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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multicenter Study on Adult Growth Hormone Level in Postoperative Pituitary Tumor Patients.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The objective of this study is to observe the adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients of multi-centers, and explore the change of hypophyseal hormones in postoperative pituitary tumor patients. Sixty patients with pituitary tumor admitted during March, 2011-March, 2012 were selected. Postoperative hypophyseal hormone deficiency and the change of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative growth hormone levels were recorded. Growth hormone hypofunction was the most common hormonal hypofunction, which took up to 85.0 %. Adrenocortical hormone hypofunction was next to it and accounted for 58.33 %. GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn deficiency was the most common in postoperative hormone deficiency, which took up to 40.00 %, and GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn + AVP and GH deficiencies were next to it and accounted for 23.33 and 16.67 %, respectively. The hormone levels in patients after total pituitary tumor resection were significantly lower than those after partial pituitary tumor resection, and the difference was statistically significant; growth hormone and serum prolactin levels after surgery in two groups were decreased, and the difference was statistically significant. The incidence rate of growth hormone deficiency in postoperative pituitary tumor patients is high, which is usually complicated with deficiency of various hypophyseal hormones. In clinical, we should pay attention to the levels of the hypopnyseal hormones, and take timely measures to avoid postoperative complications.
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[The study of photo-elastic modulator-based Fourier transform spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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In order to enhance the spectrum resolution of current photo-elastic modulator-based Fourier transform spectrometer, a multi-reflected photo-elastic modulator-based interferometer structure was proposed in the present paper. Through coating reflecting film alternatingly on the photo-elastic crystal and light oblique incidence, and allowing the incident ray to have the multi-reflection in the crystal and exit from the other side of the crystal, the authors increased the light propagation distance in the crystal and enhanced the optical path difference at last. Based on this, the function of interference-spectrum retrieval was established, the optical system matched to the multi-reflected PEM-based interferometer was designed, and finally, the experimental system of multi-reflected PEM-based Fourier transform spectroscopy for telemetry was established. The principle of verification tests by using 671 nm laser and xenon lamp shows that the interferogram was clear and stable, and the feasibility of the principle of the system was verified. The expected result shows that the spectrum resolution of the designed PEM-FTs with multi-reflection achieved 13 cm(-1), and its luminous flux just didn't reduce too much, which ensured the SNR. Through spectral inversion of the interference fringes, the technical feasibility of the spectrum system developed was verified. This work established the basic condition of prototype fabrication, radiation precise calibration, spectral calibration and instrument signal-to-noise ratio test and so on.
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[Molecular characters of Schisandra chinensis with white fruit by RAPD and ISSR makers].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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The characters of Schisandra chinensis with white fruit were represented at molecular levels and the genetic diversity were investigated using RAPD and ISSR.
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Androgen receptor promotes gastric cancer cell migration and invasion via AKT-phosphorylation dependent upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Androgen receptor (AR) plays an important role in many kinds of cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of AR in gastric cancer (GC) are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the role of AR in GC cell migration, invasion and metastatic potential. Our data showed that AR expression was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and late TNM stages. These findings were accompanied by activation of AKT and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). AR overexpression induced increases in GC cell migration, invasion and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. These effects were attenuated by inhibition of AKT, AR and MMP9. AR overexpression upregulated MMP9 protein levels, whereas this effect was counteracted by AR siRNA. Inhibition of AKT by siRNA or an inhibitor (MK-2206 2HC) decreased AR protein expression in both stably transfected and parental SGC-7901 cells. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that AR bound to the AR-binding sites of the MMP9 promoter. In summary, AR overexpression induced by AKT phosphorylation upregulated MMP9 by binding to its promoter region to promote gastric carcinogenesis. The AKT/AR/MMP9 pathway plays an important role in GC metastasis and may be a novel therapeutic target for GC treatment.
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Retraction: Methanol-induced conformation transition of gland fibroin monitored by FTIR spectroscopy and terahertz spectroscopy.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Retraction of 'Methanol-induced conformation transition of gland fibroin monitored by FTIR spectroscopy and terahertz spectroscopy' by Chao Yan et al., Analyst, 2014, 139, 1967-1972.
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[Identification of Schisandra chinensis with white fruits based on ITS2 sequences].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To analyse a special kind of Schisandra chinensis with the white fruit using ITS2 barcode at molecular levels.
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Screening aberrant methylation profile in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma for Kazakhs in Xinjiang area of China.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To screen the aberrant methylation genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) for Kazakh nationality in Xinjiang, and the aberrant DNA methylation genes pattern provides a clue for deeply study on ESCC mechanism. Illumina Human Methylation 450 K chip was used to screen the genome-wide methylation on six cancer tissues and six adjacent normal tissues of ESCC in Kazakh people. Meanwhile, mRNA library was constructed by scanning the RNA expression on two cancer tissues and two adjacent normal tissues by Hiseq2000. After association study between the methylation profile and expression profile, aberrant DNA methylated genes were screened out and were uploaded to the GoMiner and the KEGG, completing the bioinformatic analysis. There were 227 hypermethylation genes and 6 hypomethylated genes in cancer tissue, mRNA expression varied from 0.0312 to 8,192 in cancer tissues compared with 0.0312-1,024 in adjacent normal tissues. The correlation study indicated that there were 10 loci in 10 down-regulated genes of hypermethylated in negative correlation group. Additionally, there were 11 loci in 10 up-regulated genes in negative group. Using GoMiner to do GO analysis on aberrant DNA methylation genes, RAPGEFL1, TP53AIP1, KIAA1522, DUOXA2 were identified not involved in any biological processes. ALDH1L1 participated in folinic acid catabolism and CAPN1 positively regulated the cell proliferation. And ALDH1L1 involved in one carbon metabolism and CAPN1 participate in the apoptosis process by applying pathway analysis. The aberrant DNA methylation profiles were established and provided a clue for deeply study on ESCC of Kazakh nationality.
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RP5-833A20.1/miR-382-5p/NFIA-Dependent Signal Transduction Pathway Contributes to the Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis and Inflammatory Reaction.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis is the number one cause of death in Western countries and threatens to become the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Long noncoding RNAs are emerging as new players in gene regulation, but how long noncoding RNAs operate in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear.
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A Single-Tube Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Specimens by Use of Multiplex PCR-Capillary Electrophoresis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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In this study, we developed a single-tube multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay to type Mycoplasma pneumoniae directly from respiratory samples collected from children with respiratory infections. The multiplex PCR included four fluorescently primed VNTRs (Mpn13, Mpn14, Mpn15, and Mpn16) and was carried out in a single tube. A total of 137 M. pneumoniae-positive specimens, collected in 2013 from Beijing, China, were divided among four types (M4-5-7-2, M4-5-6-2, M3-5-6-2, and M5-5-7-2) using the amended MLVA system. The most prevalent genotype was M4-5-7-2. No correlation was found between macrolide resistance in the M. pneumoniae samples and the MLVA types. To our knowledge, this is the first study to type and analyze M. pneumoniae clinical specimens using multiplex PCR-capillary electrophoresis in a single tube. This novel low-cost method can be used to rapidly type M. pneumoniae clinical specimens directly and shows great potential for monitoring outbreaks of M. pneumoniae.
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Pseudanoplocephala crawfordi is a member of genus Hymenolepis based on phylogenetic analysis using ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Abstract Pseudanoplocephala crawfordi is one of the important zoonotic cestodes causing economic significance and public health concern. In the present study, the phylogenetic position of P. crawfordi isolated from pigs was re-inferred using molecular markers of internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) and partial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial DNA. The lengths of ITS1, ITS2 rDNA and pnad1 were 757?bp, 628?bp and 458?bp, respectively. Sequence differences in the ITS1, ITS2 rDNA and pnad1 between P. crawfordi and Hymenolepis species were smaller than that between cestodes within genus Hymenolepis. Phylogenetic analyses based on three gene fragments showed that P. crawfordi was grouped into cluster of Hymenolepis species. These results suggested that P. crawfordi would be one member of genus Hymenolepis but not in a new genus Pseudanoplocephala.
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Fast quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Objective: Endogenous carbohydrates in biosamples are frequently highlighted as the most differential metabolites in many metabolomics studies. A simple, fast, simultaneous quantitative method for 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma has been developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Method: In order to quantify 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma, various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometry conditions, and plasma preparation methods, were investigated. Different conditions in this quantified analysis were performed and optimized. The reproducibility, precision, recovery, and stability of the method were verified. Result: The results indicated that a methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture could effectively and reproducibly precipitate rat plasma proteins. Cold organic solvents coupled with vortex for 1 min and incubated at -20°C for 20 min were the most optimal conditions for protein precipitation and extraction. The results, according to the linearity, recovery, precision, and stability, showed that the method was satisfactory in the quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma. Conclusion: The quantified analysis of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma performed excellently in the sensitivity, high throughput and simple sample preparation, which met the requirement of quantification in specific expanded metabolomic studies after the global metabolic profiling research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Combined detection of CEA, CA 19-9, CA 242 and CA 50 in the diagnosis and prognosis of resectable gastric cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Our aim was to investigate the value of combined detection of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9, CA 242 and CA 50 in diagnosis and assessment of prognosis in consecutive gastric cancer patients. Clinical data including preoperative serum CEA, CA 19-9, CA 242, and CA 50 values and information on clinical pathological factors were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were used to explore the relationship between tumor markers and survival. Positive rates of tumor markers CEA, CA 19-9, CA 242 and CA 50 in the diagnosis of gastric cancer were 17.7, 17.1, 20.4 and 13.8%, respectively, and the positive rate for all four markers combined was 36.6%. Patients with elevated preoperative serum concentrations of CEA, CA 19-9, CA 242 and CA 50, had late clinical tumor stage and significantly poorer overall survival. Five-year survival rates in patients with elevated CEA, CA 19-9, CA 242 and CA 50 were 28.1, 25.8, 27.0 and 24.1%, respectively, compared with 55.0, 55.4, 56.4 and 54.5% in patients with these markers at normal levels (p<0.01). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses, an elevated CA 242 level was determined to be an independent prognostic marker in gastric cancer patients. Combined detection of four tumor markers increased the positive rate for gastric cancer diagnosis. CA 242 showed higher diagnostic value and CA 50 showed lower diagnostic value. In resectable gastric carcinoma, preoperative CA 242 level was associated with disease stage, and was found to be a significant independent prognostic marker in gastric cancer patients.
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Dynamic assessment of the changing geometry of the mitral apparatus in 3D could stratify abnormalities in functional mitral regurgitation and potentially guide therapy.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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In functional mitral regurgitation (FMR), effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) displays a dynamic pattern. The impact of dynamic changes of annulus dysfunction and leaflets tenting on phasic EROA was explored with real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE).
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[Changes of fingerprints with crude and processed cassiae semen in xuezhiling tablets].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To establish an effective and convenient method for HPLC fingerprints of Xuezhiling tablets and new Xuezhiling tablets, and to observe the changes of fingerprint with crude and processed Cassiae Semen in Xuezhiling tablets.
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A 7.81 W 355 nm ultraviolet picosecond laser using La2CaB10O19 as a nonlinear optical crystal.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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We demonstrate high-power 355 nm ultraviolet (UV) picosecond (ps) laser using a type I phase-matching nonlinear optical crystal of La(2)CaB(10)O(19) (LCB), which possesses the characteristic of non-hygroscopicity. The high-power third harmonic generation was successfully achieved from two types of 1064 nm ps fundamental lasers. The maximum output power of 7.81 W of 355 nm UV laser was obtained with a pump of 35.2 W 1064 nm ps laser (80 MHz repetition rate, 10 ps pulse width) with optical conversion efficiency of 22.2%. The experimental results show that the LCB crystal is a promising candidate for generating high-power UV laser.
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Discovery and characterization of small molecules that target the GTPase Ral.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The Ras-like GTPases RalA and RalB are important drivers of tumour growth and metastasis. Chemicals that block Ral function would be valuable as research tools and for cancer therapeutics. Here we used protein structure analysis and virtual screening to identify drug-like molecules that bind to a site on the GDP-bound form of Ral. The compounds RBC6, RBC8 and RBC10 inhibited the binding of Ral to its effector RALBP1, as well as inhibiting Ral-mediated cell spreading of murine embryonic fibroblasts and anchorage-independent growth of human cancer cell lines. The binding of the RBC8 derivative BQU57 to RalB was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance and (1)H-(15)N transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) NMR spectroscopy. RBC8 and BQU57 show selectivity for Ral relative to the GTPases Ras and RhoA and inhibit tumour xenograft growth to a similar extent to the depletion of Ral using RNA interference. Our results show the utility of structure-based discovery for the development of therapeutics for Ral-dependent cancers.
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[Research on the neas infrared focal plane array detector imaging technology used in the laser warning].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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In order to achieve the incoming laser's accurate position, it is necessary to improve the detected laser's direction resolution. The InGaAs focal plane array detector with the type of FPA-320 x 256-C was selected as the core component of the diffraction grating laser warning device. The detection theory of laser wavelength and direction based on diffraction grating was introduced. The drive circuit was designed through the analysis of the detector's performance and parameters. Under the FPGA' s timing control, the detector's analog output was sampled by the high-speed AD. The data was cached to FPGA's extended SRAM, and then transferred to a PC through USB. Labview on a PC collects the raw data for processing and displaying. The imaging experiments were completed with the above method. With the wavelength of 1550 nm and 980 nm laser from different directions the diffraction images were detected. Through analysis the location of the zero order and one order can be determined. According to the grating diffraction theory, the wavelength and the direction of the two-dimensional angle can be calculated. It indicates that the wavelength error is less than 10 nm, and the angle error is less than 1 degrees.
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Localizing hand motor area using resting-state fMRI: validated with direct cortical stimulation.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) is a promising tool in clinical application, especially in presurgical mapping for neurosurgery. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of R-fMRI in the localization of hand motor area in patients with brain tumors validated by direct cortical stimulation (DCS). We also compared this technique to task-based blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI (T-fMRI).
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Ox-LDL Upregulates CRP Expression Through the IGF2 Pathway in THP-1 Macrophages.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant protein that not only plays a predictive role in determining atherogenesis risk but also represents an active participant in atherogenesis onset and progression. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have reported that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) plays a significant role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of Ox-LDL on CRP expression remains unclear. THP-1 macrophages were treated with 0, 25, 50, or 100 ?g/mL of Ox-LDL for 48 h, or 50 ?g/mL of Ox-LDL for 0, 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. We found that Ox-LDL markedly increased insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and CRP mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophages. Treatment with Ox-LDL increased CRP protein expression, and this effect was completely abolished by siRNA-mediated silencing of IGF2 in THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, treatment with pcDNA3.1-IGF2 significantly enhanced CRP protein expression in Ox-LDL-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. CRP expression is upregulated by Ox-LDL through the IGF2 pathway in THP-1 macrophages.
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[Mechanism research on the lupeol treatment on MCF-7 breast cancer cells based on cell metabonomics].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The objective of this research is to investigate the suppressive effects of lupeol on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and explore its mechanism on inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 cells based on cell metabonomics and cell cycle. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in the cell metabonomics assay to identify metabolites of MCF-7 cells and MCF-7 cells treated with lupeol. Then, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to process the metabolic data and model parameters of OPLS-DA were as follows: R2Ycum = 0.988, Q2Ycum = 0.964, which indicated that these two groups could be distinguished clearly. The metabolites (VIP (variable importance in the projection) > 1) were analyzed by t-test, and finally, metabolites (t < 0.05) were identified to be biomarkers. Eleven metabolites such as butanedioic acid, phosphoric acid, L-leucine and isoleucine which had a significant contribution to classification were selected and preliminarily identified due to the accurate mass. Cell cycle assay was analyzed by FACSCalibur. Since the cells in the phase of G1 were increased significantly after the treatment of lupeol, we speculated that lupeol has a blocking effect on the generation of succinyl-CoA and the reaction of substrate phosphorylation of tricarboxylic acid cycle of MCF-7 cells. This study provided a novel approach to the mechanism research on the lupeol treatment on MCF-7 breast cancer cells based on cell metabonomics.
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Recent advances on capillary columns, detectors, and two-dimensional separations in capillary electrochromatography.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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As a typical miniaturized analytical technique, CEC has attracted much attention because of its low sample and solvent consumption, high efficiency, high selectivity, high resolution, and fast speed. In this review, we mainly cover the development of capillary columns and detection techniques in the CEC since 2009. Herein, three types of capillary columns, namely, open-tubular capillary columns, monolithic columns and packed columns, and several types of detectors are reviewed in detail. Moreover, a 2D separation system based on CEC is also reported.
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Sequence variation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BCRF1 in lymphomas in non-endemic areas of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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To characterize the sequence variation and the potential implication of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncogene in lymphoma, BamHI-C fragment rightward reading frame 1 (BCRF1) was sequenced in different types of EBV-positive lymphoma in northern China, and polymorphisms were compared with previous variation data from other malignancies. The dominate subtype of BCRF1 in EBV-positive lymphoma was the B95-8 prototype, and a mutation in the signal peptide was more strongly associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The high conservation of BCRF1 in EBV-positive lymphoma suggests its important role in maintaining the basic biological activity and immunosuppressive functions of the virus.
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Chondrogenic Differentiation of Marrow Clots After Microfracture with BMSC-Derived ECM Scaffold In Vitro.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Repairing articular cartilage by combining microfracture and various scaffolds has been extensively performed in in vivo animal models. We previously described a novel extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-derived ECM (BMSC-dECM) scaffold on the chondrogenic differentiation of marrow clots following microfracture in vitro. In this study, we manufactured the BMSC-dECM scaffold using a freeze-drying method. To obtain the marrow clots, a full-thickness cartilage defect was established and microholes were created in the trochlear groove of New Zealand white rabbits. The samples were divided and cultured in vitro for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The samples included a culture of the marrow clot alone (Group 1), a culture of the marrow clot with transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-?3) (Group 2), a culture of the composite of the BMSC-dECM scaffold and the marrow clot alone (Group 3), and a culture of the composite with TGF-?3 (Group 4). A smooth and glossy surface was observed in Group 2 and Group 4 over time, but the surface for Group 4 was larger from week 1 onward. Compressive strength gradually increased in Groups 2 and 4, and greater increases were observed in Group 4 during the 8-week culture period. Enhanced cartilage-like matrix deposition of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen were confirmed by Safranin O and immunohistochemistry staining, respectively, in Groups 2 and 4. The GAG and collagen contents also gradually increased over time in Groups 2 and 4; the increase was greater in Group 4. In addition, real-time-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the expression of chondrogenic genes, such as COL2, ACAN, and SOX9, was gradually upregulated in Groups 2 and 4. However, greater increases in the expression of these cartilage-like genes were observed in Group 4 from week 4 onward. Our results suggest that the BMSC-dECM scaffold may favor the chondrogenesis of marrow clots following microfracture in vitro. In conclusion, these tissue engineering-like constructs could be potential candidates for cartilage repair.
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An autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular matrix scaffold applied with bone marrow stimulation for cartilage repair.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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It is well known that implanting a bioactive scaffold into a cartilage defect site can enhance cartilage repair after bone marrow stimulation (BMS). However, most of the current scaffolds are derived from xenogenous tissue and/or artificial polymers. The implantation of these scaffolds adds risks of pathogen transmission, undesirable inflammation, and other immunological reactions, as well as ethical issues in clinical practice. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of implanting autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular matrix (aBMSC-dECM) scaffolds after BMS for cartilage repair.
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Study of the medial group retropharyngeal node metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on 3100 newly diagnosed cases.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Patterns of metastases to the medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RPLN) from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have gain little attention. Since the incidence of dysphagia was closely related to whether the medial RPLN was irradiated, we carried out a prospective study to explore the patterns of the medial RPLN involvement.
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High-power picosecond 355 nm laser based on La?CaB??O?? crystal.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Third harmonic generation experiments were performed on a type-I phase-matching La2CaB10O19 crystal cut at ?=49.4° and ?=0.0° with dimensions of 4.0??mm×4.0??mm×17.6??mm. A 1064 nm laser with a maximum average power of 35.2 W was employed as the fundamental light source, which has a pulse width of 10 picoseconds and a pulse repetition rate of 80 MHz. A type-I noncritical phase-matching LBO crystal was used to generate 532 nm lasers. By investigating a series of focusing lens combinations, a picosecond 355 nm laser of 5.3 W was obtained, which is the highest power of picosecond 355 nm laser based on a La2CaB10O19 crystal so far. The total conversion efficiency from 1064 to 355 nm was up to 15.1%.
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[Feasibility of delta-shaped gastroduodenostomy in totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To investigate the feasibility of delta-shaped(DS) gastroduodenostomy in totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy(TLDG) for gastric cancer.
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Antitumour indolequinones: synthesis and activity against human pancreatic cancer cells.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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An important determinant of the growth inhibitory activity of indolequinones against pancreatic cancer cells is substitution on the 2-position with 2-unsubstituted derivatives being markedly more potent. A series of indolequinones bearing a range of substituents on nitrogen and at the indolylcarbinyl position was prepared by copper(II)-mediated reaction of bromoquinones and enamines, followed by functional group interconversions. The compounds were then assayed for their ability to inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancer cells. The pKa of the leaving group at the 3-position was shown to influence growth inhibitory activity that is consistent with the proposed mechanism of action of reduction, loss of leaving group and formation of a reactive iminium species. Substitutions on the indole nitrogen were well tolerated with little influence on growth inhibitory activity while substitutions at the 5- and 6-positions larger than methoxy led to decreased activity. The studies presented define the range of substitutions of 2-unsubstituted indolequinones required for optimal growth inhibitory activity.
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Antifungal activity of compounds extracted from Cortex Pseudolaricis against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Cortex Pseudolaricis is the root bark of Pseudolarix amabilis Rehder, found only in China, and has been widely used in folk antifungal remedies in traditional Chinese medicine. In order to find the natural antifungal agents against mango anthracnose, eight compounds, namely pseudolaric acid A (1), ethyl pseudolaric acid B (2), pseudolaric acid B (3), pseudolaric acid B-O-?-d-glucoside (4), piperonylic acid (5), propionic acid (6), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid (7), and 4-(3-formyl-5-methoxyphenyl) butanoic acid (8) were isolated from the ethanol extracts of Cortex Pseudolaricis by bioassay-guided fractionation and evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. Results demonstrated that all of the eight compounds inhibited the mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides at 5 ?g/mL. Among them, pseudolaric acid B and pseudolaric acid A showed the strongest inhibition with the EC50 values of 1.07 and 1.62 ?g/mL, respectively. Accordingly, both Pseudolaric acid B and Pseudolaric acid A highly inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of C. gloeosporioides. Dipping 100 ?g/mL pseudolaric acid B treatment exhibited more effective suppression on postharvest anthracnose in mango fruit when compared to the same concentration of carbendazim. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that pseudolaric acid B caused alterations in the hyphal morphology of C. gloeosporioides, including distortion, swelling, and collapse. Pseudolaric acid B caused the mycelial apexes to show an abnormal growth in dimensions with multiple ramifications in subapical expanded areas with irregular shape. These findings warrant further investigation into optimization of pseudolaric acid B to explore a potential antifungal agent for crop protection.
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Comprehensive ultra-performance liquid chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric analysis of eicosanoid metabolites in human samples.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Over the past decade, the number of known eicosanoids has expanded immensely and we have now developed an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (UPLC-QTRAP/MS/MS) method to monitor and quantify numerous eicosanoids. The UPLC-QTRAP/MS/MS approach utilizes scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to optimize sensitivity, number of metabolites that can be analyzed and the time requirement of the analysis. A total of 184 eicosanoids including 26 deuterated internal standards can be separated and monitored in a single 5min UPLC run. To demonstrate a practical application, human plasma samples were analyzed following solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the recovery rate and matrix effects were determined for the 26 deuterated internal standards added to the plasma. The method was validated and shown to be sensitive with the limit of quantitation at pg levels for most compounds, accurate with recovery rates of 70-120%, and precise with a CV<30 for all compounds. Also, the method showed a linear response over a range spanning several orders of magnitude. In a QC human plasma sample, we identified and rigorously quantified over 120 eicosanoids.
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Host-derived, pore-forming toxin-like protein and trefoil factor complex protects the host against microbial infection.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the bacterial ?-pore-forming toxin superfamily. Surprisingly, numerous aerolysin-like proteins exist in vertebrates, but their biological functions are unknown. ??-CAT, a complex of an aerolysin-like protein subunit (two ??-crystallin domains followed by an aerolysin pore-forming domain) and two trefoil factor subunits, has been identified in frogs (Bombina maxima) skin secretions. Here, we report the rich expression of this protein, in the frog blood and immune-related tissues, and the induction of its presence in peritoneal lavage by bacterial challenge. This phenomena raises the possibility of its involvement in antimicrobial infection. When ??-CAT was administrated in a peritoneal infection model, it greatly accelerated bacterial clearance and increased the survival rate of both frogs and mice. Meanwhile, accelerated Interleukin-1? release and enhanced local leukocyte recruitments were determined, which may partially explain the robust and effective antimicrobial responses observed. The release of interleukin-1? was potently triggered by ??-CAT from the frog peritoneal cells and murine macrophages in vitro. ??-CAT was rapidly endocytosed and translocated to lysosomes, where it formed high molecular mass SDS-stable oligomers (>170 kDa). Lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin B release were detected, which may explain the activation of caspase-1 inflammasome and subsequent interleukin-1? maturation and release. To our knowledge, these results provide the first functional evidence of the ability of a host-derived aerolysin-like protein to counter microbial infection by eliciting rapid and effective host innate immune responses. The findings will also largely help to elucidate the possible involvement and action mechanisms of aerolysin-like proteins and/or trefoil factors widely existing in vertebrates in the host defense against pathogens.
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Activation of spinal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors specifically suppresses pain hypersensitivity.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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This study aims to identify the inhibitory role of the spinal glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling in pain hypersensitivity and its mechanism of action in rats and mice. First, GLP-1Rs were identified to be specifically expressed on microglial cells in the spinal dorsal horn, and profoundly upregulated after peripheral nerve injury. In addition, intrathecal GLP-1R agonists GLP-1(7-36) and exenatide potently alleviated formalin-, peripheral nerve injury-, bone cancer-, and diabetes-induced hypersensitivity states by 60-90%, without affecting acute nociceptive responses. The antihypersensitive effects of exenatide and GLP-1 were completely prevented by GLP-1R antagonism and GLP-1R gene knockdown. Furthermore, exenatide evoked ?-endorphin release from both the spinal cord and cultured microglia. Exenatide antiallodynia was completely prevented by the microglial inhibitor minocycline, ?-endorphin antiserum, and opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Our results illustrate a novel spinal dorsal horn microglial GLP-1R/?-endorphin inhibitory pathway in a variety of pain hypersensitivity states.
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Surveillance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection among children in Beijing from 2007 to 2012.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Mycoplasma pneumonia (M. pneumoniae) is one of the key pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia. A global pandemic of M. pneumoniae has occurred since 2010. The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of M. pneumoniae in children in Beijing from 2007-2012.
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Dihydrocapsaicin down-regulates apoM expression through inhibiting Foxa2 expression and enhancing LXR? expression in HepG2 cells.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Apolipoprotein M (apoM), as a novel apolipoprotein which is mainly expressed in liver and kidney tissues, is associated with development and progression of atherosclerosis and diabetes. Our group have recently shown that Dihydrocapsaicin(DHC)can significantly decrease atherosclerotic plaque formation in apoE-/- mice. However, the effect and possible mechanism of DHC on apoM expression remain unclear.
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Glucuronidation of aurantio-obtusin: identification of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and species differences.
Xenobiotica
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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1. The aurantio-obtusin's glucuronide was detected when aurantio-obtusin was incubated with human liver microsomes (HLMs). Recombinant UGT isoforms screening experiment showed that UGT1A8 was the major isoform contributed to the glucuronidation. 2. The metabolic profiles for aurantio-obtusin in liver microsomes from different species were similar, however, the intrinsic clearance values (Vmax/Km) among the species were: Monkey?>?Human?>?Rat?>?Rabbit?>?Dog?>?Pig?>?Mouse?>?Guinea pig.
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Pressurized CEC coupled with QTOF-MS for urinary metabolomics.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Pressurized CEC (pCEC) coupled with ESI-QTOF-MS using a sheathless interface was applied for metabolomics to develop an alternative analytical method for metabolic profiling of complex biofluid samples such as urine. The hyphenated system was investigated with mixed standards and pooled urine samples to evaluate its precision, repeatability, linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity. The applied voltage, mobile phase, and gradient elution were optimized and applied for the analysis of urinary metabolites. Multivariate data analysis was subsequently performed and used to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy controls successfully. High separation efficiency has been achieved in pCEC due to the EOF. For metabolite identification, the pCEC-MS separation mechnism was helpful for discriminating the fragment ions of glutamine conjugates from co-eluted metabolites. Three glutamine conjugates, including phenylacetylglutamine, acylglutamine C8:1, and acylglutamine C6:1 were identified among 16 differential urinary metabolites of lung cancer. Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis of acylglutamine C8:1 resulted in an area-under-curve value of 0.882. Overall, this work suggests that this pCEC-ESI-QTOF-MS method may provide a novel and useful platform for metabolomic studies due to its superior separation and identification.
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Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of 1,2,3-triazole-Jaspine B hybrids as potential cytotoxic agents.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Two series of more available novel 1,2,3-triazole-Jaspine B hybrids were efficiently synthesized employing click chemistry approach and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines (EC-9706, MGC-803 and MCF-7). Among them, compound 14h showed excellent inhibition against MCF-7 (IC50 = 1.93 ?M) and was more potent than 5-Fu and Jaspine B against all three cancer cell lines. Further investigation of apoptosis assay and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that compound 14h caused cellular early and late apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase in a concentration- and time-independent manner. This was the first report about the synthesis and in vitro cytotoxic evaluation of 1,2,3-triazole-Jaspine B hybrids.
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Methanol-induced conformation transition of gland fibroin monitored by FTIR spectroscopy and terahertz spectroscopy.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Silk fibroin extracted from the gland of Bombyx mori silkworm is employed as an ideal system to investigate its conformation transition in methanol/D2O solution. The transition process was monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Analysis of FTIR spectra suggests that, with increasing time of treatment, an increasing band at 1634 cm(-1) is observed indicating the formation of ?-pleated sheets coincident with the loss of intensity of a band at 1673 cm(-1) indicating decrease of the random coil structure. In addition, there is a burst phase of 33% occurring during the first 2 minutes when the gland fibroin membranes are immersed into methanol/D2O solution. THz spectra present distinct features for conformations of silk fibroin, in combination with the results obtained from FTIR; the peaks observed at 1.54 THz (51 cm(-1)), 1.67 THz (55 cm(-1)), and 1.84 THz (61 cm(-1)) can be attributed to a ?-pleated sheet, ?-helix, and random coil, respectively. Intensity change of bands centered at 1.54 THz and 1.84 THz confirms the formation of the ?-pleated sheet and the disappearance of the random coil. Kinetic curves obtained from THz spectra indicate that the methanol-induced conformation transition from the random coil to the ?-pleated sheet is fitted with an exponential function. The results suggest that THz-TDS presents great potential as a complementary approach in studying the secondary structure of a protein, providing significant insight into the silk-spinning process in vivo.
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Urinary metabolomic study of non-small cell lung carcinoma based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Metabolic profiles from human urine reveal the significant difference of carnitine and acylcarnitines levels between non-small cell lung carcinoma patients and healthy controls. Urine samples from cancer patients and healthy individuals were assayed in this metabolomic study using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The data were normalized by the sum of all intensities and creatinine calibration, respectively, before orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. Twenty differential metabolites were identified based on standard compounds or tandem mass spectrometry fragments. Among them, some medium-/long-chain acylcarnitines, for example, cis-3,4-methylene heptanoylcarnitine, were found to be downregulated while carnitine was upregulated in urine samples from the cancer group compared to the control group. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the two groups showed that the area under curve for the combination of carnitine and 11 selected acylcarnitines was 0.958. This study suggests that the developed carnitine and acylcarnitines profiling method has the potential to be used for screening non-small cell lung carcinoma.
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Molecular characterizations of PCR-positive Mycoplasma pneumoniae specimens collected from Australia and China.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In this study, M. pneumoniae strains in PCR-positive specimens collected from patients in Sydney, Australia (30 samples), and Beijing, China (83 samples), were characterized using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), P1-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and sequencing of domain V of the 23S rRNA gene to compare genotype distribution and macrolide resistance rates between locations. Eighteen distinct MLVA types were identified in specimens from Sydney, of which 10 were known (types E, G, J, M, N, P, U, V, S, and X) and 8 previously unknown. Strains were equally distributed between P1-RFLP type 1 and type 2 variants. Among samples from Beijing, MLVA types E, G, J, P, U, X, and Z and four new types were identified. Most specimens belonged to P1-RFLP type 1. A nomenclature based on five VNTR loci is proposed to designate MLVA patterns. Macrolide resistance-associated mutations were identified in only 1 of 30 specimens (3.3%) from Sydney and 71 of 83 (85.5%) from Beijing (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that although multiple individual M. pneumoniae strains were circulating in Beijing, the genotypes were less diverse than those in Sydney. However, the greatest regional difference was in the incidence of macrolide resistance, which may reflect differences in antibiotic use and/or measures in resistance control.
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Effect of two formulations on the decline curves and residue levels of rotenone in cabbage and soil under field conditions.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The dissipation and residue levels of rotenone with suspension concentrate (SC) as well as water dispersible granule (WDG) formulations in cabbage and soil were investigated under field conditions. The decline curves of rotenone residues in cabbage and soil corresponded with first-order kinetics. The dissipation rate of rotenone in cabbage was faster than that in soil. The half-lives of the SC formulations in cabbage and soil were 1.14d to 1.85d and 2.26d to 3.98d, respectively. For the WDG formulation, the values were 1.33d to 1.96d and 2.41d to 3.38d. Less spraying, lower dosage, and longer pre-harvest intervals could reduce terminal residue levels. Terminal residues below the MRL (0.5mg kg(-1)) were achieved after pre-harvest intervals of 3d at either once (45g a.i. ha(-1)) or twice (90g a.i. ha(-1)) the recommended dosage. The different dissipation processes of rotenone in cabbage and soil under field conditions could be attributed to the different climate and soil properties, and the types of formulation had no apparent effect on half-life. Formulation type affected the initial concentrations and finally led to different terminal residues. Prolonged pre-harvest intervals are necessary to ensure that the products are sufficiently safe for consumption.
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Individuals with psychometric schizotypy show similar social but not physical anhedonia to patients with schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Very few studies have examined physical and social anhedonia across the spectrum of schizophrenia. In the present study, we recruited three groups of participants (n=84 in each group): patients with schizophrenia, schizotypy and non-schizotypy as assessed by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). All participants completed the self-reported trait anhedonia scales (the Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale and the Social Anhedonia Scale). The clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). We found that the three groups differed in both physical and social anhedonia. The schizotypy group reported higher levels of physical anhedonia than the non-schizotypy group, and the patient group reported higher levels of physical anhedonia than the schizotypy group. For social anhedonia, the non-schizotypy group differed significantly from both the schizotypy and the patient group, while no significant difference was found between the last two groups. Our findings show that individuals with schizotypy exhibits similar social but not physical anhedonia compared with patients with schizophrenia, which further suggests that decreased pleasure experiences in the social environment may be a valuable target for identification and early intervention in high-risk populations.
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A lincRNA-DYNLRB2-2/GPR119/GLP-1R/ABCA1-dependent signal transduction pathway is essential for the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Accumulated evidence shows that G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) plays a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effect of GPR119 on cholesterol metabolism and inflammation in THP-1 macrophages and atherosclerotic plaque progression in apoE(-/-) mice. We found that oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) significantly induced long intervening noncoding RNA (lincRNA)-DYNLRB2-2 expression, resulting in the upregulation of GPR119 and ABCA1 expression through the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor signaling pathway. GPR119 significantly decreased cellular cholesterol content and increased apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. In vivo, apoE(-/-) mice were randomly divided into two groups and infected with lentivirus (LV)-Mock or LV-GPR119 for 8 weeks. GPR119-treated mice showed decreased liver lipid content and plasma TG, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? levels, whereas plasma levels of apoA-I were significantly increased. Consistent with this, atherosclerotic lesion development was significantly inhibited by infection of apoE(-/-) mice with LV-GPR119. Our findings clearly indicate that, Ox-LDL significantly induced lincRNA-DYNLRB2-2 expression, which promoted ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and inhibited inflammation through GPR119 in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Moreover, GPR119 decreased lipid and serum inflammatory cytokine levels, decreasing atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice. These suggest that GPR119 may be a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent.
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Solid-phase extraction approach for phospholipids profiling by titania-coated silica microspheres prior to reversed-phase liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection and tandem mass spectrometry analysis.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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A novel strategy for selectively adsorbing phospholipids (PLs) on titania-coated silica core-shell microspheres (TiO2/SiO2) was developed. The TiO2/SiO2 microspheres were prepared through water-vapor-induced internal hydrolysis and then characterized by SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and measurements of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area. Analyses showed that the titania layer was uniformly distributed onto the surface of silica particles. The TiO2/SiO2 microspheres were employed as sorbent in solid-phase extraction (SPE), and their absorptive ability was investigated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection (RPLC-ELSD). Important factors that affect the extraction, such as loading buffer, eluting buffer, and elution volume, were investigated in detail and optimized by using standard samples. Results reveal that the developed SPE approach had higher recoveries for PLs than that based on pure TiO2 particles. The proposed SPE method was used for extraction of PLs from serum and showed great potential for identifying more kinds of endogenous PL metabolites by ultra performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS). The proposed SPE method with the composite sorbent was used to screen PLs from a biological matrix with high selectivity and efficiency. This approach is a promising method for selective extraction of PLs in lipidomics or phospholipidomics.
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Study on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone in rats by HPLC-UV and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection was developed for studying the pharmacokinetics of costunolide (Cos) and dehydrocostus lactone (Dehy) in rats after intravenous (i.v.) administration. Following i.v. administration, the maximum plasma concentrations of Cos and Dehy were observed to be 12.29 ± 1.47 and 5.79 ± 0.13 µg/mL, respectively. The bioavailability of Cos was larger than that of Dehy; however, the clearance and the volume of distribution of Dehy were much larger than those of Cos. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry system with automated MS(E) (E represents collision energy) data analysis software (MetaboLynx(TM)) was used to analyze and identify the metabolites of Cos and Dehy in vivo. Four metabolites of Cos and six metabolites of Dehy were discovered from the plasma, urine and feces of rats. The main metabolic pathway of Cos was phase II biotransformation, but the main metabolic pathways of Dehy was phase ? biotransformation. Two sequential desaturations and N-acetylcysteine conjugation were the common metabolic pathways of Cos and Dehy in rats. This information may be useful for the further development of the two drug candidates.
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Domain-specific hedonic deficits towards social affective but not monetary incentives in social anhedonia.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Anticipatory and consummatory dissociation of hedonic experience may manifest as anhedonia in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if this temporal dissociation of pleasure experience is also relevant in other symptoms like social anhedonia in the schizophrenia disorder spectrum. The present study applied two incentive delay tasks involving different incentive types (money vs. social affective images) to a sample of 28 participants with elevated social anhedonia (SocAnh) and 38 healthy controls from a population of 476 college students. The results showed that the SocAnh group had comparable anticipatory sensitivity and consummatory pleasure towards monetary incentives as the controls; but they exhibited significant decrease in both anticipatory sensitivity and consummatory experience to positive social affective images. These findings demonstrate the presence of a domain-specific deficit in people with social anhedonia towards social affective information, and suggest that incentive types could confound the findings on the dissociation of anticipatory vs. consummatory hedonic capacities.
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Common intrinsic connectivity states among posteromedial cortex subdivisions: Insights from analysis of temporal dynamics.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Perspectives of human brain functional connectivity continue to evolve. Static representations of functional interactions between brain regions are rapidly giving way to dynamic perspectives, which emphasize non-random temporal variations in intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns. Here, we bring this dynamic perspective to our understanding of iFC patterns for posteromedial cortex (PMC), a cortical hub known for its functional diversity. Previous work has consistently differentiated iFC patterns among PMC subregions, though assumed static iFC over time. Here, we assessed iFC as a function of time utilizing a sliding-window correlation approach, and applied hierarchical clustering to detect representative iFC states from the windowed iFC. Across subregions, five iFC states were detected over time. Although with differing frequencies, each subregion was associated with each of the states, suggesting that these iFC states are "common" to PMC subregions. Importantly, each subregion possessed a unique preferred state(s) and distinct transition patterns, explaining previously observed iFC differentiations. These results resonate with task-based fMRI studies suggesting that large-scale functional networks can be flexibly reconfigured in response to changing task-demands. Additionally, we used retest scans (~1week later) to demonstrate the reproducibility of the iFC states identified, and establish moderate to high test-retest reliability for various metrics used to quantify switching behaviors. We also demonstrate the ability of dynamic properties in the visual PMC subregion to index inter-individual differences in a measure of concept formation and mental flexibility. These findings suggest functional relevance of dynamic iFC and its potential utility in biomarker identification over time, as d-iFC methodologies are refined and mature.
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Beneficial effects of natural Jeju groundwaters on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats.
Nutr Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Groundwater is believed to possess many beneficial effects due to its natural source of various minerals. In this study, we examined the effects of natural Jeju groundwater S1 (Samdasoo™), S2 and S3 pumped up from different locations of Jeju Island, Korea, along with local tap water, on body weight gain, serum lipids and lipoproteins, and liver histopathology in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats.
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The ratio of circulating regulatory T cells (tregs)/th17 cells is associated with acute allograft rejection in liver transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells are known to be involved in the alloreactive responses in organ transplantation, but little is known about the relationship between Tregs and Th17 cells in the context of liver alloresponse. Here, we investigated whether the circulating Tregs/Th17 ratio is associated with acute allograft rejection in liver transplantation. In present study, thirty-eight patients who received liver transplant were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: acute allograft rejection group (Gr-AR) (n?=?16) and stable allograft liver function group (Gr-SF) (n?=?22). The frequencies of circulating Tregs and circulating Th17 cells, as well as Tregs/Th17 ratio were determined using flow cytometry. The association between Tregs/Th17 ratio and acute allograft rejection was then analyzed. Our results showed that the frequency of circulating Tregs was significantly decreased, whereas the frequency of circulating Th17 cells was significantly increased in liver allograft recipients who developed acute rejection. Tregs/Th17 ratio had a negative correlation with liver damage indices and the score of rejection activity index (RAI) after liver transplantation. In addition, the percentages of CTLA-4+, HLA-DR+, Ki67+, and IL-10+ Tregs were higher in Gr-SF group than in Gr-AR group. Our results suggested that the ratio of circulating Tregs/Th17 cells is associated with acute allograft rejection, thus the ratio may serve as an alternative marker for the diagnosis of acute rejection.
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Telmisartan protects 5/6 Nx rats against renal injury by enhancing nNOS-derived NO generation via regulation of PPAR? signaling.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rat model was employed to address the impact of telmisartan on CKD related renal injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. It was noted that telmisartan provided protection for rats against 5/6 Nx induced lethality. Telmisartan treated 5/6 Nx rats manifested improved renal function as characterized by the higher GFR but lower urinary albumin, BUN and Scr as compared with that of control rats. Telmisartan treatment also significantly decreased systolic blood pressure and alleviated glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that telmisartan possesses the capability to increase NO generation in the kidney. Further studies demonstrated that telmisartan promotes PPAR? expression, by which it specifically enhances nNOS expression in the kidneys after 5/6 Nx insult. Particularly, blockade of PPAR? signaling by GW9662 abolished the protective effect conferred by telmisartan, indicating that telmisartan induction of renal nNOS expression along with NO generation is dependent on PPAR? signaling. Together, our data support that telmisartan could be a promising drug for treatment of chronic kidney diseases in diverse clinical settings.
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An agomir of miR-144-3p accelerates plaque formation through impairing reverse cholesterol transport and promoting pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid-poor apolipoproteins, which then form nascent HDL, a key step in the mechanism of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). While a series of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as potent post-transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism, their effects on ABCA1 function and associated mechanisms remain unclear.
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Nur77 decreases atherosclerosis progression in apoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It is clear that lipid disorder and inflammation are associated with cardiovascular diseases and underlying atherosclerosis. Nur77 has been shown to be involved in inflammatory response and lipid metabolism.
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[Microfluidic evaporative light scattering detector coupled with capillary liquid chromatography and its application to Ginkgo biloba extract analysis].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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A novel separation system of microfluidic evaporative light scattering detector (microELSD) coupled with capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) was built and applied to the separation and detection of herbal medicine Ginkgo biloba extract and its disperse tablet formulation. Compared with the traditional HPLC, this microELSD-cLC system consumed much less sample and solvent. Some key parameters were optimized. It was found that the higher the evaporization temperature of the drift tube, the higher S/N could be achieved. The mobile phase A was 0.05% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), and the mobile phase B was methanol containing 0.05% (v/v) TFA. The optimized gradient conditions were as follows: 0-10 min, 5% B - 25% B; 10-25 min, 25% B - 38% B; 25-35 min, 38% B; 35-40 min, 38% B - 42% B; 40-55 min, 42% B - 50% B. The complex herbal medicine Ginkgo biloba extract and its disperse tablet formulation were successfully separated. Four main therapeutic components (bilobalide and ginkgolide A, B, C) were finally separated and determined, which were terpene lactones with pretty weak UV absorption. The RSDs of the detected terpene lactones from different manufacturers were all no more than 2.42%, which proved this platforms good analysis repeatability. The results showed the applicability of the platform to the analysis of complex traditional Chinese medicines.
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Production of Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-PBDEs) from Bromophenols by Manganese Dioxide.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are of significant concern because of their enhanced toxicological effects compared to PBDEs. Research to date has attributed the origin of OH-PBDEs to biological metabolism of PBDEs and natural production in the environment. However, it is unclear how OH-PBDEs are formed naturally. In this study, we explored the formation of OH-PBDEs via the oxidative transformation of simple bromophenols (BPs, e.g., 4-BP, 2,4-DBP, and 2,4,6-TBP) by birnessite (?-MnO2). Results showed that OH-PBDEs were readily produced by ?-MnO2 with BPs as precursors. For example, oxidation of 2,4-DBP by ?-MnO2 yielded 2-OH-BDE-68 and 2,5-OH-BDE-25. Other OH-PBDEs, such as 6-OH-BDE-13, 2,5-OH-BDE-3, 4-OH-BDE-121, and 2,5-OH-BDE-69, were detected from the reaction with 4-BP and 2,4,6-TBP. The formation of OH-PBDEs likely resulted from the oxidative coupling of bromophenoxy radicals. Mild acidic conditions enhanced while coexisting cations (e.g., Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+)) suppressed the transformation. Given the ubiquity of BPs and ?-MnO2, oxidation of BPs by ?-MnO2 and other metal oxides is likely an abiotic route for the formation of OH-PBDEs in the environment.
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Protein kinase C delta mediated cytotoxicity of 6-Hydroxydopamine via sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in PC12 cells.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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The incidence of Parkinson?s disease (PD) is increasing as the global population ages. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) can induce PD-like neuropathology and biochemical changes in both in vitro and in vitro models. Therefore, clarification of the molecular mechanism of 6-OHDA-induced cell death might contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of PD.
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Neural Correlates of Prospective Memory in Individuals With Schizotypal Personality Features.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Objective: Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders show impairments in PM but neural correlates of these impairments remain unclear. The present study aimed to examine brain activation during PM to identify impairments in individuals with schizotypal personality features. Method: Nineteen participants with schizotypal features and 22 healthy controls participated in a functional MRI experiment while performing a PM task. Results: Results showed that the prefrontal cortex (including Brodmann Area [BA] 10), middle temporal gyrus, and precuneus were activated when performing the PM task compared with baseline. The schizotypal and control groups did not differ in behavioral PM performance. However, participants with schizotypal features showed decreased activations in the inferior and medial frontal lobes (BA 45, and 8). Conclusions: These results confirmed that the PM network involves prefrontal cortex, including BA 10. The lower activation in prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizotypal features when performing a PM task indicates brain activation abnormality. Notably, this abnormality may occur in the absence of any behavioral manifestation. Our findings support the hypothesis of frontal lobe involvement in PM deficits observed in individuals with schizotypal features. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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[Enrichment of cis-diols active components in traditional Chinese medicines by boronate affinity monolithic column].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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A novel poly( 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) -co-pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA)) monolithic column was prepared by thermal-initiated copolymerization of VPBA and PETA in a binary porogen system comprising diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol. The fabricated monolithic column demonstrated good boronate affinity property, which can specifically capture cis-diols containing compounds. We developed such a monolithic column and applied it to enrich active components in Herba Taraxaci and Euonymus acanthocarpus. The extracts of the two traditional Chinese medicines were separated and enriched on microHPLC by the prepared monolith, and the fractions were collected and examined by HPLC. The results showed that the responses of the corresponding peaks were greatly improved, indicating that the poly( VPBA-co-PETA) monolithic column can be efficiently used to enrich active components in traditional Chinese medicines containing cis-diols group.
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[Metabonomics study of lung cancer cells based on liquid l chromatography-mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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The metabolic profiles of the polar metabolites and the non-polar metabolites in lung tumor cell lines H358, A549, HCC827, H1299, Calu-3, Calu-l, PC-9 and normal cell line MRC-5 were analyzed separately using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Partial least square discriminant analysis ( PLS-DA) was used to process the metabolic data. The results showed that the metabolites of the lung cancer cell lines and normal cell line have significant differences. Further, 10 polar metabolites and 21 non-polar metabolites which had a significant contribution to classification were selected and preliminarily identified due to the accurate mass. Comparing with the normal cell line, the lung tumor cell lines present an abnormal metabolism in protein, fatty acid, and phospholipids. These results may provide important information for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.
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Testing the cation-hydration effect on the crystallization of Ca-Mg-CO3 systems.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Dolomite and magnesite are simple anhydrous calcium and/or magnesium carbonate minerals occurring mostly at Earth surfaces. However, laboratory synthesis of neither species at ambient temperature and pressure conditions has been proven practically possible, and the lack of success was assumed to be related to the strong solvation shells of magnesium ions in aqueous media. Here, we report the synthesis of MgCO3 and MgxCa(1-x)CO3 (0 < x < 1) solid phases at ambient conditions in the absence of water. Experiments were carried out in dry organic solvent, and the results showed that, although anhydrous phases were readily precipitated in the water-free environment, the precipitates crystallinity was highly dependent on the Mg molar percentage content in the solution. In specific, magnesian calcite dominated in low [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] solutions but gave way to exclusive formation of amorphous MgxCa(1-x)CO3 and MgCO3 in high-[Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] and pure-Mg solutions. At conditions of [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] = 1, both nanocrystals of Ca-rich protodolomite and amorphous phase of Mg-rich MgxCa(1-x)CO3 were formed. These findings exposed a previously unrecognized intrinsic barrier for Mg(2+) and CO3(2-) to develop long-range orders at ambient conditions and suggested that the long-held belief of cation-hydration inhibition on dolomite and magnesite mineralization needed to be reevaluated. Our study provides significant insight into the long-standing "dolomite problem" in geochemistry and mineralogy and may promote a better understanding of the fundamental chemistry in biomineralization and mineral-carbonation processes.
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Comprehensive Transcriptome Profiling and Functional Analysis of the Frog (Bombina maxima) Immune System.
DNA Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Amphibians occupy a key phylogenetic position in vertebrates and evolution of the immune system. But, the resources of its transcriptome or genome are still little now. Bombina maxima possess strong ability to survival in very harsh environment with a more mature immune system. We obtained a comprehensive transcriptome by RNA-sequencing technology. 14.3% of transcripts were identified to be skin-specific genes, most of which were not isolated from skin secretion in previous works or novel non-coding RNAs. 27.9% of transcripts were mapped into 242 predicted KEGG pathways and 6.16% of transcripts related to human disease and cancer. Of 39 448 transcripts with the coding sequence, at least 1501 transcripts (570 genes) related to the immune system process. The molecules of immune signalling pathway were almost presented, several transcripts with high expression in skin and stomach. Experiments showed that lipopolysaccharide or bacteria challenge stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and activation of pro-inflammatory caspase-1. These frogs data can remarkably expand the existing genome or transcriptome resources of amphibians, especially immunity data. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform for further investigation on more detailed immune response in B. maxima and a comparative study with other amphibians.
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Developmental trajectories of schizotypal personality disorder-like behavioural manifestations: a two-year longitudinal prospective study of college students.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Previous evidence has shown that schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is part of the schizophrenia spectrum. Few studies have examined latent classes in the developmental trajectories of SPD features over time in individuals with SPD features.
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[Temperature compensation strategy and implementation for photoelectric modulation interferometer with large optical path difference].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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For temperature drift in hypervelocity photoelectric modulation interferometer, a control model of temperature compensation is presented including voltage and phase compensation. First, according to the similar and modeling theory, an equivalent circuit model of mechanical properties of hypervelocity photoelectric modulation interferometer was established, the impact of temperature drift on its resonance frequency was analyzed, a mathematical model was set up, which contains drive voltage, frequency and resonance frequency, and the control method was determined for high optical path difference to get steady. Then, a digital method including voltage and phase compensation is given for optical path difference deviation control, which merges the DPLL and program of voltage and phase compensation. Finally, the control method was tested through experiment system. A test between drive control system including voltage and phase compensation and traditional drive control system was executed, using a laser doppler vibrometer to record the amount of change in optical path difference within 3 hours. Results show that the optical path difference deviation caused by temperature drift in long term is reduced by about 50%.
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[Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis map of serum proteins in patients with chronic Keshan disease].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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To identify the different serum proteins expressed in patients with Keshan disease (KD).
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Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces inflammatory responses in cultured human mast cells via Toll-like receptor 4.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a powerful atherogen. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has a pathophysiological role in regulating inflammatory responses and atherosclerosis. Mast cells can infiltrate into the atheromatous plaque and secrete various pro-inflammatory cytokines, which significantly amplify the atherogenic processes and promote plaque vulnerability. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is an effective method to silence the target genes. We evaluated whether ox-LDL-induced inflammation depended in part on the activation of TLR4-dependent signaling pathways in a cultured human mast cell line (HMC-1).
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Neurological Soft Signs Are Not "Soft" in Brain Structure and Functional Networks: Evidence From ALE Meta-analysis.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Background: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are associated with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. NSS have been conventionally considered as clinical neurological signs without localized brain regions. However, recent brain imaging studies suggest that NSS are partly localizable and may be associated with deficits in specific brain areas. Method: We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to quantitatively review structural and functional imaging studies that evaluated the brain correlates of NSS in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Six structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and 15 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies were included. Results: The results from meta-analysis of the sMRI studies indicated that NSS were associated with atrophy of the precentral gyrus, the cerebellum, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the thalamus. The results from meta-analysis of the fMRI studies demonstrated that the NSS-related task was significantly associated with altered brain activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral putamen, the cerebellum, and the superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings from both sMRI and fMRI meta-analyses further support the conceptualization of NSS as a manifestation of the "cerebello-thalamo-prefrontal" brain network model of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.
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Air- and water-stable gold-coated gadolinium metal nanocrystals.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Gold-coated gadolinium nanocrystals, with an average diameter of 3.20 ± 0.35 nm, have been synthesized at ambient temperature by alkalide reduction. Whereas uncoated gadolinium nanoparticles react violently with air and water, the gold-coated gadolinium nanocrystals reported here show no reaction even upon long-term exposure. This is the first example of air- and water-stable lanthanide metal nanocrystals, which may allow for the development of magnetic and biomedical applications of gadolinium and other lanthanide metal and alloy nanocrystals.
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[Transplantation of aotologous labial salivary glands for severe dry eye].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Aotologous labial salivary gland transplantation has been a promising alternative for the treatment of severe dry eye. In this article, we describe the results of the ocular surface changes after labial salivary gland transplantation and investigate the feasiblity of this treatment.
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Airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in a background site in the North China Plain: concentration, size distribution, toxicity and sources.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The size-fractionated characteristics of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied from January 2011 to October 2011 using a Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at the Yellow River Delta National Nature Reserve (YRDNNR), a background site located in the North China Plain. The average annual concentration of total PAHs in the YRDNNR (18.95 ± 16.51 ng/m(3)) was lower than that in the urban areas of China; however, it was much higher than that in other rural or remote sites in developed countries. The dominant PAHs, which were found in each season, were fluorene (5.93%-26.80%), phenanthrene (8.17%-26.52%), fluoranthene (15.23%-27.12%) and pyrene (9.23%-16.31%). A bimodal distribution was found for 3-ring PAHs with peaks at approximately 1.0-1.8 ?m and 3.2-5.6 ?m; however, 4-6 ring PAHs followed a nearly unimodal distribution, with the highest peak in the 1.0-1.8 ?m range. The mass median diameter (MMD) values for the total PAHs averaged 1.404, 1.467, 1.218 and 0.931 ?m in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. The toxicity analysis indicated that the carcinogenic potency of particulate PAHs existed primarily in the <1.8 ?m size range. Diagnostic ratios and PCA analysis indicated that the PAHs in aerosol particles were mainly derived from coal combustion. In addition, back-trajectory calculations demonstrated that atmospheric PAHs were produced primarily by local anthropogenic sources.
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Lentivirus-mediated CD/TK fusion gene transfection neural stem cell therapy for C6 glioblastoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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A suicide gene can convert nontoxic prodrugs into toxic products to kill tumor cells. In this study, our aim was to transfect lentivirus-mediated CD/TK fusion gene into Wistar rats neural stem cells (NSC) and then implant the NSC into a C6 glioma model to observe a C6 glioma growth inhibition effect. Primary NSC and stable transfection CD/TK fusion gene cell lines were established. To observe the tumor size and rat survival period in different groups, C6 glioma cell apoptosis and cell viability rate were applied to analyze the tumor inhibition effect of the neural stem cells transfected CD/TK fusion gene. C6 cell viability showed that CDglyTK-NSC + GCV/5-Fc (group 1) was lower than CDglyTK-NSC (group 2), NSC + GCV/5-Fc (group 3), and control (group 4) from day 2 (p??0.05). Survival time of rats treated with CDglyTK-NSC + GCV/5-Fc (group 1) was significantly longer than that of the other groups (p?
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.