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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Disulfiram modulates stemness and metabolism of brain tumor initiating cells in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are among the most malignant pediatric brain tumors. Cells from brain tumors with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity have a number of characteristics that are similar to brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ALDH inhibition using disulfiram (DSF) against BTICs from AT/RT.
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Structure-Based Design and Development of Functionalized Mercaptoguanine Derivatives as Inhibitors of the Folate Biosynthesis Pathway Enzyme 6-Hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin Pyrophosphokinase from Staphylococcus aureus.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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6-Hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK), an enzyme from the folate biosynthesis pathway, catalyzes the pyrophosphoryl transfer from ATP to 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin and is a yet-to-be-drugged antimicrobial target. Building on our previous discovery that 8-mercaptoguanine (8MG) is an inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus HPPK (SaHPPK), we have identified and characterized the binding of an S8-functionalized derivative (3). X-ray structures of both the SaHPPK/3/cofactor analogue ternary and the SaHPPK/cofactor analogue binary complexes have provided insight into cofactor recognition and key residues that move over 30 Å upon binding of 3, whereas NMR measurements reveal a partially plastic ternary complex active site. Synthesis and binding analysis of a set of analogues of 3 have identified an advanced new lead compound (11) displaying >20-fold higher affinity for SaHPPK than 8MG. A number of these exhibited low micromolar affinity for dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), the adjacent, downstream enzyme to HPPK, and may thus represent promising new leads to bienzyme inhibitors.
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Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the insulin resistance model inbred C57BL/6 mice strain.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Abstract In the present work we undertook the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of an important insulin resistance model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,308?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The mutation events were also reported.
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New 19-oxygenated steroid from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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A new 19-oxygenated steroid, 25-acetate-nebrosteroid K (1), and five known steroids (2-6), along with one known 19-hydroxy steroidal glycoside (7) were obtained from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected from the South China Sea. The structure and relative configuration of 1 were elucidated by using comprehensive spectroscopic data including NOESY spectra. Compound 1 represents the first example of 19-oxygenated steroid with a 19-oic acid methyl ester group isolated from gorgonians. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for lethal activity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and cytotoxicity against A549 and HL-60 cell lines. Among them, 1 showed strong lethality towards A. salina.
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Electroencephalography in pediatric moyamoya disease: reappraisal of clinical value.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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The clinical value of electroencephalography (EEG) in pediatric moyamoya disease has been underestimated, though the characteristic patterns are well known. We undertook this study to evaluate the clinical value of EEG as a diagnostic and postoperative follow-up modality in pediatric moyamoya disease.
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Relationship between expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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To investigate the relationship between expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and expression of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP)-1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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The mitochondrial genome sequence of a diabetes disease Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Abstract We sequenced a diabetic Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain mitochondrial genome for the first time (GenBank Accession No. KM114608). Its mitogenome was 16,311?bp and coding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes. This mitogenome sequence will provide definite genetic information for diabetes disease.
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Involuntary movement in pediatric moyamoya disease patients: consideration of pathogenetic mechanism using neuroimaging studies.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Involuntary movement is a rare symptom of moyamoya disease (MMD). No consensus has been reached regarding its clinical features and pathogenetic mechanism. Therefore, pediatric MMD patients presenting with involuntary movement were retrospectively analyzed, focusing on the image findings.
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Safety and Efficacy of Adalimumab for Patients With Moderate to Severe Crohn's Disease: The Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (TSIBD) Study.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Only moderate to severe Crohn's Disease (CD) patients without a satisfactory conventional therapy effect are eligible to get reimbursement from the National Health Insurance of Taiwan for using adalimumab. These are more stringent criteria than in many Western countries and Japan and Korea. We aim to explore the efficacy of using adalimumab in CD patients under such stringent criteria.
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Clinical outcome of pediatric choroid plexus tumors: retrospective analysis from a single institute.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Choroid plexus tumor is a rare brain tumor with variable clinical features according to the histological grade. We reviewed the treatment outcome of 23 children, focusing on the biological behavior of the atypical choroid plexus papilloma (ACPP) and the current therapeutic strategy in choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC).
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Primary alveolar soft part sarcoma arising from the cerebellopontine angle.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS), a rare soft tissue malignant neoplasm, frequently metastasizes to the brain. However, primary intracranial ASPS is extremely rare. We present a case of primary intracranial ASPS arising from the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) without demonstrable systemic lesions.
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Secondary neurulation of human embryos: morphological changes and the expression of neuronal antigens.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The morphological changes and expression patterns of neuronal antigens of human embryos, obtained from the therapeutic termination of pregnancy or from surgical procedures, were analyzed in order to characterize the secondary neurulation.
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Optimizing methods for the study of intravascular lipid metabolism in zebrafish.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a useful vertebrate model for use in cardiovascular drug discovery. The present study aimed to construct optimized methods for the study of intravascular lipid metabolism of zebrafish. The lipophilic dye, Oil Red O, was used to stain fasting zebrafish one to eight days post-fertilization (dpf) and to stain 7-dpf zebrafish incubated in a breeding system containing 0.1% egg yolk as a high-fat diet (HFD) for 48 h. Three-dpf zebrafish were kept in CholEsteryl boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) 542/563 C11 water for 24 h which indicated the efficiency of CholEsteryl BODIPY 542/563 C11 intravascular cholesterol staining. Subsequently, 7-dpf zebrafish were incubated in water containing the fluorescent probe CholEsteryl BODIPY 542/563 C11 and fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 d. Two groups of 7-dpf zebrafish were incubated in regular breeding water and fed with a regular or HCD containing CholEsteryl BODIPY 542/563 C11 for 10 d. Finally, blood lipids of adult zebrafish fed with regular or HFD for seven weeks were measured. Oil Red O was not detected in the blood vessels of 7-8-dpf zebrafish. Increased intravascular lipid levels were detected in 7-dpf zebrafish incubated in 0.1% egg yolk, indicated by Oil Red O staining. Intravascular cholesterol was efficiently stained in 3-dpf zebrafish incubated in breeding water containing CholEsteryl BODIPY 542/563 C11; however, this method was inappropriate for the calculation of intravascular fluorescence intensity in zebrafish >7?dpf. In spite of this, intra-aortic fluorescence intensity of zebrafish fed a HCD containing CholEsteryl BODIPY 542/563 C11 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of those fed a regular diet containing CholEsteryl BODIPY 542/563 C11. The serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels of adult zebrafish fed a HFD were markedly increased compared to those of the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the use of Oil Red O staining and CholEsteryl BODIPY 542/563 C11 may have applications in zebrafish intravascular lipid metabolism research and screens for novel lipid-regulating drugs.
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Stricter indications are recommended for fenestration surgery in intracranial arachnoid cysts of children.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The indication of surgical treatment for intracranial arachnoid cysts (ACs) is a controversial issue. In this study, we reviewed surgical outcomes of intracranial ACs that were treated with endoscopic fenestration or microscopic fenestration, which are currently standard practices for surgical treatment of AC. In addition, we also evaluated the validity of current surgical indications.
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Phylogenetic Diversity and Antibacterial Activity of Culturable Fungi Derived from the Zoanthid Palythoa haddoni in the South China Sea.
Mar. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Investigation on diversity of culturable fungi mainly focused on sponges and corals, yet little attention had been paid to the fungal communities associated with zoanthid corals. In this study, a total of 193 culturable fungal strains were isolated from the zoanthid Palythoa haddoni collected in the South China Sea, of which 49 independent isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses. Thirty-five strains were selected for phylogenetic analysis based on fungal ITS sequences. The results indicated that 18 genera within eight taxonomic orders of two phyla (seven orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) together with one unidentified fungal strain have been achieved, and Cladosporium sp. represented the dominant culturable genus. Particularly, 14 genera were isolated from a zoanthid for the first time. The antibacterial activities of organic extracts of mycelia and fermentation broth of 49 identified fungi were evaluated, and 29 (59.2 %) of the isolates displayed broad-spectrum or selective antibacterial activity. More interestingly, more than 60 % of the active fungal strains showed strong activity against two aquatic pathogenic bacteria Nocardia brasiliensis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, compared with other pathogenic bacteria, indicating that zoanthid-derived fungi may protect its host against pathogens. This is the first report of systematically phylogenetic diversity and extensively antibacterial activity of zoanthid-derived fungi.
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Overexpression of adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 may predict brain metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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This study was designed to establish a biomarker risk model for predicting brain metastasis (BM) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The model comprises 120 cases of NSCLC that were treated and followed up for 4 years. The patients were divided into the BM (n=50) and non-BM (other visceral metastasis and those without recurrence) (n=70) groups. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses were performed in metastatic tissues of NSCLC. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to correlate the immunoreactive cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) signal with BM. Survival analyses were performed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. CAP1 protein content and immunoreactivity were significantly increased in BM specimens compared to other-metastatic specimens. The survival analysis revealed that CAP1 overexpression was significantly associated with survival (P<0.05). The ROC test suggested that the area under the curve was 73.33% (P<0.001; 95% CI, 63.5-83.2%). When P=0.466, the sensitivity and specificity reached 79.5 and 67.1%, respectively. These findings suggested that CAP1 is involved in the BM of NSCLC, and that elevated levels of CAP1 expression may indicate a poor prognosis for patients with BM. The CAP1 molecular model may be useful in the prediction of the risk of BM in NSCLC.
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Multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages after ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery in infants.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery is the most common treatment for hydrocephalus. In certain situations, uncommon complications can occur after shunting procedures. The authors undertook this study to analyze the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients who developed multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages (MIPHs) as a complication of shunt surgery. The authors also analyzed the risk factors for MIPH in a large cohort of patients with hydrocephalus.
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In vivo evaluation of angiogenic activity and its correlation with efficacy of indirect revascularization surgery in pediatric moyamoya disease.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Indirect revascularization is the most widely used treatment to induce angiogenesis in pediatric moyamoya disease (MMD). Molecular imaging methods targeted for angiogenesis have recently been developed. We performed angiogenesis imaging in indirect revascularization surgery for MMD to evaluate angiogenic activity and its correlation with treatment efficacy.
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Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity masquerading as a brainstem tumor.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Brainstem glioma is a highly devastating disease, and any mass-like lesion in the brainstem can raise suspicion of this diagnosis. However, other inflammatory, demyelinating, or degenerative diseases can mimic brainstem glioma in clinical presentation and imaging features. Therefore, diagnosis based solely on imaging is often insufficient for brainstem lesions and may lead to incorrect diagnosis and treatment. This case report is the first description of central nervous system aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoimmunity confined mainly to the brainstem. It demonstrates the wide spectrum of neuroinflammatory diseases in children and highlights the utility of surgical biopsy for suspicious brainstem lesions with atypical imaging features for glioma.
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Trimeric anthracenes from the endophytic fungus Stemphylium globuliferum.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The first naturally occurring trimeric anthracene derivatives, stemphylanthranols A and B (1 and 2), were obtained from the endophytic fungus Stemphylium globuliferum that had been isolated from Juncus actus growing in Egypt. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously determined by 1D and 2D NMR, and by HRMS. A hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for the new trimers is proposed.
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Delayed posterior circulation insufficiency in pediatric moyamoya disease.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Approximately 30 % of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) have presented with involvement of the posterior circulation, mainly the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Diagnosis of delayed progression of PCA stenosis in MMD may be difficult due to the diversity in clinical features. The goal of this study was to evaluate pediatric MMD patients with delayed PCA involvement after completion of revascularization of the anterior circulation. Forty-one pediatric MMD patients who underwent revascularization of the PCA territory due to delayed posterior circulation insufficiency MMD from 2006 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The average interval between the initial operation and the occipital artery (OA) procedure was 5.0 years. Common symptoms were headaches and transient visual symptoms. The decision to operate was made based on a combination of diagnostic tools. The results obtained with perfusion MRI, SPECT, MR angiography, and EEG supported posterior circulation insufficiency in 78, 41, 73, and 71 % of patients, respectively. Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) using the OA was performed in 15 patients, and 26 patients received multiple burr hole trephination of the occipital area. All patients showed clinical improvement. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of delayed involvement of the PCA in pediatric MMD patients. The clinical decision regarding treatment should be based on a combination of symptomatology and the results obtained with various tools to assess whether the blood flow in the PCA territory is insufficient. Surgical treatment using indirect revascularization appears to be effective for patients with delayed PCA involvement.
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Lumazine peptides penilumamides B-D and the cyclic pentapeptide asperpeptide A from a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Three new lumazine peptides, penilumamides B-D (2-4), and one known analogue, penilumamide (1), together with a new cyclic pentapeptide, asperpeptide A (5), were isolated from the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. XS-20090B15. Among them, 2 was obtained from the feeding culture with l-methionine of this strain. All structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical derivatization. Compounds 1-4 are rare lumazine peptides, of which 1 and 3 are formed from 2 by oxidation of the l-methionine residue.
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Synthesis of caffeic acid amides bearing 2,3,4,5-tetra-hydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxocine moieties and their biological evaluation as antitumor agents.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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A series of caffeic acid amides D1-D17 bearing 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo-[b][1,4]dioxocine units has been synthesized and their biological activities evaluated for potential antiproliferative and EGFR inhibitory activity. Of all the compounds studied, compound D9 showed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50=0.79 ?M for HepG2 and IC50=0.36 ?M for EGFR). The structures of compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. Among all, the structure of compound D9 ((E)-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxocin-8-yl)acrylamide) was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound D9 was found to be a potential antitumor agent according to biological activity, molecular docking, apoptosis assay and inhibition of HepG2.
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Clinical course of vestibular schwannoma in pediatric neurofibromatosis Type 2.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disease, characterized by multiple neoplasia syndromes, including meningioma, schwannoma, glioma, and ependymoma. In this report, the authors present their clinical experience with pediatric NF2 patients. In particular, they focused on the clinical course of vestibular schwannoma (VS), including the natural growth rate, tumor control, and functional hearing outcomes.
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Insights into the asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis in porous organic polymers: constructing a TADDOL-embedded chiral catalyst for studying the structure-activity relationship.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Construction of porous organic polymers (POPs) as asymmetric catalysts remains as an important but challenging task. Herein, we exploit the "bottom-up" strategy to facilely synthesize an ?,?,?',?'-tetraaryl-1,3-dioxolane-4,5-dimethanol (TADDOL)-based chiral porous polymer (TADDOL-CPP) for highly efficient asymmetric catalysis. Constructed through the covalent linkages among the three-dimensional rigid monomers, TADDOL-CPP possesses hierarchical porous structure, high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, together with abundant and uniformly-distributed chiral sites. In the presence of [Ti(OiPr)4], TADDOL-CPP acts as a highly efficient and recyclable catalyst in the asymmetric addition of diethylzinc (Et2Zn) to aromatic aldehydes. Based on the direct observation of the key intermediates, the reaction mechanism has been revealed by solid-state (13)C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. In combination with the catalytic testing results, characterization on the working catalyst provides further information for understanding the structure-activity relationship. We suggest that the catalytic activity of TADDOL-CPP is largely affected by the structural rigidity, cooperative catalysis, local chiral environment, and hierarchical porous framework. We expect that the information obtained herein will benefit to the designed synthesis of robust POP catalysts toward practical applications.
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A Tool to Predict Risk for Gastric Cancer in Patients With Peptic Ulcer Disease on the Basis of a Nationwide Cohort.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Patients with gastric ulcers have significantly higher risk of gastric cancer, especially within 2 years after diagnosis. We used data from a national database to develop a personalized risk prediction model for patients with peptic ulcer diseases.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of metronidazole-thiazole derivatives as antibacterial inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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A series of metronidazole-thiazole derivatives has been designed, synthesized and evaluated as potential antibacterial inhibitors. All the synthesized compounds were determined by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR and MS. They were also tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as for the inhibition to FabH. The results showed that compound 5e exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against E. coli FabH with IC50 of 4.9?M. Molecular modeling simulation studies were performed in order to predict the biological activity of proposed compounds. Toxicity assay of compounds 5a, 5b, 5d, 5e, 5g and 5i showed that they were noncytotoxic against human macrophage. The results revealed that these compounds offered remarkable viability.
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Multi-Enhanced-Phonon Scattering Modes in Ln-Me-A Sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 Ceramics.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Authors reported an effective path to decrease the thermal conductivity while to increase the coefficient of thermal expansion, thus enhancing the thermo-physical properties of the LnMeA11O19-type magnetoplumbite LaMgAl11O19 by simultaneously substituting La(3+), Mg(2+) and Al(3+) ions with large ionic radius Ba(2+), Zn(2+) and Ti(4+), respectively. The mechanism behind the lowered thermal conductivity was mainly due to the multi-enhanced-phonon scattering modes in Ln-Me-A sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 ceramics. These modes involve the following four aspects, namely, point defect mechanism, the intrinsic scattering in the complex crystal cell and materials with stepped surface to localize phonon vibrational modes, as well as nano-platelet-like structure to incorporate additional grain boundary scattering. This study provides novel thoughts for promising candidate materials of even lower thermal conductivity for the next generation thermal barrier coatings.
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Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular docking studies of novel 2-styryl-5-nitroimidazole derivatives containing 1,4-benzodioxan moiety as FAK inhibitors with anticancer activity.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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A series of 2-styryl-5-nitroimidazole derivatives containing 1,4-benzodioxan moiety (3a-3r) has been designed, synthesized and their biological activities were also evaluated as potential antiproliferation and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitors. Among all the compounds, 3p showed the most potent activity in vitro which inhibited the growth of A549 with IC50 value of 3.11 ?M and Hela with IC50 value of 2.54 ?M respectively. Compound 3p also exhibited significant FAK inhibitory activity (IC50=0.45 ?M). Docking simulation was performed for compound 3p into the FAK structure active site to determine the probable binding model.
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Surgical outcome of Chiari I malformation in children: clinico-radiological factors and technical aspects.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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The optimal treatment for Chiari I malformation in children is still under debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcome of the pediatric Chiari I malformation,focusing on clinico-radiological factors and technical aspects.
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Analysis of a bleeding mechanism in patients with the sylvian arachnoid cyst using a finite element model.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The sylvian arachnoid cyst (AC) is a common benign disease; however, it sometimes leads to subdural or intracystic hemorrhage without major trauma. The reason of easy bleeding of the AC is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bleeding mechanism of the sylvian AC in biomechanical aspect and suggest treatment guidelines.
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Volatiles Emitted from Tea Plants Infested by Ectropis obliqua Larvae Are Attractive to Conspecific Moths.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Herbivore-induced plant volatiles have been reported to play a role in the host-searching behavior of herbivores. However, next to nothing is known about the effect of volatiles emitted from tea plants infested by Ectropis obliqua larvae on the behavior of conspecific adults. Here, we found that tea plants infested by E. obliqua caterpillars for 24 h were more attractive to both virgin male and female E. obliqua adults than were intact, uninfested tea plants; moreover, mated female E. obliqua moths were more attracted by infested tea plants and preferentially oviposited on these plants, whereas male moths were repelled by infested plants once they had mated. Volatile analysis revealed that the herbivore infestation dramatically increased the emission of volatiles. Among these volatiles, 17 compounds elicited antennal responses from both male and female virginal moths. Using a Y-tube olfactometer, we found that 3 of the 17 chemicals, benzyl alcohol, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, and (Z)-3-hexenal, were attractive, but two compounds, linalool and benzyl nitril, were repellent to virgin male and female moths. One chemical, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, was attractive only to virgin males. Mated females were attracted by three compounds, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and (Z)-3-hexenal; whereas mated males were repelled by (Z)-3-hexenol. The findings provide new insights into the interaction between tea plants and the herbivores, and may help scientists develop new measures with which to control E. obliqua.
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Potential study perspectives on mechanisms and correlations between adiposity and malignancy.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Adiposity is a well-recognized risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and recently there is increasing evidence that excess body weight is an avoidable cause of cancer, including gastrointestinal, endometrial, esophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal malignancies. The mechanisms whereby adiposity is associated with tumor development remains not well understood. There are some most studied hypothesized mechanisms such as, high levels of insulin and free levels of insulin-like growth factors, sex hormones, adipocytokines, and inflammatory cytokines, adiposity-induced hypoxia, and so on. The potential mechanisms and conclusions in adiposity associated with increased risk for developing malignancy, and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms will be studied very well in the near future.
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Cytogenetic prognostication within medulloblastoma subgroups.
David J H Shih, Paul A Northcott, Marc Remke, Andrey Korshunov, Vijay Ramaswamy, Marcel Kool, Betty Luu, Yuan Yao, Xin Wang, Adrian M Dubuc, Livia Garzia, John Peacock, Stephen C Mack, Xiaochong Wu, Adi Rolider, A Sorana Morrissy, Florence M G Cavalli, David T W Jones, Karel Zitterbart, Claudia C Faria, Ulrich Schüller, Leos Kren, Toshihiro Kumabe, Teiji Tominaga, Young Shin Ra, Miklós Garami, Peter Hauser, Jennifer A Chan, Shenandoah Robinson, László Bognár, Almos Klekner, Ali G Saad, Linda M Liau, Steffen Albrecht, Adam Fontebasso, Giuseppe Cinalli, Pasqualino De Antonellis, Massimo Zollo, Michael K Cooper, Reid C Thompson, Simon Bailey, Janet C Lindsey, Concezio Di Rocco, Luca Massimi, Erna M C Michiels, Stephen W Scherer, Joanna J Phillips, Nalin Gupta, Xing Fan, Karin M Muraszko, Rajeev Vibhakar, Charles G Eberhart, Maryam Fouladi, Boleslaw Lach, Shin Jung, Robert J Wechsler-Reya, Michelle Fèvre-Montange, Anne Jouvet, Nada Jabado, Ian F Pollack, William A Weiss, Ji-Yeoun Lee, Byung-Kyu Cho, Seung-Ki Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, Jeffrey R Leonard, Joshua B Rubin, Carmen de Torres, Cinzia Lavarino, Jaume Mora, Yoon-Jae Cho, Uri Tabori, James M Olson, Amar Gajjar, Roger J Packer, Stefan Rutkowski, Scott L Pomeroy, Pim J French, Nanne K Kloosterhof, Johan M Kros, Erwin G Van Meir, Steven C Clifford, Franck Bourdeaut, Olivier Delattre, François F Doz, Cynthia E Hawkins, David Malkin, Wieslawa A Grajkowska, Marta Perek-Polnik, Eric Bouffet, James T Rutka, Stefan M Pfister, Michael D Taylor.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Current medulloblastoma protocols stratify patients based on clinical features: patient age, metastatic stage, extent of resection, and histologic variant. Stark prognostic and genetic differences among the four subgroups suggest that subgroup-specific molecular biomarkers could improve patient prognostication.
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Mortality and complications of hip fracture in young adults: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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This study assessed the mortality and complications of hip fractures using in-patients aged 20-40 years from a nationwide population database in Taiwan.
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Bioactive 9,11-secosteroids from Gorgonian Subergorgia suberosa collected from the South China sea.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Five new 9,11-secosteroids 1, 2, and 4-6, and seven known analogs, 3 and 7-12, with the same steroid skeleton, (5?H)-3?,6?,11-trihydroxy-9,11-secocholest-7-en-9-one, were isolated from the South China Sea gorgonian Subergorgia suberosa. Among them, 2/3 and 4/5 are C(24)-epimeric mixtures, and 6/7 is an (E)/(Z) mixture of (C(24)?C(28)). Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by using comprehensive spectroscopic methods including NOESY spectra. The absolute configuration of the steroidal nucleus was established by the modified Mosher method applied to 10 and on the basis of a common biogenesis for all of these compounds. All isolated compounds, 1-12, and five synthetic acetylated derivatives, 12a-12e, were evaluated for their cytotoxicities in vitro. Compounds 4/5, 11, 12, and 12b-12d showed cytotoxic activities against K562 cell line with the IC50 values ranging from 1.09 to 8.12??M.
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miRNA expression analysis in cortical dysplasia: regulation of mTOR and LIS1 pathway.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause of epilepsy in children and is characterized by focal regions of malformed cerebral cortex. The pathogenesis and epileptogenesis of CD have not been fully elucidated, and in particular, the potential role of epigenetics has not been examined. miRNA microarray was performed on surgical specimens from CD (n=8) and normal control (n=2) children. A total of 10 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) that were up-regulated in CD were identified including hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-155. The microarray results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. After searching for the putative target genes of the DEmiRs, their biological significance was further evaluated by exploring the pathways in which the genes were enriched. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was the most significantly associated, and the pathway of lissencephaly gene in neuronal migration and development was also noted. This study suggests a possible role for miRNAs in the pathogenesis of CD, especially in relation to the mTOR signaling pathway. Future studies on the epigenetic mechanisms underlying CD pathogenesis and epileptogenesis are needed.
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Design and synthesis of 2-styryl of 5-Nitroimidazole derivatives and antimicrobial activities as FabH inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A series of 2-Styryl-5-Nitroimidazole derivatives (25-48) have been synthesized and their biological activities were also evaluated against two Gram-negative bacterial strains: Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two Gram-positive bacterial strains: Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis as potential FabH inhibitors. All the compounds were structurally determined by (1)H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. E. coli ?-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III inhibitory assay and docking simulation indicated that compound 33 with IC?? of 9.0-36.4 ?g/mL and compound 47 with IC?? of 6.3-34.3 ?g/mL against bacterial strains were most potent inhibitors of E. coli FabH. And more, compounds 33 and 47 which possessed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activities didn't exhibit any toxicity towards macrophage.
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Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: 22 years' experience of 154 patients at a single center.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Large studies by single institutions have been infrequent because of the rarity of the disease and the diversity of clinical manifestations. In this study, the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes were analyzed. Medical records were analyzed retrospectively for the 154 patients diagnosed and treated with LCH at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from January 1986 to December 2007. A total of 154 patients were evaluated. One hundred and six patients (68.8%) had single system disease, 48 patients (31.2%) had multisystem disease. Twenty-nine patients (18.8%) had risk organ involvement. Twenty-nine patients (18.8%) relapsed and the overall survival (OS) of the total study population was 97.1% with a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Patients less than 4 years old, with involvement more than 2 organs and with risk organ involvement showed lower progression free survival (PFS) (P = .001, <.001, and <.001, respectively). Estimated 10-year PFS of patients with and without risk organ involvement were 52.6% and 83.8%, respectively. Patients with single system LCH had excellent prognosis showing 89.6% of PFS and 100% of OS. Patients with multisystem LCH also had a high survival rate, although the incidences of relapse remain to be solved. A new strategy to decrease the incidence of relapse is needed.
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In vivo bioluminescence imaging for prolonged survival of transplanted human neural stem cells using 3D biocompatible scaffold in corticectomized rat model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stem cell-based treatment of traumatic brain injury has been limited in its capacity to bring about complete functional recovery, because of the poor survival rate of the implanted stem cells. It is known that biocompatible biomaterials play a critical role in enhancing survival and proliferation of transplanted stem cells via provision of mechanical support. In this study, we noninvasively monitored in vivo behavior of implanted neural stem cells embedded within poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold, and showed that they survived over prolonged periods in corticectomized rat model. Corticectomized rat models were established by motor-cortex ablation of the rat. F3 cells expressing enhanced firefly luciferase (F3-effLuc) were established through retroviral infection. The F3-effLuc within PLLA was monitored using IVIS-100 imaging system 7 days after corticectomized surgery. F3-effLuc within PLLA robustly adhered, and gradually increased luciferase signals of F3-effLuc within PLLA were detected in a day dependent manner. The implantation of F3-effLuc cells/PLLA complex into corticectomized rats showed longer-lasting luciferase activity than F3-effLuc cells alone. The bioluminescence signals from the PLLA-encapsulated cells were maintained for 14 days, compared with 8 days for the non-encapsulated cells. Immunostaining results revealed expression of the early neuronal marker, Tuj-1, in PLLA-F3-effLuc cells in the motor-cortex-ablated area. We observed noninvasively that the mechanical support by PLLA scaffold increased the survival of implanted neural stem cells in the corticectomized rat. The image-guided approach easily proved that scaffolds could provide supportive effect to implanted cells, increasing their viability in terms of enhancing therapeutic efficacy of stem-cell therapy.
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Prophylactic cranial irradiation may impose a detrimental effect on overall survival of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine the role of brain metastases (BM) and overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by performing a meta-analysis of the RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials) and non-RCTs (non-randomized controlled clinical trials) published in the literature.
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Snail plays an oncogenic role in glioblastoma by promoting epithelial mesenchymal transition.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The factors affecting glioblastoma progression are of great clinical importance since dismal outcomes have been observed for glioblastoma patients. The Snail gene is known to coordinate the regulation of tumor progression in diverse tumors through induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, its role in glioblastoma is still uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to further define its role in vitro.
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Expression of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-I (CRABP-I) in the cerebrospinal fluid of adult onset moyamoya disease and its association with clinical presentation and postoperative haemodynamic change.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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The elevation of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-I (CRABP-I) has been suggested as a candidate in the pathogenesis of paediatric moyamoya disease (MMD). However, few studies have addressed CRABP-I in adult onset MMD. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of CRABP-I in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adult onset MMD, and to evaluate its association with clinical presentation and postoperative haemodynamic change.
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Smooth-muscle progenitor cells isolated from patients with moyamoya disease: novel experimental cell model.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Object Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease affecting bilateral internal carotid termini. Smooth-muscle cells are one of the major cell types involved in this disease process. The characteristics of circulating smooth-muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) in MMD are poorly understood. The authors purified SPCs from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD and sought to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SPCs from these patients. Methods The authors cultured and isolated SPCs from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD (n = 25) and healthy control volunteers (n = 22). After confirmation of the cellular phenotype, RNA was extracted from the cells and DEGs were identified using a commercially available gene chip. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the putative pathogenetic DEGs. Results The SPC-type outgrowth cells in patients with MMD invariably showed a hill-and-valley appearance under microscopic examination, and demonstrated high ?-smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, and calponin expression (96.5% ± 2.1%, 42.8% ± 18.6%, and 87.1% ± 8.2%, respectively), and minimal CD31 expression (less than 1%) on fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. The SPCs in the MMD group tended to make more irregularly arranged and thickened tubules on the tube formation assay. In the SPCs from patients with MMD, 286 genes (124 upregulated and 162 downregulated) were differentially expressed; they were related to cell adhesion, cell migration, immune response, and vascular development. Conclusions With adequate culture conditions, SPCs could be established from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD. These cells showed specific DEGs compared with healthy control volunteers. This study provides a novel experimental cell model for further research of MMD.
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The Evaluation of Rapid Cooling As an Anesthetic Method for the Zebrafish.
Zebrafish
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Abstract As zebrafish became a popular research system in contemporary biomedical research, effective anesthesia, which had low toxicity and high efficacy, was needed. The objective of this article was to evaluate the anesthetic effect of rapid cooling for embryo and larvae zebrafish with ice slush (ice and water admixture). The time to stage 5 anesthesia and maintaining for more than 5?s were detected and compared to MS-222 anesthesia. Besides, the time of recovery from anesthesia, mortality, and the survivability were measured and compared with MS-222 anesthesia. The results showed that anesthesia was generally achieved within 10?s for rapid cooling, which was more rapid than MS-222. The survivability assay demonstrated that rapid cooling was suitable for embryo and larvae zebrafish (1-14 days) and could be used for repeated anesthesia. The most important advantage was that this anesthesia could persist for 10?min and had no mortality. These findings suggested that rapid cooling provided advantages of improved safety, rapid anesthesia, and potentially low mortality rates and could be an effective anesthetic method for scientific research.
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Risk factors for survival after colorectal cancer resection.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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To describe survival rates and prognostic factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) operated in a district general hospital setting with a special focus on the number of lymph nodes examined.
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Double suicide gene therapy using human neural stem cells against glioblastoma: double safety measures.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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With recent advancements in stem cell-based gene therapy, concerns about safety have grown. Stem cell-based gene therapies may pose the risk of immunological problems and oncogenesis. We investigated the feasibility of treating glioblastomas with neural stem cells [(NSCs), HB1.F3 cells] expressing double prodrug enzymes [cytosine deaminase (CD) and tyrosine kinase (TK)] to eliminate the NSCs following treatment for safety purposes. First, the in vitro and in vivo therapeutic efficacies of NSCs engineered with double prodrug enzymes (HB1.F3-CD.TK cells) were compared to cells expressing a single prodrug enzyme (HB1.F3-CD). Second, the degree of safety achieved by NSC elimination was compared with an in vitro viability assay of the NSCs after treatment with the double prodrugs. We further compared the differences in in vivo proliferation of control, single prodrug enzyme and double prodrug enzyme expressing NSCs. HB1.F3-CD.TK cells showed a better or comparable treatment outcome than HB1.F3-CD cells in vitro and in vivo. For safety, HB1.F3-CD.TK cells showed the least viability in vitro after treatment with prodrugs compared to HB1.F3 and HB1.F3-CD cells. Additionally, the in vivo proliferation among the injected NSCs found in the tumor was the smallest for HB1.F3-CD.TK cells. Double-prodrug enzyme-directed gene therapy shows good therapeutic efficacy as well as efficient eradication of the NSCs to ensure safety for clinical applications of stem cell-based gene therapies.
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[Effectiveness of arsenite adsorption by ferric and alum water treatment residuals with different grain sizes].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Effectiveness of arsenite adsorption by ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) with different grain sizes was studied. The results indicated that the content of active Fe and Al, the specific surface area and pore volume in FARs with different grain sizes were in the range of 523.72-1 861.72 mmol x kg(-1), 28.15-265.59 m2 x g(-1) and 0.03-0.09 cm3 x g(-1), respectively. The contents of organic matter, fulvic acid, humic acid and humin were in the range of 46.97-91.58 mg x kg(-1), 0.02-32.27 mg x kg(-1), 22.27-34.09 mg x kg(-1) and 10.76-34.22 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Results of SEM and XRD analysis further demonstrated that FARs with different grain sizes were amorphousness. Batch experiments suggested that both the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations could well describe the kinetics adsorption processes of arsenite by FARs. Moreover, the contents of arsenite absorbed by FARs increased with the increase of arsenite concentrations. The theoretical saturated adsorption capacities calculated from Langmuir isotherm model were in the range of 6.72-21.79 mg x g(-1). Interestingly, pH showed little effect on the arsenite adsorption capability of FARs. The capability of FARs had a close relationship with their physicochemical properties. Correlation analysis showed that the active Fe and Al contents and pore volume had major effects on the arsenite adsorption capability of FARs.
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Apoptosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma T24 cells induced by adenovirus-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transfection.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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To investigate the effects of adenovirus-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transfection on bladder transitional cell carcinoma T24 cells, and to provide novel insights and approaches to clinical therapies against bladder transitional cell carcinoma.
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Exploration of structure-based on imidazole core as antibacterial agents.
Curr Top Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Imidazole, a five-membered heterocycle having three carbon atoms, and two double bonds, having efficient antibacterial Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtili, Bacillus proteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Helicobacter pyloriurease etc, shows a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activities. To Search new antibacterial drugs to overcome resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, to date hundreds of this sort of derivatives have been synthesized and possess potent antibacterial activity. As the structure of imidazole derivatives is various, the target of antibacterial is also diverse including ?-Lactamases, ?-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (FabH), DNA gyrase and topoisomerase, glutamate racemase and urease. In this review, we will discuss the emergence of resistance to antibiotics and attempt to summarize the main developments of imidazole derivatives in the past ten years. We hope that increasing knowledge of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) will be beneficial to the rational design of new generation of small molecule antibacterial drugs.
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Hierarchically porous Co3O4 hollow spheres with tunable pore structure and enhanced catalytic activity.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Co3O4 hollow spheres with two-level hierarchical pores and high surface area are synthesized, and the shell thickness and the mesoporous structure are well-tuned through pre-treatment of the carbon spheres with alkali/acid. Evaluation of the Co3O4 hollow spheres for the combustion of CH4 reveals that they exhibit excellent catalytic activity and durability.
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Postoperative epidural hematoma covering the galeal flap in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease: clinical manifestation, risk factors, and outcomes.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Postoperative epidural hematoma (EDH), a blood collection between the inserted galeal flap and the overlying skull flap (epigaleal flap hematoma), is a frustrating complication of the surgical treatment of moyamoya disease (MMD) in pediatric patients. The symptoms of postoperative EDH are often similar to those of postoperative cerebral ischemia, and may cause confusion during clinical decision making. The authors designed this study to evaluate the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcomes of postoperative EDH in pediatric patients with MMD.
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ID3 contributes to cerebrospinal fluid seeding and poor prognosis in medulloblastoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The inhibitor of differentiation (ID) genes have been implicated as promoters of tumor progression and metastasis in many human cancers. The current study investigated the expression and functional roles of ID genes in seeding and prognosis of medulloblastoma.
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Imaging of integrin ?(V)?(3) expression using (68)Ga-RGD positron emission tomography in pediatric cerebral infarct.
Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Enhanced expression of integrin ?v?3 is commonly used as a biomarker for angiogenesis, which is one of the key pathophysiologic processes in cerebral infarct. Integrin ?v?3 can be imaged with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide agents. In this study, characteristics of positron emission tomography (PET) using a 68Ga-labeled RGD were investigated in pediatric cerebral infarct. Pediatric patients with moyamoya disease underwent 68Ga-RGD PET in a research protocol for neovascularization evaluation. In these patients, 17 cerebral infarct lesions of 10 patients were included in the analysis. On 68Ga-RGD PET, the infarct lesion to contralateral brain ratio (LCR) of the infarct lesion was measured and analyzed with regard to postinfarct time interval (PTI) and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings. An increase in 68Ga-RGD uptake was observed in cerebral infarct, particularly in recent lesions. The LCR was significantly higher in the recent than in the chronic lesions, and a significant correlation existed between the LCR and PTI. Additionally, the LCR was significantly higher in the lesions with hyperperfusion on SPECT. This study, as the first human study using an RGD agent for in vivo cerebral infarct imaging, demonstrated that 68Ga-RGD PET has a potential for molecular imaging of integrin ?v?3 expression in cerebral infarct as a biomarker of angiogenesis.
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Tumor origin and growth pattern at diagnosis and surgical hypothalamic damage predict obesity in pediatric craniopharyngioma.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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Severe obesity is a major problem in pediatric craniopharyngioma. We investigated whether tumor origin, growth pattern, and surgical damage predict obesity in pediatric craniopharyngioma. Subjects were 58 patients (30 males) with no tumor recurrence during the first postoperative 18 months. Preoperative hypothalamic involvement was classified into no (pre_G0, n = 19), little (pre_G1, n = 21), and severe (pre_G2, n = 18) involvement groups based on sub- or supradiaphragmatic tumor origin and growth patterns. Postoperative hypothalamic involvement was classified into no (post_G0, n = 4), minimal (post_G1, n = 19), and significant (post_G2, n = 35) involvement groups according to follow-up imaging. The prevalence of obesity increased from 13.2 % at diagnosis (mean age = 8.1 years) to 37.9 % at last follow-up (mean duration = 9.1 years). Only the body mass index (BMI) Z-score increment of the first postoperative year (first-year ?BMI_Z) was significant (P = 0.007). Both the preoperative BMI_Z (P = 0.001) and the first-year ?BMI_Z (P = 0.017) showed an increasing trend from the pre_G0 to pre_G1 to pre_G2 group. For the 40 patients with pre_G0 or pre_G1, the first-year ?BMI_Z was higher in the post_G2 group than the post_G1 group (0.02 ± 0.91 vs. 0.89 ± 0.72, P = 0.003). Tumor origin and growth pattern affect preoperative BMI_Z and postoperative weight gain. Despite little or no hypothalamic involvement at diagnosis, surgical damage contributes to postoperative weight gain in patients with craniopharyngioma.
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Excess mortality after hip fracture among the elderly in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Osteoporotic hip fractures cause high mortality in the elderly population. However, few population studies reported the long-term mortality of hip fracture among the elderly in Asian population. This study assessed the incidence, excess mortality, and risk factors after osteoporotic hip fractures through inpatients aged 60 years or older. A total of 143,595 patients with hip fracture were selected from Taiwan National Health Insurance database in the years 1999 to 2009 and followed up until the end of 2010. Annual incidence, mortality and SMR, and mortality and SMR at different periods after fracture were measured. From 1999 to 2005, hip fracture incidence gradually increased and then fluctuated after 2006. From 1999 to 2009, the male-to-female ratio of annual incidence increased from 0.60 to 0.66, annual mortality for hip fracture decreased from 18.10% to 13.98%, male-to-female ratio of annual mortality increased from 1.38 to 1.64, and annual SMR decreased from 13.80 to 2.98. Follow-up SMR at one, two, five, and ten years post-fracture was 9.67, 5.28, 3.31, and 2.89, respectively. Females had higher follow-up SMR in the younger age groups (60-69 yr of age) but lower follow-up SMR in the older age groups (over 80 yr of age) compared with males. Among the studied patients, incidence is gradually decreasing along with annual mortality and SMR. Hip fracture affects short-term but not long-term mortality.
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Sulfonamides containing coumarin moieties selectively and potently inhibit carbonic anhydrases II and IX: design, synthesis, inhibitory activity and 3D-QSAR analysis.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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A series of sulfonamides containing coumarin moieties had been prepared that showed a very interesting profile for the inhibition of two human carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. These compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of the physiologically dominant isozymes hCA II and the tumor-associated isozyme hCA IX. The most potent inhibitor against hCA II and IX were compounds 5d (IC?? = 23 nM) and 5l (IC?? = 24 nM), respectively. These sulfonamides containing coumarin moieties may prove interesting lead candidates to target tumor-associated CA isozymes, wherein the CA domain is located extracellularly. Eighteen compounds were scrutinized by CoMFA and CoMSIA techniques of 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship. Nine of the compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human macrophage.
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Tumors in the cerebellopontine angle in children: warning of a high probability of malignancy.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors are uncommon in children, and the pathological spectrum is different from that of adults. In this study, we reviewed the pathological diagnosis of pediatric patients with a CPA tumor to determine the pattern in this age group. In a cohort of 267 patients with posterior fossa tumor, tumor locations were determined with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The pathological diagnosis, imaging characteristic, and treatment outcomes of patients with CPA tumors was reviewed and analyzed. Twenty-six patients (9.7 %) had a tumor in the CPA. The pathological spectrum was wide, from malignant intrinsic brain tumors to benign extra-axial tumors and sarcomatous lesions. Eighteen patients (69 %) had malignant tumors. The pathological nature was strongly linked to patient age. The mean age of malignant tumor group was significantly younger than that of benign tumor group. MRI findings that favored malignant histology included a plastic feature of the tumor, multiple signal voids, encasement of major arteries, widening of lateral recess, focal cerebellar edema, and hydrocephalus. The presence of seeding in the neuraxis also indicated malignant pathology. Especially, increased density on precontrast computed tomography was a strong predictor of malignant pathology. Malignant CPA tumors showed high surgical morbidity rate and grim long-term prognosis. Patient age and tumor location are the two most important clues for the diagnosis of any brain tumor. Unlike in adult patients, clinicians should expect a high probability of malignant histology for pediatric CPA tumors, especially in infants and young children.
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Identification of brain tumour initiating cells using the stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) has been identified in stem cells from both normal and cancerous tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of ALDH as a universal brain tumour initiating cell (BTIC) marker applicable to primary brain tumours and their biological role in maintaining stem cell status. Cells from various primary brain tumours (24paediatric and 6 adult brain tumours) were stained with Aldefluor and sorted by flow cytometry. We investigated the impact of ALDH expression on BTIC characteristics in vitro and on tumourigenic potential in vivo. Primary brain tumours showed universal expression of ALDH, with 0.3-28.9% of the cells in various tumours identified as ALDH(+). The proportion of CD133(+) cells within ALDH(+) is higher than ALDH cells. ALDH(+) cells generate neurospheres with high proliferative potential, express neural stem cell markers and differentiate into multiple nervous system lineages. ALDH(+) cells tend to show high expression of induced pluripotent stem cell-related genes. Notably, targeted knockdown of ALDH1 by shRNA interference in BTICs potently disturbed their self-renewing ability. After 3months, ALDH(+) cells gave rise to tumours in 93% of mice whereas ALDH cells did not. The characteristic pathology of mice brain tumours from ALDH(+) cells was similar to that of human brain tumours, and these cells are highly proliferative in vivo. Our data suggest that primary brain tumours contain distinct subpopulations of cells that have high expression levels of ALDH and BTIC characteristics. ALDH might be a potential therapeutic target applicable to primary brain tumours.
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Gender-specific association of the interleukin 18 gene with symptomatic gallstone disease.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Symptomatic gallstone disease (SGSD) induced several inflammatory responses and affected extrahepatic bile ducts. Although the pathology and environmental risk factors of gallstone disease are well documented, immune or inflammatory responses in SGSD development are still inconclusive. Interleukin 18 (IL18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in immune, infectious, and inflammatory diseases because of the induction of interferon-?. In this study, we investigated whether polymorphisms of the IL18 gene were associated with SGSD susceptibility.
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Potentiating 1-(2-hydroxypropyl)-2-styryl-5-nitroimidazole derivatives against antibacterial agents: design, synthesis and biology analysis.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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A series of novel 1-(2-hydroxypropyl)-2-styryl-5-nitroimidazole derivatives had been designed, synthesized, isolated and evaluated as potentiators of antibacterial agents. All these synthesized compounds were determined by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and MS. Their biological activities were also evaluated against two Gram-negative bacterial strains: Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two Gram-positive bacterial strains: Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis by MTT method as potential FabH inhibitory. The results showed that compound 30 exhibited the most potent E. coli FabH inhibitory activity with IC50 of 4.6 ?M. Molecular modeling simulation studies were performed in order to predict the biological activities of the proposed compounds. All compounds have been tested for toxicity by MTT assay on human macrophage.
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[Characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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Batch tests have been used to investigate the characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant. ICP, SEM and XRD analyses confirm that the FARs enriched in Fe and Al elements and presented amorphism structure. Orthophosphate sorption by the FARs can be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation. Fine adsorption effects of the FARs were found under lower pH values, particularly a 40.13% drop of the adsorptive capacity from pH 4.6 to pH 7.6. The FARs with grain sizes of 0.6-0.9 mm had the highest adsorption capacity of orthophosphate. Experimental data could be better fitted by the isotherm models of Langmuir (R2 = 0.9736) and Freundlich (R2 = 0.9916). The maximal adsorptive capacity reached 45.45 mg x g(-1) estimated from Langmuir isotherm model. Compared with other natural and industrial materials, FARs has relatively higher adsorption capacity. Under similar testing conditions, it was found that only about 10% orthophosphate could be desorbed from the FARs. Further study demonstrated that the mean energy of orthophosphate sorption on the FARs was 13.36 kJ x mol(-1) and the deltaH0 > 0, deltaS0 > 0 and deltaG0 < 0, which indicated that orthophosphate sorption on the FARs was a spontaneously endothermic chemical reaction. It can be therefore highly valued that the FARs may be applied to phosphate removal from wastewater and surface water.
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Association between systemic antipsoriatic drugs and cardiovascular risk in patients with psoriasis with or without psoriatic arthritis: a nationwide cohort study.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Psoriasis is associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Results of prior studies have suggested that methotrexate (MTX) may improve vascular disease in patients with psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of new-onset IHDs in psoriasis patients, comparing those taking MTX with those taking other nonbiologic antipsoriatic drugs.
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Prognostic classification of pediatric medulloblastoma based on chromosome 17p loss, expression of MYCC and MYCN, and Wnt pathway activation.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Pediatric medulloblastoma is considered a highly heterogeneous disease and a new strategy of risk stratification to optimize therapeutic outcomes is required. We aimed to investigate a new risk-stratification approach based on expression profiles of medulloblastoma cohorts. We analyzed gene expression profiles of 30 primary medulloblastomas and detected strong evidence that poor survival outcome was significantly associated with mRNA expression profiles of 17p loss. However, it was not supported in independent cohorts from previously published data (n = 100). We speculated that this discrepancy might come from complex conditions of two important prognostic determinants: loss of tumor suppressors (chromosome 17p) and high expression of oncogenes c-myc (MYCC) or N-myc (MYCN). When patients were stratified into 5 or 7 subgroups based on simultaneous consideration of these 2 factors while defining the Wnt group as independent, obviously different survival expectancies were detected between the subgroups. For instance, predicted 5-year survival probabilities ranged from 19% to 81% in the 5 subgroups. We also found that age became a significant prognostic marker after adjusting for 17p, MYCC, and MYCN status. Diminished survival in age <3 years was more substantial in subgroups with high expression of MYCC, MYCN, or 17p loss but not in other subgroups, indicating that poor survival outcome might be synergistically affected by these 3 factors. Here we suggest a more tailored subgrouping system based on expression profiles of chromosome 17p, MYCC, and MYCN, which could provide the basis for a novel risk-stratification strategy in pediatric medulloblastoma.
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Transplantation of hypoxia preconditioned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells improves survival of ultra-long random skin flap.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Random flap is one kind of the most widely used skin flaps in reconstructive surgery; however, partial necrosis of its distal end remains a significant problem now. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypoxia preconditioned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HpBMSCs) transplantation on ultra-long random skin flap survival in rats.
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Long-term social outcome in children with moyamoya disease who have reached adulthood.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Although the reported surgical outcome is favorable, there is little information regarding the long-term quality of life in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) when they grow to adulthood. The authors conducted a survey to provide details of social adaptation and satisfaction in adults who underwent revascularization surgery for MMD during childhood.
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New bisabolane sesquiterpenoids from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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Three new phenolic bisabolane sesquiterpenoid dimers, disydonols A-C (1-3), and one known compound (S)-(+)-sydonol (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HR-ESI-MS. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 and Caski human tumour cell lines. Among them, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against the two cell lines.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.