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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ribosomal Protein S15A Augments Human Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation In Vitro.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Abstract As a highly conserved housekeeping gene, the biological implications of ribosomal protein S15A (RPS15A) during various processes, including carcinogenesis, remain elusive. Herein, the authors reported that knockdown of RPS15A expression significantly inhibited human osteosarcoma U2OS cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro by using a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system. Moreover, an excess accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase was observed in U2OS cells transduced with lentivirus targeting RPS15A, suggesting that the growth inhibition mediated by RPS15A knockdown in osteosarcoma cells was probably due to the induction of cell cycle arrest. Taken together, this study highlights the crucial role of RPS15A in promoting osteosarcoma cell proliferation, and provides a foundation for further study into the clinical potential of inhibition of RPS15A for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
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HIV risk among female sex workers with different patterns of drug use behaviors in Southwest China: a cross-sectional study.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Although many researchers found that drug use behaviors significantly increased HIV risk, few of them investigated the association between HIV risk and different drug use behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The current study examines demographic and behavioral risk factors as well as the infections of HIV, syphilis, and among a subgroup of FSWs who are injection drug users (IDU) or noninjection drug users (NIDU) in comparison to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) nondrug users (non-DU). We conducted secondary analysis of the 2010 National Sentinel Surveillance (NSS) data from Guangxi China. A self-administered, standard behavioral surveillance survey was completed by a total of 12,622 FSWs recruited from Guangxi, China. The Guangxi 2010 NSS sample included 2.6% NIDU and 0.5% IDU. Compared to non-DU, IDU were more likely to report no condom use in the last sex act (aOR = 3.25, 95%CI = 1.65, 6.40), inconsistent condom use in the past month (aOR = 4.88, 95%CI = 2.66, 8.96), having an HIV testing (aOR = 2.48, 95%CI = 1.34, 4.58), infections of HIV (aOR = 42.60, 95%CI = 9.45, 192.06), syphilis (aOR = 4.13, 95%CI = 1.86, 9.16), and HCV (aOR = 74.54, 95%CI = 30.26, 183.61). NIDU had 2.89 times higher than non-DU to report a history of sexually transmitted disease and 26% less likely to report inconsistent condom use in the past month (p < 0.05). We called for tailored, accessible, and nonjudgmental drug treatments coupled with effective sexual risk reduction interventions to help FSWs with various drug use problems to reduce their vulnerability and susceptibility of HIV risk in China as well as other cultural settings.
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Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Impair Alveolar Macrophages Through PD-1 Receptor Ligation During Pneumocystis Pneumonia.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently found to accumulate in the lungs during Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). Adoptive transfer of these cells caused lung damage in recipient mice, suggesting that MDSC accumulation is a mechanism of pathogenesis in PcP. In this study, the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages (AMs) was found to decrease by 40% when they were incubated with MDSCs from Pneumocystis (Pc)-infected mice, compared to those incubated with Gr-1(+) cells from the bone marrow of uninfected mice. The expression of PU.1 gene in AMs incubated with MDSCs was also decreased. This PU.1 down regulation was mainly due to decreased histone 3 acetylation and increased DNA methylation caused by MDSCs. MDSCs were found to express high levels of PD-L1, and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were found to express high levels of PD-1 during PcP. Furthermore, PD-1 expression in AMs from uninfected mice was increased by 18 fold when they were incubated with MDSCs, compared to those incubated with Gr-1(+) cells from the bone marrow of uninfected mice. The adverse effects of MDSCs on AMs were diminished when the MDSCs were pretreated with anti-PD-L1 antibody, suggesting that MDSCs disable AMs through PD-1/PD-L1 ligation during PcP.
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Inappropriate left ventricular mass and poor outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Although inappropriate left ventricular mass has been associated with clustered cardiac geometric and functional abnormalities, its predictive value in patients with coronary artery disease is still unknown. This study examined the association of inappropriate left ventricular mass with clinical outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.
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Social Support and Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in China.
Health Care Women Int
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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While the relationship between social support and psychological well-being has been well established, limited studies have explored how social support might affect condom use among female sex workers (FSWs). Using cross-sectional data from 1,022 FSWs in Guangxi China, we examined how different forms of support from diverse sources may influence condom use among FSWs. Friends, co-workers, and stable partners were FSWs' main sources of social support. Social support from diverse sources differently impact FSWs' condom use. Policy-makers need to consider complicated profile of social support received by FSWs and create supportive environment for FSWs to protect them from HIV risks.
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Energetically Biased DNA Motor Containing a Thermodynamically Stable Partial Strand Displacement State.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Current work in tuning DNA kinetics has focused on changing toehold lengths and DNA concentrations. However, kinetics can also be improved by enhancing the completion probability of the strand displacement process. Here, we execute this strategy by creating a toehold DNA motor device with the inclusion of a synthetic nucleotide, inosine, at selected sites. Furthermore, we found that the energetic bias can be tuned such that the device can stay in a stable partially displaced state. This work demonstrates the utility of energetic biases to change DNA strand displacement kinetics and introduces a complementary strategy to the existing designs.
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Sensitive impedimetric biosensor based on duplex-like DNA scaffolds and ordered mesoporous carbon nitride for silver(i) ion detection.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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This study demonstrates a new, unlabeled immobilized DNA-based biosensor with ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN) for the detection of Ag(+) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) as the redox couple. The unlabeled immobilized DNA initially formed the hairpin-like structure through hybridization with the probe, and then changed to duplex-like structure upon interaction with Ag(+) in solution to form a C-Ag(+)-C complex at electrode surface. As a result, the interfacial charge-transfer resistance of the electrode towards the [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) redox couple was changed. Thus, a declined charge transfer resistance (Rct) was obtained, corresponding to Ag(+) concentration. MCN provide an excellent platform for DNA immobilization and faster electron transfer. Impedance data were analyzed with the help of Randles equivalent circuit. The lower detection limit of the biosensor for Ag(+) is 5 × 10(-11) M with good specificity. All results showed that this novel approach provides a reliable method for Ag(+) detection with sensitivity and specificity, potentially useful for practical applications. Moreover, other DNA detection methods for more heavy metals may be obtained from this idea and applied in the environmental field.
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Site-Controlled VLS Growth of Planar Nanowires: Yield and Mechanism.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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The recently emerged selective lateral epitaxy of semiconductor planar nanowires (NWs) via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism has redefined the long-standing symbolic image of VLS NW growth. The in-plane geometry and self-aligned nature make these planar NWs completely compatible with large scale manufacturing of NW-based integrated nanoelectronics. Here, we report on the realization of perfectly site-controlled growth of GaAs planar NW arrays with unity yield using lithographically defined gold (Au) seed dots. The growth rate of the planar NWs is found to decrease with the NW width at fixed spacing, which is consistent with the conventional VLS model based on the Gibbs-Thomson effect. It is found that in general, the planar and out-of-plane NW growth modes are both present. The yield of planar NWs decreases as their lateral dimension shrinks, and 100% yield of planar NWs can be achieved at moderate V/III ratios. Based on a study of the shape of seed particles, it is proposed that the adhesion between the liquid-phase seed particle and the substrate surface is important in determining the choice of growth mode. These studies represent advances in the fundamental understanding of the VLS planar NW growth mechanism and in the precise control of the planar NW site, density, width, and length for practical applications. In addition, high quality planar InAs NWs on GaAs (100) substrates is realized, verifying that the planar VLS growth mode can be extended to heteroepitaxy.
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Combinatorial Pulsed Laser Deposition of Magnetic and Magneto-optical Sr(GaxTiyFe0.34-0.40)O3-? Perovskite Films.
ACS Comb Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Ferromagnetic Sr(GaxTiyFe0.34-0.40)O3-? (0.1 ? x, y ? 0.5) films with single-crystal perovskite structure were epitaxially grown on (001) (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 substrates by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition (CPLD) and compared with previous results from films grown from single targets. In CPLD films the Fe was present as both Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). The distribution of Sr, Ga, Ti, and O was homogeneous, but Fe-rich nanowires with diameter of 3 nm were present perpendicular to the film plane. The unit cell was tetragonally distorted with the ratio of out-of-plane to in-plane lattice parameter decreasing from 1.06 to 1.02 as the Ga content increased. The magnetic easy axis of the films changed from out-of-plane when Ti content y > 0.3 to isotropic as the Ga content increased, consistent with a reduction in magnetoelastic anisotropy. The Ga lowered the Faraday rotation and the magnetization but increased the optical transmittance.
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Social context factors, refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use among female sex workers in China.
Psychol Health Med
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health-risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in social and individual contexts can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSWs were recruited from two cities in southern China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the direct effects of alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence on FSWs' alcohol use. In addition, the mediation effects of refusal self-efficacy were also examined in the SEM model. Results showed that alcohol use by family members and alcohol use by peers significantly predicted FSWs' alcohol use; the prediction effect of alcohol use by peers on FSWs' alcohol use was stronger than that of alcohol use by family members; client-perpetrated pressure or violence directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use and indirectly influenced FSWs' alcohol use through refusal self-efficacy; refusal self-efficacy directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use. Administrators of effective intervention programs focused on alcohol use in China should adopt a multilevel approach to reduce negative social influences, particularly the influence from peer and sex work establishments on FSWs' alcohol use. Meanwhile, training to improve refusal self-efficacy should also be included in the intervention programs to reduce FSWs' alcohol use.
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Direct Determination of Multiple Ligand Interactions with the Extracellular Domain of the Calcium Sensing Receptor.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Numerous in vivo functional studies have indicated that the dimeric extracellular domain (ECD) of the CaSR plays a crucial role in regulating Ca2+ homeostasis by sensing Ca2+ and L-Phe. However, direct interaction of Ca2+ and Phe with the receptors ECD and the resultant impact on its structure and associated conformational changes have been hampered by the large size of the ECD, its high degree of glycosylation, and the lack of biophysical methods to monitor weak interactions in solution. In the present study, we purified the glycosylated extracellular domain of CaSR (ECD) (residues 20~612), containing either complex or high mannose N-glycan structures depending on the host cell line employed for recombinant expression. Both glycosylated forms of the CaSR ECD were purified as dimers and exhibit similar secondary structures with ~50% alpha-helix, ~20% beta-sheet content and a well buried Trp environment. Using various spectroscopic methods, we have shown that both protein variants bind Ca2+ with a Kd of 3.0~5.0 mM. The local conformational changes of the proteins induced by their interactions with Ca2+ were visualized by NMR with specific 15N Phe-labeled forms of the ECD. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR approaches demonstrated for the first time a direct interaction between the CaSR ECD and L-Phe. We further demonstrated that L-Phe increases the binding affinity of the CaSR ECD for Ca2+. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms by which Ca2+ and amino acids regulate the CaSR and may pave the way for exploration of the structural properties of CaSR and other members of family C of the GPCR superfamily.
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si-RNA-Mediated Silencing of ADRBK1 Gene Attenuates Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Abstract Breast cancer is the most prominent cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. It has been found that genetic mutations play distinct roles in the onset and progression of breast cancer. Androgenic, beta, receptor kinase 1 (ADRBK1) has been reported to possess oncogenic characteristics vital for cancer cell viability. This study was designed to investigate the effects of small interference RNA (si-RNA)-mediated ADRBK1 knockdown on breast cancer cell growth in vitro. High-expression levels of ADRBK1 were observed in all tested breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T-47D, and BT-474). ADRBK1 si-RNA was delivered to breast cancer cells using lentivirus delivery system. Depletion of ADRBK1 significantly attenuated the cell viability and colony-formation ability. Flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that ADRBK1 silencing led to MDA-MB-231 cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase. Collectively, these results indicate that knockdown of ADRBK1 gene has detrimental effects on breast cancer cell growth, which may be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of breast cancer.
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[Research on explosive temperature network monitoring system based on the linear frequency shift of spectrum].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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In order to obtain the different position temperature changes in the process of explosive casting accurate, stability and comprehensive, we designed the temperature monitoring system based on fiber Bragg grating spectral shift. Through the fiberoptic network, the system can monitor the different point temperature of melt-cast explosive real-time. According to the function of linear frequency shift of fiber Bragg grating wavelength with the grating of temperature, we get the temperature of different positions. Four channels share a broadband light source with a coupler. The Bragg wavelengths of the 5 gratings of each fiber are separated from each other. Using the gratings designed, spliced and packaged by our own, we can obtain temperature data through the demodulator. The temperature data was processed by the Origin to draw diagram time-temperature curve. The results show that the measured temperature data of the fiber Bragg grating can meet the requirements of experiment.
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Common variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes do not confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex etiology. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been frequently reported in schizophrenia. Phosphatase and tension homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protease (PARL) are mitochondrial proteins, and genetic variants of these two genes may confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia by influencing mitochondrial function. In this study, we conducted a two-stage genetic association study to test this hypothesis. We genotyped 4 PINK1 and 5 PARL genetic variants and evaluated the potential association of the 9 SNPs with schizophrenia in two independent case-control cohorts of 2510 Han Chinese individuals. No positive association of common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes with schizophrenia was identified in our samples after Bonferroni correction. Re-analysis of the newly updated Psychiatric Genetics Consortium (PGC) data sets confirmed our negative result. Intriguingly, one PINK1 SNP (rs10916832), which showed a marginally significant association in only Hunan samples (P = 0.032), is associated with the expression of a schizophrenia susceptible gene KIF17 according to the expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our study indicated that common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes are unlikely to be involved in schizophrenia. Further studies are essential to characterize the role of the PINK1 and PARL genes in schizophrenia.
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[Cardiac catheterization and pulmonary vasoreactivity testing in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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As an important method of hemodynamic assessment in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), cardiac catheterization combined with pulmonary vasoreactivity testing remains with limited experience in children, and the acute pulmonary vasodilator agents as well as response criteria for vasoreactivity testing remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical importance, agent selection, and responder definition of cardiac catheterization combined with pulmonary vasoreactivity testing in pediatric IPAH.
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Hollow spherical gold nanoparticle superstructures with tunable diameters and visible to near-infrared extinction.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Hollow spherical gold nanoparticle superstructures with tunable diameters (?40 nm, ?70 nm and ?150 nm) and visible to near-infrared surface plasmon resonances (545 nm, 670 nm, and 740 nm) are prepared using a single peptide conjugate, C6-AA-PEPAu, as the structure-directing agent. Computational models are developed to understand their optical properties.
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Bivariate optimization of orthodontic mini-implant thread height and pitch.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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 PURPOSE: Mini-implants have been used as anchorage for years, but failure is common in clinical practice. Mini-implant design is a critical factor affecting its stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous and simultaneous variations of thread height and pitch on the biomechanical properties of an orthodontic mini-implant. METHOD : A 3D finite element model, composed of a posterior maxilla section and an orthodontic mini-implant, was created. Mini-implant thread height ranged from 0.10 to 0.40 mm, and thread pitch ranged from 0.50 to 2.00 mm. Effects of the implant thread height and pitch on the maximum Von Mises stresses in maxilla and mini-implant, as well as maximum displacements in the mini-implant, were evaluated by a finite element method. Bivariate analysis was used to determine the optimal range of thread height and pitch. RESULTS : Variation of thread height and pitch decreased the maximum Von Mises stresses in cortical bone, cancellous bone and mini-implant by 54.9, 78.4 and 23.6 %, respectively. The maximum displacement in the mini-implant decreased by 21.8 %. CONCLUSION : Maxillary stress and mini-implant stability were influenced by mini-implant thread height and pitch. Increased thread height with a thread pitch of 1.20 mm was better for orthodontic mini-implant in the maxillary posterior region. Thread height played a more significant role than the thread pitch in reducing maxillary stress and enhancing orthodontic mini-implant stability.
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A Comparison of the Relationships between Psychosocial Factors, Occupational Strain and Work Ability among Four Ethnic Teacher Groups in China.
Arch Environ Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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ABSTRACT The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared to Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strain caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multi-ethnic workplaces.
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[Analysis of factors related to pulmonary hypertensive crisis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To explore the risk and protective factors for pulmonary hypertensive crisis (PHC) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).
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Female sex workers and their gatekeepers in China: implications for HIV/STI prevention.
Qual Health Res
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Female sex workers (FSWs) play a key role in HIV/AIDS transmission and their gatekeepers play a crucial role in shaping their behaviors. Limited studies are available on the relationship between FSWs and gatekeepers. In the current study we used an ethnographic approach to examine the dynamic and multidimensional relationship of FSWs and their gatekeepers from the perspectives of both parties. We recruited 38 FSWs and 16 gatekeepers from different types of commercial sex venues in Guangxi, China, and conducted in-depth individual interviews. Our data suggest that FSWs and gatekeepers maintain an interdependent and reciprocal relationship during their business practice, but gatekeepers exert significant influence and control over FSWs. Designing culturally appropriate HIV/STI-prevention programs requires us to take advantage of the unique and crucial roles of gatekeepers. We conclude with a call for structural interventions to protect FSWs' occupational health and safety.
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E-cadherin-transfected neural stem cells transplantation for spinal cord injury in rats.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The effects of E-cadherin-transfected neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation for spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats were investigated. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into model control group, NSCs group, empty plasmid group and E-cadherin overexpression group (n=15 each). The animal SCI model was established by using the modified Allen's method. NSCs were cultured. Rats in NSCs group were subjected to NSCs transplantation. E-cadherin gene eucaryotic expression vector and pcDNA3.1-E-cadherin were respectively transfected into cultured NSCs, serving as empty plasmid group and E-cadherin overexpression group respectively. At 7th day after transplantation, neurological function of all rats was assessed by Tarlov score. After rats were sacrificed in each group, the number of BrdU and Nestin positive cells was counted by immunohistochemistry. Immumofluorescence method was used to detect the expression of neurofilament protein (NF) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). As compared with model control group, the Tarlov score and the number of of BrdU and Nestin positive cells, and the expression of NF and GFAP in NSCs group, empty plasmid group, and E-cadherin overexpression group were increased significantly (P<0.05), and those in the E-cadherin overexpression group were increased more significantly than the other transplantation groups (P<0.05). It was suggested that E-cadherin could be conductive to nerve regeneration and repair probably by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs.
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A photoacoustic image reconstruction method using total variation and nonconvex optimization.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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In photoacoustic imaging (PAI), the reduction of scanning time is a major concern for PAI in practice. A popular strategy is to reconstruct the image from the sparse-view sampling data. However, the insufficient data leads to reconstruction quality deteriorating. Therefore, it is very important to enhance the quality of the sparse-view reconstructed images.
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Evaluation of napsin A, TTF-1, p63, p40, and CK5/6 immunohistochemical stains in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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A panel of immunohistochemical (IHC) stains frequently used to subclassify non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) includes napsin A, TTF-1, CK5/6, p40, and p63. The expression profiles of these stains in neuroendocrine tumors have not been systematically evaluated.
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Genetic variant in NDUFS1 gene is associated with schizophrenia and negative symptoms in Han Chinese.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Abnormalities in mitochondrial complex I, which is responsible for controlling mitochondrial function, have been implicated in a variety of diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, potentially including schizophrenia. The NADH dehydrogenase Fe-S protein 1 (NDUFS1) is the largest subunit of complex I. To explore whether the encoding NDUFS1 gene confers susceptibility to schizophrenia or is associated with the severity of typical symptoms of schizophrenia, we recruited 519 stable schizophrenia patients receiving clozapine treatment and 594 healthy controls for genotyping to investigate the association of four selected tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NDUFS1 and both schizophrenia risk and symptom severity. The severity of psychotic symptoms was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and then tested for association with the four SNPs. The SNP rs1044120 showed significant association with schizophrenia (adjusted P=0.032). The frequency of the G allele of rs1044120 was significantly higher in patients than among the healthy controls (adjusted P=0.008). Stratification by sex revealed a significant association between the rs1044120 polymorphism and schizophrenia among males (adjusted P=0.036 and 0.008 in genotypic and allelic comparisons, respectively). We also observed a significant difference in the negative symptom scores among the three genotypes among these males (adjusted P=0.036). Post hoc comparisons showed that rs1044120 G/G carriers had higher negative symptom scores than those with G/T and T/T carriers (raw P=0.035 and 0.005, respectively). Our findings suggest that NDUFS1 may confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in male subjects, acting as a causative factor for the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 30 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.94.
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[Effects of bm47 deletion on viral replication and transcription of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bm47 gene is found in all sequenced lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs). It is one of the core genes of NPVs. However, the role of bm47 in the biological cycle of NPV remains unknown. In this study, the Red recombination system was used to knock out bm47 from BmNPV to construct bm47-ko-Bacmid in E. coli BW25113 system. Then bm47 gene was introduced back to the viral genome using the Bac-to-Bac system to create the repair virus bm47-re-Bacmid. TCID50 assay and real-time PCR (qPCR) were used to evaluate the effects of bm47 deletion on viral DNA replication, gene transcription, and protein expression. qPCR results showed that bm47 knock-out had no significant effect on viral DNA replication. However, the qPCR results showed that bm47-ko-Bacmid significantly decreased the transcription levels of early gene lef-3, late gene vp39, and very late gene p10 at 48 h and 72 h after viral transfection of BmN cells (P < 0.05). This work will provide a foundation for further studies on the biological function of BmNPV bm47 in viral replication and transcription.
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PPM1D silencing by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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PPM1D (protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1D) has been reported to be involved in multiple human tumors. This study was designed to investigate the functional role of PPM1D in lung cancer cells.
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Cadmium induced oxalic acid secretion and its role in metal uptake and detoxification mechanisms in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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This study examines the role of oxalic acid in the uptake of Cd and participation in detoxification process in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Cd-induced oxalic acid secretion was observed with growth inhibition and enzyme inactivation (LiP and MnP) of P. chrysosporium. The peak value of oxalic acid concentration was 16.6 mM at initial Cd concentration of 100 mg L(-1). During the short-term uptake experiments, the uptake of Cd was enhanced and accelerated in the presence of oxalic acid and resulted in alleviated growth and enzyme inhibition ratios. The formation of a metal-oxalate complex therefore may provide a detoxification mechanism via effect on metal bioavailability, whereby many fungi can survive and grow in environments containing high concentrations of toxic metals. The present findings will advance the understanding of fungal resistance to metal stress, which could show promise for a more useful application of microbial technology in the treatment of metal-polluted waste.
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Stimulation of Sigma-1 Receptor Ameliorates Depressive-like Behaviors in CaMKIV Null Mice.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a molecular chaperone regulating calcium efflux from the neuronal endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) null mice exhibit depressive-like behaviors and impaired neurogenesis as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into newborn cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Here, we demonstrate that chronic stimulation of Sig-1R by treatment with the agonist SA4503 or the SSRI fluvoxamine for 14 days improves depressive-like behaviors in CaMKIV null mice. By contrast, treatment with paroxetine, which lacks affinity for Sig-1R, did not alter these behaviors. Reduced numbers of BrdU-positive cells and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression and protein kinase B (Akt; Ser-473) phosphorylation seen in the DG of CaMKIV null mice were significantly rescued by chronic Sig-1R stimulation. Interestingly, reduced ATP production observed in the DG of CaMKIV null mice was improved by chronic Sig-1R stimulation. Such stimulation also improved hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induction and maintenance, which are impaired in the DG of CaMKIV null mice. LTP rescue was closely associated with both increases in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation and GluA1 (Ser-831) phosphorylation. Taken together, Sig-1R stimulation by SA4503 or fluvoxamine treatment increased hippocampal neurogenesis, which is closely associated with amelioration of depressive-like behaviors in CaMKIV null mice.
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Beneficial effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in rabbits with steroid-induced osteonecrosis via protecting against oxidative stress and apoptosis.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Oxidative damage and apoptosis play dominant roles in the pathogenesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis (ON). Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) demonstrates antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. Our aim was to demonstrate the effects of GSPE in preventing steroid-induced ON in rabbits.
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Investigation of 3-D ordered materials with a high adsorption capacity for BSA and their potential application as an oral vaccine adjuvant.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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3-D ordered macroporous (3DOM) materials were customized for BSA adsorption and further oral immunization. These carriers have a high adsorption capacity and our customized carrier showed a distinctive double-plateau adsorption behavior. Different BSA release rates (between the two plateaus) could be obtained by adjusting the ratio of the protein adsorbed on the internal surface and the external surface. This suggests that the release pattern was determined by the adsorption state. One benefit is that the same carrier could have different release profiles making it possible to study the relationship between the release behavior and adjuvant effects without any distractions. Compared with free BSA alone, a significantly higher level of serum IgG, IgA induced by BSA/3DOM was observed and the release profile had an effect on the immunity. The IgG1 and IgG2a titers suggesting that both the Th1 and Th2 mediated immune response were induced. Therefore, this research could help in the development of a novel inorganic oral adjuvant and provide a new avenue for the administration of oral vaccine.
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[AS-PCR assay for 20 mtDNA SNP typing and haplotype frequency].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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To develop a multiplex allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) assay with three-color fluorescence labeling for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) SNP typing.
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Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Chinese Female Sex Workers: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory.
Health Care Women Int
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.
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Overexpression of PEP-19 suppresses angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The precise molecular mechanisms leading to disturbance of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent intracellular signalling in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. As an endogenous calmodulin regulator protein, the pathophysiology role of PEP-19 during cardiac hypertrophy was investigated in the present study. We here demonstrated that PEP-19 protein levels are significantly elevated in the aortic banding model in vivo and angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Consistent with inhibitory actions of PEP-19 on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, induction of CaMKII and calcineurin activation as well as hypertrophy-related genes including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was significantly inhibited by PEP-19 transfection. Moreover, PEP-19 partially ameliorates angiotensin II-induced elevation of phospho-phospholamban (Thr-17) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release in cardiomyocytes. Together, our results suggest that PEP-19 attenuates angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via suppressing the disturbance of CaMKII and calcineurin signaling.
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Perceptions About Community Applications of RE-AIM in the Promotion of Evidence-Based Programs for Older Adults.
Eval Health Prof
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Despite the growing literature about the RE-AIM framework as a planning, implementation, and evaluation tool, little is known about practitioners' adoption of the framework, confidence to utilize framework elements, or perceptions of its usefulness. To assess how RE-AIM was implemented by state aging service providers and public health partners, data were collected using an Internet-delivered, cross-sectional survey from 40 stakeholders in 27 funded states in an evidence-based disease prevention initiative for older adults. Most participants agreed the framework was useful for planning, implementation, and evaluation and relevant for evaluators, providers, community leaders, and policy makers. Yet nearly half felt monitoring RE-AIM requirements requires special expertise, and one third felt the different RE-AIM elements were difficult to measure. Findings indicate the RE-AIM's appropriateness and utility for planning and evaluating the dissemination of evidence-based programs to older adults; however, additional trainings, resources, and technical assistance are warranted to enhance uptake in community-wide intervention efforts.
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Assessment of cardiac output and volume load by transpulmonary thermodilution technique in immature pigs.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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To assess the accuracy of cardiac output(CO)measured by transpulmonary thermodilution technique(TPTD)and explore the validity of intrathoracic blood volume index(ITBVI)for assessment of circulatory volume status.
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Nanospace-confined formation of flattened Sn sheets in pre-seeded graphenes for lithium ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Flattened Sn sheets are prepared from the pre-seeded Sn salt in the interlayer nanospace of a graphene membrane, which acts as a template to shape Sn crystals and prevent the aggregation. The sandwich structure clamping Sn sheets accommodates the volume change during charge/discharge. We show that the hybrid possesses excellent rate performance and cycling stability as an anode for lithium ion batteries.
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[A novel one-tube multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of six human coronaviruses].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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To develop an one-tube multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of six human coronaviruses (HCoVs).
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Percutaneous coronary intervention compared with coronary artery bypass graft in coronary artery disease patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Previous reports of percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass graft outcomes in coronary artery disease patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were inconsistent. We evaluated the optimal revascularization strategy for CKD patients. We searched Pub Med, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and scanned the references of relevant articles and reviews. All studies that compared relevant clinical outcomes between percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft in CKD patients were selected. We defined short-term and long-term all-cause mortality as primary outcome, and long-term incidences of myocardial infarction and revascularization as secondary outcomes. A total of 2235 citations were retrieved, and 31 studies involving 99,054 patients, with 55,383 receiving percutaneous coronary intervention and 43,671 receiving coronary artery bypass graft, were included. In subgroup analyses of dialysis patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention with stents versus coronary artery bypass graft, CKD patients with multivessel coronary disease, and CKD patients receiving drug-eluting stent versus coronary artery bypass graft, the pooled outcomes revealed that percutaneous coronary intervention possessed lower short-term mortality, but higher late revascularization risk. No significant differences in long-term mortality were observed between the two strategies in these subgroup analyses. In conclusion, in some specific clinical circumstances, CKD patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention possessed lower short-term all-cause mortality, but higher long-term revascularization risk, than coronary artery bypass graft; long-term all-cause mortality was not different between the two strategies.
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Designing hollow nano gold golf balls.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Hollow/porous nanoparticles, including nanocarriers, nanoshells, and mesoporous materials have applications in catalysis, photonics, biosensing, and delivery of theranostic agents. Using a hierarchical template synthesis scheme, we have synthesized a nanocarrier mimicking a golf ball, consisting of (i) solid silica core with a pitted gold surface and (ii) a hollow/porous gold shell without silica. The template consisted of 100 nm polystyrene beads attached to a larger silica core. Selective gold plating of the core followed by removal of the polystyrene beads produced a golf ball-like nanostructure with 100 nm pits. Dissolution of the silica core produced a hollow/porous golf ball-like nanostructure.
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Subclassification of left ventricular hypertrophy based on dilation stratifies coronary artery disease patients with distinct risk.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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A new 4-tired classification of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) based on LV concentricity and dilation has been proposed; however, the association between the new categorization of LV geometry and outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still unknown.
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[Experimental study on removal melanin granules from acellular dermal matrix of giant nevus].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To study the possibility of removal melanin granules from autogenic acellular dermal matrix of giant nevus tissue by H2O2 bleaching technique.
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Multiplex real-time PCR for RRM1, XRCC1, TUBB3 and TS mRNA for prediction of response of non-small cell lung cancer to chemoradiotherapy.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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This study was aimed to establish a novel method to simultaneously detect expression of four genes, ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1(RRM1), X-ray repair cross-complementing gene 1 (XRCC1), thymidylate synthase (TS) and class III ?-tubulin (TUBB3), and to assess their application in the clinic for prediction of response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to chemoradiotherapy.
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[Establishment and primary application of a novel resequencing pathogen microarray-based assay for detecting pathogens in patients with unexplained diarrhea].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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In this study, a novel resequencing pathogen microarray (RPM)-based multi-pathogen detection assay was developed to simultaneously detect 14 rotaviruses, 7 caliciviruses, 8 astroviruses, 28 enteroviruses, and 16 rare diarrhea viruses in patients with diarrhea syndrome. The specificity of the assay was examined using confirmed virus-positive specimens, and the sensitivity was evaluated by serial ten-fold dilutions of in vitro transcribed RNA. RPM assay could detect and differentiate virus types/subtypes at 20-2000 copies/microL. The detection threshold of RPM was determined by adjusting the reference concentration, and the detection steps were optimized to type Enterovirus. The nucleic acids of 10 stool samples from patients with unexplained diarrhea were screened, and 6 of them showed positive results. The RPM results were further verified by singleplex PCR followed by sequencing, and no difference was found between the two assays. In conclusion, we have established a high-throughput RPM assay with high specificity and sensitivity, which demonstrates a great potential for the identification of pathogens in patients with unexplained diarrhea and the management of emerging epidemic.
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Manganese terpyridine artificial metalloenzymes for benzylic oxygenation and olefin epoxidation.
Tetrahedron
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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New catalysts for non-directed hydrocarbon functionalization have great potential in organic synthesis. We hypothesized that incorporating a Mn-terpyridine cofactor into a protein scaffold would lead to artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) in which the selectivity of the Mn cofactor could be controlled by the protein scaffold. We designed and synthesized a maleimide-substituted Mn-terpyridine cofactor and demonstrated that this cofactor could be incorporated into two different scaffold proteins to generate the desired ArMs. The structure and reactivity of one of these ArMs was explored, and the broad oxygenation capability of the Mn-terpyridine catalyst was maintained, providing a robust platform for optimization of ArMs for selective hydrocarbon functionalization.
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Manganese-mefenamic acid complexes exhibit high lipoxygenase inhibitory activity.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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The coordination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to metal ions could improve the pharmaceutical efficacy of NSAIDs due to the unique characteristics of metal complexes. However, the structures of many metal-NSAID complexes are not well characterized; the functional mechanism and pharmaceutical effect of these complexes thus are not fully understood. In this work, three manganese-mefenamic acid (Mn-mef) complexes were synthesized and structurally characterized, and their pharmaceutical effect was investigated. We found that the three Mn-mef complexes exhibit higher lipoxygenase (LOX-1) inhibitory activity (IC50 values are 16.79, 38.63 and 28.06 ?M, respectively) than the parent ligand mefenamic acid (78.67 ?M). More importantly, the high inhibitory activity of the Mn-mef complexes is closely related to their spatial arrangements, which determine their interaction with LOX-1. Computer docking of the Mn-mef complexes with the LOX-1 confirms the experimental results: smaller Mn-mef complexes tend to bind competitively to LOX-1 at the substrate binding site, which is also analogous to the binding of the ligand mefenamic acid, while the bulky metal complexes inhibit the enzyme activity un-competitively. In addition, the Mn-mef complexes exhibit higher anti-oxidant activity than the ligand mefenamic acid. The higher anti-oxidant activity of the Mn-mef complexes apparently originated from the manganese centre of the complexes. We thus conclude that Mn-mef complexes enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of mefenamic acid by increasing their activity via changing their interaction mode with the enzymes, and/or by improving their anti-oxidant ability using metal ions. This work provides experimental evidence that with the unique spatial arrangements, metal-NSAID complexes could interact with the target enzymes more specifically and efficiently, which is superior to their parent NSAID ligand.
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Bridging between transplantation therapy and neurotrophic factors in Parkinson's disease.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed)
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) represents a challenging condition where different therapeutic options have evolved over the course of the last 50 years. The potential for therapeutic use of cell transplantation for cell replacement or for gene delivery of neurotrophic factors has received a great deal of attention. Currently, all available treatment options are directed towards the amelioration of symptoms. A greater understanding of the distinctive pathology underlying PD might offer some novel therapeutic approaches. Transplantation of embryonic ventral mesencephalon (VM) dopaminergic neurons has shown promise in animal studies, but similar transplant procedures have shown limited success in clinical trials. One important issue may be the site of transplantation. Previous studies have transplanted VM into the striatum, which is the target of these neurons. With increased understanding of growth and guidance molecule effecting dopaminergic neurons, it may be feasible to place transplants in the damaged substantia nigra and direct the growth of axons into target regions to reconstruction of midbrain dopamine (DA) circuitry. Our established and on-going understanding of the molecular cues which support directed growth of DA neurons form an important basis for the refinement and optimization of VM grafting procedures, and also the development of new procedures based on the use of stem cells. In this review, we discuss transplantation therapy and how selective guidance molecules could be used to reconstruction of nigrostriatal circuit.
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Partially Biodegradable Distraction Implant to Replace Conventional Implants in Alveolar Bone of Insufficient Height: A Preliminary Study in Dogs.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Dental implants have been widely used in the last few decades. However, patients with insufficient bone height need reconstructive surgeries before implant insertion. The distraction implant (DI) has been invented to simplify the treatment procedure, but the shortcomings of DIs have limited their clinical use. We incorporated biodegradable polyester into a novel DI called the partially biodegradable distraction implant (PBDI).
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Electrical Stimulation of Dorsal Root Entry Zone Attenuates Wide-Dynamic-Range Neuronal Activity in Rats.
Neuromodulation
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Recent clinical studies suggest that neurostimulation at the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) may alleviate neuropathic pain. However, the mechanisms of action for this therapeutic effect are unclear. Here, we examined whether DREZ stimulation inhibits spinal wide-dynamic-range (WDR) neuronal activity in nerve-injured rats.
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Enhancing near IR luminescence of thiolate Au nanoclusters by thermo treatments and heterogeneous subcellular distributions.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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A five-to-ten fold enhancement, up to ca. 5-10% quantum efficiency, of near IR luminescence from monothiolate protected gold nanoclusters was achieved by heating in the presence of excess ligand thiols. An emission maximum in the 700-900 nm range makes these Au nanoclusters superior for bioimaging applications over other emissions centered below 650 nm due to reduced background interference, albeit visible emissions could have higher quantum efficiency. The heating procedure is shown to be effective to improve the luminescence of Au nanoclusters synthesized under a variety of conditions using two types of monothiols: mercaptosuccinic acid and tiopronin. Therefore, this heating method is believed to be a generalizable approach to improve the near IR luminescence of aqueous soluble Au nanoclusters, which enables better bioimaging applications. The high quantum yield is found relatively stable over a wide pH range. PEGylation of the Au nanoclusters reduces their quantum efficiency but improves their permeation into the cytoplasm. Interestingly, z-stack confocal analysis clearly reveals the presence of Au nanoclusters inside the cell nucleus in single cell imaging. The finding addresses controversial literature reports and demonstrates the internalization and heterogeneous subcellular distributions, particularly inside the nucleus. The high luminescence intensity, small overall dimension, cell and nuclear distribution, chemical stability and low-to-non toxicity make these Au nanoclusters promising probes for broad cell dynamics and imaging applications.
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Quantification of myocardial delayed enhancement and wall thickness in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: multidetector computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To evaluate the accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in assessing myocardial delayed enhancement and left ventricle wall thickness in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) compared with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as the reference standard.
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Scutellarein inhibits cancer cell metastasis in vitro and attenuates the development of fibrosarcoma in vivo.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Fibrosarcoma is an aggressive and highly metastatic cancer of the connective tissue, for which effective therapeutic methods are limited. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in small molecular compounds from natural products in the treatment of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the compound, scutellarein, extracted from the perennial herb Scutellaria lateriflora, and it was found to possess anticancer potential. Cell proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis revealed that the proliferation rate of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells was significantly suppressed by treatment with scutellarein through the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, an in vivo experiment using Balb/c nude mice revealed that the volume and weight of the tumors were markedly reduced following treatment with scutellarein. We also analyzed the effects of scutellarein on the markers of metastasis, using the HT1080 cells. The results indicated that scutellarein potently inhibited cell migration, invasion and the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9 and -14. Furthermore, MMP activation and cell survival were suppressed due to the scutellarein-mediated downregulation of nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) activation. In conclusion, our data suggest that scutellarein has the ability to attenuate the development of fibrosarcoma and inhibit cancer cell metastasis.
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Drug-inducible synergistic gene silencing with multiple small hairpin RNA molecules for gene function study in animal model.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Gene targeting is a critical tool for construction of disease models. However, the application of traditional homologous recombination-mediated gene knockout technology is limited by the absence of rapid frequency-guaranteed targeting methods. Although conventional small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing offers an alternative for gene targeting, its application is frequently compromised by lower expression efficiency via RNA interference compared to gene knockout. Here we provide an efficient gene targeting strategy involving drug-inducible synergistic silencing with multiple shRNA molecules. On induction, the levels of the target proteins decreased to undetectable levels in all the tested stable transgenic mammalian cell lines, including HEK293 and embryonic stem cell-derived progenies carrying shRNA silencing cassettes. In a transgenic mouse model carrying a silencing cassette targeting the rhodopsin gene, short-time inducer treatment was sufficient to ablate the rhodopsin protein in the retina, resulting in similar retinal phenotypic changes as those observed in rhodopsin mutant mice. Therefore, on a broad basis, this inducible shRNA gene targeting strategy offers a true gene knockout alternative comparable to conventional RNA interference approaches.
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Synthesis of gold-cellobiose nanocomposites for colorimetric measurement of cellobiase activity.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Gold-cellobiose nanocomposites (GCNCs) were synthesized by reducing gold salt with a polysaccharide, cellobiose. Here, cellobiose acted as a controller of nucleation or stabilizer in the formation of gold nanoparticles. The obtained GCNCs were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy; Zetasizer and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer. Moreover, 6-Mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) was modified on GCNCs, and the MCH-GCNCs were used to determine the cellobiase activity in compost extracts based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) property of MCH-GCNCs. The degradation of cellobiose on MCH-GCNCs by cellobiase could induce the aggregation, and the SPR absorption wavelength of MCH-GCNCs correspondingly red shifted. Thus, the absorbance ratio of treated MCH-GCNCs (A650/A520) could be used to estimate the cellobiase activity, and the probe exhibited highly sensitive and selective detection of the cellobiase activity with a wide linear from 3.0 to 100.0U L(-1) within 20 min. Meanwhile, a good linear relationship with correlation coefficient of R2=0.9976 was obtained. This approach successfully showed the suitability of gold nanocomposites as a colorimetric sensor for the sensitive and specific enzyme activity detection.
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Detection and Identification of Six Foodborne Bacteria by Two-tube Multiplex Real Time PCR and Melting Curve Analysis.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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This study is aimed to develop a two-tube melting curve-based multiplex real time PCR assay (MCMRT-PCR) for the simultaneous detection of six common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Shigella in tube 1, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes in tube 2).
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Mesoporous carbon nitride based biosensor for highly sensitive and selective analysis of phenol and catechol in compost bioremediation.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Herein, we reported here a promising biosensor by taking advantage of the unique ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN) to convert the recognition information into a detectable signal with enzyme firstly, which could realize the sensitive, especially, selective detection of catechol and phenol in compost bioremediation samples. The mechanism including the MCN based on electrochemical, biosensor assembly, enzyme immobilization, and enzyme kinetics (elucidating the lower detection limit, different linear range and sensitivity) was discussed in detail. Under optimal conditions, GCE/MCN/Tyr biosensor was evaluated by chronoamperometry measurements and the reduction current of phenol and catechol was proportional to their concentration in the range of 5.00 × 10(-8)-9.50 × 10(-6)M and 5.00 × 10(-8)-1.25 × 10(-5)M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and 0.9881, respectively. The detection limits of catechol and phenol were 10.24 nM and 15.00 nM (S/N=3), respectively. Besides, the data obtained from interference experiments indicated that the biosensor had good specificity. All the results showed that this material is suitable for load enzyme and applied to the biosensor due to the proposed biosensor exhibited improved analytical performances in terms of the detection limit and specificity, provided a powerful tool for rapid, sensitive, especially, selective monitoring of catechol and phenol simultaneously. Moreover, the obtained results may open the way to other MCN-enzyme applications in the environmental field.
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Altered brain network modules induce helplessness in major depressive disorder.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The abnormal brain functional connectivity (FC) has been assumed to be a pathophysiological aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is poorly understood, regarding the underlying patterns of global FC network and their relationships with the clinical characteristics of MDD.
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Proteolytically Stabilizing Fibronectin without Compromising Cell and Gelatin Binding Activity.
Biotechnol. Prog.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Excessive proteolytic degradation of fibronectin (FN) has been implicated in impaired tissue repair in chronic wounds. We previously reported two strategies for stabilizing FN against proteolytic degradation; the first conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG) through cysteine residues and the second conjugated PEG chains of varying molecular weight on lysine residues. PEGylation of FN via lysine residues resulted in increased resistance to proteolysis with increasing PEG size, but an overall decrease in biological activity, as characterized by cell and gelatin binding. Our latest method to stabilize FN against proteolysis masks functional regions in the protein during lysine PEGylation. FN is PEGylated while it is bound to gelatin Sepharose beads with 2, 5 and 10 kDa PEG precursors. This results in partially PEGylated FN that is more stable than native FN and whose proteolytic stability increases with PEG molecular weight. Unlike completely PEGylated FN, partially PEGylated FN has cell adhesion, gelatin binding and matrix assembly responses that are comparable to native FN. This is new evidence of how PEGylation variables can be used to stabilize FN while retaining its activity. The conjugates developed herein can be used to dissect molecular mechanisms mediated by FN stability and functionality, and address the problem of FN degradation in chronic wounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Identification of ANKK1 rs1800497 variant in schizophrenia: new data and meta-analysis.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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One functional polymorphism (rs1800497) within the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing-1 gene (ANKK1) was reported to be associated with schizophrenia, but results among different studies vary and conclusions remain controversial. The present study sought to clarify this potential association among a population of Han Chinese with early onset schizophrenia using a case-control (396 patients and 399 controls) and family based study (103 trios). We then performed a meta-analysis (comprising 11 case-control and 2 family-based studies) based on the present literature. Results of the association study revealed no significant difference in allele and genotype frequencies between the cases and controls, and no significant transmission distortion was detected. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that age at onset in schizophrenia was significantly associated with the rs1800497 polymorphism in female patients, but not in males. Female T allele carriers had a lower age at onset than those without T allele (log rank statistic ?(2)?=?5.16, P?=?0.023; corrected P?=?0.046). Meta-analysis results indicated that rs1800497 is not associated with schizophrenia in the overall population (P?=?0.77 for the case-control studies; P?=?0.06 for the family-based studies). Our results support the hypothesis that rs1800497 polymorphism is likely to have a modifying rather than causative effect on schizophrenia. These findings may represent a significant genetic clue for the etiology of schizophrenia in females, but further investigation is required to clarify the exact role of ANKK1 in the development of schizophrenia.
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Fabrication of interfacial functionalized porous polymer monolith and its adsorption properties of copper ions.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The interfacial functionalized poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) porous monolith was fabricated and applied as a novel porous adsorbent for copper ions (Cu(2+)). PGMA porous material with highly interconnected pore network was prepared by concentrated emulsion polymerization template. Then polyacrylic acid (PAA) was grafted onto the interface of the porous monolith by the reaction between the epoxy group on PGMA and a carboxyl group on PAA. Finally, the porous monolith was interfacial functionalized by rich amount of carboxyl groups and could adsorb copper ions effectively. The chemical structure and porous morphology of the porous monolith were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the effects of pore size distribution, pH value, co-existing ions, contacting time, and initial concentrations of copper ions on the adsorption capacity of the porous adsorbents were studied.
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Quad-PRE: a hybrid method to predict protein quaternary structure attributes.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The protein quaternary structure is very important to the biological process. Predicting their attributes is an essential task in computational biology for the advancement of the proteomics. However, the existing methods did not consider sufficient properties of amino acid. To end this, we proposed a hybrid method Quad-PRE to predict protein quaternary structure attributes using the properties of amino acid, predicted secondary structure, predicted relative solvent accessibility, and position-specific scoring matrix profiles and motifs. Empirical evaluation on independent dataset shows that Quad-PRE achieved higher overall accuracy 81.7%, especially higher accuracy 92.8%, 93.3%, and 90.6% on discrimination for trimer, hexamer, and octamer, respectively. Our model also reveals that six features sets are all important to the prediction, and a hybrid method is an optimal strategy by now. The results indicate that the proposed method can classify protein quaternary structure attributes effectively.
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Diagnostic performance of computed tomography for detection of concomitant coronary disease in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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To evaluate the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and suspected coexistent coronary artery diseases (CADs).
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Gene Polymorphism of rs556621 but Not rs11984041 is Associated with the Risk of Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke in a Xinjiang Uyghur Population.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Stroke is one of the main causes of death and adult chronic disability. Recently, 2 independent genome-wide association studies reported that the genetic variants (rs556621 and rs11984041) are significantly associated with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA).
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newDNA-Prot: Prediction of DNA-binding proteins by employing support vector machine and a comprehensive sequence representation.
Comput Biol Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Identification of DNA-binding proteins is essential in studying cellular activities as the DNA-binding proteins play a pivotal role in gene regulation. In this study, we propose newDNA-Prot, a DNA-binding protein predictor that employs support vector machine classifier and a comprehensive feature representation. The sequence representation are categorized into 6 groups: primary sequence based, evolutionary profile based, predicted secondary structure based, predicted relative solvent accessibility based, physicochemical property based and biological function based features. The mRMR, wrapper and two-stage feature selection methods are employed for removing irrelevant features and reducing redundant features. Experiments demonstrate that the two-stage method performs better than the mRMR and wrapper methods. We also perform a statistical analysis on the selected features and results show that more than 95% of the selected features are statistically significant and they cover all 6 feature groups. The newDNA-Prot method is compared with several state of the art algorithms, including iDNA-Prot, DNAbinder and DNA-Prot. The results demonstrate that newDNA-Prot method outperforms the iDNA-Prot, DNAbinder and DNA-Prot methods. More specific, newDNA-Prot improves the runner-up method, DNA-Prot for around 10% on several evaluation measures. The proposed newDNA-Prot method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/newdnaprot/
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Glutamate receptor 1 phosphorylation at serine 845 contributes to the therapeutic effect of olanzapine on schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Schizophrenia patients exhibit a wide range of impairments in cognitive functions. Clinically, atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPs) such as olanzapine (OLZ) have a therapeutic effect on memory function among schizophrenia patients rather than typical antipsychotics, e.g., haloperidol. To date, however, little is known about the neuroplasticity mechanism underlying the effect of AAPs on the impairment of cognitive functions. Here, we treated schizophrenia rat models with a systematic injection of MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) and chose the drug OLZ as a tool to investigate the mechanisms of AAPs when used to alter cognitive function. The results showed that the systematic administration of MK-801 results in the impairment of spatial learning and memory as well as spatial working memory in a Morris water maze task. OLZ but not HAL improved these MK-801-induced cognitive dysfunctions. After MK-801 application, the hippocampal LTP was profoundly impaired. In conjunction with the results of the behavioral test, the administration of OLZ but not of HAL resulted in a significant reversal effect on the impaired LTP induced via MK-801 application. Furthermore, we found that OLZ but not HAL can upregulate the phosphorylation of GluR1 Ser845. These data suggest that the therapeutic effect of OLZ on cognitive dysfunctions may be due to its contribution to synaptic plasticity via the ability to upregulate the state of GluR1 Ser845 phosphorylation. We therefore suggest that the upregulated state of GluR1 Ser845 phosphorylation may be a promising target for developing novel therapeutics for treating schizophrenia.
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Pharmacotherapy for acute mania and disconcordance with treatment guidelines: bipolar mania pathway survey (BIPAS) in mainland China.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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With the recent attention to evidence-based medicine in psychiatry, a number of treatment guidelines for bipolar disorders have been published. This survey investigated prescribing patterns and predictors for guideline disconcordance in the acute treatment of a manic and mixed episode across mainland China.
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Photoreduction of iron(III) to iron(0) nanoparticles for simultaneous hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Crystalline Fe nanoparticles were obtained with fluorescein (Fl) as the photosensitizer in triethylamine (TEA) or triethanolamine (TEOA) aqueous solution with FeCl3 as the Fe precursor under bright visible-light light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation. Photoinduced electron transfer from excited state Fl* and Fl(-) to Fe(3+) produced the Fe nanoparticles, which served as the active catalyst for in situ photocatalytic hydrogen production with Fl and TEA or TEOA as the photosensitizer and electron donors, respectively, in the same system. Robust hydrogen production activities were observed under the Fe nanoparticle photoreduction conditions in basic solution, and tens of milliliters of hydrogen were obtained over prolonged LED irradiation. If inorganic support materials such as NH2 -MCM-41 or reduced graphene oxide were introduced, dispersed nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes were deposited on the supports, which led to variously enhanced hydrogen production activities. The relationships between the morphologies of the Fe/H2 N-MCM-41 or Fe/graphene composites generated in situ and the hydrogen production activities were investigated systematically.
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Synergistic effect of ALOX5AP polymorphisms and cigarette smoking on the risk of atherosclerotic cerebral infarction in a Northern Han Chinese population.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The effect of activating 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5AP) gene polymorphisms on stroke risk may be influenced by the coexistence of modifiable predisposing conditions. We explored the interactions of ALOX5AP polymorphisms and cigarette smoking in a case-control study of patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI). Three polymorphisms of the ALOX5AP gene (rs10507391, rs4769874, and rs9551963) were analyzed in 420 ACI patients and 488 unrelated healthy controls matched for age and sex from a Northern Han Chinese population. Among the three single nucleotide polymorphisms, only rs10507391 genotype TT/TA was observed to be associated with an increased risk of ACI on multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]=1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-2.92, p=0.012) compared with the AA genotype. However, after stratifying by smoking status, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that rs10507391 genotype TT/TA and rs9551963 genotype CC/CA had a 5.63-fold (OR=5.63, 95%CI=2.00-15.84, p=0.001) and a 2.71-fold (OR=2.71, 95%CI=1.28-5.73, p=0.009) increased risk for ACI patients who smoked compared with the AA genotype, respectively. Additionally, according to the haplotype analysis, the risk of haplotype TGC (OR=3.12, 95%CI=2.00-4.88, p<0.001, corrected p [pc]<0.001) increased for ACI patients who smoked compared to the data (OR=1.60, 95%CI=1.28-1.98, p<0.001, pc<0.001) in total samples. These results suggest that ALOX5AP polymorphisms are associated with ACI, and cigarette smoking along with ALOX5AP could increase the risk of ACI.
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Psychological Fears among Low-Paid Female Sex Workers in Southwest China and Their Implications for HIV Prevention.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs.
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A feasibility study of an intravascular imaging antenna to image atherosclerotic plaques in Swine using 3.0 T MRI.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the feasibility of an intravascular imaging antenna to image abdominal aorta atherosclerotic plaque in swine using 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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