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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Association between body mass index and cortical thickness: among elderly cognitively normal men and women.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: There is increasing evidence of a relationship between underweight or obesity and dementia risk. Several studies have investigated the relationship between body weight and brain atrophy, a pathological change preceding dementia, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cortical atrophy among cognitively normal participants. Methods: We recruited cognitively normal participants (n = 1,111) who underwent medical checkups and detailed neurologic screening, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the health screening visits between September 2008 and December 2011. The main outcome was cortical thickness measured using MRI. The number of subjects with five BMI groups in men/women was 9/9, 148/258, 185/128, 149/111, and 64/50 in underweight, normal, overweight, mild obesity, and moderate to severe obesity, respectively. Linear and non-linear relationships between BMI and cortical thickness were examined using multiple linear regression analysis and generalized additive models after adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Among men, underweight participants showed significant cortical thinning in the frontal and temporal regions compared to normal weight participants, while overweight and mildly obese participants had greater cortical thicknesses in the frontal region and the frontal, temporal, and occipital regions, respectively. However, cortical thickness in each brain region was not significantly different in normal weight and moderate to severe obesity groups. Among women, the association between BMI and cortical thickness was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that underweight might be an important risk factor for pathological changes in the brain, while overweight or mild obesity may be inversely associated with cortical atrophy in cognitively normal elderly males.
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Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD). Methods: We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (?9 years). Results: As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
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Comparative and evolutionary analysis of major peanut allergen gene families.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2, and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen-encoding genes, approximately 617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3, and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 Ma and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus, and Arabidopsis, whereas Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen-encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen-encoding genes.
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Genetic analysis of vegetative branching in sorghum.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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We identified quantitative trait loci influencing plant architecture that may be valuable in breeding of optimized genotypes for sustainable food and/or cellulosic biomass production, and advancing resilience to changing climates. We describe a 3-year study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for vegetative branching of sorghum in a recombinant inbred line population of 161 genotypes derived from two morphologically distinct parents, S. bicolor × S. propinquum. We quantify vegetative branching based on morphological position and physiological status. Different sets of QTLs for different levels of branching were identified. QTLs discovered on chromosomes 1, 3, 7 and 8 affect multiple vegetative branching variables, suggesting that these regions may contain genes that control general axillary meristem initiation. Other regions that only influence one vegetative branching trait could contain genes that influence developmental processes contributing to divergent patterns of plant architecture. We investigate the relationship between vegetative branching patterns and dry biomass, and conclude that tillers with mature panicles and immature secondary branches each show consistent positive correlation with dry biomass. Among 19 branching-related genes from rice, eight sorghum homologs of seven rice genes are in syntenic blocks within branching-related QTL likelihood intervals. Five of these eight genes are within 700 kb of SNPs significantly associated with differences in branching in genome-wide association study of a diversity panel of 377 sorghum accessions, and three contain striking allelic variations between S. bicolor and S. propinquum that are likely to impact gene functions. Unraveling genetic determinants for vegetative branching may contribute to deterministic breeding of optimized genotypes for sustainable food and cellulosic biomass production in both optimal and marginal conditions, which are resilient to future climates that are more volatile and more stressful.
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Comparative Analysis of Miscanthus and Saccharum Reveals a Shared Whole-Genome Duplication but Different Evolutionary Fates.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Multiple polyploidizations with divergent consequences in the grass subtribe Saccharinae provide a singular opportunity to study in situ adaptation of a genome to the duplicated state, heretofore known primarily from paleogenomics. We show that allopolyploidy in a common Miscanthus-Saccharum ancestor ?3.8 to 4.6 million years ago closely coincides in time with their divergence from the Sorghum lineage. Subsequent Saccharum-specific autopolyploidy may have created pseudo-paralogous chromosome groups with random pairing within a group but infrequent pairing between groups. High chromosome number may reduce differentiation among Saccharum pseudo-paralogs by increasing opportunities for recombinations, with the lower chromosome numbers of Miscanthus favoring the return to disomic inheritance. The widespread tendency of plant chromosome numbers to recursively return to a narrow range following genome duplication appears to be occurring now in Saccharum spontaneum based on rich polymorphism for chromosome number among genotypes, with past reductions indicated by condensations of two ancestral chromosomes in Miscanthus (now n = 19) and perhaps as many as 10 in the Narenga-Sclerostachya clade (n = 15).
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Building the sugarcane genome for biotechnology and identifying evolutionary trends.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Sugarcane is the source of sugar in all tropical and subtropical countries and is becoming increasingly important for bio-based fuels. However, its large (10 Gb), polyploid, complex genome has hindered genome based breeding efforts. Here we release the largest and most diverse set of sugarcane genome sequences to date, as part of an on-going initiative to provide a sugarcane genomic information resource, with the ultimate goal of producing a gold standard genome.
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Effects of Al substitution and thermal annealing on magnetoelectric Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22 investigated by the enhancement factor of 57Fe nuclear magnetic resonance.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The magnetoelectric properties of hexaferrite Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22 are significantly improved by Al substitution and thermal annealing. Measuring the enhancement factor of 57Fe NMR, we found direct microscopic evidence that the magnetic moments of the L and S blocks are rotated by a magnetic field in such a way as to increase the net magnetic moment of a magnetic unit, even after the field is removed. Al substitution makes magnetoelectric property arise easily by suppressing the easy-plane anisotropy. The effect of thermal annealing is to stabilize the multiferroic state by reducing the number of pinning sites and the electron spin fluctuation. The transverse conic structure gradually changes to the alternating longitudinal conic structure where spins fluctuate more severely.
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Synergistic effects of ischemia and ?-amyloid burden on cognitive decline in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer disease are significant causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between CVD and ?-amyloid burden in living humans or their synergistic effects on cognition. Thus, there is a need for better understanding of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) before clinical deterioration begins.
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SNPhylo: a pipeline to construct a phylogenetic tree from huge SNP data.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Phylogenetic trees are widely used for genetic and evolutionary studies in various organisms. Advanced sequencing technology has dramatically enriched data available for constructing phylogenetic trees based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, massive SNP data makes it difficult to perform reliable analysis, and there has been no ready-to-use pipeline to generate phylogenetic trees from these data.
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Sequencing of transcriptomes from two Miscanthus species reveals functional specificity in rhizomes, and clarifies evolutionary relationships.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Miscanthus is a promising biomass crop for temperate regions. Despite the increasing interest in this plant, limited sequence information has constrained research into its biology, physiology, and breeding. The whole genome transcriptomes of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus presented in this study may provide good resources to understand functional compositions of two important Miscanthus genomes and their evolutionary relationships.
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Shape changes of the basal ganglia and thalamus in Alzheimer's disease: a three-year longitudinal study.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A large number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies have focused on medial temporal and cortical atrophy, while changes in the basal ganglia or thalamus have received less attention.
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Mathematical modeling of HIV prevention measures including pre-exposure prophylaxis on HIV incidence in South Korea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation.
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Air pollution as a risk factor for depressive episode in patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or asthma.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is currently insufficient evidence to confirm the effect of ambient air pollution on mental disorders, especially among susceptible populations. This study investigated the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on the risk of depressive episode and the effect modification across disease subpopulations.
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The repetitive component of the A genome of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its role in remodelling intergenic sequence space since its evolutionary divergence from the B genome.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid (AABB-type genome) of recent origin, with a genome of about 2·8 Gb and a high repetitive content. This study reports an analysis of the repetitive component of the peanut A genome using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from A. duranensis, the most probable A genome donor, and the probable consequences of the activity of these elements since the divergence of the peanut A and B genomes.
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CK2-NCoR signaling cascade promotes prostate tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The aberrant expressions of casein kinase 2 (CK2) was found in prostate cancer patient and cell lines, but little is known of the detailed mechanisms implicated in prostate tumorigenesis. In this study, we report that both CK2 activity and CK2-mediated NCoR phosphorylation are significantly elevated in the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 and PC-3 compared with RWPE1 and LNCaP cells. Increased phosphorylation inversely correlates with the mRNA level of the NCoR-regulated gene, interferon-?-inducible protein 10 (IP-10). CK2 inhibition abrogated NCoR phosphorylation, IP-10 transcriptional repression, and the invasion activity of PC-3 cells. Inhibition of the CK2-NCoR network significantly reduced in vivo PC-3 cell tumorigenicity, likely due to transcriptional derepression of IP-10. Clinicopathological analyses revealed that increased CK2-mediated NCoR phosphorylation significantly correlates with poor survival among prostate cancer patients. These findings elucidate a CK2-modulated oncogenic cascade in prostate tumorigenesis.
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Sea-urchin-like iron oxide nanostructures for water treatment.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To obtain adsorbents with high capacities for removing heavy metals and organic pollutants capable of quick magnetic separation, we fabricated unique sea-urchin-like magnetic iron oxide (mixed ?-Fe2O3/Fe3O4 phase) nanostructures (called u-MFN) with large surface areas (94.1m(2) g(-1)) and strong magnetic properties (57.9 emu g(-1)) using a simple growth process and investigated their potential applications in water treatment. The u-MFN had excellent removal capabilities for the heavy metals As(V) (39.6 mg g(-1)) and Cr(VI) (35.0 mg g(-1)) and the organic pollutant Congo red (109.2 mg g(-1)). The u-MFN also displays excellent adsorption of Congo red after recycling. Because of its high adsorption capacity, fast adsorption rate, and quick magnetic separation from treated water, the u-MFN developed in the present study is expected to be an efficient magnetic adsorbent for heavy metals and organic pollutants in aqueous solutions.
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Effects of APOE ?4 on brain amyloid, lacunar infarcts, and white matter lesions: a study among patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The relationship between the apolipoprotein E ?4 allele (APOE4) and factors associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is unclear. We aimed to examine the effects of APOE4 on brain amyloid beta using Pittsburg compound B (PiB) and subcortical cerebrovascular disease, as assessed by lacunes and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in subcortical VCI (SVCI) patients. We recruited 230 subjects with normal cognition, 111 subjects with cognitive impairment due to clinically defined Alzheimers disease (ADCI), and 134 subjects with clinically defined SVCI. A PiB retention ratio greater than 1.5 was considered to be PiB positive. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether APOE4 increased the risk for each cognitive impairment group. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate whether APOE4 was associated with brain amyloid beta, lacunes, and WMH. APOE4 did not increase the risk of PiB(-) SVCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-2.84), whereas APOE4 increased the risk of PiB(+) SVCI (OR, 4.52; 95% CI, 1.70-11.97) and PiB(+) ADCI (odds ratio, 4.84; 95% CI, 2.54-7.91). In SVCI patients, APOE4 was positively associated with PiB retention ratio, whereas APOE4 was not associated with the number of lacunes or with WMH volume. Our results suggest that amyloid beta burden can occur in patients with and without subcortical cerebrovascular disease, and that it is associated with APOE4. However APOE4 might be independent of subcortical cerebrovascular disease.
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Effects of cerebrovascular disease and amyloid beta burden on cognition in subjects with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and amyloid burden are the most frequent pathologies in subjects with cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between CVD, amyloid burden, and cognition are largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate whether CVD (lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds) and amyloid burden (Pittsburgh compound B [PiB] retention ratio) contribute to cognitive impairment independently or interactively. We recruited 136 patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment who underwent magnetic resonance imaging, PiB-positron emission tomography, and neuropsychological testing. The number of lacunes was associated with memory, frontal dysfunctions, and disease severity. The volume of white matter hyperintensities and the PiB retention ratio were associated only with memory dysfunction. There was no direct correlation between CVD markers and PiB retention ratio except that the number of lacunes was negatively correlated with the PiB retention ratio. In addition, there were no interactive effects of CVD and PiB retention ratio on cognition. Our findings suggest that CVD and amyloid burden contribute independently and not interactively to specific patterns of cognitive dysfunction in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
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Pathogenesis of cerebral microbleeds: In vivo imaging of amyloid and subcortical ischemic small vessel disease in 226 individuals with cognitive impairment.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a neuroimaging marker of small vessel disease (SVD) with relevance for understanding disease mechanisms in cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and normal aging. It is hypothesized that lobar CMBs are due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and deep CMBs are due to subcortical ischemic SVD. We tested this hypothesis using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of subcortical SVD and in vivo imaging of amyloid in patients with cognitive impairment.
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Medical care utilization during 1 year prior to death in suicides motivated by physical illnesses.
J Prev Med Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Many epidemiological studies have suggested that a variety of medical illnesses are associated with suicide. Investigating the time-varying pattern of medical care utilization prior to death in suicides motivated by physical illnesses would be helpful for developing suicide prevention programs for patients with physical illnesses.
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The effects of small vessel disease and amyloid burden on neuropsychiatric symptoms: a study among patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairments.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect the quality of life of patients with dementia and increase the burden on caregivers. We aimed to evaluate how small vessel disease (SVD) such as lacunae or white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and amyloid burden affect NPS. We recruited 127 patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment who were assessed with brain magnetic resonance imaging, Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) positron emission tomography and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). To explore the association between lacunae, WMH, or PiB retention ratio and NPS, we performed multivariate regression analysis after controlling for possible confounders. Each additional lacuna, especially in the frontal region, was associated with higher odds of depression, apathy, aberrant motor behavior, nighttime behavior, appetite changes, and higher score of total NPI; larger WMH volume, especially in the frontal region, was associated with higher odds of apathy and higher score of total NPI. Furthermore, for the effects of lacunae or WMH on total NPI score we set Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes as the mediator. Greater PiB retention ratio was associated with higher odds of delusions and irritability. The SVD and amyloid pathologies did not show interactive effects on NPS. Our findings suggested that SVD and amyloid burden independently affected specific NPS.
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Changes in subcortical structures in early- versus late-onset Alzheimers disease.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Patients with early-onset Alzheimers disease (EOAD) are reported to be different from those with late-onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD) in terms of neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings. In this study, we aimed to compare the longitudinal volume changes of 6 subcortical structures (the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, putamen, globus pallidus, and caudate nucleus) between patients with EOAD and LOAD for 3 years. We prospectively recruited 36 patients with probable Alzheimers disease (14 EOAD, 22 LOAD) and 14 normal control subjects. We analyzed the volume of subcortical structures using an automatic surface-based method. At baseline, there were no differences in the volumes of subcortical structures between patients with EOAD and LOAD. However, over 3 years of longitudinal follow-up, patients with EOAD showed more rapid volumetric decline in the caudate, putamen, and thalamus than patients with LOAD, which is consistent with neuropsychological results. Our findings suggested that the cognitive reserve theory might be applicable to explain different decline rates of the volumes of the basal ganglia and thalamus according to onset age.
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Socioeconomic Burden of Influenza in the Republic of Korea, 2007-2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although the socioeconomic burden of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) was considerable, no reliable estimates have been reported. Our aim was to compared medical costs and socioeconomic burden resulting from pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 with that of previous seasonal influenza.
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Genetic analysis of recombinant inbred lines for Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor × Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor × S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map has DNA marker density well-suited to quantitative trait loci mapping and samples most of the genome, our previous observations that sorghum pericentromeric heterochromatin is recalcitrant to recombination is highlighted by the finding that the vast majority of recombination in sorghum is concentrated in small regions of euchromatin that are distal to most chromosomes. The advancement of the RIL population in an environment to which the S. bicolor parent was well adapted (indeed bred for) but the S. propinquum parent was not largely eliminated an allele for short-day flowering that confounded many other traits, for example, permitting us to map new quantitative trait loci for flowering that previously eluded detection. Additional recombination that has accrued in the development of this RIL population also may have improved resolution of apices of heterozygote excess, accounting for their greater abundance in the F5 than the F2 generation. The S. bicolor × S. propinquum RIL population offers advantages over early-generation populations that will shed new light on genetic, environmental, and physiological/biochemical factors that regulate plant growth and development.
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Bam and Bgcn in Drosophila germline stem cell differentiation.
Vitam. Horm.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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The female Drosophila reproductive organ, the ovary, has provided researchers with an incisive genetic system with which principle regulation of stem cell maintenance and differentiation has been delineated. An environmental niche regulates a stem cells asymmetric self-renewal division that produces a daughter stem cell and a differentiated daughter cell, which further differentiate into eggs. A number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been identified that are required either for stem cell maintenance or differentiation. Bam/Bgcn complex plays a pivotal role in promoting stem cell differentiation. Recent papers suggest that Bam/Bgcn complex regulates translation of important maintenance factors and is also involved in the regulation of microRNA-dependent translational repression. Here, we focus on Bam and Bgcn repression of stem cell maintenance factors in the differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs).
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Particulate air pollution induces arrhythmia via oxidative stress and calcium calmodulin kinase II activation.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase the incidence of arrhythmia. However, the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM is poorly understood. This study investigated the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM. In Sprague-Dawley rats, QT interval was increased from 115.0±14.0 to 142.1±18.4ms (p=0.02) after endotracheal exposure of DEP (200?g/ml for 30min, n=5). Ventricular premature contractions were more frequently observed after DEP exposure (100%) than baseline (20%, p=0.04). These effects were prevented by pretreatment of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 5mmol/L, n=3). In 12 Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, DEP infusion of 12.5?g/ml for 20min prolonged action potential duration (APD) at only left ventricular base increasing apicobasal repolarization gradients. Spontaneous early afterdepolarization (EAD) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were observed in 8 (67%) and 6 (50%) hearts, respectively, versus no spontaneous triggered activity or VT in any hearts before DEP infusion. DEP-induced APD prolongation, EAD and VT were successfully prevented with NAC (5mmol/L, n=5), nifedipine (10?mol/L, n=5), and active Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockade, KN 93 (1?mol/L, n=5), but not by thapsigargin (200nmol/L) plus ryanodine (10?mol/L, n=5) and inactive CaMKII blockade, KN 92 (1?mol/L, n=5). In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, DEP provoked ROS generation in dose dependant manner. DEP (12.5?g/ml) induced apoptosis, and this effect was prevented by NAC and KN 93. Thus, this study shows that in vivo and vitro exposure of PM induced APD prolongation, EAD and ventricular arrhythmia. These effects might be caused by oxidative stress and CaMKII activation.
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Inference of subgenomic origin of BACs in an interspecific hybrid sugarcane cultivar by overlapping oligonucleotide hybridizations.
Genome
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeders in the early 20th century made remarkable progress in increasing yield and disease resistance by crossing Saccharum spontaneum L., a wild relative, to Saccharum officinarum L., a traditional cultivar. Modern sugarcane cultivars have approximately 71%-83% of their chromosomes originating from S. officinarum, approximately 10%-21% from S. spontaneum, and approximately 2%-13% recombinant or translocated chromosomes. In the present work, C(0)t-based cloning and sequencing (CBCS) was implemented to further explore highly repetitive DNA and to seek species-specific repeated DNA in both S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. For putatively species-specific sequences, overlappping oligonucleotide probes (overgos) were designed and hybridized to BAC filters from the interspecific hybrid sugarcane cultivar R570 to try to deduce parental origins of BAC clones. We inferred that 12?967 BACs putatively originated from S. officinarum and 5117 BACs from S. spontaneum. Another 1103 BACs were hybridized by both species-specific overgos, too many to account for by conventional recombination, thus suggesting ectopic recombination and (or) translocation of DNA elements. Constructing a low C(0)t library is useful to collect highly repeated DNA sequences and to search for potentially species-specific molecular markers, especially among recently diverged species. Even in the absence of repeat families that are species-specific in their entirety, the identification of localized variations within consensus sequences, coupled with the site specificity of short synthetic overgos, permits researchers to monitor species-specific or species-enriched variants.
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Association between body mass index and asthma symptoms among Korean children: a nation-wide study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of wheeze using nation-wide cross-sectional study in Korean children. Total 50,200 children from 427 elementary schools were randomly selected according to residential areas (metropolitan, provincial, rural, and industrial areas) by the cluster sampling method. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaires were used to measure the prevalence of wheeze. Among 31,026 respondents, 25,322 were analyzed. BMI was classified into quartiles based on BMI-for-age percentile. In all residential areas, pets at home and visible mold or moisture were associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze in both genders. However, other living environment factors were not consistently associated among residential areas and gender. Among girls, lowest BMI was negatively associated with prevalence of wheeze and highest BMI was positively associated in all residential areas. In multilevel logistic regression analysis, environmental tobacco smoking exposure, pets at home, visible mold or moisture, and being in the lowest and highest BMI quartile were significantly associated with the prevalence of wheeze in both genders. BMI has become an important risk factor for asthma symptoms among Korean children.
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Comparative analysis of peanut NBS-LRR gene clusters suggests evolutionary innovation among duplicated domains and erosion of gene microsynteny.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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• Plant genomes contain numerous disease resistance genes (R genes) that play roles in defense against pathogens. Scarcity of genetic polymorphism makes peanut (Arachis hypogaea) especially vulnerable to a wide variety of pathogens. • Here, we isolated and characterized peanut bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing a high density of R genes. Analysis of two genomic regions identified several TIR-NBS-LRR (Toll-interleukin-1 receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat) resistance gene analogs or gene fragments. We reconstructed their evolutionary history characterized by tandem duplications, possibly facilitated by transposon activities. We found evidence of both intergenic and intragenic gene conversions and unequal crossing-over, which may be driving forces underlying the functional evolution of resistance. • Analysis of the sequence mutations, protein secondary structure and three-dimensional structures, all suggest that LRR domains are the primary contributor to the evolution of resistance genes. The central part of LRR regions, assumed to serve as the active core, may play a key role in the resistance function by having higher rates of duplication and DNA conversion than neighboring regions. The assumed active core is characterized by significantly enriched leucine residue composition, accumulation of positively selected sites, and shorter beta sheets. • Homologous resistance gene analog (RGA)-containing regions in peanut, soybean, Medicago, Arabidopsis and grape have only limited gene synteny and microcollinearity.
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Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine in Plasmodium vivax and the pvmdr1 polymorphisms in the Republic of Korea under mass chemoprophylaxis.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Chemoprophylaxis with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and primaquine has been used in the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army since 1997. It may facilitate the development of chloroquine (CQ)-resistant strains of Plasmodium vivax. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of HCQ and the pvmdr1 gene polymorphisms in P. vivax. From June to September 2006, 102 soldiers with vivax malaria near the demilitarized zone in Gyeonggi-do, ROK, were enrolled in the study. We determined the status of compliance of chemoprophylaxis. In 85 patients, therapeutic efficacy was monitored 28 days after standard HCQ treatment; 66 (64.7%) of 102 malaria patients had taken all chemoprolaxis with HCQ. In all patients enrolled in the therapeutic efficacy monitoring, parasitemia had not been observed since 3 days after standard HCQ treatment. However, the ubiquitous presence of the F1076L mutation of the pvmdr1 was observed. There was no evidence that the F1076L mutation of pvmdr1 could contribute to failure of HCQ treatment.
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Prevalence of allergic diseases among Korean school-age children: a nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the nationwide prevalence of childhood asthma, eczema and other allergic diseases in Korean school-age children (8-11 yr old) and to assess the difference between residential areas. Among 6,279 elementary schools, 427 schools were randomly selected according to residential area (metropolitan, provincial, rural, and industrial area) by the cluster sampling method. Parents of students completed a modified Korean version of a questionnaire formulated by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Among 50,200 subjects, 31,026 (61.8%) responded, and 30,893 (99.6%) were analyzed. The 12-month prevalence of wheeze, flexural rash, and allergic rhinitis symptoms were 4.8%, 15.3%, and 32.9%, respectively. The prevalence of diagnosis of allergic diseases in boys was higher than that in girls, with the exception of eczema. In both boys and girls, the difference of the prevalence of allergic diseases among industrial, metropolitan and provincial areas was not statistically significant, but the differences between rural area and other areas were significant. Our results support the importance of contextual effect associated with residential area as causative agents of allergic diseases among Korean school-age children.
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Adiponectin and progression of arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Recent studies suggest that adiposity is associated with arterial stiffness. However, it is unclear which adipokine or what adiposity related parameters are related with the progression of arterial stiffness. We hypothesized that in hypertensive patients, initial levels of adipokines such as adiponectin and resistin are related to the progression of arterial stiffness, which has been proven to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events.
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Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period.
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A draft physical map of a D-genome cotton species (Gossypium raimondii).
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing.
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Automatic Initialization Active Contour Model for the Segmentation of the Chest Wall on Chest CT.
Healthc Inform Res
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Snake or active contours are extensively used in computer vision and medical image processing applications, and particularly to locate object boundaries. Yet problems associated with initialization and the poor convergence to boundary concavities have limited their utility. The new method of external force for active contours, which is called gradient vector flow (GVF), was recently introduced to address the problems.
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Evaluation of new hemagglutinin-based rapid antigen test for influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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A new rapid antigen test (RAT), based on hemagglutinin, was developed for the improvement of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 detection.
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Direct inhibition of Pumilo activity by Bam and Bgcn in Drosophila germ line stem cell differentiation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2009
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The fate of stem cells is intricately regulated by numerous extrinsic and intrinsic factors that promote maintenance or differentiation. The RNA-binding translational repressor Pumilio (Pum) in conjunction with Nanos (Nos) is required for self-renewal, whereas Bam (bag-of-marbles) and Bgcn (benign gonial cell neoplasm) promote differentiation of germ line stem cells in the Drosophila ovary. Genetic analysis suggests that Bam and Bgcn antagonize Pum/Nos function to promote differentiation; however, the molecular basis of this epistatic relationship is currently unknown. Here, we show that Bam and Bgcn inhibit Pum function through direct binding. We identified a ternary complex involving Bam, Bgcn, and Pum in which Bam, but not Bgcn, directly interacts with Pum, and this interaction is greatly increased by the presence of Bgcn. In a heterologous reporter assay to monitor Pum activity, Bam, but not Bgcn, inhibits Pum activity. Notably, the N-terminal region of Pum, which lacks the C-terminal RNA-binding Puf domain, mediates both the ternary protein interaction and the Bam inhibition of Pum function. These studies suggest that, in cystoblasts, Bam and Bgcn may directly inhibit Pum/Nos activity to promote differentiation of germ line stem cells.
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Biological resistance of hydroxychloroquine for Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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The Republic of Korea (ROK) Army instituted a vivax malaria chemoprophylaxis program (hydroxychloroquine [HCQ] 400 mg per week) in 1997 that was expanded to nearly 200,000 soldiers by 2007, raising concerns for the emergence of drug-resistant vivax malaria. Therefore, a study of whole blood HCQ concentrations for all malaria patients admitted to four ROK Army hospitals was conducted from June through September 2007. For all 142 vivax malaria patients enrolled, fevers returned to normal by Day 3 post-treatment and all thin blood films were negative for parasites by Day 7. Pre-treatment whole blood concentrations of HCQ for 14 patients were > 100 ng/mL. Eight of the patients were enrolled in the ROK Army chemoprophylaxis program that reported taking HCQ as directed, with the last pill taken > or = 4 days before diagnosis. Although there was no evidence of clinical resistance, chemoprophylaxis data indicates the biological resistance or tolerance to HCQ in ROK.
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Recurrence rate of vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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In the Republic of Korea (ROK), military antimalarial chemoprophylaxis was initiated in 1997. Although chemoprophylaxis reduces malaria cases, long-term chemoprophylaxis could increase resistance. In this study, the recurrence rate of vivax malaria was investigated. All vivax malaria cases that occurred before 31 December 2003 among soldiers and veterans who entered the ROK army between 1 January 1998 and 28 February 2001 were reviewed. Of the 3881 reported cases (2375 soldiers and 1506 veterans), 62 (1.6%) experienced a second attack and 2 (0.05%) experienced a third attack. Fifteen cases (24.2%) recurred < or =60 days and 43 cases (69.4%) recurred >180 days after the start of initial treatment. Most of the second attacks (54/62) were exposed to malaria risk after initial treatment. Among 1506 veterans, 5 (0.3%) recurred and they had not been exposed to malaria risk after retirement; 1 recurred 43 days and 4 recurred >180 days after the start of initial treatment. All recurring cases were completely cured using the same dosage and regimen used for the first or second treatments. In conclusion, few cases of vivax malaria recurred after standard treatment. It is suggested that recurrences of vivax malaria are effectively prevented by the current treatment regimen and dosage.
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Functional dissection of drought-responsive gene expression patterns in Cynodon dactylon L.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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Water deficit is one of the main abiotic factors that affect plant productivity in subtropical regions. To identify genes induced during the water stress response in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), cDNA macroarrays were used. The macroarray analysis identified 189 drought-responsive candidate genes from C. dactylon, of which 120 were up-regulated and 69 were down-regulated. The candidate genes were classified into seven groups by cluster analysis of expression levels across two intensities and three durations of imposed stress. Annotation using BLASTX suggested that up-regulated genes may be involved in proline biosynthesis, signal transduction pathways, protein repair systems, and removal of toxins, while down-regulated genes were mostly related to basic plant metabolism such as photosynthesis and glycolysis. The functional classification of gene ontology (GO) was consistent with the BLASTX results, also suggesting some crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress. Comparative analysis of cis-regulatory elements from the candidate genes implicated specific elements in drought response in Bermudagrass. Although only a subset of genes was studied, Bermudagrass shared many drought-responsive genes and cis-regulatory elements with other botanical models, supporting a strategy of cross-taxon application of drought-responsive genes, regulatory cues, and physiological-genetic information.
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A genome-wide BAC end-sequence survey of sugarcane elucidates genome composition, and identifies BACs covering much of the euchromatin.
Plant Mol. Biol.
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BAC-end sequences (BESs) of hybrid sugarcane cultivar R570 are presented. A total of 66,990 informative BESs were obtained from 43,874 BAC clones. Similarity search using a variety of public databases revealed that 13.5 and 42.8 % of BESs match known gene-coding and repeat regions, respectively. That 11.7 % of BESs are still unmatched to any nucleotide sequences in the current public databases despite the fact that a close relative, sorghum, is fully sequenced, indicates that there may be many sugarcane-specific or lineage-specific sequences. We found 1,742 simple sequence repeat motifs in 1,585 BESs, spanning 27,383 bp in length. As simple sequence repeat markers derived from BESs have some advantages over randomly generated markers, these may be particularly useful for comparing BAC-based physical maps with genetic maps. BES and overgo hybridization information was used for anchoring sugarcane BAC clones to the sorghum genome sequence. While sorghum and sugarcane have extensive similarity in terms of genomic structure, only 2,789 BACs (6.4 %) could be confidently anchored to the sorghum genome at the stringent threshold of having both-end information (BESs or overgos) within 300 Kb. This relatively low rate of anchoring may have been caused in part by small- or large-scale genomic rearrangements in the Saccharum genus after two rounds of whole genome duplication since its divergence from the sorghum lineage about 7.8 million years ago. Limiting consideration to only low-copy matches, 1,245 BACs were placed to 1,503 locations, covering ~198 Mb of the sorghum genome or about 78 % of the estimated 252 Mb of euchromatin. BESs and their analyses presented here may provide an early profile of the sugarcane genome as well as a basis for BAC-by-BAC sequencing of much of the basic gene set of sugarcane.
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Age and gender differences in medical care utilization prior to suicide.
J Affect Disord
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Analysis of temporal patterns of medical care utilization prior to suicide may aid in developing suicide prevention programs. The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender differences in temporal patterns of medical care utilization during 1 year prior to suicide.
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Negative regulation of EGFR/MAPK pathway by Pumilio in Drosophila melanogaster.
PLoS ONE
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In Drosophila melanogaster, specification of wing vein cells and sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells, which later give rise to a bristle, requires EGFR signaling. Here, we show that Pumilio (Pum), an RNA-binding translational repressor, negatively regulates EGFR signaling in wing vein and bristle development. We observed that loss of Pum function yielded extra wing veins and additional bristles. Conversely, overexpression of Pum eliminated wing veins and bristles. Heterozygotes for Pum produced no phenotype on their own, but greatly enhanced phenotypes caused by the enhancement of EGFR signaling. Conversely, over-expression of Pum suppressed the effects of ectopic EGFR signaling. Components of the EGFR signaling pathway are encoded by mRNAs that have Nanos Response Element (NRE)-like sequences in their 3UTRs; NREs are known to bind Pum to confer regulation in other mRNAs. We show that these NRE-like sequences bind Pum and confer repression on a luciferase reporter in heterologous cells. Taken together, our evidence suggests that Pum functions as a negative regulator of EGFR signaling by directly targeting components of the pathway in Drosophila.
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Neuropathogenic role of adenylate kinase-1 in A?-mediated tau phosphorylation via AMPK and GSK3?.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
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Abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau is often caused by tau kinases, such as GSK3? and Cdk5. Such occurrence leads to neurofibrillary tangle formation and neuronal degeneration in tauopathy, including Alzheimers disease (AD). However, little is known about the signaling cascade underlying the pathologic phosphorylation of tau by A?(42). In this study, we show that adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) is a novel regulator of abnormal tau phosphorylation. AK1 expression is markedly increased in the brains of AD patients and AD model mice and is significantly induced by A?(42) in the primary neurons. Ectopic expression of AK1 alone augments the pathologic phosphorylation of tau at PHF1, CP13 and AT180 epitopes and enhances the formation of tau aggregates. Inversely, downregulation of AK1 alleviates A?(42)-induced hyperphosphorylation of tau. AK1 plays a role in A?(42)-induced impairment of AMPK activity and GSK3? activation in the primary neurons. Pharmacologic studies show that treatment with an AMPK inhibitor activates GSK3?, and a GSK3? inhibitor attenuates AK1-mediated tau phosphorylation. In a Drosophila model of human tauopathy, the retinal expression of human AK1 severely exacerbates rough eye phenotype and increases abnormal tau phosphorylation. Further, neural expression of AK1 reduces the lifespan of tau transgenic files. Taken together, these observations indicate that the neuronal expression of AK1 is induced by A?(42) to increase abnormal tau phosphorylation via AMPK-GSK3? and contributes to tau-mediated neurodegeneration, providing a new upstream modulator of GSK3? in the pathologic phosphorylation of tau.
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Study on the initial velocity distribution of exhaled air from coughing and speaking.
Chemosphere
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Increasing concerns about the spread of airborne pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) have attracted public attention to bioaerosols and protection against them. The airborne pathogens are likely to be expelled from coughing or speaking, so the physical data of the exhaled particles plays a key role in analyzing the pathway of airborne viruses. The objective of this study was to analyze the initial velocity and the angle of the exhaled airflow from coughing and speaking of 17 males and 9 females using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and acrylic indoor chamber. The results showed that the average initial coughing velocity was 15.3 m/s for the males and 10.6 m/s for the females, while the average initial speaking velocity was 4.07 m/s and 2.31 m/s respectively. The angle of the exhaled air from coughing was around 38° for the males and 32° for the females, while that of the exhaled air from speaking was around 49° and 78° respectively. Also, the linear relation between the tested subjects height and their coughing and speaking velocity was shown in this study.
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SSR-based genetic maps of Miscanthus sinensis and M. sacchariflorus, and their comparison to sorghum.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
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We present SSR-based genetic maps from a cross between Miscanthus sacchariflorus Robustus and M. sinensis, the progenitors of the promising cellulosic biofuel feedstock Miscanthus × giganteus. cDNA-derived SSR markers were mapped by the two-way pseudo-testcross model due to the high heterozygosity of each parental species. A total of 261 loci were mapped in M. sacchariflorus, spanning 40 linkage groups and 1,998.8 cM, covering an estimated 72.7% of the genome. For M. sinensis, a total of 303 loci were mapped, forming 23 linkage groups and 2,238.3 cM, covering 84.9% of the genome. The use of cDNA-derived SSR loci permitted alignment of the Miscanthus linkage groups to the sorghum chromosomes, revealing a whole genome duplication affecting the Miscanthus lineage after the divergence of subtribes Sorghinae and Saccharinae, as well as traces of the pan-cereal whole genome duplication. While the present maps provide for many early research needs in this emerging crop, additional markers are also needed to improve map density and to further characterize the structural changes of the Miscanthus genome since its divergence from sorghum and Saccharum.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.