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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Aggregation in complex triacylglycerol oils: coarse-grained models, nanophase separation, and predicted x-ray intensities.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are biologically important molecules which form crystalline nanoplatelets (CNPs) and, ultimately, fat crystal networks in edible oils. Characterizing the self-assembled hierarchies of these networks is important to understanding their functionality and oil binding capacity. We have modelled CNPs in multicomponent oils and studied their aggregation. The oil comprises (a) a liquid componentt, and (b) components which phase separately on a nano-scale (nano-phase separation) to coat the surfaces of the CNPs impenetrably, either isotropically or anisotropically, with either liquid-like coatings or crystallites, forming a coating of thickness ?. We modelled three cases: (i) liquid-liquid nano-phase separation, (ii) solid-liquid nano-phase separation, with CNPs coated isotropically, and (iii) CNPs coated anisotropically. The models were applied to mixes of tristearin and triolein with fully hydrogenated canola oil, shea butter with high oleic sunflower oil, and cotton seed oil. We performed Monte Carlo simulations, computed structure functions and concluded: (1) three regimes arose: (a) thin coating regime, [Formula: see text] (b) transition regime, [Formula: see text] and (c) thick coating regime, [Formula: see text]. (arbitrary units, u) (2) The thin coating regime exhibits 1D TAGwoods, which aggregate, via DLCA/RLCA, into fractal structures which are uniformly distributed in space. (3) In the thick coating regime, for an isotropic coating, TAGwoods are not formed and coated CNPs will not aggregate but will be uniformly distributed in space. For anisotropic coating, TAGwoods can be formed and might form 1D strings but will not form DLCA/RLCA clusters. (4) The regimes are, approximately: thin coating, [Formula: see text] transition regime, [Formula: see text] and thick coating, [Formula: see text] (5) The minimum minority TAG concentration required to undergo nano-phase separation is, approximately, 0.29% (thin coatings) and 0.94% (thick coatings). Minority components can have substantial effects upon aggregation for concentrations less than 1%.
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Oil binding capacities of triacylglycerol crystalline nanoplatelets: nanoscale models of tristearin solids in liquid triolein.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Polycrystalline particles composed of triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules, and their networks, in anhydrous TAG oils find extensive use as edible oils in the food industry. Although modelling studies of TAG systems, have been carried out, none have attempted to address a problem of central concern to food science and technology: the "oil binding capacity" of a system of such edible oils. Crystalline nanoparticles (CNPs) have recently been identified as the fundamental components of solid fats in oils. Oil binding capacity is an important concept regarding the ability of fats particles to retain oil, and the ability of these CNPs to bind oil is important in designing healthy foods. We have carried out atomic scale molecular dynamics computer simulations to understand the behavior of a triacylglycerol oil (triolein) in nanoscale confinements between tristearin CNPs. We define a nanoscale oil binding capacity function by utilizing the average oil number density, ??(d)?, between two CNPs as a function of their separation, d. We modelled pure tristearin CNPs as well as tristearin CNPs in which the surfaces are covered with an interface comprising soft permanent coatings. Their surfaces are "hard" and "soft" respectively. We found that for a pair of hard-surface tristearin CNPs a distance d apart, (i) triolein exhibits number density, and therefore density, oscillations as a function of d, and (ii) the average number density between two such CNPs decreases as d decreases, viz. the oil binding capacity is lowered. When a soft layer of oil covers the CNP surfaces, we found that the oscillations are smeared out and that the average number density between the two CNPs remained approximately constant as d decreased indicating a high oil binding capacity. Our results might have identified important nanoscale aspects to aid in healthy food design.
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Improving the selective cancer killing ability of ZnO nanoparticles using Fe doping.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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This work reports a new method to improve our recent demonstration of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) selectively killing certain human cancer cells, achieved by incorporating Fe ions into the NPs. Thoroughly characterized cationic ZnO NPs (?6 nm) doped with Fe ions (Zn(1-x )Fe (x) O, x = 0-0.15) were used in this work, applied at a concentration of 24 ?g/ml. Cytotoxicity studies using flow cytometry on Jurkat leukemic cancer cells show cell viability drops from about 43% for undoped ZnO NPs to 15% for ZnO NPs doped with 7.5% Fe. However, the trend reverses and cell viability increases with higher Fe concentrations. The non-immortalized human T cells are markedly more resistant to Fe-doped ZnO NPs than cancerous T cells, confirming that Fe-doped samples still maintain selective toxicity to cancer cells. Pure iron oxide samples displayed no appreciable toxicity. Reactive oxygen species generated with NP introduction to cells increased with increasing Fe up to 7.5% and decreased for >7.5% doping.
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Crucial roles of charged saccharide moieties in survival of gram negative bacteria against protamine revealed by combination of grazing incidence x-ray structural characterizations and Monte Carlo simulations.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are combined to reveal the influence of molecular structure (genetic mutation) and divalent cations on the survival of gram negative bacteria against cationic peptides such as protamine. The former yields detailed structures of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) membranes with minimized radiation damages, while the minimal computer model based on the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann theory allows for the simulation of conformational changes of macromolecules (LPSs and peptides) that occur in the time scale of ms. The complementary combination of the structural characterizations and MC simulation demonstrates that the condensations of divalent ions (Ca2+ or Mg2+) in the negatively charged core saccharides are crucial for bacterial survival.
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Modeling the solid-liquid phase transition in saturated triglycerides.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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We investigated theoretically two competing published scenarios for the melting transition of the triglyceride trilaurin (TL): those of (1) Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], in which the average state of each TL molecule in the liquid phase is a discotic "Y" conformer whose three chains are dynamically twisted, with an average angle of approximately 120 degrees between them, and those of (2) Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid-state conformation of the TL molecule in the liquid phase is a nematic h*-conformer whose three chains are in a modified "chair" conformation. We developed two competing models for the two scenarios, in which TL molecules are in a nematic compact-chair (or "h") conformation, with extended, possibly all-trans, chains at low-temperatures, and in either a Y conformation or an h* conformation in the liquid state at temperatures higher than the phase-transition temperature, T*=319 K. We defined an h-Y model as a realization of the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], and explored its predictions by mapping it onto an Ising model in a temperature-dependent field, performing a mean-field approximation, and calculating the transition enthalpy DeltaH. We found that the most plausible realization of the h-Y model, as applied to the solid-liquid phase transition in TL, and likely to all saturated triglycerides, gave a value of DeltaH in reasonable agreement with the experiment. We then defined an alternative h-h* model as a realization of the proposal of Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid phase exhibits an average symmetry breaking similar to an h conformation, but with twisted chains, to see whether it could describe the TL phase transition. The h-h* model gave a value of DeltaH that was too small by a factor of approximately 3-4. We also predicted the temperature dependence of the 1132 cm(-1) Raman band for both models, and performed measurements of the ratios of three TL Raman bands in the temperature range of -20 degrees C < or = T < or = 90 degrees C. The experimental results were in accord with the predictions of the h-Y model and support the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)] that the liquid state is made up of molecules that are each, on average, in a Y conformation. Finally, we carried out computer simulations of minimal-model TLs in the liquid phase, and concluded that although the individual TL molecules are, on average, Y conformers, long-range discotic order is unlikely to exist.
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The Influences of Cell Type and ZnO Nanoparticle Size on Immune Cell Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Induction.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Nanotechnology represents a new and enabling platform that promises to provide a range of innovative technologies for biological applications. ZnO nanoparticles of controlled size were synthesized, and their cytotoxicity toward different human immune cells evaluated. A differential cytotoxic response between human immune cell subsets was observed, with lymphocytes being the most resistant and monocytes being the most susceptible to ZnO nanoparticle-induced toxicity. Significant differences were also observed between previously activated memory lymphocytes and naive lymphocytes, indicating a relationship between cell-cycle potential and nanoparticle susceptibility. Mechanisms of toxicity involve the generation of reactive oxygen species, with monocytes displaying the highest levels, and the degree of cytotoxicity dependent on the extent of nanoparticle interactions with cellular membranes. An inverse relationship between nanoparticle size and cytotoxicity, as well as nanoparticle size and reactive oxygen species production was observed. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles induce the production of the proinflammatory cytokines, IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-12, at concentrations below those causing appreciable cell death. Collectively, these results underscore the need for careful evaluation of ZnO nanoparticle effects across a spectrum of relevant cell types when considering their use for potential new nanotechnology-based biological applications.
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Nanoscale characteristics of triacylglycerol oils: phase separation and binding energies of two-component oils to crystalline nanoplatelets.
Faraday Discuss.
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Fats are elastoplastic materials with a defined yield stress and flow behavior and the plasticity of a fat is central to its functionality. This plasticity is given by a complex tribological interplay between a crystalline phase structured as crystalline nanoplatelets (CNPs) and nanoplatelet aggregates and the liquid oil phase. Oil can be trapped within microscopic pores within the fat crystal network by capillary action, but it is believed that a significant amount of oil can be trapped by adsorption onto crystalline surfaces. This, however, remains to be proven. Further, the structural basis for the solid-liquid interaction remains a mystery. In this work, we demonstrate that the triglyceride liquid structure plays a key role in oil binding and that this binding could potentially be modulated by judicious engineering of liquid triglyceride structure. The enhancement of oil binding is central to many current developments in this area since an improvement in the health characteristics of fat and fat-structured food products entails a reduction in the amount of crystalline triacylglycerols (TAGs) and a relative increase in the amount of liquid TAGs. Excessive amounts of unbound, free oil, will lead to losses in functionality of this important food component. Engineering fats for enhanced oil binding capacity is thus central to the design of more healthy food products. To begin to address this, we modelled the interaction of triacylglycerol oils, triolein (OOO), 1,2-olein elaidin (OOE) and 1,2-elaidin olein (EEO) with a model crystalline nanoplatelet composed of tristearin in an undefined polymorphic form. The surface of the CNP in contact with the oil was assumed to be planar. We considered pure OOO and mixtures of OOO + OOE and OOO + EEO with 80% OOO. The last two cases were taken as approximations to high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). The intent was to investigate whether phase separation on a nanoscale took place. We defined an "oil binding capacity" parameter, B(Q,Q), relating a state Q to a reference state Q. We used atomic scale molecular dynamics in the NVT ensemble and computed averages over 1-5 ns. We found that the probability of the OOE phase separating into a layer on the surface of the CNP compared to being retained randomly in an OOO + OOE mix were approximately equal. However, we found that it was probable that the EEO component of an OOO + EEO mix would phase separate and coat the surface of the CNP. These results suggest a mechanism whereby many-component oils undergo phase separation on a nanoscale so as to create a transition oil region between the surface of the CNP and the bulk major oil component (OOO in the case considered here) so as to create the appropriate oil binding capacity for the use to which it is put.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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