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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Alcohol impairs skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signaling in a time-dependent manner following electrically stimulated muscle contraction.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Alcohol (EtOH) decreases protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated signaling and blunts the anabolic response to growth factors in skeletal muscle. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether acute EtOH intoxication antagonizes the contraction-induced increase in protein synthesis and mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle. Fasted male mice were injected intraperitoneally with 3 g/kg EtOH or saline (control), and the right hindlimb was electrically stimulated (10 sets of 6 contractions). The gastrocnemius muscle complex was collected 30 min, 4 h, or 12 h after stimulation. EtOH decreased in vivo basal protein synthesis (PS) in the nonstimulated muscle compared with time-matched Controls at 30 min, 4 h, and 12 h. In Control, but not EtOH, PS was decreased 15% after 30 min. In contrast, PS was increased in Control 4 h poststimulation but remained unchanged in EtOH. Last, stimulation increased PS 10% in Control and EtOH at 12 h, even though the absolute rate remained reduced by EtOH. The stimulation-induced increase in the phosphorylation of S6K1 Thr(421)/Ser(424) (20-52%), S6K1 Thr(389) (45-57%), and its substrate rpS6 Ser(240/244) (37-72%) was blunted by EtOH at 30 min, 4 h, and 12 h. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 Ser(65) was also attenuated by EtOH (61%) at 4 h. Conversely, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase Thr(202)/Tyr(204) was increased by stimulation in Control and EtOH mice at 30 min but only in Control at 4 h. Our data indicate that acute EtOH intoxication suppresses muscle protein synthesis for at least 12 h and greatly impairs contraction-induced changes in synthesis and mTOR signaling.
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Glucocorticoids attenuate the central sympathoexcitatory actions of insulin.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Insulin acts within the central nervous system to regulate food intake and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Strong evidence indicates that glucocorticoids impair insulin-mediated glucose uptake and food intake. However, few data are available regarding whether glucocorticoids also modulate the sympathoexcitatory response to insulin. Therefore, the present study first confirmed that chronic administration of glucocorticoids attenuated insulin-induced increases in SNA and then investigated whether these effects were attributed to deficits in central insulin-mediated responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given access to water or a drinking solution of the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (0.3 ?g/ml) for 7 days. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp significantly increased lumbar SNA in control rats. This response was significantly attenuated in rats given access to dexamethasone for 7, but not 1, days. Similarly, injection of insulin into the lateral ventricle or locally within the arcuate nucleus (ARC) significantly increased lumbar SNA in control rats but this response was absent in rats given access to dexamethasone. The lack of a sympathetic response to insulin cannot be attributed to a generalized depression of sympathetic function or inactivation of ARC neurons as electrical activation of sciatic afferents or ARC injection of gabazine, respectively, produced similar increases in SNA between control and dexamethasone-treated rats. Western blot analysis indicates insulin produced similar activation of Akt Ser(473) and rpS6 Ser(240/244) in the ventral hypothalamus of control and dexamethasone-treated rats. Collectively, these findings suggest that dexamethasone attenuates the sympathoexcitatory actions of insulin through a disruption of ARC neuronal function downstream of Akt or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling.
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Reduced REDD1 expression contributes to activation of mTORC1 following electrically induced muscle contraction.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Regulated in DNA damage and development 1 (REDD1) is a repressor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. In humans, REDD1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle is repressed following resistance exercise in association with activation of mTORC1. However, whether REDD1 protein expression is also reduced after exercise and if so to what extent the loss contributes to exercise-induced activation of mTORC1 is unknown. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the role of REDD1 in governing the response of mTORC1 and protein synthesis to a single bout of muscle contractions. Eccentric contractions of the tibialis anterior were elicited via electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve in male mice in either the fasted or fed state or in fasted wild-type or REDD1-null mice. Four hours postcontractions, mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis were elevated in fasted mice in association with repressed REDD1 expression relative to nonstimulated controls. Feeding coupled with contractions further elevated mTORC1 signaling, whereas REDD1 protein expression was repressed compared with either feeding or contractions alone. Basal mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis were elevated in REDD1-null compared with wild-type mice. The magnitude of the increase in mTORC1 signaling was similar in both wild-type and REDD1-null mice, but, unlike wild-type mice, muscle contractions did not stimulate protein synthesis in mice deficient for REDD1, presumably because basal rates were already elevated. Overall, the data demonstrate that REDD1 expression contributes to the modulation of mTORC1 signaling following feeding- and contraction-induced activation of the pathway.
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Sepsis-induced changes in amino acid transporters and leucine signaling via mTOR in skeletal muscle.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The present study tested the hypothesis that sepsis-induced leucine (Leu) resistance in skeletal muscle is associated with a down-regulation of amino acid transporters important in regulating Leu flux or an impairment in the formation of the Leu-sensitive mTOR-Ragulator complex. Sepsis in adult male rats decreased basal protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, associated with a reduction in mTOR activation as indicated by decreased 4E-BP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation. The ability of oral Leu to increase protein synthesis and mTOR kinase after 1 h was largely prevented in sepsis. Sepsis increased CAT1, LAT2 and SNAT2 mRNA content two- to fourfold, but only the protein content for CAT1 (20 % decrease) differed significantly. Conversely, sepsis decreased the proton-assisted amino acid transporter (PAT)-2 mRNA by 60 %, but without a coordinate change in PAT2 protein. There was no sepsis or Leu effect on the protein content for RagA-D, LAMTOR-1 and -2, raptor, Rheb or mTOR in muscle. The binding of mTOR, PRAS40 and RagC to raptor did not differ for control and septic muscle in the basal condition; however, the Leu-induced decrease in PRAS40·raptor and increase in RagC·raptor seen in control muscle was absent in sepsis. The intracellular Leu concentration was increased in septic muscle, compared to basal control conditions, and oral Leu further increased the intracellular Leu concentration similarly in both control and septic rats. Hence, while alterations in select amino acid transporters are not associated with development of sepsis-induced Leu resistance, the Leu-stimulated binding of raptor with RagC and the recruitment of mTOR/raptor to the endosome-lysosomal compartment may partially explain the inability of Leu to fully activate mTOR and muscle protein synthesis.
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Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. While alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and eventually cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells and alveolar macrophages in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids. Further, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triacylglycerides and free fatty acids within distal airspaces, alveolar macrophages, and to a lesser extent, AEII cells. We provide evidence that metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in fatty acids alter alveolar macrophage phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction.
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Abandon the mouse research ship? Not just yet!
Shock
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Many preclinical studies in critical care medicine and related disciplines rely on hypothesis-driven research in mice. The underlying premise posits that mice sufficiently emulate numerous pathophysiologic alterations produced by trauma/sepsis and can serve as an experimental platform for answering clinically relevant questions. Recently, the lay press severely criticized the translational relevance of mouse models in critical care medicine. A series of provocative editorials were elicited by a highly publicized research report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS; February 2013), which identified an unrecognized gene expression profile mismatch between human and murine leukocytes following burn/trauma/endotoxemia. Based on their data, the authors concluded that mouse models of trauma/inflammation are unsuitable for studying corresponding human conditions. We believe this conclusion was not justified. In conjunction with resulting negative commentary in the popular press, it can seriously jeopardize future basic research in critical care medicine. We will address some limitations of that PNAS report to provide a framework for discussing its conclusions and attempt to present a balanced summary of strengths/weaknesses of use of mouse models. While many investigators agree that animal research is a central component for improved patient outcomes, it is important to acknowledge known limitations in clinical translation from mouse to man. The scientific community is responsible to discuss valid limitations without overinterpretation. Hopefully, a balanced view of the strengths/weaknesses of using animals for trauma/endotoxemia/critical care research will not result in hasty discount of the clear need for using animals to advance treatment of critically ill patients.
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Strain-dependent differences for suppression of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscle by ethanol.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption impairs the ability of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production in a strain-dependent manner, with hepatic insulin resistance being greater in Long-Evans (LE) than Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We assessed whether strain differences exist for whole-body and tissue glucose uptake under basal and insulin-stimulated conditions and whether they were associated with coordinate strain-dependent elevations in muscle cytokines.
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Salutary effect of aurintricarboxylic acid on endotoxin- and sepsis-induced changes in muscle protein synthesis and inflammation.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Small molecule nonpeptidyl molecules are potentially attractive drug candidates as adjunct therapies in the treatment of sepsis-induced metabolic complications. As such, the current study investigates the use of aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), which stimulates insulinlike growth factor 1 receptor and AKT signaling, for its ability to ameliorate the protein metabolic effects of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) + interferon ? (IFN-?) in C2C12 myotubes and sepsis in skeletal muscle. Aurintricarboxylic acid dose- and time-dependently increases mTOR (mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin)-dependent protein synthesis. Pretreatment with ATA prevents the LPS/IFN-?-induced decrease in protein synthesis at least in part by maintaining mTOR kinase activity, whereas posttreatment with ATA is able to increase protein synthesis when added up to 6 h after LPS/IFN-?. Aurintricarboxylic acid also reverses the amino acid resistance, which is detected in response to nutrient deprivation. Conversely, ATA decreases the basal rate of protein degradation and prevents the LPS/IFN-? increase in proteolysis, and the latter change is associated reduced atrogin 1 and MuRF1 mRNA. The ability of ATA to antagonize LPS/IFN-?-induced changes in protein metabolism was associated with its ability to prevent the increases in interleukin 6 and nitric oxide synthase 2 and decreases in insulinlike growth factor 1. In vivo studies indicate ATA acutely increases skeletal muscle, but not cardiac, protein synthesis and attenuates the loss of lean body mass over 5 days. These data suggest ATA and other small molecule agonists of endogenous anabolic hormones may prove beneficial in treating sepsis by decreasing the inflammatory response and improving muscle protein balance.
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Disruption of genes encoding eIF4E binding proteins-1 and -2 does not alter basal or sepsis-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis in male or female mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sepsis decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in part by impairing mTOR activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 thereby controlling translation initiation; however, the relative importance of changes in these two downstream substrates is unknown. The role of 4E-BP1 (and -BP2) in regulating muscle protein synthesis was assessed in wild-type (WT) and 4E-BP1/BP2 double knockout (DKO) male mice under basal conditions and in response to sepsis. At 12 months of age, body weight, lean body mass and energy expenditure did not differ between WT and DKO mice. Moreover, in vivo rates of protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, heart and liver did not differ between DKO and WT mice. Sepsis decreased skeletal muscle protein synthesis and S6K1 phosphorylation in WT and DKO male mice to a similar extent. Sepsis only decreased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in WT mice as no 4E-BP1/BP2 protein was detected in muscle from DKO mice. Sepsis decreased the binding of eIF4G to eIF4E in WT mice; however, eIF4E•eIF4G binding was not altered in DKO mice under either basal or septic conditions. A comparable sepsis-induced increase in eIF4B phosphorylation was seen in both WT and DKO mice. eEF2 phosphorylation was similarly increased in muscle from WT septic mice and both control and septic DKO mice, compared to WT control values. The sepsis-induced increase in muscle MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (markers of proteolysis) as well as TNF? and IL-6 (inflammatory cytokines) mRNA was greater in DKO than WT mice. The sepsis-induced decrease in myocardial and hepatic protein synthesis did not differ between WT and DKO mice. These data suggest overall basal protein balance and synthesis is maintained in muscle of mice lacking both 4E-BP1/BP2 and that sepsis-induced changes in mTOR signaling may be mediated by a down-stream mechanism independent of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and eIF4E•eIF4G binding.
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Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- versus control-fed adult rats or in adult versus aged control-fed rats. In contrast, cardiac function was impaired in alcohol-fed aged rats compared with age-matched control rats. Additionally, alcohol feeding decreased cardiac protein synthesis that was associated with decreased phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1. This reduction in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity was associated with reduced eIF3f and binding of both Raptor and eIF4G to eIF3. Proteasome activity was increased in alcohol-fed aged rats with a coordinate elevation in the E3 ligases atrogin-1 and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1). These changes were associated with increased regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but no increase in AKT or forkhead transcription factor (FOXO)3 phosphorylation. Finally, markers of autophagy (e.g., LC3B, Atg7, Atg12) and TNF-? were increased to a greater extent in alcohol-fed aged rats. These data demonstrate that aged female rats exhibit an enhanced sensitivity to alcohol compared with adult animals. Our data are consistent with a model whereby alcohol increases proteolysis via FOXO-independent increase in atrogin-1, which degrades eIF3f and therefore impairs formation of a functional preinitiation complex and protein synthesis.
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Chronic ?-hydroxyisocaproic acid treatment improves muscle recovery after immobilization-induced atrophy.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Muscle disuse atrophy is observed routinely in patients recovering from traumatic injury and can be either generalized resulting from extended bed rest or localized resulting from single-limb immobilization. The present study addressed the hypothesis that a diet containing 5% ?-hydroxyisocaproic acid (?-HICA), a leucine (Leu) metabolite, will slow the loss and/or improve recovery of muscle mass in response to disuse. Adult 14-wk-old male Wistar rats were provided a control diet or an isonitrogenous isocaloric diet containing either 5% ?-HICA or Leu. Disuse atrophy was produced by unilateral hindlimb immobilization ("casting") for 7 days and the contralateral muscle used as control. Rats were also casted for 7 days and permitted to recover for 7 or 14 days. Casting decreased gastrocnemius mass, which was associated with both a reduction in protein synthesis and S6K1 phosphorylation as well as enhanced proteasome activity and increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA. Although neither ?-HICA nor Leu prevented the casting-induced muscle atrophy, the decreased muscle protein synthesis was not observed in ?-HICA-treated rats. Neither ?-HICA nor Leu altered the increased proteasome activity and atrogene expression observed with immobilization. After 14 days of recovery, muscle mass had returned to control values only in the rats fed ?-HICA, and this was associated with a sustained increase in protein synthesis and phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 of previously immobilized muscle. Proteasome activity and atrogene mRNA content were at control levels after 14 days and not affected by either treatment. These data suggest that whereas ?-HICA does not slow the loss of muscle produced by disuse, it does speed recovery at least in part by maintaining an increased rate of protein synthesis.
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Focal adhesion kinase is required for IGF-I-mediated growth of skeletal muscle cells via a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-associated pathway.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an attachment complex protein associated with the regulation of muscle mass through as-of-yet unclear mechanisms. We tested whether FAK is functionally important for muscle hypertrophy, with the hypothesis that FAK knockdown (FAK-KD) would impede cell growth associated with a trophic stimulus. C?C?? skeletal muscle cells harboring FAK-targeted (FAK-KD) or scrambled (SCR) shRNA were created using lentiviral transfection techniques. Both FAK-KD and SCR myotubes were incubated for 24 h with IGF-I (10 ng/ml), and additional SCR cells (±IGF-1) were incubated with a FAK kinase inhibitor before assay of cell growth. Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and putative FAK signaling mechanisms (immunoblotting and coimmunoprecipitation) were assessed. IGF-I-induced increases in myotube width (+41 ± 7% vs. non-IGF-I-treated) and total protein (+44 ± 6%) were, after 24 h, attenuated in FAK-KD cells, whereas MPS was suppressed in FAK-KD vs. SCR after 4 h. These blunted responses were associated with attenuated IGF-I-induced FAK Tyr³?? phosphorylation and markedly suppressed phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and critical downstream mTOR signaling (ribosomal S6 kinase, eIF4F assembly) in FAK shRNA cells (all P < 0.05 vs. IGF-I-treated SCR cells). However, binding of FAK to TSC2 or its phosphatase Shp-2 was not affected by IGF-I or cell phenotype. Finally, FAK-KD-mediated suppression of cell growth was recapitulated by direct inhibition of FAK kinase activity in SCR cells. We conclude that FAK is required for IGF-I-induced muscle hypertrophy, signaling through a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-dependent pathway via means requiring the kinase activity of FAK but not altered FAK-TSC2 or FAK-Shp-2 binding.
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Aging accentuates alcohol-induced decrease in protein synthesis in gastrocnemius.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The present study sought to determine whether the protein catabolic response in skeletal muscle produced by chronic alcohol feeding was exaggerated in aged rats. Adult (3 mo) and aged (18 mo) female F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% of total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Muscle (gastrocnemius) protein synthesis, as well as mTOR and proteasome activity did not differ between control-fed adult and aged rats, despite the increased TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA and decreased IGF-I mRNA in muscle of aged rats. Compared with alcohol-fed adult rats, aged rats demonstrated an exaggerated alcohol-induced reduction in lean body mass and protein synthesis (both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar) in gastrocnemius. Alcohol-fed aged rats had enhanced dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1, as well as enhanced binding of raptor with both mTOR and Deptor, and a decreased binding of raptor with 4E-BP1. Alcohol feeding of both adult and aged rats reduced RagA binding to raptor. The LKB1-AMPK-REDD1 pathway was upregulated in gastrocnemius from alcohol-fed aged rats. These exaggerated alcohol-induced effects in aged rats were associated with a greater decrease in muscle but not circulating IGF-I, but no further increase in inflammatory mediators. In contrast, alcohol did not exaggerate the age-induced increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA or the increased proteasome activity. Our results demonstrate that, compared with adult rats, the gastrocnemius from aged rats is more sensitive to the catabolic effects of alcohol on protein synthesis, but not protein degradation, and this exaggerated response may be AMPK-dependent.
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Leucine and protein metabolism in obese Zucker rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however, they increase in obesity and elevations appear to be prognostic of diabetes. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1-(14)C]-leucine metabolism, tissue-specific protein synthesis and branched-chain keto-acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) activities. Male obese Zucker rats (11-weeks old) had increased body weight (BW, 53%), liver (107%) and fat (?300%), but lower plantaris and gastrocnemius masses (-21-24%). Plasma BCAAs and BCKAs were elevated 45-69% and ?100%, respectively, in obese rats. Processes facilitating these rises appeared to include increased dietary intake (23%), leucine (Leu) turnover and proteolysis [35% per g fat free mass (FFM), urinary markers of proteolysis: 3-methylhistidine (183%) and 4-hydroxyproline (766%)] and decreased BCKDC per g kidney, heart, gastrocnemius and liver (-47-66%). A process disposing of circulating BCAAs, protein synthesis, was increased 23-29% by obesity in whole-body (FFM corrected), gastrocnemius and liver. Despite the observed decreases in BCKDC activities per gm tissue, rates of whole-body Leu oxidation in obese rats were 22% and 59% higher normalized to BW and FFM, respectively. Consistently, urinary concentrations of eight BCAA catabolism-derived acylcarnitines were also elevated. The unexpected increase in BCAA oxidation may be due to a substrate effect in liver. Supporting this idea, BCKAs were elevated more in liver (193-418%) than plasma or muscle, and per g losses of hepatic BCKDC activities were completely offset by increased liver mass, in contrast to other tissues. In summary, our results indicate that plasma BCKAs may represent a more sensitive metabolic signature for obesity than BCAAs. Processes supporting elevated BCAA]BCKAs in the obese Zucker rat include increased dietary intake, Leu and protein turnover along with impaired BCKDC activity. Elevated BCAAs/BCKAs may contribute to observed elevations in protein synthesis and BCAA oxidation.
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Activation of AMPK/TSC2/PLD by alcohol regulates mTORC1 and mTORC2 assembly in C2C12 myocytes.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Ethanol (EtOH) decreases muscle protein synthesis, and this is associated with reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1 and increased mTORC2 activities. In contrast, phospholipase D (PLD) and its metabolite phosphatidic acid (PA) positively regulate mTORC1 signaling, whereas their role in mTORC2 function is less well defined. Herein, we examine the role that PLD and PA play in EtOH-mediated mTOR signaling.
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Nociceptin receptor signaling in sympathetic neurons from septic rats.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The endogenous opioid peptide, nociception (Noc), contributes to the regulation of systemic blood pressure and regional blood flow. Recent clinical and animal studies have reported that Noc and its receptor (nociceptin/orphanin FQ [NOP]) are involved in inflammation and sepsis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the modulation of Ca(2+) channels by Noc in acutely isolated stellate ganglion (SG) neurons from control and septic rats.
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Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3[beta] activity with lithium in vitro attenuates sepsis-induced changes in muscle protein turnover.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Loss of lean body mass is a characteristic feature of the septic response, and the mechanisms responsible for this decrease and means of prevention have not been fully elucidated. The present study tested the hypothesis that in vitro treatment of skeletal muscle with lithium chloride (LiCl), a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 inhibitor, would reverse both the sepsis-induced increase in muscle protein degradation and inhibition of protein synthesis. Sepsis decreased GSK-3[beta] phosphorylation and increased GSK-3[beta] activity, under basal conditions. Sepsis increased muscle protein degradation, with a concomitant increase in atrogin 1 and MuRF1 mRNA and 26S proteosome activity. Incubation of septic muscle with LiCl completely reversed the increased GSK-3[beta] activity and decreased proteolysis to basal nonseptic values, but only partially reduced proteosome activity and did not diminish atrogene expression. Lithium chloride also did not ameliorate the sepsis-induced increase in LC3-II, a marker for activated autophagy. In contrast, LiCl increased protein synthesis only in nonseptic control muscle. The inability of septic muscle to respond to LiCl was independent of its ability to reverse the sepsis-induced increase in eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2B[varepsilon] phosphorylation, decreased eIF2B activity, or the reduced phosphorylation of FOXO3, but instead was more closely associated with the continued suppression of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) kinase activity (e.g., reduced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6). These data suggest that in vitro lithium treatment, which inhibited GSK-3[beta] activity, (a) effectively reversed the sepsis-induced increase in proteolysis, but only in part by a reduction in the ubiquitin-proteosome pathway and not by a reduction in autophagy; and (b) was ineffective at reversing the sepsis-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis. This lithium-resistant state seems mediated at the level of mTOR and not eIF2/eIF2B. Hence, use of GSK-3[beta] inhibitors in the treatment of sepsis may not be expected to fully correct the imbalance in muscle protein turnover.
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Molecular characterization of skeletal muscle atrophy in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntingtons disease.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Huntingtons disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutant huntingtin, is characterized by a catabolic phenotype. To determine the mechanisms underlying muscle wasting, we examined key signal transduction pathways governing muscle protein metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy in R6/2 mice, a well-characterized transgenic model of HD. R6/2 mice exhibited increased adiposity, elevated energy expenditure, and decreased body weight and lean mass without altered food intake. Severe skeletal muscle wasting accounted for a majority of the weight loss. Protein synthesis was unexpectedly increased 19% in gastrocnemius muscle, which was associated with overactivation of basal and refeeding-stimulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, elevated Akt expression and Ser(473) phosphorylation, and decreased AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation. Moreover, mRNA abundance of atrogenes muscle ring finger-1 and atrophy F-box, was markedly attenuated during fasting and refeeding, and the urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine was decreased, arguing against a role for the ubiquitin proteasome-mediated proteolysis in the atrophy. In contrast, mRNA expression of several caspase genes and genes involved in the extrinsic or intrinsic apoptotic pathway, caspase-3/7, -8, and -9 activity, protein abundance of caspase-3 and -9, Fas, and Fadd, and cytochrome c release were elevated. Protein expressions of LC3B-I and -II, beclin-I, and atg5 and -7 in muscle were upregulated. Thus, mutant huntingtin in skeletal muscle results in increased protein synthesis and mTOR signaling, which is countered by activation of the apoptotic and autophagic pathways, contributing to an overall catabolic phenotype and the severe muscle wasting.
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mTor signaling in skeletal muscle during sepsis and inflammation: where does it all go wrong?
Physiology (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that exquisitely regulates protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. mTOR integrates input from amino acids, growth factors, and intracellular cues to make or break muscle protein. mTOR accomplishes this task by stimulating the phosphorylation of substrates that control protein translation while simultaneously inhibiting proteasomal and autophagic protein degradation. In a metabolic twist of fate, sepsis induces muscle atrophy in part by the aberrant regulation of mTOR. In this review, we track the steps of normal mTOR signaling in muscle and examine where they go astray in sepsis and inflammation.
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Alcohol-induced modulation of rictor and mTORC2 activity in C2C12 myoblasts.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase controls cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism through 2 distinct multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. We reported that alcohol (EtOH) inhibits mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis in C2C12 myoblasts. However, the role that mTORC2 plays in this process has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether mTORC2 functions as part of a feedback regulator in response to EtOH, acting to maintain the balance between the functions of Akt, mTORC2, and mTORC1.
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Deptor knockdown enhances mTOR Activity and protein synthesis in myocytes and ameliorates disuse muscle atrophy.
Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Deptor is an mTOR binding protein that affects cell metabolism. We hypothesized that knockdown (KD) of Deptor in C2C12 myocytes will increase protein synthesis via stimulating mTOR-S6K1 signaling. Deptor KD was achieved using lentiviral particles containing short hairpin (sh)RNA targeting the mouse Deptor mRNA sequence, and control cells were transfected with a scrambled control shRNA. KD reduced Deptor mRNA and protein content by 90%, which increased phosphorylation of mTOR kinase substrates, 4E-BP1 and S6K1, and concomitantly increased protein synthesis. Deptor KD myoblasts were both larger in diameter and exhibited an increased mean cell volume. Deptor KD increased the percentage of cells in the S phase, coincident with an increased phosphorylation (S807/S811) of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) that is critical for the G(1) to S phase transition. Deptor KD did not appear to alter basal apoptosis or autophagy, as evidenced by the lack of change for cleaved caspase-3 and light chain (LC)3B, respectively. Deptor KD increased proliferation rate and enhanced myotube formation. Finally, in vivo Deptor KD (~50% reduction) by electroporation into gastrocnemius of C57/BL6 mice did not alter weight or protein synthesis in control muscle. However, Deptor KD prevented atrophy produced by 3 d of hindlimb immobilization, at least in part by increasing protein synthesis. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that Deptor is an important regulator of protein metabolism in myocytes and demonstrate that decreasing Deptor expression in vivo is sufficient to ameliorate muscle atrophy.
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Ethyl pyruvate preserves IGF-I sensitivity toward mTOR substrates and protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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Bacterial infection decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis via inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulator of translation initiation. To better define the mechanism by which muscle mTOR activity is decreased, we used an in vitro model of C2C12 myotubes treated with endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]and interferon (IFN)-? to determine whether stable lipophilic pyruvate derivatives restore mTOR signaling. Myotubes treated with a combination of LPS and IFN? down-regulated the phosphorylation of the mTOR substrates S6 kinase-1 and 4E binding protein-1. The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 was decreased, whereas phosphorylation of elongation factor-2 was enhanced; all results consistent with defects in both translation initiation and elongation. LPS/IFN? decreased protein synthesis 60% in myotubes. Treatment with methyl or ethyl pyruvate partially protected against the LPS/IFN?-induced fall in mTOR signaling. The protective effect of ethyl and methyl pyruvate could not be replicated by an equimolar amount of sodium pyruvate. Although LPS/IFN? treated myotubes were initially IGF-I responsive, prolonged exposure (? 17 h) resulted in IGF-I resistance at the level of mTOR despite normal IGF-I receptor phosphorylation. Ethyl pyruvate treatment restored IGF-I sensitivity as evidenced by the left shift in the IGF-I dose-response curve and maintained IGF-I responsiveness for a prolonged period of time. Ethyl pyruvate also restored IGF-I-stimulated protein synthesis in LPS/IFN?-treated myotubes. Cotreatment with N-acetyl cysteine or ascorbic acid also preserved IGF-I sensitivity and mTOR activity. The data suggest that the combination of LPS and IFN? inhibits mTOR activity and that prolonged exposure induces IGF-I resistance in myotubes. Lipophilic pyruvate derivatives and antioxidants show promise at rescuing mTOR activity and muscle protein synthesis by maintaining IGF-I sensitivity in this model.
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Ileal interposition improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the obese Zucker rat.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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The hindgut hypothesis posits improvements in Type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass surgery are due to enhanced delivery of undigested nutrients to the ileum, which increase incretin production and insulin sensitivity. The present study investigates the effect of ileal interposition (IT), surgically relocating a segment of distal ileum to the proximal jejunum, on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and glucose transport in the obese Zucker rat. Two groups of obese Zucker rats were studied: IT and sham surgery ad libitum fed (controls). Changes in food intake, body weight and composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and tissue glucose uptake, and insulin signaling as well as plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were measured. The IT procedure did not significantly alter food intake, body weight, or composition. Obese Zucker rats demonstrated improved glucose tolerance 3 wk after IT compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp and 1-[(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose tracer studies indicate that IT improves whole body glucose disposal, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and the ratio of phospho- to total Akt (P < 0.01 vs. control) in striated muscle. After oral glucose, the plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 was increased, whereas GIP was decreased following IT. Enhanced nutrient delivery to the ileum after IT improves glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and muscle glucose uptake without altering food intake, body weight, or composition. These findings support the concept that anatomic and endocrine alterations in gut function play a role in the improvements in glucose homeostasis after the IT procedure.
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BCATm deficiency ameliorates endotoxin-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis and improves survival in septic mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Endotoxin (LPS) and sepsis decrease mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity in skeletal muscle, thereby reducing protein synthesis. Our study tests the hypothesis that inhibition of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism, which elevates circulating BCAA and stimulates mTOR, will blunt the LPS-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis. Wild-type (WT) and mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) knockout mice were studied 4 h after Escherichia coli LPS or saline. Basal skeletal muscle protein synthesis was increased in knockout mice compared with WT, and this change was associated with increased eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-4E binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation, eIF4E.eIF4G binding, 4E-BP1.raptor binding, and eIF3.raptor binding without a change in the mTOR.raptor complex in muscle. LPS decreased muscle protein synthesis in WT mice, a change associated with decreased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation as well as decreased formation of eIF4E.eIF4G, 4E-BP1.raptor, and eIF3.raptor complexes. In BCATm knockout mice given LPS, muscle protein synthesis only decreased to values found in vehicle-treated WT control mice, and this ameliorated LPS effect was associated with a coordinate increase in 4E-BP1.raptor, eIF3.raptor, and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Additionally, the LPS-induced increase in muscle cytokines was blunted in BCATm knockout mice, compared with WT animals. In a separate study, 7-day survival and muscle mass were increased in BCATm knockout vs. WT mice after polymicrobial peritonitis. These data suggest that elevating blood BCAA is sufficient to ameliorate the catabolic effect of LPS on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via alterations in protein-protein interactions within mTOR complex-1, and this may provide a survival advantage in response to bacterial infection.
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Atypical antipsychotics rapidly and inappropriately switch peripheral fuel utilization to lipids, impairing metabolic flexibility in rodents.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Patients taking atypical antipsychotics are frequented by serious metabolic (eg, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes) and cardiac effects. Surprisingly, chronic treatment also appears to lower free fatty acids (FFAs). This finding is paradoxical because insulin resistance is typically associated with elevated not lower FFAs. How atypical antipsychotics bring about these converse changes in plasma glucose and FFAs is unknown. Chronic treatment with olanzapine, a prototypical, side effect prone atypical antipsychotic, lowered FFA in Sprague-Dawley rats. Olanzapine also lowered plasma FFA acutely, concomitantly impairing in vivo lipolysis and robustly elevating whole-body lipid oxidation. Increased lipid oxidation was evident from accelerated losses of triglycerides after food deprivation or lipid challenge, elevated FFA uptake into most peripheral tissues (?2-fold) except heart, rises in long-chain 3-hydroxylated acyl-carnitines observed in diabetes, and rapid suppression of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during the dark cycle. Normal rises in RER following refeeding, a sign of metabolic flexibility, were severely blunted by olanzapine. Increased lipid oxidation in muscle could be explained by ?50% lower concentrations of the negative cytoplasmic regulator of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, malonyl-CoA. This was associated with loss of anapleurotic metabolites and citric acid cycle precursors of malonyl-CoA synthesis rather than adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase activation or direct ACC1/2 inhibition. The ability of antipsychotics to lower dark cycle RER in mice corresponded to their propensities to cause metabolic side effects. Our studies indicate that lipocentric mechanisms or altered intermediary metabolism could underlie the FFA lowering and hyperglycemia (Randle cycle) as well as some of the other side effects of atypical antipsychotics, thereby suggesting strategies for alleviating them.
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PRAS40 regulates protein synthesis and cell cycle in C2C12 myoblasts.
Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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PRAS40 is an mTOR binding protein that has complex effects on cell metabolism. Our study tests the hypothesis that PRAS40 knockdown (KD) in C2C12 myocytes will increase protein synthesis via upregulation of the mTOR-S6K1 pathway. PRAS40 KD was achieved using lentiviruses to deliver short hairpin (sh)-RNA targeting PRAS40 or a scrambled control. C2C12 cells were used as either myoblasts or differentiated to myotubes. Knockdown reduced PRAS40 mRNA and protein content by >80% of time-matched control values but did not alter the phosphorylation of mTOR substrates, 4E-BP1 or S6K1, in neither myoblasts nor myotubes. No change in protein synthesis in myotubes was detected, as measured by the incorporation of (35)S-methionine. In contrast, protein synthesis was reduced 25% in myoblasts. PRAS40 KD in myoblasts also decreased proliferation rate with an increased percent of cells retained in the G1 phase. PRAS40 KD myoblasts were larger in diameter and had a decreased rate of myotube formation as assessed by myosin heavy chain content. Immunoblotting revealed a 25-30% decrease in total p21 and S807/811 phosphorylated Rb protein considered critical for G1 to S phase progression. Reduction in protein synthesis was not due to increased apoptosis, since cleaved caspase-3 and DNA laddering did not differ between groups. In contrast, the protein content of LC3B-II was decreased by 30% in the PRAS40 KD myoblasts, suggesting a decreased rate of autophagy. Our results suggest that a reduction in PRAS40 specifically impairs myoblast protein synthesis, cell cycle, proliferation and differentiation to myotubes.
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Skeletal muscle protein balance in mTOR heterozygous mice in response to inflammation and leucine.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Sepsis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may decrease skeletal muscle protein synthesis by impairing mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activity. The role of mTOR in regulating muscle protein synthesis was assessed in wild-type (WT) and mTOR heterozygous (+/-) mice under basal conditions and in response to LPS and/or leucine stimulation. No difference in body weight of mTOR(+/-) mice was observed compared with WT mice; whereas whole body lean body mass was reduced. Gastrocnemius weight was decreased in mTOR(+/-) mice, which was attributable in part to a reduced rate of basal protein synthesis. LPS decreased muscle protein synthesis in WT and mTOR(+/-) mice to the same extent. Reduced muscle protein synthesis in mTOR(+/-) mice under basal and LPS-stimulated conditions was associated with lower 4E-BP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation. LPS also decreased PRAS40 phosphorylation and increased phosphorylation of raptor and IRS-1 (Ser(307)) to the same extent in WT and mTOR(+/-) mice. Muscle atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA content was elevated in mTOR(+/-) mice under basal conditions, implying increased ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis, but the LPS-induced increase in these atrogenes was comparable between groups. Plasma insulin and IGF-I as well as tissue expression of TNFalpha, IL-6, or NOS2 did not differ between WT and mTOR(+/-) mice. Finally, whereas LPS impaired the ability of leucine to stimulate muscle protein synthesis and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in WT mice, this inflammatory state rendered mTOR(+/-) mice leucine unresponsive. These data support the idea that the LPS-induced reduction in mTOR activity is relatively more important in regulating skeletal muscle mass in response to nutrient stimulation than under basal conditions.
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Skeletal muscle catabolism in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced murine colitis.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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The present study determined whether the muscle atrophy produced by colitis is associated with altered rates of muscle protein synthesis or degradation, as well as the potential role of the local (eg, muscle) insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in mediating altered muscle protein balance. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intrarectal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and blood and tissues were collected on day 10. Mice with inflammatory bowel disease demonstrated reduced skeletal muscle mass and protein content, whereas colonic segment weight and gross damage score were both increased in mice with colitis, compared with time-matched control values. There was no change in muscle protein synthesis in mice with inflammatory bowel disease; but there was an increased protein breakdown (45%), proteasome activity (85%), and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for atrogin-1 and MuRF1 (200%-300%) in muscle. These changes were associated with a reduction in liver (but not muscle) IGF-I mRNA as well as a reduction in both total and free IGF-I in the blood. Colitis decreased the hepatic content of IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 mRNA by 40% and increased IGFBP-1 mRNA by 100%. In contrast, colitis did alter IGFBP mRNAs in muscle. The tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and nitric oxide synthase 2 mRNA content of both liver and skeletal muscle was increased in TNBS-treated mice; and plasma tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 concentrations were also elevated. These data suggest that TNBS-induced colitis is independent of a change in muscle protein synthesis but dependent on stimulation of protein degradation via increased expression of muscle-specific atrogenes, which may be mediated in part by the reduction in circulating concentration of IGF-I and the concomitant increase in inflammatory mediators observed in the blood and muscle per se.
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Alcohol-induced IGF-I resistance is ameliorated in mice deficient for mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Acute alcohol intoxication decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis by impairing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In 2 studies, we determined whether inhibition of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism ameliorates the inhibitory effect of alcohol on muscle protein synthesis by raising the plasma BCAA concentrations and/or by improving the anabolic response to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. In the first study, 4 groups of mice were used: wild-type (WT) and mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) knockout (KO) mice orally administered saline or alcohol (5 g/kg, 1 h). Protein synthesis was greater in KO mice compared with WT controls and was associated with greater phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-4E binding protein-1 (4EBP1), eIF4E-eIF4G binding, and 4EBP1-regulatory associated protein of mTOR (raptor) binding, but not mTOR-raptor binding. Alcohol decreased protein synthesis in WT mice, a change associated with less 4EBP1 phosphorylation, eIF4E-eIF4G binding, and raptor-4EBP1 binding, but greater mTOR-raptor complex formation. Comparable alcohol effects on protein synthesis and signal transduction were detected in BCATm KO mice. The second study used the same 4 groups, but all mice were injected with IGF-I (25 microg/mouse, 30 min). Alcohol impaired the ability of IGF-I to increase muscle protein synthesis, 4EBP1 and 70-kilodalton ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 phosphorylation, eIF4E-eIF4G binding, and 4EBP1-raptor binding in WT mice. However, in alcohol-treated BCATm KO mice, this IGF-I resistance was not manifested. These data suggest that whereas the sustained elevation in plasma BCAA is not sufficient to ameliorate the catabolic effect of acute alcohol intoxication on muscle protein synthesis, it does improve the anabolic effect of IGF-I.
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Alcohol and PRAS40 knockdown decrease mTOR activity and protein synthesis via AMPK signaling and changes in mTORC1 interaction.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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The mTORC1 protein kinase complex consists of mTOR, raptor, mLST8/GbetaL and PRAS40. Previously, we reported that mTOR plays an important role in regulating protein synthesis in response to alcohol (EtOH). However, the mechanisms by which EtOH regulates mTORC1 activity have not been established. Here, we investigated the effect of EtOH on the phosphorylation and interaction of components of mTORC1 in C2C12 myocytes. We also examined the specific role that PRAS40 plays in this process. Incubation of myocytes with EtOH (100 mM, 24 h) increased raptor and PRAS40 phosphorylation. Likewise, there were increased levels of the PRAS40 upstream regulators Akt and IRS-1. EtOH also caused changes in mTORC1 protein-protein interactions. EtOH enhanced the binding of raptor and PRAS40 with mTOR. These alterations occurred in concert with increased binding of 14-3-3 to raptor, while the PRAS40 and 14-3-3 interaction was not affected. The shRNA knockdown (KD) of PRAS40 decreased protein synthesis similarly to EtOH. PRAS40 KD increased raptor phosphorylation and its association with 14-3-3, whereas decreased GbetaL-mTOR binding. The effects of EtOH and PRAS40 KD were mediated by AMPK. Both factors increased in vitro AMPK activity towards the substrate raptor. In addition, KD enhanced the activity of AMPK towards TSC2. Collectively, our results indicate that EtOH stabilizes the association of raptor, PRAS40, and GbetaL with mTOR, while likewise increasing the interaction of raptor with 14-3-3. These data suggest a possible mechanism for the inhibitory effects of EtOH on mTOR kinase activity and protein synthesis in myocytes.
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Activation of p53 enhances apoptosis and insulin resistance in a rat model of alcoholic liver disease.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Chronic ethanol consumption in the Long-Evans (LE) rat has been associated with hepatic p53 activation, and inhibition of the insulin/PI3K/AKT signal transduction cascade due to increased expression of PTEN. We hypothesize that p53 activation and altered insulin signaling may influence the susceptibility of rats to ethanol-induced liver damage. Furthermore, p53 not only activates programmed cell death pathways and suppresses hepatocellular survival signals, but also promotes gluconeogenesis to increase systemic insulin resistance due to a novel metabolic function.
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Regulation of REDD1 by insulin-like growth factor-I in skeletal muscle and myotubes.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a major anabolic hormone for skeletal muscle and a potent stimulus for protein synthesis and translation initiation. Recent studies suggest that translation can be inhibited by over expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) repressor REDD1. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether IGF-I alters the expression of REDD1 and whether this is associated with a concomitant change in protein synthesis in vitro. Subcutaneous injection of IGF-I or intravenous delivery of insulin for 3-4 h increased REDD1 mRNA in skeletal muscle 7-10-fold. A threefold increase in REDD1 was observed when C2C12 myotubes were treated with IGF-I. REDD1 protein continued to be expressed for up to 24 h after addition of IGF-I to cells. Withdrawal of IGF-I from myotubes lead to a rapid loss of REDD1 protein content. IGF-I-induced REDD1 mRNA and protein expression were prevented by inhibitors of transcription and translation. IGF-I had an additive effect with dexamethasone (Dex) on REDD1 protein content in myotubes. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked IGF-I but not Dex induced REDD1. IGF-I also stimulated REDD1 promoter activity. Although REDD1 protein was elevated 5-6 h after addition of IGF-I to myotubes, protein synthesis measured during this 1 h window was paradoxically greater in myotubes expressing more REDD1. In contrast to the IGF-I induced increase in REDD1 mRNA, REDD2 mRNA was decreased by IGF-I. We conclude that IGF-I stimulates REDD1 expression in skeletal muscle and myotubes but under these conditions the REDD1 response is not sufficient to repress protein synthesis.
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Castration differentially alters basal and leucine-stimulated tissue protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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Reduced testosterone as a result of catabolic illness or aging is associated with loss of muscle and increased adiposity. We hypothesized that these changes in body composition occur because of altered rates of protein synthesis under basal and nutrient-stimulated conditions that are tissue specific. The present study investigated such mechanisms in castrated male rats (75% reduction in testosterone) with demonstrated glucose intolerance. Over 9 wk, castration impaired body weight gain, which resulted from a reduced lean body mass and preferential sparing of adipose tissue. Castration decreased gastrocnemius weight, but this atrophy was not associated with reduced basal muscle protein synthesis or differences in plasma IGF-I, insulin, or individual amino acids. However, oral leucine failed to normally stimulate muscle protein synthesis in castrated rats. In addition, castration-induced atrophy was associated with increased 3-methylhistidine excretion and in vitro-determined ubiquitin proteasome activity in skeletal muscle, changes that were associated with decreased atrogin-1 or MuRF1 mRNA expression. Castration decreased heart and kidney weight without reducing protein synthesis and did not alter either cardiac output or glomerular filtration. In contradistinction, the weight of the retroperitoneal fat depot was increased in castrated rats. This increase was associated with an elevated rate of basal protein synthesis, which was unresponsive to leucine stimulation. Castration also decreased whole body fat oxidation. Castration increased TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6, and NOS2 mRNA in fat but not muscle. In summary, the castration-induced muscle wasting results from an increased muscle protein breakdown and the inability of leucine to stimulate protein synthesis, whereas the expansion of the retroperitoneal fat depot appears mediated in part by an increased basal rate of protein synthesis-associated increased inflammatory cytokine expression.
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Endotoxin and interferon-gamma inhibit translation in skeletal muscle cells by stimulating nitric oxide synthase activity.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that endogenous NO negatively affects translation in skeletal muscle cells after exposure to a combination of endotoxin (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Individually, LPS and IFN-gamma did not alter protein synthesis, but in combination, they inhibited protein synthesis by 80% in C2C12 myotubes. The combination of LPS and IFN-gamma dramatically downregulated the autophosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and its substrates S6K1 and 4EBP-1. The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 was decreased, whereas phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 and raptor was enhanced, consistent with defects in both translation initiation and elongation. Reduced S6 phosphorylation occurred 8 to 18 h after LPS/IFN-gamma and coincided with a prolonged upregulation of NOS2 messenger RNA and protein. NOS2 protein expression and the LPS/IFN-gamma-induced fall in phosphorylated S6 were prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. The general NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, and the specific NOS2 inhibitor, 1400W, also prevented the LPS/IFN-gamma-induced decrease in protein synthesis and restored translational signaling. LPS/IFN-gamma downregulated the phosphorylation of multiple Akt substrates, including the proline-rich Akt substrate 40, while enhancing the phosphorylation of raptor on a 5-AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)-regulated site. The negative effects of LPS/IFN-gamma were blunted by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. The data suggest that, in combination, LPS and IFN-gamma induce a prolonged expression of NOS2 and excessive production of NO that reciprocally alter Akt and AMPK activity and consequently downregulate translation via reduced mammalian target of rapamycin signaling.
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Effect of peroxynitrite on endothelial L-arginine transport and metabolism.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Under conditions of oxidative stress it is well known that the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is known to be significantly reduced. This process is in part due to the combination of NO with superoxide radicals to form peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). While this process inactivates NO per se, it is not certain to which extent this process may also further impair ongoing NO production. Given the pivotal role of arginine availability for NO synthesis we determined the impact of ONOO(-) on endothelial arginine transport and intracellular arginine metabolism. Peroxynitrite reduced endothelial [(3)H]-L-arginine transport and increased the rate of arginine efflux in a concentration-dependent manner (both p<0.05). In conjunction, exposure to ONOO(-) significantly reduced the intracellular concentration of L-arginine, N(G)-hydroxy-L-arginine (an intermediate of NO biosynthesis) and citrulline by 46%, 45% and 60% respectively (all p<0.05), while asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels rose by 180% (p<0.05). ONOO(-) exposure did not alter the cellular distribution of the principal L-arginine transporter, CAT1, rather the effect on CAT1 activity appeared to be mediated by protein nitrosation. Conclusion Peroxynitrite negatively influences NO production by combined effects on arginine uptake and efflux, most likely due to a nitrosative action of ONOO(-) on CAT-1.
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Mechanisms of glucose homeostasis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in the obese, insulin-resistant Zucker rat.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Obesity-related diabetes is caused by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. The current study examines changes in food intake, weight loss, body fat depots, oxygen consumption, insulin sensitivity, and incretin levels as potential mechanisms for improved glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).
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Alcohol-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased binding of mTOR and raptor: Comparable effects in young and mature rats.
Nutr Metab (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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Acute alcohol (EtOH) intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis via inhibition of mTOR-dependent translation initiation. However, these studies have been performed in relatively young rapidly growing rats in which muscle protein accretion is more sensitive to growth factor and nutrient stimulation. Furthermore, some in vivo-produced effects of EtOH vary in an age-dependent manner. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that young rats will show a more pronounced decrement in muscle protein synthesis than older mature rats in response to acute EtOH intoxication.
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Local insulin-like growth factor I prevents sepsis-induced muscle atrophy.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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The present study tests the hypotheses that local bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is capable of regulating muscle protein balance and that muscle-directed IGF-I can selectively maintain muscle mass during bacterial infection. Initial studies in C57BL/6 mice demonstrated that increasing or decreasing bioavailable IGF-I within muscle by local administration of either Leu(24) Ala(31) IGF-I or IGF binding protein 1, respectively, produced proportional changes in surrogate markers (eg, phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1) of protein synthesis. We next examined the ability of a sustained local administration of IGF-I to prevent sepsis-induced muscle atrophy over a 5-day period. At the time of cecal ligation and puncture or sham surgery, mice had a time-release pellet containing IGF-I implanted next to the gastrocnemius and a placebo pellet placed in the contralateral limb. Data indicated that IGF-I released locally only affected the adjacent muscle and was not released into the circulation. Gastrocnemius from septic mice containing the placebo pellet was atrophied and had a reduced IGF-I protein content. In contrast, locally directed IGF-I increased IGF-I protein within adjacent muscle to basal control levels. This change was associated with a proportional increase in muscle weight and protein, as well as increased phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and the redistribution of eIF4E from the inactive eIF4E4EBP1 complex to the active eIF4EeIF4G complex. Local IGF-I also prevented the sepsis-induced increase in atrogin-1 messenger RNA in the exposed muscle. Finally, local IGF-I prevented the sepsis-induced increase in muscle interleukin-6 messenger RNA. Thus, muscle-directed IGF-I attenuates the sepsis-induced atrophic response apparently by increasing muscle protein synthesis and potentially decreasing proteolysis. Collectively, our data suggest that agents that increase the bioavailability of IGF-I within muscle per se might be effective in ameliorating the sepsis-induced loss of muscle mass without having undesirable effects on metabolic processes in distant organs.
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Direct central nervous system effect of alcohol alters synthesis and degradation of skeletal muscle protein.
Alcohol Alcohol.
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Alcohol can directly impair protein synthesis in cultured myocytes as well as in in situ perfused skeletal muscle. However, alcohol in the general circulation diffuses rapidly into the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, this study determined whether localized elevation of alcohol within the CNS is capable of decreasing muscle protein synthesis.
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Comparison of the agar block and Lieber-DeCarli diets to study chronic alcohol consumption in an aging model of Fischer 344 female rats.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods
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Post-menopausal women have a greater risk of developing alcoholic complications compared to age-matched men. Unfortunately, animal models of chronic ethanol consumption with estrogen deficiency are lacking. Here, we characterize the ability of the agar block and Lieber-DeCarli models of chronic ethanol consumption to produce elevated blood alcohol content (BAC) and liver pathology in the F344 postmenopausal animal model of aging.
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Mechanisms mediating the effects of alcohol and HIV anti-retroviral agents on mTORC1, mTORC2 and protein synthesis in myocytes.
World J Biol Chem
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Alcoholism and acquired immune deficiency syndrome are associated with severe muscle wasting. This impairment in nitrogen balance arises from increased protein degradation and a decreased rate of protein synthesis. The regulation of protein synthesis is a complex process involving alterations in the phosphorylation state and protein-protein interaction of various components of the translation machinery and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes. This review describes mechanisms that regulate protein synthesis in cultured C2C12 myocytes following exposure to either alcohol or human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral drugs. Particular attention is given to the upstream regulators of mTOR complexes and the downstream targets which play an important role in translation. Gaining a better understanding of these molecular mechanisms could have important implications for preventing changes in lean body mass in patients with catabolic conditions or illnesses.
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Delayed recovery of skeletal muscle mass following hindlimb immobilization in mTOR heterozygous mice.
PLoS ONE
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The present study addressed the hypothesis that reducing mTOR, as seen in mTOR heterozygous (+/-) mice, would exaggerate the changes in protein synthesis and degradation observed during hindlimb immobilization as well as impair normal muscle regrowth during the recovery period. Atrophy was produced by unilateral hindlimb immobilization and data compared to the contralateral gastrocnemius. In wild-type (WT) mice, the gradual loss of muscle mass plateaued by day 7. This response was associated with a reduction in basal protein synthesis and development of leucine resistance. Proteasome activity was consistently elevated, but atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNAs were only transiently increased returning to basal values by day 7. When assessed 7 days after immobilization, the decreased muscle mass and protein synthesis and increased proteasome activity did not differ between WT and mTOR(+/-) mice. Moreover, the muscle inflammatory cytokine response did not differ between groups. After 10 days of recovery, WT mice showed no decrement in muscle mass, and this accretion resulted from a sustained increase in protein synthesis and a normalization of proteasome activity. In contrast, mTOR(+/-) mice failed to fully replete muscle mass at this time, a defect caused by the lack of a compensatory increase in protein synthesis. The delayed muscle regrowth of the previously immobilized muscle in the mTOR(+/-) mice was associated with a decreased raptor•4EBP1 and increased raptor•Deptor binding. Slowed regrowth was also associated with a sustained inflammatory response (e.g., increased TNF? and CD45 mRNA) during the recovery period and a failure of IGF-I to increase as in WT mice. These data suggest mTOR is relatively more important in regulating the accretion of muscle mass during recovery than the loss of muscle during the atrophy phase, and that protein synthesis is more sensitive than degradation to the reduction in mTOR during muscle regrowth.
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Multifaceted role of insulin-like growth factors and mammalian target of rapamycin in skeletal muscle.
Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
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This review describes the current literature on the interaction between insulin-like growth factors, endocrine hormones, and branched-chain amino acids on muscle physiology in healthy young individuals and during select pathologic conditions. Emphasis is placed on the mechanism by which physical and hormonal signals are transduced at the cellular level to either grow or atrophy skeletal muscle. The key role of the mammalian target of rapamycin and its ability to respond to hypertrophic and atrophic signals informs our understanding how a combination of physical, nutritional, and pharmacologic therapies may be used in tandem to prevent or ameliorate reductions in muscle mass.
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Rag GTPases and AMPK/TSC2/Rheb mediate the differential regulation of mTORC1 signaling in response to alcohol and leucine.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
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Leucine (Leu) and insulin both stimulate muscle protein synthesis, albeit at least in part via separate signaling pathways. While alcohol (EtOH) suppresses insulin-stimulated protein synthesis in cultured myocytes, its ability to disrupt Leu signaling and Rag GTPase activity has not been determined. Likewise, little is known regarding the interaction of EtOH and Leu on the AMPK/TSC2/Rheb pathway. Treatment of myocytes with EtOH (100 mM) decreased protein synthesis, whereas Leu (2 mM) increased synthesis. In combination, EtOH suppressed the anabolic effect of Leu. The effects of EtOH and Leu were associated with coordinate changes in the phosphorylation state of mTOR, raptor, and their downstream targets 4EBP1 and S6K1. As such, EtOH suppressed the ability of Leu to activate these signaling components. The Rag signaling pathway was activated by Leu but suppressed by EtOH, as evidenced by changes in the interaction of Rag proteins with mTOR and raptor. Overexpression of constitutively active (ca)RagA and caRagC increased mTORC1 activity, as determined by increased S6K1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the caRagA-caRagC heterodimer blocked the inhibitory effect of EtOH. EtOH and Leu produced differential effects on AMPK signaling. EtOH enhanced AMPK activity, resulting in increased TSC2 (S1387) and eEF2 phosphorylation, whereas Leu had the opposite effect. EtOH also decreased the interaction of Rheb with mTOR, and this was prevented by Leu. Collectively, our results indicate that EtOH inhibits the anabolic effects that Leu has on protein synthesis and mTORC1 activity by modulating both Rag GTPase function and AMPK/TSC2/Rheb signaling.
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Interdependence of muscle atrophy and bone loss induced by mechanical unloading.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
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Mechanical unloading induces muscle atrophy and bone loss; however, the time course and interdependence of these effects is not well defined. We subjected 4-month-old C57BL/6J mice to hindlimb suspension (HLS) for three weeks, sacrificing 12-16 mice on day (D) 0, 7, 14, and 21. Lean mass was 7-9% lower for HLS vs. control from D7-21. Absolute mass of the gastrocnemius (gastroc) decreased 8% by D7, and was maximally decreased 16% by D14 of HLS. mRNA levels of Atrogin-1 in the gastroc and quad were increased 99% and 122%, respectively, at D7 of HLS. Similar increases in MuRF1 mRNA levels occurred at D7. Both atrogenes returned to baseline by D14. Protein synthesis in gastroc and quad was reduced 30% from D7-14 of HLS, returning to baseline by D21. HLS decreased phosphorylation of SK61, a substrate of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), on D7-21, while 4E-BP1 was not lower until D21. Cortical thickness of the femur and tibia did not decrease until D14 of HLS. Cortical bone of controls did not change over time. HLS mice had lower distal femur bone volume fraction (-22%) by D14; however, the effects of HLS were eliminated by D21 due to the decline of trabecular bone mass of controls. Femur strength was decreased approximately 13% by D14 of HLS, with no change in tibia mechanical properties at any time point. This investigation reveals that muscle atrophy precedes bone loss during unloading and may contribute to subsequent skeletal deficits. Countermeasures that preserve muscle may reduce bone loss induced by mechanical unloading or prolonged disuse. Trabecular bone loss with age, similar to that which occurs in mature astronauts, is superimposed on unloading. Preservation of muscle mass, cortical structure, and bone strength during the experiment suggests muscle may have a greater effect on cortical than trabecular bone. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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