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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
PP2A-activating drugs selectively eradicate TKI-resistant chronic myeloid leukemic stem cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) depends on the requirement for BCR-ABL1 kinase activity in CML progenitors. However, CML quiescent HSCs are TKI resistant and represent a BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent disease reservoir. Here we have shown that persistence of leukemic HSCs in BM requires inhibition of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and expression--but not activity--of the BCR-ABL1 oncogene. Examination of HSCs from CML patients and healthy individuals revealed that PP2A activity was suppressed in CML compared with normal HSCs. TKI-resistant CML quiescent HSCs showed increased levels of BCR-ABL1, but very low kinase activity. BCR-ABL1 expression, but not kinase function, was required for recruitment of JAK2, activation of a JAK2/?-catenin survival/self-renewal pathway, and inhibition of PP2A. PP2A-activating drugs (PADs) markedly reduced survival and self-renewal of CML quiescent HSCs, but not normal quiescent HSCs, through BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent and PP2A-mediated inhibition of JAK2 and ?-catenin. This led to suppression of human leukemic, but not normal, HSC/progenitor survival in BM xenografts and interference with long-term maintenance of BCR-ABL1-positive HSCs in serial transplantation assays. Targeting the JAK2/PP2A/?-catenin network in quiescent HSCs with PADs (e.g., FTY720) has the potential to treat TKI-refractory CML and relieve lifelong patient dependence on TKIs.
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(R)-FTY720 methyl ether is a specific sphingosine kinase 2 inhibitor: Effect on sphingosine kinase 2 expression in HEK 293 cells and actin rearrangement and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) catalyses the conversion of sphingosine to the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). We report here, the stereospecific synthesis of an analogue of FTY720 called (R)-FTY720-OMe, which we show is a competitive inhibitor of SK2. (R)-FTY720-OMe failed to inhibit sphingosine kinase 1 activity, thereby demonstrating specificity for SK2. Prolonged treatment of HEK 293 cells with (R)-FTY720-OMe also induced a reduction in SK2 expression. In addition, (R)-FTY720-OMe inhibited DNA synthesis and prevented S1P-stimulated rearrangement of actin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These findings demonstrate that SK2 functions as a pro-survival protein and is involved in promoting actin rearrangement into membrane ruffles/lamellipodia in response to S1P in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
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(S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate, an analogue of the immunosuppressive agent FTY720, is a pan-antagonist of sphingosine 1-phosphate GPCR signaling and inhibits autotaxin activity.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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FTY720 (Fingolimod), a synthetic analogue of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), activates four of the five EDG-family S1P receptors and is in a phase-III clinical study for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. (S)-FTY720-phosphate (FTY720-P) causes S1P(1) receptor internalization and targeting to the proteasomal degradative pathway, and thus functions as an antagonist of S1P(1) by depleting the functional S1P(1) receptor from the plasma membrane. Here we describe the pharmacological characterization of two unsaturated phosphonate enantiomers of FTY720, (R)- and (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate. (R)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate was a full agonist of S1P(1) (EC(50) 20+/-3 nM). In contrast, the (S) enantiomer failed to activate any of the five S1P GPCRs and was a full antagonist of S1P(1,3,4) (K(i) 384 nM, 39 nM, and 1190 nM, respectively) and a partial antagonist of S1P(2), and S1P(5). Both enantiomers dose-dependently inhibited lysophospholipase D (recombinant autotaxin) with K(i) values in the low micromolar range, although with different enzyme kinetic mechanisms. When injected into mice, both enantiomers caused transient peripheral lymphopenia. (R)- and (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonates activated ERK1/2, AKT, and exerted an antiapoptotic effect in camptothecin-treated IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells, which primarily express S1P(2) transcripts and traces of S1P(5). (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate is the first pan-antagonist of S1P receptors and offers utility in probing S1P responses in vitro and in vivo. The biological effects of the (R)- and (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate analogues underscore the complexity of FTY720 cellular targets.
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Chiral vinylphosphonate and phosphonate analogues of the immunosuppressive agent FTY720.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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The first enantioselective synthesis of chiral isosteric phosphonate analogues of FTY720 is described. One of these analogues, FTY720-(E)-vinylphosphonate (S)-5, but not its R enantiomer, elicited a potent antiapoptotic effect in intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that it exerts its action via the enantioselective activation of a receptor. (S)-5 failed to activate the sphingosine 1-phosphate type 1 (S1P(1)) receptor.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.