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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lipidomics applications for discovering biomarkers of diseases in clinical chemistry.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Lipids are the fundamental components of biological membranes as well as the metabolites of organisms. Lipids play diverse and important roles in biologicals. The lipid imbalance is closely associated with numerous human lifestyle-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Lipidomics or lipid profiling is a system-based study of all lipids aiming at comprehensive analysis of lipids in the biological system. Lipidomics has been accepted as a lipid-related research tool in lipid biochemistry, clinical biomarker discovery, disease diagnosis, and in understanding disease pathology. Lipidomics will not only provide insights into the specific functions of lipid species in health and disease, but will also identify potential biomarkers for establishing preventive or therapeutic programs for human diseases. This review presents an overview of lipidomics followed by in-depth discussion of its application to the study of human diseases, including extraction methods of lipids, analytical technologies, data analysis, and clinical research in cancer, neuropsychiatric disease, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and respiratory disease. We describe the current status of the identification of metabolic biomarkers in different diseases. We also discuss the lipidomics for the future perspectives and their potential problems. The application of lipidomics in clinical studies may provide new insights into lipid profiling and pathophysiological mechanisms.
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Metabolomics in dyslipidemia.
Adv Clin Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Hyperlipidemia is an important public health problem with increased incidence and prevalence worldwide. Current clinical biomarkers, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol lack the necessary specificity and sensitivity and only increase significantly after serious dyslipidemia. Therefore, sensitive biomarkers are needed for hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia-specific biomarkers would improve clinical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment at early disease stages. The aim of metabolomics is to identify untargeted and global small-molecule metabolite profiles from cells, biofluids, and tissues. This method offers the potential for a holistic approach to improve disease diagnoses and our understanding of underlying pathologic mechanisms. This review summarizes analytical techniques, data collection and analysis for metabolomics, and metabolomics in hyperlipidemia animal models and clinical studies. Mechanisms of hypolipemia and antilipemic drug therapy are also discussed. Metabolomics provides a new opportunity to gain insight into metabolic profiling and pathophysiologic mechanisms of hyperlipidemia.
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A controlled pilot trial of two commercial video games for rehabilitation of arm function after stroke.
Clin Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To investigate the acceptability and potential efficacy of two commercial video games for improving upper extremity function after stroke in order to inform future sample size and study design.
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Four-dimensional key design in amplitude, phase, polarization and distance for optical encryption based on polarization digital holography and QR code.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We demonstrate that all parameters of optical lightwave can be simultaneously designed as keys in security system. This multi-dimensional property of key can significantly enlarge the key space and further enhance the security level of the system. The single-shot off-axis digital holography with orthogonal polarized reference waves is employed to perform polarization state recording on object wave. Two pieces of polarization holograms are calculated and fabricated to be arranged in reference arms to generate random amplitude and phase distribution respectively. When reconstruction, original information which is represented with QR code can be retrieved using Fresnel diffraction with decryption keys and read out noise-free. Numerical simulation results for this cryptosystem are presented. An analysis on the key sensitivity and fault tolerance properties are also provided.
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[Study of effect of tongsaimai tablets on experimental diabetic foot model rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To observe the effect of Tongsaimai (TSM) tablets in treating foot trauma of diabetic foot (DF) model rats, and discuss its potential mechanism.
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Upregulated expression of human alpha-defensins 1, 2 and 3 in hypercholesteremia and its relationship with serum lipid levels.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Human alpha-defensins are natural antimicrobial peptides of neutrophils evolved in host defense reactions and circulating nonstressed alpha-defensins may be associated with serum lipid levels. The aim of this work was to examine whether the expression of alpha-defensins 1, 2 and 3 genes are changed and whether this changes are reversed following treatment in patients with hypercholesteremia. A total of 40 individuals of hypercholesteremia group were studied, compared with 40 individuals of normal control group. Protein levels and gene expression levels of alpha-defensins 1, 2 and 3 were significantly higher in patients with hypercholesteremia compared with subjects in normal control group. In patients with hypercholesteremia, protein levels of alpha-defensins 1, 2 and 3 correlated positively with the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Protein levels and gene expression levels of alpha-defensins 1, 2 and 3 were decreased significantly after a treatment with atorvastatin calcium 20mg daily compared with the patients before the treatment. Our results suggest that the expression of alpha-defensins 1, 2 and 3 genes is involved in dyslipidemia in patients with hypercholesteremia.
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Enhanced Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia by Micellar Magnetic Nanoclusters Composed of MnxZn1-xFe2O4 Nanoparticles for Induced Tumor Cell Apoptosis.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Monodispersed MnxZn1-xFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles of 8 nm are synthesized and encapsulated in amphiphilic block copolymer for development of the hydrophilic magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs). These MNCs exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics, high specific absorption rate (SAR), large saturation magnetization (Ms), excellent stability, and good biocompatibility. MnFe2O4 and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 are selected as optimum compositions for the MNCs (MnFe2O4/MNC and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/MNC) and employed for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) in vitro. To ensure biosafety of MFH, the parameters of alternating magnetic field (AMF) and exposure time are optimized with low frequency, f, and strength of applied magnetic field, Happlied. Under optimized conditions, MFH of MnFe2O4/MNC and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/MNC result in cancer cell death rate up to 90% within 15 min. The pathway of cancer cell death is identified as apoptosis, which occurs in mild hyperthermia near 43 °C. Both MnFe2O4/MNC and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/MNC show similar efficiencies on drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells. On the basis of these findings, those MnxZn1-xFe2O4 nanoclusters can serve as a promising candidate for effective targeting, diagnosis, and therapy of cancers. The multimodal cancer treatment is also possible as amphiphilic block copolymer can encapsulate, in a similar fashion, different nanoparticles, hydrophobic drugs, and other functional molecules.
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Enhanced synergism of thermo-chemotherapy by combining highly efficient magnetic hyperthermia with magnetothermally-facilitated drug release.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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A magnetothermally-responsive nanocarrier was developed for efficient thermo-chemotherapy by combining efficient magnetic hyperthermia (MH) and magnetothermally-facilitated drug release. The effective magnetothermal-response contributed to high enhancement of tumor cell killing by an operating mechanism involving MH-facilitated cellular uptake and Heat Shock Protein over-expression.
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Health Empowerment Among Immigrant Women in Transnational Marriages in Taiwan.
J Nurs Scholarsh
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a theory-based intervention designed to promote increased health empowerment for marriage migrant women in Taiwan. The rapid increase of international marriage immigration through matchmaking agencies has received great attention recently because of its impact on social and public health issues in the receiving countries.
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Contamination of commercially available seafood by key diarrhetic shellfish poisons along the coast of China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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With the increasing number of outbreaks of food-borne diseases caused by okadaic acid (OA) and its analogue dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), two key diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) toxins, OA and DTX-1, have become a serious threat to public health and have attracted significant public attention in China. The aim of our study was to monitor OA and DTX-1 contamination in commercially available seafood and to provide references for tracking these toxins and preventing disease outbreaks. From 2010 to 2012, 40 species were collected from six coastal cities of four inland seas in China. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFIC) test strip were used to analyse the samples, and the results were further confirmed using a commercially available ELISA kit. The monitoring results indicated that 23 of 40 species were positive for contamination. In addition, 14 of the positive species were determined to be inedible because the content of OA and DTX-1 was above the regulatory limit. Simultaneously, we verified that the digestive glands of shellfish tended to accumulate toxin, in contrast to the flesh. The highest concentrations of OA and DTX-1 were recorded in Scapharca broughtonii, which was collected from Qing Dao, in relation to the other analysed species. Moreover, the Arca family as well as Mytilus galloprovincialis were severely contaminated by OA and its analogue. The above results indicate that some of the commercially available seafood from the coastal cities in China may be inedible due to serious marine toxin contamination. The results of this study might play an important role in protecting consumer health and safety screening of marine products.
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[Effect of compound qingqin liquid on the expression levels of ang II and COX-2 mRNA transcription and protein expression in the renal tissue of uric acid nephropathy rats: an experimental study].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To investigate the effect of Compound Qingqin Liquid (CQL) on the expression level of angiotensin II (Ang II) and COX-2 mRNA transcription and protein expression in the renal tissue of rats with uric acid nephropathy.
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Asymmetric information hiding and noise-free recovery based on rotating analyzer ellipsometry and quick-response code.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We report an asymmetric optical information hiding method based on a rotating analyzer ellipsometry technique. This asymmetric hiding architecture not only avoids the interception of keys during transmission or distribution but also makes the cyphertext more inconspicuous for attackers. A new kind of one-way optical trapdoor function is constructed based on the fact that the state of polarization (SOP) of elliptical polarized light cannot be recovered with only the knowledge of intensity captured after passing through a linear polarizer. Meanwhile, the SOP of a polarization ellipse could be calculated by rotating the polarizer to record two scenes of intensity after it. Introduction of a quick response code as a container leads to noise-free recovery for original information and enhances practicality of the proposed cryptosystem with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance capability. Numerical simulation results that support theoretical analysis are presented. Analysis on the relationship between hiding effect or quality of decryption and parameters of the algorithm also is provided.
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[Effect of compound qingqin liquid on the expression of toll-like receptor in the renal tissue of rats with urate nephropathy].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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To investigate the effect of compound qingqin liquid (CQL) on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in rats with urate nephropathy, and to explore its renal protection mechanism.
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Optical asymmetric cryptography based on elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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We demonstrate a novel optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on the principle of elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique. The device of an array of linear polarizers is introduced to achieve linear truncation on the spatially resolved elliptical polarization distribution during image encryption. This encoding process can be characterized as confusion-based optical cryptography that involves no Fourier lens and diffusion operation. Based on the Jones matrix formalism, the intensity transmittance for this truncation is deduced to perform elliptical polarized light reconstruction based on two intensity measurements. Use of a quick response code makes the proposed cryptosystem practical, with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance. Both simulation and preliminary experimental results that support theoretical analysis are presented. An analysis of the resistance of the proposed method on a known public key attack is also provided.
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Hyperplastic polyps identified during screening endoscopy: reevaluated by histological examinations and genetic alterations.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Screening colonoscopy is one of the most effective methods to detect and prevent colorectal cancer by removing neoplastic polyps. The recent discovery of serrated polyps with neoplastic potential has reclassified these polyps into hyperplastic polyps (HPs), sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), and traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) on the basis of macroscopic morphology and microscopic histology. In this study, we aimed to revisit HPs identified during screening endoscopy by histological reevaluation and genetic alterations.
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A comparative study of the bacterial community in denitrifying and traditional enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes.
Microbes Environ.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Denitrifying phosphorus removal is an attractive wastewater treatment process due to its reduced carbon source demand and sludge minimization potential. Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated in alternating anaerobic-anoxic (A-A) or anaerobic-oxic (A-O) conditions to achieve denitrifying enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) and traditional EBPR. No significant differences were observed in phosphorus removal efficiencies between A-A SBR and A-O SBR, with phosphorus removal rates being 87.9% and 89.0% respectively. The community structures in denitrifying and traditional EBPR processes were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of the PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes from each sludge. The results obtained showed that the bacterial community was more diverse in A-O sludge than in A-A sludge. Taxonomy and ?-diversity analyses indicated that a significant shift occurred in the dominant microbial community in A-A sludge compared with the seed sludge during the whole acclimation phase, while a slight fluctuation was observed in the abundance of the major taxonomies in A-O sludge. One Dechloromonas-related OTU outside the 4 known Candidatus "Accumulibacter" clades was detected as the main OTU in A-A sludge at the stationary operation, while Candidatus "Accumulibacter" dominated in A-O sludge.
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Dextranation of bioreducible cationic polyamide for systemic gene delivery.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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A dextranated, bioreducible cationic polyamide was designed and employed for non-viral gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. Initially, a new bioreducible cationic polyamide with p-nitrophenyl ester terminal group (denoted as SSBAP) was synthesized by polycondensation reaction of an excess amount of bis-(p-nitrophenyl)-3, 3'-dithiodipropanoate and 1, 4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine. The SSBAP was then chemically conjugated with 5 kDa amino-terminated dextran to yield dextran-SSBPA-dextran triblock copolymer (denoted as Dex-SSBAP-Dex). This copolymer was capable of binding genes to form nanoscale polyplexes with a near-neutral surface charge. Moreover, a sufficient gene release from the polyplexes in response to an intracellular reducing environment was observed. In vitro transfection against MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cells showed that Dex-SSBAP-Dex copolymer effectively transfected the cells with comparable efficiency to that of 2 5kDa branched or linear polyethylenimine as positive controls. Besides, intravenous administration of the copolymer-based polyplexes in nude mice afforded detectable gene expression largely in the lung. Importantly, the copolymer revealed low cytotoxicity in vitro, as determined by AlamarBlue assay, and caused no death of the mice. Dextranated, bioreducible cationic polyamide holds high potential as a non-viral vector for gene delivery.
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Fabrication of photo-crosslinked chitosan- gelatin scaffold in sodium alginate hydrogel for chondrocyte culture.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Photo-crosslinked chitosan-gelatin scaffolds were fabricated and applied for chondrocyte culture in vitro. Photocurable methacryloyl chitosan was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR, respectively. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the chitosan-gelatin scaffold treated with or without EDC as crosslinking agent were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), compression and viscoelastic measurement. It is demonstrated that EDC-treated chitosan-gelatin scaffold possesses better porous structure and improved mechanical properties. Photo-crosslinked chitosan-gelatin scaffold could be further integrated in sodium alginate hydrogel using calcium chloride to support proliferation of chondrocytes for over 21 days and maintain spherical phenotype, as evaluated by AlamarBlue assay and SEM, respectively, implying that the chitosan-gelatin-hydrogel system exhibits great cyto-biocompatibility. Results of this study show that photo-crosslinked chitosan-gelatin scaffold in sodium alginate hydrogel is suited as a scaffold candidate for cartilage tissue engineering.
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Expression and clinical significance of myeloid derived suppressor cells in chronic hepatitis B patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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We here document discovery of expression profile of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and changes in the course of disease. The study population was composed of 75 outpatient HBV cases and 15 healthy control cases. Peripheral blood samples were collected for separation of mononuclear cells. Levels of MDSCs labeled with Lin-DR-CD11b+CD33+ obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), were revealed to have significant differences between the CHB and other groups. They were 0.414% for health control cases and 0.226% for CHB cases (Z=-2.356, p=0.0189). It also observed that the group of HBeAg positive cases had significant difference in MDSCs/ PBMC median (X(2)=11.877, p=0.003), compared with group of HBeAg negative cases and the healthy control group. It suggested considerable MDSCs might be involved in HBeAg immune tolerance. In addition, negative correlations between MDSCs/PBMC and parameters of ALT, AST and TBil, while positive correlation between MDSCs/ PBMC and ALB parameter were found. Multiple comparisons between the four phases and health control phase again, there was a statistically sifnificant difference (X(2)=17.198, p=0.002). Taken together, these findings may provide a new immunotherapy strategy for reduced the expression levels of MDSCs in CHB patients, through induction of an autoimmune response to virus removal.
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Smart grid as a service: a discussion on design issues.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as "smart" as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system.
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Multifunctional disulfide-based cationic dextran conjugates for intravenous gene delivery targeting ovarian cancer cells.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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A folate-decorated, disulfide-based cationic dextran conjugate having dextran as the main chain and disulfide-linked 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine (BAP) residues as the grafts was designed and successfully prepared as a multifunctional gene delivery vector for targeted gene delivery to ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Initially, a new bioreducible cationic polyamide (denoted as pSSBAP) was prepared by polycondensation reaction of bis(p-nitrophenyl)-3,3'-dithiodipropanoate, a disulfide-containing monomer, and BAP. It was found that the pSSBAP was highly efficient for in vitro gene delivery against MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cell lines. Subsequently, two cationic dextran conjugates with different amounts of BAP residues (denoted as Dex-SSBAP6 and Dex-SSBAP30, respectively) were synthesized by coupling BAP to disulfide-linked carboxylated dextran or coupling pSSBAP-oligomer to p-nitrophenyl carbonated dextran. Both two conjugates were able to bind DNA to form nanosized polyplexes with an improved colloidal stability in physiological conditions. The polyplexes, however, were rapidly dissociated to liberate DNA in a reducing environment. In vitro transfection experiments revealed that the polyplexes of Dex-SSBAP30 efficiently transfected SKOV-3 cells, yielding transfection efficiency that is comparable to that of linear polyethylenimine or lipofectamine 2000. AlamarBlue assay showed that the conjugates had low cytotoxicity in vitro at a high concentration of 100 mg/L. Further, Dex-SSBAP30 has primary amine side groups and thus allows for folate (FA) conjugation, yielding FA-coupled Dex-SSBAP30 (Dex-SSBAP30-FA). It was found that Dex-SSBAP30-FA was efficient for targeted gene delivery to SKOV-3 tumor xenografted in a nude mouse model by intravenous injection, inducing a higher level of gene expression in the tumor as compared to Dex-SSBAP30 lacking FA and comparable gene expression to linear polyethylenimine as one of the most efficient polymeric vectors for intravenous gene delivery in vivo. Disulfide-based cationic dextran system thus has a high potential for intravenous gene delivery toward cancer gene therapy.
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Prognostic function of Ki-67 for pathological complete response rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has fluctuating pathological complete response (pCR) rates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) according to published reports. Biomarkers predicting pCR rates of NAC would improve TNBC patients' outcomes. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the prognostic function of Ki-67 in relation to pCR rates of NAC in TNBC.
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Two new compounds from Bombyx batryticatus.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Two new compounds beauvericins M1 (1) and S1 (2) were isolated from Bombyx batryticatus. Their structures were established as (3?,6?)-3-benzyl-6-secbutyl-4-methylmorpholine-2,5-dione (1) and (5?,8?)-epidioxyergosterol-24-one-6,22-dien-3?-ol (2) by various spectroscopic techniques including 1D NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY), and HR-ESI-TOF-MS.
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UPLC-based metabonomic applications for discovering biomarkers of diseases in clinical chemistry.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Metabonomics is a powerful and promising analytic tool that allows assessment of global low-molecular-weight metabolites in biological systems. It has a great potential for identifying useful biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis and assessment of therapeutic interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to provide a brief summary of the recent advances in UPLC-based metabonomic approach for biomarker discovery in a variety of diseases, and to discuss their significance in clinical chemistry.
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Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as a sensitive and powerful technology in lipidomic applications.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Lipidomics, the comprehensive illumination of lipid-based information in biology systems, involves in identifying lipids and profiling lipids and lipid-derived mediators. The development of lipidomics enables the characterization of lipid species and detailed lipid profiling in body fluid, tissue or cell, and allows for a wider understanding of the biological roles of lipid networks. Lipidomic research has been greatly facilitated by recent advances in ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and involved in lipid extraction, lipid identification and data analysis supporting applications from qualitative and quantitative assessment of multiple lipid species. UPLC technique, different mass spectrometry technique, lipid extraction and data analysis in lipidomics are reviewed. Afterwards, examples are provided on the use of UPLC-MS for finding lipid biomarkers in disease, drug, food, nutrition and plant fields. We also discuss the UPLC-MS-based lipidomics for the future perspectives and their potential problems.
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Diuretic and anti-diuretic activities of fractions of Alismatis rhizoma.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Alismatis rhizoma or Alisma orientale (Zexie in Chinese), the dried rhizome of Alisma orientale Juzepzuk (Alismataceae), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used as an agent for diuresis and for excreting dampness in China and Japan. In this paper, we report the diuretic activities of the petroleum ether fraction, the ethyl acetate fraction, the n-buthanol fraction, and the remaining fraction, of the ethanol extract of Alismatis rhizoma (AR).
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Production of hexaoligochitin from colloidal chitin using a chitinase from Aeromonas schubertii.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Chitin derivatives, such as those with modified main saccharide chains and deacetylated side chains, exhibit versatile biological functions. The biomedical properties of chitin oligosaccharides depend on their degree of oligomerization. Of the chitin oligosaccharides, chitin hexamers are generally the most potent. In our recent study, N-acetylchitohexaose was obtained by digesting chitin with ASCHI61, a chitinase from Aeromonas schubertii. In this work, the factors involved in the production of chitin hexasaccharide were evaluated experimentally. Using steep map analysis and cross-analysis, the substrate concentration and reaction pH were identified as the key factors in this reaction, and the interactions between these parameters were observed. Using a response surface experimental design, we predicted that a colloidal chitin concentration of 3.4mgmL(-1) and a pH of 6.54 were the optimal conditions for producing hexaoligochitin. These conditions were verified in separate experiments, in which 38.73mmolL(-1) of N-acetylchitohexaose was obtained. The maximum amount of hexamer produced was 42.175mgL(-1), an increase of only 0.27% from the predicted value.
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A magnetic particles-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid detection of ovalbumin.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Egg allergy is an important public health and safety concern, so quantification and administration of food or vaccines containing ovalbumin (OVA) are urgently needed. This study aimed to establish a rapid and sensitive magnetic particles-chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MPs-CLEIA) for the determination of OVA. The proposed method was developed on the basis of a double antibodies sandwich immunoreaction and luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence system. The MPs served as both the solid phase and separator, the anti-OVA MPs-coated polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) were used as capturing antibody, and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) was taken as detecting antibody. The parameters of the method were evaluated and optimized. The established MPs-CLEIA method had a linear range from 0.31 to 100ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.24ng/ml. The assays showed low reactivities and less than 5% of intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation (CVs), and the average recoveries were between 92 and 97%. Furthermore, the developed method was applied in real samples analysis successfully, and the correlation coefficient with the commercially available OVA kit was 0.9976. Moreover, it was more rapid and sensitive compared with the other methods for testing OVA.
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Diuretic and anti-diuretic activities of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of Alismatis rhizoma.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Alismatis rhizoma or Alisma orientale (Zexie in Chinese), the dried rhizome of Alisma orientale Juzepzuk (Alismataceae), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used as an agent for diuresis and for excreting dampness in Asia and Europe. In this paper, we report the diuretic activities of the ethanol extract (EE) and the aqueous extract (AE) of A. rhizoma (AR).
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UPLC-MS(E) application in disease biomarker discovery: the discoveries in proteomics to metabolomics.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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In the last decade, proteomics and metabolomics have contributed substantially to our understanding of different diseases. Proteomics and metabolomics aims to comprehensively identify proteins and metabolites to gain insight into the cellular signaling pathways underlying disease and to discover novel biomarkers for screening, early detection and diagnosis, as well as for determining prognoses and predicting responses to specific treatments. For comprehensive analysis of cellular proteins and metabolites, analytical methods of wider dynamic range higher resolution and good sensitivity are required. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) (UPLC-MS(E)) is currently one of the most versatile techniques. UPLC-MS(E) is an established technology in proteomics studies and is now expanding into metabolite research. MS(E) was used for simultaneous acquisition of precursor ion information and fragment ion data at low and high collision energy in one analytical run, providing similar information to conventional MS(2). In this review, UPLC-MS(E) application in proteomics and metabolomics was highlighted to assess protein and metabolite changes in different diseases, including cancer, neuropsychiatric pharmacology studies from clinical trials and animal models. In addition, the future prospects for complete proteomics and metabolomics are discussed.
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The characteristics of chitinase expression in Aeromonas schubertii.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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In this study, chitinase activity in an incubation broth of Aeromonas schubertii was measured using colloidal chitin azure as the substrate. More specifically, the induction of chitinases due to amendment with various carbon sources was examined. The highest chitinase activity was found following amendment with 0.5-1.0 % chitin powder, whereas the activity increased negligibly due to amendment with other carbon sources, such as glucose, GlcNAc, GlcN, sorbitol, sucrose, cellulose, or starch. The chitinase activity induced by the chitin powder was suppressed when the glucose, GlcNAc, GlcN, or starch was added simultaneously to the medium but was not suppressed by the addition of sorbitol, sucrose, or cellulose. The activity of chitinase in the crude extract was also not directly inhibited by glucose. Taken together, these findings suggest that the induction of chitinase activity depends on the acquisition of suitable carbon sources from the environment and that induction occurs at a regulatory level.
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A pH and redox dual responsive 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(disulfide histamine) copolymer for non-viral gene transfection in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(disulfide histamine) copolymer was synthesized by Michael addition reaction of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) vinyl sulfone and amine-capped poly(disulfide histamine) oligomer, being denoted as 4-arm PEG-SSPHIS. This copolymer was able to condense DNA into nanoscale polyplexes (<200 nm in average diameter) with almost neutral surface charge (+(5-10) mV). Besides, these polyplexes were colloidal stable within 4 h in HEPES buffer saline at pH 7.4 (physiological environment), but rapidly dissociated to liberate DNA in the presence of 10 mM glutathione (intracellular reducing environment). The polyplexes also revealed pH-responsive surface charges which markedly increased with reducing pH values from 7.4-6.3 (tumor microenvironment). In vitro transfection experiments showed that polyplexes of 4-arm PEG-SSPHIS were capable of exerting enhanced transfection efficacy in MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cells under acidic conditions (pH 6.3-7.0). Moreover, intravenous administration of the polyplexes to nude mice bearing HepG2-tumor yielded high transgene expression largely in tumor rather other normal organs. Importantly, this copolymer and its polyplexes had low cytotoxicity against the cells in vitro and caused no death of the mice. The results of this study indicate that 4-arm PEG-SSPHIS has high potential as a dual responsive gene delivery vector for cancer gene therapy.
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Should Steroid Therapy Be Necessarily Needed for Autoimmune Pancreatitis Patients with Lesion Resected due to Misdiagnosed or Suspected Malignancy?
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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To explore whether steroid therapy should be needed for autoimmune pancreatitis patients after operation, eight AIP patients receiving operation were enrolled in this study from January 2007 to July 2013. All patients underwent liver function, CA19-9, and contrast-enhanced CT and/or MRI. Tests of IgG and IgG4 were performed in some patients. Tests of serum TB/DB, ? -GT, and ? -globulin were undergone during the perioperative period. Six cases receiving resection were pathologically confirmed as AIP patients and two were confirmed by intraoperative biopsy. For seven patients, TB/DB level was transiently elevated 1 day or 4 days after operation but dropped below preoperative levels or to normal levels 7 days after operation, and serum ? -GT level presented a downward trend. Serum ? -globulin level exhibited a downward trend among six AIP patients after resection, while an upward trend was found in another two AIP patients receiving internal drainage. Steroid therapy was not given to all six AIP patients until two of them showed new lines of evidence of residual or extrapancreatic AIP lesion after operation, while another two cases without resection received steroid medication. Steroid therapy might not be recommended unless there are new lines of evidence of residual extrapancreatic AIP lesions after resection.
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Quantitative Analysis of Panax ginseng by FT-NIR Spectroscopy.
J Anal Methods Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a rapid and efficient tool, was used to determine the total amount of nine ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. In the study, the regression models were established using multivariate regression methods with the results from conventional chemical analytical methods as reference values. The multivariate regression methods, partial least squares regression (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR), were discussed and the PLSR was more suitable. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), second derivative, and Savitzky-Golay smoothing were utilized together for the spectral preprocessing. When evaluating the final model, factors such as correlation coefficient (R (2)) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were considered. The final optimal results of PLSR model showed that root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (R (2)) in the calibration set were 0.159 and 0.963, respectively. The results demonstrated that the NIRS as a new method can be applied to the quality control of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma.
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Using the Doubly Charged Selected Ion Coupled with MS/MS Fragments Monitoring (DCSI-MS/MS) Mode for the Identification of Gelatin Species.
J Anal Methods Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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In electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, peptides and proteins can be multiply charged ions; in this situation a doubly charged selected ion (DCSI) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragments monitoring (DCSI-MS/MS) method is the most suitable scanning mode to detect known peptides in complex samples when an ion-trap mass spectrometer is the instrument used for the analysis. In this mode, the MS detector is programmed to only select a doubly charged ion as a precursor and to perform continuous MS/MS on one or more of the selected precursors, either during a specific time interval or along the whole chromatographic run. Gelatin is a mixture of high molecular weight polypeptides from the hydrolysis of collagen. In this study, the DCSI-MS/MS monitoring mode was applied to the detection of previously characterized species-specific peptides from different gelatins. The proposed methodology makes use of tryptic digestion for sample preparation and peptide separation and identification by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to an ion trap working in the DCSI-MS/MS mode for the analysis. This methodology was applied to the differential classification of five commercial, homological species of gelatins and proved to be an excellent tool for gelatin product authentication.
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Detection of T-Wave Beat-By-Beat Variations prior to Ventricular Arrhythmias Onset in ICD-Stored Intracardiac Electrograms: The Endocardial T-Wave Alternans Study (ETWAS).
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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The aim of the Endocardial T-Wave Alternans Study was to prospectively assess the presence of T-wave alternans (TWA) or beat-to-beat repolarization changes on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)-stored electrograms (EGMs) immediately preceding the onset of spontaneous ventricular tachycardia (VT) or fibrillation (VF).
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Detecting single-electron events in TEM using low-cost electronics and a silicon strip sensor.
Microscopy (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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There is great interest in developing novel position-sensitive direct detectors for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that do not rely in the conversion of electrons into photons. Direct imaging improves contrast and efficiency and allows the operation of the microscope at lower energies and at lower doses without loss in resolution, which is especially important for studying soft materials and biological samples. We investigate the feasibility of employing a silicon strip detector as an imaging detector for TEM. This device, routinely used in high-energy particle physics, can detect small variations in electric current associated with the impact of a single charged particle. The main advantages of using this type of sensor for direct imaging in TEM are its intrinsic radiation hardness and large detection area. Here, we detail design, simulation, fabrication and tests in a TEM of the front-end electronics developed using low-cost discrete components and discuss the limitations and applications of this technology for TEM.
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Pretreatment HBsAg level and an early decrease in MELD score predict prognosis to lamivudine treatment for HBeAg-negative acute-on-chronic liver failure.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Few data are available about the predictability of HBsAg quantification to nucleos(t)ide analogues treatment in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The aim of this study was to investigate HBsAg level combined with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score for predicting prognosis to lamivudine monotherapy in HBeAg-negative ACLF.
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Theranostic nanoparticles based on bioreducible polyethylenimine-coated iron oxide for reduction-responsive gene delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Theranostic nanoparticles based on superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) have a great promise for tumor diagnosis and gene therapy. However, the availability of theranostic nanoparticles with efficient gene transfection and minimal toxicity remains a big challenge. In this study, we construct an intelligent SPIO-based nanoparticle comprising a SPIO inner core and a disulfide-containing polyethylenimine (SSPEI) outer layer, which is referred to as a SSPEI-SPIO nanoparticle, for redox-triggered gene release in response to an intracellular reducing environment. We reveal that SSPEI-SPIO nanoparticles are capable of binding genes to form nano-complexes and mediating a facilitated gene release in the presence of dithiothreitol (5-20 mM), thereby leading to high transfection efficiency against different cancer cells. The SSPEI-SPIO nanoparticles are also able to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) for the silencing of human telomerase reverse transcriptase genes in HepG2 cells, causing their apoptosis and growth inhibition. Further, the nanoparticles are applicable as T2-negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of a tumor xenografted in a nude mouse. Importantly, SSPEI-SPIO nanoparticles have relatively low cytotoxicity in vitro at a high concentration of 100 ?g/mL. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of a disulfide-containing cationic polymer-decorated SPIO nanoparticle as highly potent and low-toxic theranostic nano-system for specific nucleic acid delivery inside cancer cells.
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Expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells from peripheral blood decreases after 4-week antiviral treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are one of the most important regulators of anti-tumor T-cell responses in cancers. This study aimed to investigate MDSCs in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) before and after 4-week treatment with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin, and to evaluate their correlation with CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and clinical parameters. A total of 80 patients with CHC were enrolled into this study, 37 of whom were treated with PEG-IFN and ribavirin. Compared with healthy controls (0.462% [range 0.257%-0.634%]), the proportion of MDSCs in the peripheral blood of 80 CHC patients (0.601% [range 0.333%-1.027%]) increased significantly before therapy (P=0.011). For 37 HCV patients, the proportion of circulating MDSCs (0 w: 0.597% [range 0.296%-1.021%], 4 w: 0.126% [0.066%-0.239%], P<0.01) and Tregs (0 w: 2.467±0.927%, 4 w: 2.074±0.840%, P=0.047) decreased significantly after 4-week antiviral treatment. No significant correlation was found between MDSCs and Tregs. These findings suggest that MDSCs expand in the peripheral blood of CHC patients, but decrease after 4-week antiviral treatment.
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Two new phthalides with BuChE inhibitory activity from Ligusticum chuanxiong.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Two new phthalides, chuanxiongdiolides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the roots of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Their structures were established by UV, IR, 1D ((1)H, (13)C) and 2D (HSQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMBC, NOESY) NMR, and HR-ESI-MS methods, and their absolute configurations were assigned via circular dichroism exciton chirality. The two compounds showed different degrees of inhibitory effects against butyrylcholine esterase.
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Gold nanoparticles on mesoporous SiO(2)-coated magnetic Fe(3)O(4)spheres: a magnetically separatable catalyst with good thermal stability.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Fe3O4 spheres with an average size of 273 nm were prepared in the presence of CTAB by a solvothermal method. The spheres were modified by a thin layer of SiO2, and then coated by mesoporous SiO2 (m-SiO2) films, by using TEOS as a precursor and CTAB as a soft template. The resulting m-SiO2/Fe3O4 spheres, with an average particle size of 320 nm, a high surface area (656 m2/g), and ordered nanopores (average pore size 2.5 nm), were loaded with gold nanoparticles (average size 3.3 nm). The presence of m-SiO2 coating could stabilize gold nanoparticles against sintering at 500 °C. The material showed better performance than a conventional Au/SiO2 catalyst in catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol with NaBH4. It can be separated from the reaction mixture by a magnet and be recycled without obvious loss of catalytic activity. Relevant characterization by XRD, TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption, and magnetic measurements were conducted.
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In vitro phenotypic characterization of hepatitis C virus NS3 protease variants observed in clinical studies of telaprevir.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Telaprevir is a linear, peptidomimetic small molecule that inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication by specifically inhibiting the NS3·4A protease. In phase 3 clinical studies, telaprevir in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin (PR) significantly improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in genotype 1 chronic HCV-infected patients compared with PR alone. In patients who do not achieve SVR after treatment with telaprevir-based regimens, variants with mutations in the NS3·4A protease region have been observed. Such variants can contribute to drug resistance and limit the efficacy of treatment. To gain a better understanding of the viral resistance profile, we conducted phenotypic characterization of the variants using HCV replicons carrying site-directed mutations. The most frequently observed (significantly enriched) telaprevir-resistant variants, V36A/M, T54A/S, R155K/T, and A156S, conferred lower-level resistance (3- to 25-fold), whereas A156T and V36M+R155K conferred higher-level resistance (>25-fold) to telaprevir. Rarely observed (not significantly enriched) variants included V36I/L and I132V, which did not confer resistance to telaprevir; V36C/G, R155G/I/M/S, V36A+T54A, V36L+R155K, T54S+R155K, and R155T+D168N, which conferred lower-level resistance to telaprevir; and A156F/N/V, V36A+R155K/T, V36M+R155T, V36A/M+A156T, T54A+A156S, T54S+A156S/T, and V36M+T54S+R155K, which conferred higher-level resistance to telaprevir. All telaprevir-resistant variants remained fully sensitive to alpha interferon, ribavirin, and HCV NS5B nucleoside and nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitors. In general, the replication capacity of telaprevir-resistant variants was lower than that of the wild-type replicon.
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Optical image encoding based on digital holographic recording on polarization state of vector wave.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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We propose and analyze a compact optical image encoder based on the principle of digital holographic recording on the polarization state of a vector wave. The optical architecture is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with in-line digital holographic recording mechanism. The original image is represented by distinct polarization states of elliptically polarized light. This state of polarization distribution is scrambled and then recorded by a two-step digital polarization holography method with random phase distributed reference wave. Introduction of a rotation key in the object arm and phase keys in the reference arm can achieve the randomization of plaintext. Statistical property of cyphertext is analyzed from confusion and diffusion point of view. Fault tolerance and key sensitivity of the proposed approach are also investigated. A chosen plaintext attack on the proposed algorithm exhibits its high security level. Simulation results that support the theoretical analysis are presented.
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Analysis of behavior risk factor surveillance system data to assess the health of Hispanics with diabetes in US-Mexico border communities.
Diabetes Educ
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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The purpose of this study is to describe and compare personal characteristics, health care access and utilization, and self-management behaviors of Hispanic American adults diagnosed with diabetes who reside in 3 US-Mexico border counties in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. This study also examines the status of this population in attaining Healthy People (HP) 2020 diabetes target goals.
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[Application of subwet model in the design of constructed wetland].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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The mechanism of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland (HSSF CW) and its design guidelines were introduced for the design of a constructed wetland. A numerical model Subwet was proposed to aid the design of constructed wetland. The design of a horizontal subsurface-flow wetland was simulated by utilizing Subwet model. The treatment efficiency for a year round operation was obtained from the modelling. The factors which have effects on treatment efficiencies were analyzed and investigated in this study. The recommendations on optimizing and improving the HSSF CW design were provided. This case study of Subwet model demonstrated the applicability of this model in the design of constructed wetland. It can provide theoretical basis for the design of constructed wetland.
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[Study on saponins in shengmai injection].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To investigate the saponin in Shengmai injection.
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Size effect of gold nanoparticles in catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol with NaBH4.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were prepared by reducing HAuCl4 with NaBH4. Their average particle sizes could be tuned in the range of 1.7 and 8.2 nm, by adjusting the amount of NaBH4 used during synthesis. The obtained Au NPs (colloids) were then loaded onto a commercial Al2O3 support to prepare Au/Al2O3 catalysts with tunable Au particle sizes. An optimal pH value (5.9) of the Au colloid solution was found to be essential for loading Au NPs onto Al2O3 while avoiding the growth of Au NPs. Au NPs and Au/Al2O3 catalysts were tested in the reduction of p-nitrophenol with NaBH4. Interestingly, the catalytic activity depended on the size of Au NPs, being the highest when the average size was 3.4 nm. Relevant characterization by UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD was conducted.
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Microfluidic preparation of polymer-nucleic acid nanocomplexes improves nonviral gene transfer.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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As the designs of polymer systems used to deliver nucleic acids continue to evolve, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the basic bulk manufacturing techniques of the past will be insufficient to produce polymer-nucleic acid nanocomplexes that possess the uniformity, stability, and potency required for their successful clinical translation and widespread commercialization. Traditional bulk-prepared products are often physicochemically heterogeneous and may vary significantly from one batch to the next. Here we show that preparation of bioreducible nanocomplexes with an emulsion-based droplet microfluidic system produces significantly improved nanoparticles that are up to fifty percent smaller, more uniform, and are less prone to aggregation. The intracellular integrity of nanocomplexes prepared with this microfluidic method is significantly prolonged, as detected using a high-throughput flow cytometric quantum dot Förster resonance energy transfer nanosensor system. These physical attributes conspire to consistently enhance the delivery of both plasmid DNA and messenger RNA payloads in stem cells, primary cells, and human cell lines. Innovation in processing is necessary to move the field toward the broader clinical implementation of safe and effective nonviral nucleic acid therapeutics, and preparation with droplet microfluidics represents a step forward in addressing the critical barrier of robust and reproducible nanocomplex production.
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Optimization of recombinant hexaoligochitin-producing chitinase production with response surface methodology.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Hexaoligochitin produced by chitinase, ASCHI61, from Aeromonas schubertii was recently expressed. In this work, the optimal conditions for the mass production of ASCHI61 were investigated. The efficiency of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli was determined by various parameters, including the pH of the culture medium, induction temperature, shaking speed, inducer concentration, and induction period. The optimization experiments could be simplified through a statistical design of experiments (response surface methodology). From the fractional factorial design, the interactive effect of induction temperature and time was the most significant. The total activity of the enzyme was 32,092U at 23.9°C with 115min of induction. Under those conditions, the total activity of the recombinant protein was 30,650U in the fermentation experiments, with an error of only 4.8%. The total activity of ASCHI61 increased 1.54-fold under the optimal conditions. Based on the results, ASCHI61 can be expressed more for hexaoligochitin production.
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A new tetrahydrofuran-type lignan with anti-inflammatory activity from Asarum heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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A new tetrahydrofuran-type lignan, episesaminone (1), was isolated from Asarum heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kitag. Its structure was established by spectroscopic techniques (HR-MS, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and circular dichroism). The anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages was carried out on 1 and other eight known compounds, the epimer of 1 (2) and seven known furofurans-type lignan (3-9) obtained from A. heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, particularly 50 ?M compound 3 inhibited 69.2% NO production compared with the lipopolysaccharide group.
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Natural polyelectrolyte self-assembled multilayers based on collagen and alginate: stability and cytocompatibility.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Scientific interest in the self-assembly of collagen composite films has been increasing for their potential application in constructing bioactive materials. Here we report a highly stable and cytocompatible collagen/alginate (COL/ALG) ultrathin film, which was linearly fabricated via a layer-by-layer self-assembled technique. The variation in morphology and thickness of the films in air and in solutions with different pH and ion values were tested by atomic force microscopy. Results showed that the solutions with high pH values or solutions that contained electrolytes would disintegrate the film, while films with that were cross-linked for a long time prevented the dissolution and contributed to stability maintenance of the films. Interestingly, the COL/ALG coating not only improved the adhesion and proliferation of the human periodontal ligament cells, but also modified the morphology and migration of cells on the surface of glass and poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) electrospun scaffolds. In conclusion, the COL/ALG ultrathin films were highly stable and cytocompatible and could be easily fabricated by the cost-effective self-assembled technique presented. The findings of this study have the potential to play an important role in the surface modification of biomaterials.
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[Chemical constituents of surface layer of Poria cocos and their pharmacological properties (I)].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The surface layer of the sclerotia of Poria cocos, named Fu-Ling-Pi, is used as a diuretic in traditional Chinese medicine to treat edema and urinary dysfunction. Recent studies have showed that the triterpenes (lanostane and 3,4-secolanostane skeletons) and polysaccharides (beta-pachyman) are the main components of Fu-Ling-Pi and they exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-tumor, antibacterial and antioxidant, etc. This review was focused on the chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical uses of this drug and it may provide scientific foundation for further development and utilization of Fulingpi.
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Restoration of the activated Rig-I pathway in hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon cells by HCV protease, polymerase, and NS5A inhibitors in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Development of persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be mediated by HCV NS3 · 4A protease-dependent inhibition of host innate immunity. When double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is detected in virus-infected cells, host innate immunity mounts an antiviral response by upregulating production of type I interferons (?/? interferon [IFN-?/?]); HCV counters by cleaving the IFN-? stimulator 1 (IPS-1) adaptor protein, decreasing synthesis of IFN-?/?. We evaluated HCV protease (telaprevir, boceprevir, and TMC435350), polymerase (HCV-796 and VX-222), and NS5A (BMS-790052) inhibitors for the ability to restore IPS-1-mediated Rig-I signaling by measuring Sendai virus-induced IFN-? promoter activation in HCV replicon cells after various exposure durations. All direct-acting HCV antivirals tested restored mitochondrial localization of IPS-1 and rescued Sendai virus-induced IRF3 signaling after 7 days by inhibiting HCV replication, thereby reducing the abundance of HCV NS3 · 4A protease. With 4-day treatment, HCV protease inhibitors, but not polymerase inhibitors, restored mitochondrial localization of IPS-1 and rescued IFN-? promoter activation in the presence of equivalent levels of NS3 protein in protease or polymerase inhibitor-treated cells. The concentrations of HCV protease and polymerase inhibitors needed to rescue IRF3-mediated signaling in vitro were in the range of those observed in vivo in the plasma of treated HCV patients. These findings suggest that (i) HCV protease, polymerase, and NS5A inhibitors can restore virus-induced IRF3 signaling by inhibiting viral replication, thereby reducing NS3 protease levels, and (ii) HCV protease inhibitors can restore innate immunity by directly inhibiting NS3 protease-mediated cleavage of IPS-1 at clinically achievable concentrations.
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[Profile of soil microbial biomass carbon in different types of subtropical paddy soils].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The soil microbial biomass carbon (C(mic)), one of the most active components of soil organic carbon (C(org)), is an effective indicator of soil quality. In the present study, five subtropical paddy soils developed from different parent materials were selected, and the distribution of C(mic) through the profiles was studied, as well as the relationship of C(mic) with C(org) and soil nutrients. The results showed that the contents of C(org) and C(mic) decreased markedly with increasing soil depth, ranging from 2.45 g x kg(-1) to 26.19 g x kg(-1) and from 4.55 mg x kg(-1) to 1 691.75 mg x kg(-1), respectively. They mainly concentrated in the surface layer (plough horizon and plough pan). The content of C(mic) varied significantly in paddy soils developed from different parent materials, with the highest one in yellow clayey soil, and the lowest ones in alluvial sandy soil and reddish yellow clayey soil. This was on the contrary to the distribution of C(org) in the surface paddy soils, since the reddish yellow clayey soil and alluvial sandy soil showed higher contents while other types of paddy soils exhibited similar contents of C(org). Notwithstanding, C(mic) was still controlled by the quantity of C(org) and positively correlated with C(org). The ratio of C(mic) to C(org)(C(mic)/C((org)) decreased with increasing soil depth and differed in the plough horizon between different paddy soils, with lower values in alluvial sandy soil (2.11%) and reddish yellow clayey soil (1.37%) but higher value in reddish yellow clayey soil I (8.24%). It indicated that the microbial substrate availability in alluvial sandy soil and reddish yellow clayey soil was lower than those in reddish yellow clayey soils. The content of C(mic) was significantly positively correlated with total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzable N and Olsen-P, but was irrelevant to available K. It is implied that the C(mic) was not only controlled by C(org), but also complicatedly interacted with soil nutrients in paddy soils.
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Diuretic activity of some fractions of the epidermis of Poria cocos.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) is a well-known medicinal fungus, the epidermis ("Fu-Ling-Pi" in Chinese) of the sclerotia is used as a diuretic for treating oedema and promoting the diuretic process. In this paper we report on the diuretic activity in rats of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the remaining fractions of the ethanol extract from the epidermis of Poria cocos.
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High level of IL-27 positively correlated with Th17 cells may indicate liver injury in patients infected with HBV.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Interleukin-6/IL-12 family cytokines play a key role in inflammatory diseases via their effects on the differentiation or regulation of T helper cells.
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[Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of Chinese caterpillar fungus].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (CCF) is one of the rare Chinese traditional drugs. As the resource is reducing sharply, the price is rising higher and higher, and there have been much more adulterants in the markets, but until now we dont have a scientific and accurate research on the identification study for this drug. On the basis of resource investigation, during the study of the samples collected by ourselves and the specimens stored in the museum, using the macroscopic and microscopic methods, referring to the literatures of entomology, emphasizing on the characteristics of polypide part, we have studied this species in detail of the macroscopic characters such as the insertion position of the stroma part, the annulations and segments of the caterpillar, the abdominal leg, the pinaculum, and the microscopic characters of the body wall; firstly added the microscopic character of the crotchets on the planta of abdominal leg. The result turned out that the characters which we have studied are regular and stable, and it have laid the foundation for the powder products and patent medicines which have used the crude drug of CCF.
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[Composition and stability of soil aggregates in hedgerow-crop slope land].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Based on a long-term experiment of using hedgerow to control soil and water loss, this paper studied the composition and stability of soil aggregates in a hedgerow-crop slope land. Compared with those under routine contour cropping, the contents of > 0.25 mm soil mechanical-stable and water-stable aggregates under the complex mode hedgerow-crop increased significantly by 13.3%-16.1% and 37.8% -55.6%, respectively. Under the complex mode, the contents of > 0.25 mm soil water-stable aggregates on each slope position increased obviously, and the status of > 0.25 mm soil water-stable aggregates being relatively rich at low slope and poor at top slope was improved. Planting hedgerow could significantly increase the mean mass diameter and geometric mean diameter of soil aggregates, decrease the fractal dimension of soil aggregates and the destruction rate of > 0.25 mm soil aggregates, and thus, increase the stability and erosion-resistance of soil aggregates in slope cropland. No significant effects of slope and hedgerow types were observed on the composition, stability and distribution of soil aggregates.
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Anti-inflammatory ligustilides from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Four new ligustilides chuanxiongnolide R1 (1), chuanxiongnolide R2 (2), chuanxiongdiolide R1 (3) and chuanxiongdiolide R2 (4) together with eight known derivatives (5-12) were isolated from the root of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Their structures were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY) methods. The absolute configurations were confirmed via the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum. The anti-inflammatory assay in LPS-triggered RAW 264.7 macrophages was carried out on the twelve compounds. 1, 3, 5 and 6 showed significant inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO production.
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General toxicity of Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Berit. in rat: a metabonomic method for profiling of serum metabolic changes.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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BX is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the plant Pinellia ternata(Thunb.) Berit. It has been traditionally used to treat cough, vomiting, infection and inflammation. Despite of its potentially clinical utility, it also has many side effects and toxicity.
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Protoporphyrin IX accumulation disrupts mitochondrial dynamics and function in ABCG2-deficient hepatocytes.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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Targeted inhibition of multidrug ABCG2 transporter is believed to improve cancer therapeutics. However, the consequences of ABCG2 inhibition have not been systematically evaluated since ABCG2 is expressed in several organs including the liver. Here, we demonstrate that ABCG2-deficient hepatocytes have increased amounts of fragmental mitochondria accompanied by disruption of mitochondrial dynamics and functions. This disruption was due to ABCG2 knockout elevating intracellular protoporphyrin IX, which led to upregulation of DRP-1-mediated mitochondrial fission. The finding that ABCG2 deficiency can generate dysfunctional mitochondria in hepatocytes raises concerns regarding the systematic use of ABCG2 inhibitor in cancer patients.
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Selection and identification of a DNA aptamer that mimics saxitoxin in antibody binding.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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In this article, high-affinity single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer-targeting F(ab)? fragments of saxitoxin (STX) antibodies were selected from a random ssDNA library by the SELEX strategy. After 16 rounds of repeated selection, the enriched ssDNA library was sequenced, and all of the sequences were carefully identified by indirect enzyme-linked assay and indirect competitive enzyme-linked assay (icELISA). The candidate aptamers in the above identification were selected for further characterization by icELISA and the equilibrium filtration method. We successfully obtained an aptamer that mimics STX in antibody binding, and a substitute for STX in aptamer form has been developed. Further work is in progress aimed at using this aptamer substitute to replace the STX standard in an antibody-based, nontoxic detection method for field determination of STX in seafood products.
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Urinary metabonomic study of the surface layer of Poria cocos as an effective treatment for chronic renal injury in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) is a well-known medicinal fungus. The epidermis of the sclerotia ("Fu-Ling-Pi" in Chinese) is used as a diuretic and traditionally used for promoting urination and reduce edema.
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A novel analytical probe binding to a potential carcinogenic factor of N-glycolylneuraminic acid by SELEX.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is an abundant sialic acid in many mammals and is present in the glycoconjugates of most deuterostome animals. Neu5Gc also occurs in fresh samples of human tumors and fetuses. However, very little is known about the expression level and biologic functions of Neu5Gc due to the limitations of available analytical probes for detection methods. In this study, we first report the development of aptamers specific to Neu5Gc screened by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). After 15 selection rounds, cloning, sequencing and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) analysis, 6 different selected aptamers showed specificity for Neu5Gc. Among these 6 aptamers, N8 showed the best half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value (127 ng mL(-1)) and had a relatively high affinity constant (Ka=6.68 × 10(9)M(-1)). The aptamers selected in this study will provide a novel analytical probe for the development of a biosensor to detect Neu5Gc in tissues and sera from patients with tumors as well as to detect Neu5Gc in animal-derived foods. In addition, the successful aptamer candidate can solve the problem that antibody is difficult to prepare in immunological assays. Thus, the discovery of novel aptamers specific for Neu5Gc is important for developing new methods of detecting Neu5Gc for the diagnosis and prevention of cancer as well as food poisoning.
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The identification and characterization of chitotriosidase activity in pancreatin from porcine pancreas.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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The versatile oligosaccharide biopolymers, chitin and chitosan, are typically produced using enzymatic processes. However, these processes are usually costly because chitinases and chitosanases are available in limited quantities. Fortunately, a number of commercial enzymes can hydrolyze chitin and chitosan to produce long chain chitin or chitosan oligosaccharides. Here, a platform to screen for enzymes with chitinase and chitosanase activities using a single gel with glycol chitin or glycol chitosan as a substrate was applied. SDS-resistant chitinase and chitosanase activities were observed for pancreatin. Its chitotriosidase had an optimal hydrolysis pH of 4 in the substrate specificity assay. This activity was thermally unstable, but independent of 2-mercaptoethanol. This is the first time a chitotriosidase has been identified in the hog. This finding suggests that oligochitosaccharides can be mass-produced inexpensively using pancreatin.
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Ultra performance liquid chromatography-based metabonomic study of therapeutic effect of the surface layer of Poria cocos on adenine-induced chronic kidney disease provides new insight into anti-fibrosis mechanism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The surface layer of Poria cocos (Fu-Ling-Pi, FLP) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and its diuretic effect was confirmed in rat. Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight high-sensitivity mass spectrometry and a novel mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) data collection technique was employed to investigate metabonomic characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) induced from adenine excess and the protective effects of FLP. Multiple metabolites are detected in the CKD and are correlated with progressive renal injury. Among these biomarkers, lysoPC(18?0), tetracosahexaenoic acid, lysoPC(18?2), creatinine, lysoPC (16?0) and lysoPE(22?0/0?0) in the FLP-treated group were completely reversed to levels in the control group which lacked CKD. Combined with biochemistry and histopathology results, the changes in serum metabolites indicate that the perturbations of phospholipids metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism are related to adenine-induced CKD and to the interventions of FLP on all the three metabolic pathways. FLP may regulate the metabolism of these biomarkers, especially their efficient utilization within the context of CKD. Furthermore, these biomarkers might serve as characteristics to explain the mechanisms of FLP.
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Metabonomic study of biochemical changes in the rat urine induced by Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Berit.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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We adopted an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) metabonomics approach to study metabonomic features of rats induced by orally administered Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Berit. (BX). The integrated urinary MS data were analyzed via principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to identify the differential metabolites. Ten potential biomarkers were identified within complex sample matrix of urine. The identified biomarkers indicated the perturbations of tryptophan, phenylacetylglycine and pantothenic acid metabolism in BX-induced rats. The biomarkers that were found to be changed with the passage of time were explained tentatively based on previous study.
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Development of a sensitive RT-PCR method for amplifying and sequencing near full-length HCV genotype 1 RNA from patient samples.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) agents for hepatitis C virus (HCV) span a variety of targets, including proteins encoded by the NS3/4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B genes. Treatment with DAAs has been shown to select variants with sequence changes in the HCV genome encoding amino acids that may confer resistance to the treatment. In order to assess these effects in patients, a Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed to sequence these regions of HCV from patient plasma.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.