Advances in next-generation sequencing offer high-throughput and cost-effective genotyping alternatives, including genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Results have shown that this methodology is efficient for genotyping a variety of species, including those with complex genomes. To assess the utility of GBS in cultivated hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L.), seven bi-parental mapping populations and diverse inbred lines from breeding programs around the world were studied. We examined technical factors that influence GBS SNP calls, established a workflow that combines two bioinformatics pipelines for GBS SNP calling, and provided a nomenclature for oat GBS loci. The high-throughput GBS system enabled us to place 45,117 loci on an oat consensus map, thus establishing a positional reference for further genomic studies. Using the diversity lines, we estimated that a minimum density of one marker per 2 to 2.8 cM would be required for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and GBS markers met this density requirement in most chromosome regions. We also demonstrated the utility of GBS in additional diagnostic applications related to oat breeding. We conclude that GBS is a powerful and useful approach, which will have many additional applications in oat breeding and genomic studies.
A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n?=?6x?=?42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.
Genomic discovery in oat and its application to oat improvement have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers common to different genetic maps, and by the difficulty of conducting whole-genome analysis using high-throughput markers. This study was intended to develop, characterize, and apply a large set of oat genetic markers based on Diversity Array Technology (DArT).
We have sequenced, assembled, and characterized a set of complexity-reduced genomic clones derived from a chromosome 18D-specific library from hexaploid oat ( Avena sativa L.). Sequences from 314 clones were assembled into 99 contigs of identical or nearly identical sequence. The Censor tool was used to identify similarity to known and characterized repeat sequences in RepBase. Eight repeat classes were scattered throughout 50 contigs, with most repeats belonging to seven transposon and retrotransposon classes. After accounting for known repeats, additional matches to orthologous genes from other species were identified in 24 regions of 22 contigs, and an additional 47 regions matched genomic sequences from oat and other related species. These results provide information about the types and density of transposable elements in the oat genome, as well as the potential for identifying unique or chromosome-specific sequence elements in oat. Overall, these results predict a low success rate in identifying chromosome-specific coding regions in oat through chromosome isolation and genome complexity reduction.
Seven pairs of oat near-isogenic lines (NILs) (Kibite in Crop Sci 41:277-278, 2001) contrasting for the Dw6 dwarfing gene were used to test for correlation between tall/dwarf phenotype and polymorphic genotype using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and other molecular markers selected from the Kanota × Ogle (K×O) (Wight et al. in Genome 46:28-47, 2003) and Terra × Marion (De Koeyer et al. in Theor Appl Genet 108:1285-1298, 2004) recombination maps. This strategy located the Dw6/dw6 locus to a small chromosomal region on K×O linkage group (LG) KO33, near or at a putative RFLP locus aco245z. Aco245z and other tightly linked flanking markers have potential for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS), and PCR-based markers were developed from several of these. RFLP genotyping of the Dw6 NILs indicated that 13 of the 14 individual lines were homogeneously maternal or paternal for a large genomic region near Dw6/dw6, an unexpected result for NILs. The cDNA clone aco245 codes for a vacuolar proton ATPase subunit H, a potential candidate gene for Dw6. Vacuolar proton ATPase enzymes have a central role in plant growth and development and a mutation in subunit C is responsible for the det3 dwarfing mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana (Schumacher et al. in Genes Dev 13:3259-3270, 1999). Aco245 affords the potential of designing highly precise diagnostic markers for MAS for Dw6. The Dw6 NILs have potential utility to investigate the role of vacuolar proton ATPases in growth and development in plants.
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