crystals exposed by high-energy {001} facets.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Anodic material plays a vital role in electrochemical water treatment. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been widely recognized as an excellent semiconductor photocatalyst, rather than an efficient electrocatalyst, due to its relatively low electric conductivity and poor electrochemical activity. In this work, it is found that TiO2 can actually become a superior electrocatalyst when its crystal shape and exposed facet are finely tuned. The shape-engineered TiO2 single crystals with {001} facets exhibit an excellent electro-catalytic activity and stability for degrading typical organic pollutants such as rhodamine B and bisphenol A, and treating complex landfill leachate. Its electro-catalytic superiority is mainly attributed to the single-crystalline structure and exposed polar {001} facet. Our findings could provide new possibility of utilizing TiO2 for efficient electrochemical water treatment because of its high activity, great stability, low cost and no toxicity.
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A Bayesian framework for single image dehazing considering noise.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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The single image dehazing algorithms in existence can only satisfy the demand for dehazing efficiency, not for denoising. In order to solve the problem, a Bayesian framework for single image dehazing considering noise is proposed. Firstly, the Bayesian framework is transformed to meet the dehazing algorithm. Then, the probability density function of the improved atmospheric scattering model is estimated by using the statistical prior and objective assumption of degraded image. Finally, the reflectance image is achieved by an iterative approach with feedback to reach the balance between dehazing and denoising. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can remove haze and noise simultaneously and effectively.
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Production of polyclonal antibody to a recombinant non-structural protein Nsp1a of human astrovirus.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Human astrovirus (HAstV) are important pathogens that cause acute viral diarrhea in infants. Little is known about the mechanisms of astrovirus-induced diarrhea. Previous studies have suggested that an apoptosis inducer may be encoded in the non-structural protein (nsP1a) of astrovirus and contribute to virus-induced diarrhea. To study the biological function of nsP1a and to gain further insight into nsP1a protein-host cell interactions, good quality antibodies must be produced. The nsP1agene of HAstV-1 was cloned into a bacterial expression vector Pgex-6P-1. The recombinant plasmid Pgex-6P-nsP1a was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and expressed as a fusion protein that contains N-terminal GST tags. The expressed recombinant protein was purified and used as an antigen to produce an nsP1a antiserum in rabbits. ELISA was used to detect the titer of specific antibodies. Specificity activity was detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. The titer of specific antibodies was up to 1:30,000. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the polyclonal antibody could recognize specifically the HAstV-1 nsP1a protein.
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Tumor penetrability and anti-angiogenesis using iRGD-mediated delivery of doxorubicin-polymer conjugates.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Tumor-penetrating peptide, iRGD (internalizing RGD, CRGDK/RGPD/EC) with the similar affinity to ?v integrins as conventional RGD cyclopeptide could enhance the tumor penetrability of drugs by binding to neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) that over-expressed on both angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells. Comparing with our previous study, in which a RGD cyclopeptide (RGDyC) was bound to PEGylated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer with doxorubicin (DOX) by acid-sensitive cis-aconityl linkage (PEG-PAMAM-cis-aconityl-DOX, PPCD), the present study selected iRGD instead of previous RGD to produce iRGD-PPCD conjugate. The effect of iRGD-mediated PPCD on tumor penetration was compared with the conventional RGD ones via administration of RGDs-modified PPCD (iRGD/RGDs-PPCD) and co-administration of RGDs and PPCD (iRGD/RGD + PPCD). C6 cells were selected as the cell model owing to the highest expression of ?v integrins and NRP-1 among four tumor cell lines. In vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake showed no significant difference between RGD-PPCD and iRGD-PPCD, but glioma spheroid penetration study showed that RGD-PPCD, iRGD-PPCD and iRGD + PPCD penetrated into C6 spheroids with a depth of 115 ?m, 144 ?m and 150 ?m, respectively, indicating that the iRGD-mediated PPCD delivery system had a stronger penetrating ability than the RGD ones. In vivo results also demonstrated the superiority of iRGD system over RGD ones. After systemic administration, iRGD-mediated PPCD increased tumor vascular permeability, decreased tumor vascular density and average vascular diameter. Correspondingly, the iRGD system exhibited stronger penetration ability, higher accumulation in brain tumor. The median survival time of iRGD + PPCD, iRGD-PPCD and RGD-PPCD treatment groups were 61, 57.5 and 43.5 days. The present findings strongly suggested that the iRGD-mediated drug delivery system could significantly improve the efficacy of tumor therapy through enhancing tumor accumulation and penetration as compared to the conventional RGD ones.
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Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging: a new tool for the diagnosis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ARFI imaging in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules <1 cm.
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Establishment of a cell line with stable expression of mCherry-EGFP tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3B for studying the impact of HIV-1 infection on autophagic flux.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Increasing evidence indicates that HIV-1 infection has an impact on cell autophagy, and a susceptible cell line is required for studying the relationship of HIV-1 with autophagy. However, there is limited information on the optimal cell line to evaluate the changes of autophagy affected by HIV infection. In this study cell line TZM-tfLC3B was constructed to express mCherry-EGFP tandem fluorescent tagged LC3B (tfLC3B) by stable transfection of tfLC3B as well as allowing X4/R5 tropic HIV-1 replication. The monitoring of autophagic flux in TZM-tfLC3B was achieved by observing fluorescent puncta. HIV-1 virus-like particles lacking replicative nucleic acid could induce autophagy in TZM-tfLC3B in an envelope glycoprotein dependent manner. These data suggest that TZM-tfLC3B will be a useful tool for studying the HIV-1-induced autophagy modulation of host cells.
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Effective connectivity of the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices relates to working memory impairment in schizophrenic and bipolar patients.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BD) share many overlapping clinical features, confounding the current diagnostic systems. Recent studies suggest the posterior cingulate (PCC) and medial prefrontal (MPFC) cortices that are involved in SZ and BD pathophysiology. However, the roles of PCC and MPFC in providing specific distinctive and shared neural substrates between these two disorders remain largely unknown. Examining the neurophysiologic mechanism of these diseases may help explain the clinical observations and differentiate the two disorders.
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Whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing of gallbladder carcinoma identifies recurrent mutations in the ErbB pathway.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Individuals with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), the most aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract, have a poor prognosis. Here we report the identification of somatic mutations for GBC in 57 tumor-normal pairs through a combination of exome sequencing and ultra-deep sequencing of cancer-related genes. The mutation pattern is defined by a dominant prevalence of C>T mutations at TCN sites. Genes with a significant frequency (false discovery rate (FDR)<0.05) of non-silent mutations include TP53 (47.1%), KRAS (7.8%) and ERBB3 (11.8%). Moreover, ErbB signaling (including EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4 and their downstream genes) is the most extensively mutated pathway, affecting 36.8% (21/57) of the GBC samples. Multivariate analyses further show that cases with ErbB pathway mutations have a worse outcome (P=0.001). These findings provide insight into the somatic mutational landscape in GBC and highlight the key role of the ErbB signaling pathway in GBC pathogenesis.
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Aberrant functional connectivity for diagnosis of major depressive disorder: a discriminant analysis.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Aberrant brain functional connectivity patterns have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). It is unknown whether they can be used in discriminant analysis for diagnosis of MDD. In the present study we examined the efficiency of discriminant analysis of MDD by individualized computer-assisted diagnosis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.