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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
All-optical self-referencing measurement of vectorial optical arbitrary waveform.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We propose the Vectorial E-field Characterization Through all-Optical and self-Referenced (VECTOR) method to characterize vectorial optical arbitrary waveform with up to 100% duty cycle, which is free of ambiguity, iteration, radio-frequency or external optical reference, restriction on repetition rate, and requirement of external interferometric stabilization. The feasibility of VECTOR is experimentally verified by different waveforms created by a phase-modulated CW comb source and a built-in polarization line-by-line pulse shaper.
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Molecular Differentiation of Treponema pallidum Subspecies in Skin Ulceration Clinically Suspected as Yaws in Vanuatu Using Real-Time Multiplex PCR and Serological Methods.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
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We developed a TaqMan-based real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously detect Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, and T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, the causative agents of venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel, respectively. The PCR assay was applied to samples from skin ulcerations of clinically presumptive yaws cases among children on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Another real-time triplex PCR was used to screen for the point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes that have previously been associated with azithromycin resistance in T. pallidum subsp. pallidum strains. Seropositivity by the classical syphilis serological tests was 35.5% among children with skin ulcerations clinically suspected with yaws, whereas the presence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue DNA was only found in lesions from 15.5% of children. No evidence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue infection, by either PCR or serology was found in ?59% of cases indicating alternative causes of yaws-like lesions in this endemic area.
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Mechanical grinding of a single-crystalline metal-organic framework triggered emission with tunable violet-to-orange luminescence.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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A metal-organic framework (MOF) featuring intriguing Borromean entanglement exhibits a unique mechanochromic luminescence with on-off switching. The concomitant excitation wavelength-dependent emission behavior can be utilized to tune the emission color from violet to orange.
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Bright white-light emission from a novel donor-acceptor organic molecule in the solid state via intermolecular charge transfer.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Bright white-light emission was obtained from a novel pyridinium molecule by aggregation. Photophysical, single-crystal structural, and computational studies demonstrated that an additional low-energy emission was generated by the excitation of a new intermolecular charge-transfer (CT) band at the ground state that cooperates with the non-quenched high-energy monomer emission to produce white light.
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AGEs-RAGE System Downregulates Sirt1 Through the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway to Promote FN and TGF-?1 Expression in Male Rat Glomerular Mesangial Cells.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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We previously demonstrated that advanced glycation-end products (AGEs) promote the pathological progression of diabetic nephropathy by decreasing Sirt1 expression in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Here we investigated whether AGEs-RAGE system downregulated Sirt1 expression through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and whether Sirt1 ubiquitination affected fibronectin (FN) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-two fibrotic indicators in GMCs. Sirt1 was polyubiquitinated and subsequently degraded by proteasome. AGEs increased Sirt1 ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, shortened Sirt1 half-life, and promoted FN and TGF-?1 expression. Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) reduced Sirt1 ubiquitination and degradation and decreased FN and TGF-?1 expression in GMCs under both basal and AGEs-treated conditions. USP22 depletion enhanced Sirt1 degradation and displayed combined effects with AGEs to further promote FN and TGF-?1 expression. RAGE functioned crucial mediating roles in these processes via its C-terminal cytosolic domain. Inhibiting Sirt1 by EX-527 substantially suppressed the downregulation of FN and TGF-?1 resulting from USP22 overexpression under both normal and AGEs-treated conditions, eventually leading to their upregulation in GMCs. These results indicated that the AGEs-RAGE system increased the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation of Sirt1 by reducing USP22 level, and AGEs-RAGE-USP22-Sirt1 formed a cascade pathway that regulated FN and TGF-?1 level, which participated in the pathological progression of diabetic nephropathy.
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Diagnostic value of Genechip for detection of resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with differing treatment histories.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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The increasing burden of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) poses an escalating threat to national TB control programs. To assist appropriate treatment for TB patients, accurate and rapid detection of drug resistance is critical. The Genechip test is a novel molecular tool for the diagnosis of TB drug resistance. Performance related data on Genechip are limited and evaluation in new and previously treated TB cases has never been performed.
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PCB77 Inducing Renal Tubular Cell Apoptosis.
Ultrastruct Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Abstract PCBs are a family of persistent environmental toxicants with a wide spectrum of toxic features, such as neurotoxic, hepatoxicity, immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption effects, and oncogenic effects. The kidney is the most important organ involved in the elimination of toxins and drugs. To date, little has been done to investigate the potential influence of nephrotoxicity of 3,3',4,4'- tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77). By assessing cell viability and apoptotic cell death in renal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells cultures, we found that PCB77 could decrease cellular viability at least at 30??M concentration after 3?h exposure. PCB77 was demonstrated to promote DNA breakage resulting in apoptosis. Moreover, apoptotic subcellular morphological changes administration of PCB77 was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Appearance swelling of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum dilation and chromatin agglutinate, and other apoptosis cells morphological characteristics could be visible. Due to increased PCB77 concentration, cells viability was decreased. Collectively, our findings identified the morphological mechanism that PCB77-induced nephrotoxicity via promoting renal tubular epithelial cells apoptosis. It is suggested that using and production of PCB77 should be carefully managed to reduce public health risks.
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Predictors of Army National Guard and Reserve members' use of Veteran Health Administration health care after demobilizing from OEF/OIF deployment.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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This study described rates and predictors of Army National Guard and Army Reserve members' enrollment in and utilization of Veteran Health Administration (VHA) services in the 365 days following demobilization from an index deployment. We also explored regional and VHA facility variation in serving eligible members in their catchment areas. The sample included 125,434 Army National Guard and 48,423 Army Reserve members who demobilized after a deployment ending between FY 2008 and FY 2011. Demographic, geographic, deployment, and Military Health System eligibility were derived from Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System and "Contingency Tracking System" data. The VHA National Patient Care Databases were used to ascertain VHA utilization and status (e.g., enrollee, TRICARE). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of VHA utilization as an enrollee in the year following demobilization. Of the study members demobilizing during the observation period, 56.9% of Army National Guard members and 45.7% of Army Reserve members utilized VHA as an enrollee within 12 months. Demographic, regional, health coverage, and deployment-related factors were associated with VHA enrollment and utilization, and significant variation by VHA facility was found. These findings can be useful in the design of specific outreach efforts to improve linkage from the Military Health System to the VHA.
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Substrate stiffness together with soluble factors affects chondrocyte mechanoresponses.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Tissue cells sense and respond to differences in substrate stiffness. In chondrocytes, it has been shown that substrate stiffness regulates cell spreading, proliferation, chondrogenic gene expression, and TGF-? signaling. But how the substrate stiffness together with soluble factors influences the mechanical properties of chondrocyte is still unclear. In this study, we cultured goat articular chondrocytes on polyacrylamide gels of 1, 11, and 90 kPa (Young's modulus), and measured cellular stiffness, traction force, and response to stretch in the presence of TGF-?1 or IL-1?. We found that TGF-?1 increased cellular stiffness and traction force and enhanced the response to stretch, while IL-1? increased cellular stiffness, but lowered traction force and weakened the response to stretch. Importantly, the effects of TGF-?1 on chondrocyte mechanics were potent in cells cultured on 90 kPa substrates, while the effects of IL-1? were potent on 1 kPa substrates. We also demonstrated that such changes of chondrocyte mechanoresponse were due to not only the changes of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion, but also the alteration of chondrocyte extracellular matrix synthesis. Taken together, these results provide insights into how chondrocytes integrate physical and biochemical cues to regulate their biomechanical behavior, and thus have implications for the design of optimized mechanical and biochemical microenvironments for engineered cartilage.
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Potential therapeutic roles of tanshinone IIA in human bladder cancer cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA), one of the major lipophilic components isolated from the root of Salviae Miltiorrhizae, has been found to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cells. We have demonstrated that Tan-IIA induces apoptosis in several human cancer cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Here we explored the anticancer effect of Tan-IIA in human bladder cancer cell lines. Our results showed that Tan-IIA caused bladder cancer cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tan-IIA induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway in these bladder cancer cells. Tan-IIA also suppressed the migration of bladder cancer cells as revealed by the wound healing and transwell assays. Finally, combination therapy of Tan-IIA with a lower dose of cisplatin successfully killed bladder cancer cells, suggesting that Tan-IIA can serve as a potential anti-cancer agent in bladder cancer.
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Polydatin promotes Nrf2-ARE anti-oxidative pathway through activating Sirt1 to resist AGEs-induced upregulation of fibronetin and transforming growth factor-?1 in rat glomerular messangial cells.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Sirt1 and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-anti-oxidant response element (ARE) anti-oxidative pathway play important regulatory roles in the pathological progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) induced by advanced glycation-end products (AGEs). Polydatin (PD), a glucoside of resveratrol, has been shown to possess strong anti-oxidative bioactivity. Our previous study demonstrated that PD markedly resists the progression of diabetic renal fibrosis and thus, inhibits the development of DN. Whereas, whether the resistant effects of PD on DN is correlated with regulating Sirt1 and consequently promoting Nrf2-ARE pathway needs further investigation. Here, we found that concomitant with decreasing RAGE (the specific receptor for AGEs) expression, PD significantly reversed the downregulation of Sirt1 in terms of protein expression and deacetylase activity and attenuated FN and TGF-?1 expression in GMCs exposed to AGEs. Under AGEs-treatment condition, PD could decrease Keap1 expression and promote the nuclear content, ARE-binding ability, and transcriptional activity of Nrf2. In addition, PD increased the protein levels of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1), two target genes of Nrf2. The activation of Nrf2-ARE pathway by PD eventually led to the quenching of ROS overproduction sharply boosted by AGEs. Depletion of Sirt1 blocked Nrf2-ARE pathway activation and reversed FN and TGF-?1 downregulation induced by PD in GMCs challenged with AGEs. Along with reducing HO-1 and SOD1 expression, silencing of Nrf2 increased FN and TGF-?1 levels. PD treatment elevated Sirt1 and Nrf2 levels in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats, then improved the anti-oxidative capacity and renal dysfunction of diabetic models, and finally reversed the upregulation of FN and TGF-?1. Taken together, the resistance of PD on upregulated FN and TGF-?1 induced by AGEs via oxidative stress in GMCs is closely associated with its activation of Sirt1-Nrf2-ARE pathway.
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Circulating microRNA-21 (MIR-21) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) are promising novel biomarkers for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of the blood levels of MIR-21 and PTEN as novel biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We initially detected MIR-21 and PTEN using real-time RT-PCR from 90 blood samples and then compared their results with expression in cancer tissues from 10 OSCC patients. Finally, we examined the relationship between these markers and clinical parameters. Blood MIR-21 and PTEN had significant diagnostic value for OSCC and, to an extent, correlated with the expression level of tumour MIR-21 and PTEN. In addition, they were associated with differentiation and nodal status. Thus circulating MIR-21 and PTEN might represent new complementary tumour markers for OSCC.
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Surgical outcomes of total colonic aganglionosis in children: A 26-year experience in a single institute.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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There is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) with respect to perioperative morbidity, mortality, complications, and functional outcomes. The aim of this study was to review the results of surgical TCA treatment over a 26-year period and characterize the outcomes.
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Anabolic androgens affect the competitive interactions in cell migration and adhesion between normal mouse urothelial cells and urothelial carcinoma cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The urothelium is constantly rebuilt by normal urothelial cells to regenerate damaged tissues caused by stimuli in urine. However, the urothelial carcinoma cells expand the territory by aberrant growth of tumor cells, which migrate and occupy the damaged tissues to spread outside and disrupt the normal cells and organized tissues and form a tumor. Therefore, the interaction between normal urothelial cells and urothelial carcinoma cells affect the initiation and progression of urothelial tumors if normal urothelial cells fail to migrate and adhere to the damages sites to regenerate the tissues. Here, comparing normal murine urothelial cells with murine urothelial carcinoma cells (MBT-2), we found that normal cells had less migration ability than carcinoma cells. And in our co-culture system we found that carcinoma cells had propensity migrating toward normal urothelial cells and carcinoma cells had more advantages to adhere than normal cells. To reverse this condition, we used anabolic androgen, dihyrotestosterone (DHT) to treat normal cells and found that DHT treatment increased the migration ability of normal urothelial cells toward carcinoma cells and the adhesion capacity in competition with carcinoma cells. This study provides the base of a novel therapeutic approach by using anabolic hormone-enforced normal urothelial cells to regenerate the damage urothelium and defend against the occupancy of carcinoma cells to thwart cancer development and recurrence.
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Eps8 regulates cellular proliferation and migration of breast cancer.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The role of Eps8 in human breast cancer was studied, and we found that Eps8 was overexpressed in >60% of human breast cancer samples compared with adjacent normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. Eps8 was highly expressed in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB?231 compared with the weakly invasive breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB?468. MCF7 cell line stably expressing Eps8 was established by G418 screening, and the ectopic expression of Eps8 enhanced MCF7 breast cancer cell growth and survival as assessed by MTT analysis, cell viability and liquid colony formation, whereas the lentiviral expression of Eps8 shRNA in MDA-MB?231 cells resulted in a significant reduction in cellular growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Eps8 knockdown inhibited breast cancer cell migration in wound healing assays, decreased the number and size of EGF-induced filopodia and increased the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to cisplatin analyzed by MTT assays. Eps8 knockdown decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and MMP9 but increased p53. Moreover, Eps8 knockdown suppressed a partial EMT-like transition and showed a significant increase in E-cadherin and decrease in N-cadherin and vimentin. These results suggest that Eps8 is overexpressed in human breast cancers, possibly by regulating ERK signaling, MMP9, p53 and EMT-like transition to affect breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion. Therefore, Eps8 might represent a novel potential target in human breast cancer therapy.
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Insulin-like growth factor-1 attenuates apoptosis and protects neurochemical phenotypes of dorsal root ganglion neurons with paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity in vitro.
Nutr Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Paclitaxel (PT)-induced neurotoxicity is a significant problem associated with successful treatment of cancers. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor and plays an important role in promoting axonal growth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Whether IGF-1 has protective effects on neurite growth, cell viability, neuronal apoptosis and neuronal phenotypes in DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity is still unclear. In this study, primary cultured rat DRG neurons were used to assess the effects of IGF-1 on DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that PT exposure caused neurite retraction in a dose-dependent manner. PT exposure caused a decrease of cell viability and an increase in the ratio of apoptotic cells which could be reversed by IGF-1. The percentage of calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive (CGRP-IR) neurons and neurofilament (NF)-200-IR neurons, mRNA, and protein levels of CGRP and NF-200 decreased significantly after treatment with PT. IGF-1 administration had protective effects on CGRP-IR neurons, but not on NF-200-IR neurons. Either extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor LY294002 blocked the effect of IGF-1. The results imply that IGF-1 may attenuate apoptosis to improve neuronal cell viability and promote neurite growth of DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, these results support an important neuroprotective role of exogenous IGF-1 on distinct subpopulations of DRG neurons which is responsible for skin sensation. The effects of IGF-1 might be through ERK1/2 or PI3 K/Akt signaling pathways. These findings provide experimental evidence for IGF-1 administration to alleviate neurotoxicity of distinct subpopulations of DRG neurons induced by PT.
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The use of pneumatic tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Pneumatic tourniquet use in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is always a controversial issue. The aim of the present study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of its use in patients receiving primary unilateral TKA, and to explore the most safe and effective protocols.
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Polydatin improves glucose and lipid metabolism in experimental diabetes through activating the Akt signaling pathway.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Recently, the effect of polydatin on lipid regulation has gained considerable attention. And previous study has demonstrated that polydatin has hypoglycemic effect on experimental diabetic rats. Repressed Akt pathway contributes to glucose and lipid disorders in diabetes. Thus, whether polydatin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in experimental diabetic models through the Akt pathway arouses interest. The purpose was to explore the regulatory mechanism of polydain on glucose and lipid through Akt pathway. We used a diabetic rat model induced by high-fat and -sugar diet with low-dose of streptozocin and an insulin resistant HepG2 cell model induced by palmitic acid to clarify the role of polydatin on glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that polydatin significantly attenuated fasting blood-glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, glycosylated serum protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic rats. Furthermore, polydatin significantly increased glucose uptake and consumption and decreased lipid accumulation in insulin resistant HepG2 cells. Polydatin markedly increased serum insulin levels in diabetic rats, and obviously activated the Akt signaling pathway in diabetic rat livers and insulin resistant HepG2 cells. Polydatin markedly increased phosphorylated GSK-3?, decreased the protein levels of G6Pase and SREBP-1c, and increased protein levels of GCK, LDLR, and phosphorylated IRS in livers and HepG2 cells. Overall, the results indicate that polydatin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in experimental diabetic models, the underlying mechanism is probably associated with regulating the Akt pathway. The effect of polydatin on increased Akt phosphorylation is independent of prompting insulin secretion, but dependent of increasing IRS phosphorylation.
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Bdellovibrio and like organisms enhanced growth and survival of Penaeus monodon and altered bacterial community structures in its rearing water.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml(-1) and CFU · g(-1) in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture.
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Genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Eupulmonata) from the coastal area of China based on mtCO I.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Abstract The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" were investigated using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO I) gene sequences. A total of 240 individuals representing 10 collection sites from across a large portion of its known range were included in the analysis. Overall, 42 haplotypes were defined and 97 polymorphic sites were observed. The O. "struma" populations had high haplotype diversity (0.9280) and nucleotide diversity (0.0404). We inferred that the early maturity and extensive survival habitat led to high genetic diversity of O. "struma" populations in China. Bayesian analysis and SAMOVA analysis showed significant genetic differentiation among populations and all populations were divided into two groups, (HK and HN) versus (GY, DF, CX, CN, ND and XM). The Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance (r?=?0.251; p?=?0.058). Restricted gene flow caused by a shorter term pelagic veliger stage and limited dispersal potential were inferred to result in genetic differentiation among populations based on nested analysis. HK population might be an invasive species by artificial transplantation.
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Acquired macrolide-resistant Treponema pallidum after a human bite.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Syphilis is a systemic disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum that is usually acquired through sexual exposure.
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Effects of uPA on mesangial matrix changes in the kidney of diabetic rats.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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To investigate the effect of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) on mesangial matrix in the kidney of diabetic rats and its related mechanisms.
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Characterization of transfusion-derived iron deposition in childhood cancer survivors.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) receiving packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions may have increased risk for vital organ iron deposition causing serious late effects.
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Preservation of the saphenous vein during laparoendoscopic single-site inguinal lymphadenectomy: comparison with the conventional laparoscopic technique.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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To prospectively study the surgical strategies and clinical efficacy of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) inguinal lymphadenectomy compared with conventional endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy for the management of inguinal nodes.
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One-Pot Glovebox-Free Synthesis, Characterization, and Self-Assembly of Novel Amphiphilic Poly(Sarcosine-b-Caprolactone) Diblock Copolymers.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Novel amphiphilic polypeptoid-polyester diblock copolymers based on poly(sarcosine) (PSar) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) are synthesized by a one-pot glovebox-free approach. In this method, sarcosine N-carboxy anhydride (Sar-NCA) is firstly polymerized in the presence of benzylamine under N2 flow, then the resulting poly(sarcosine) is used in situ as the macro-initiator for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ?-caprolactone using tin(II) octanoate as a catalyst. The degree of poly-merization of each block is controlled by various feed ratios of monomer/initiator. The diblock copolymers with controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distributions (?M < 1.2) are characterized by (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, and size-exclusion chromatography. The self-assembly behavior of PSar-b-PCL in water is investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy. DLS results reveal that the diblock copolymers associate into nanoparticles with average hydrodynamic diameters (DH ) around 100 nm in water, which may be used as drug delivery carriers.
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Expression and localization of transcription factors SNAIL and SLUG in mouse ovaries and pre-implantation embryos.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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SNAIL and SLUG are zinc-finger transcription factors that participate in the regulation of cell division, cell survival, mesoderm formation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We investigate the expression of SNAIL and SLUG during follicular maturation, ovulation and luteinization in the ovaries of both neonatal mice and gonadotropin-induced immature mice. Furthermore, we examine the expression and localization of these transcription factors during early embryonic cleavage. Our data demonstrate that both SNAIL and SLUG are present in the epithelial cells of the ovarian surface in immature mice. SNAIL is first evident in the interstitial cells and theca cells by postnatal day (PD) 6 and then appears in the oocytes by PD 8, remaining at a constant expression level for all stages studied thereafter. SLUG is expressed in oocytes as early as PD 1. Its expression also increases with the development of the follicles in theca and interstitial cells but not in granulosa cells. In gonadotropin-induced immature mice, both SNAIL and SLUG are expressed in the corpora lutea. During early embryo cleavage, SNAIL occurs in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the majority of the embryo, excluding the nucleolus from the germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) to the 8-cell stage and is then localized in the cytoplasm during the morula stage and in the nucleus during the blastocyst stage. SLUG has an identical expression pattern as SNAIL from GVBD until the morula stage, except that it is localized in the cytoplasm during the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these different localization patterns suggest that SNAIL and SLUG probably play important roles during follicular development, luteinization and early embryonic development.
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Cancer diagnosis by nuclear morphometry using spatial information (.)
Pattern Recognit Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Methods for extracting quantitative information regarding nuclear morphology from histopathology images have been long used to aid pathologists in determining the degree of differentiation in numerous malignancies. Most methods currently in use, however, employ the naïve Bayes approach to classify a set of nuclear measurements extracted from one patient. Hence, the statistical dependency between the samples (nuclear measurements) is often not directly taken into account. Here we describe a method that makes use of statistical dependency between samples in thyroid tissue to improve patient classification accuracies with respect to standard naïve Bayes approaches. We report results in two sample diagnostic challenges.
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A prodrug strategy based on chitosan for efficient intracellular anticancer drug delivery.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most widely used anticancer drugs, is restricted in clinical application due to its severe side effects and inefficient cellular uptake. To overcome the drawbacks, herein, an endosomal pH-activated prodrug was designed and fabricated by conjugating DOX with chitosan via an acid-cleavable hydrazone bond. The resulting DOX conjugates can self-assemble into nano-sized particles, which were very stable and presented no burst release of DOX at a neutral pH condition. Notably, the nanoparticles exhibited excellent cell uptake properties and a remarkable drug accumulation in tumor cells. Once internalized into the cells, moreover, DOX can be fast released from the nanoparticles, and the release mechanism changed from the anomalous transport at pH 7.4 to the combination pattern of diffusion- and erosion-controlled release at pH 6.0 or 5.0. The prodrugs showed obvious cytotoxicity for HeLa cells with fairly low IC50 values, offering a new platform for targeted cancer therapy.
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Protein overexpression of CIRP and TLR4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and clinical correlation analysis.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common head and neck malignancy. Here, we evaluated the expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) in OSCC tissues with immunohistochemistry. Using biostatistical methods designed to assess the impact of the expression of CIRP and TLR4 on the prognosis of patients with OSCC and relate that expression to the clinicopathological characteristics of these patients. For the first time, we demonstrated that the expression of CIRP and TLR4 was increased in OSCC and that high levels of CIRP or TLR4 expression were associated with a short survival rate. In addition, we were surprised to find that the levels of expression of CIRP and TLR4 were very similar. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether these two genes may provide clues as to the regulatory mechanisms of OSCC, serve as prognostic markers and establish a new direction for further studies of these biological mechanisms.
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Interleukin-17 induces CC chemokine receptor 6 expression and cell migration in colorectal cancer cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and its ligand CCL20 are involved in human colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis and can promote the progression of CRC. In addition, interleukin-17 (IL-17), produced by a T cell subset named "Th17," has been identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and has emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. However, the relevance of IL-17 in the development and progression of CRC still remains to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IL-17 on the cell migration of CRC cells. Human CRC HCT-116 cells were used to study the effect of IL-17 on CCR6 expression and cell migration in CRC cells. IL-17 treatment induced migration of HCT-116 cells across the Boyden chamber membrane and increased the expression level of the CCR6. Inhibition of CCR6 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and neutralizing antibody inhibited IL-17-induced cell migration. By using specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), we demonstrated that the activation of ERK and p38 pathways are critical for IL-17-induced CCR6 expression and cell migration. Promoter activity and transcription factor ELISA assays showed that IL-17 increased NF-?B-DNA binding activity in HCT-116 cells. Inhibition of NF-?B activation by specific inhibitors and siRNA blocked the IL-17-induced CCR6 expression. Our findings support the hypothesis that CCR6 up-regulation stimulated by IL-17 may play an active role in CRC cell migration. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Alterations of the daily rhythms of HPT axis induced by chronic unpredicted mild stress in rats.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The relationship between thyroid function and depression has long been recognized. Patients with thyroid disorders are more prone to develop depressive symptoms and conversely depression may be accompanied by various subtle thyroid abnormalities. However, the daily rhythm alteration of the functions of the hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis (HPT) is uncertain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on the daily rhythm alterations of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in the plasma. We found that CUMS led to depressive-like behavior and the daily rhythm of T3, T4, and TSH in the plasma being disturbed, as well the plasma levels of T3 and T4 decreased compared to control group. Our findings indicate that CUMS not only induce hypofunction of HPT axis but also the disturbance of daily rhythm of PHT axis in rats.
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FACTS: Fully Automatic CT Segmentation of a Hip Joint.
Ann Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Extraction of surface models of a hip joint from CT data is a pre-requisite step for computer assisted diagnosis and planning (CADP) of periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). Most of existing CADP systems are based on manual segmentation, which is time-consuming and hard to achieve reproducible results. In this paper, we present a Fully Automatic CT Segmentation (FACTS) approach to simultaneously extract both pelvic and femoral models. Our approach works by combining fast random forest (RF) regression based landmark detection, multi-atlas based segmentation, with articulated statistical shape model (aSSM) based fitting. The two fundamental contributions of our approach are: (1) an improved fast Gaussian transform (IFGT) is used within the RF regression framework for a fast and accurate landmark detection, which then allows for a fully automatic initialization of the multi-atlas based segmentation; and (2) aSSM based fitting is used to preserve hip joint structure and to avoid penetration between the pelvic and femoral models. Taking manual segmentation as the ground truth, we evaluated the present approach on 30 hip CT images (60 hips) with a 6-fold cross validation. When the present approach was compared to manual segmentation, a mean segmentation accuracy of 0.40, 0.36, and 0.36 mm was found for the pelvis, the left proximal femur, and the right proximal femur, respectively. When the models derived from both segmentations were used to compute the PAO diagnosis parameters, a difference of 2.0 ± 1.5°, 2.1 ± 1.6°, and 3.5 ± 2.3% were found for anteversion, inclination, and acetabular coverage, respectively. The achieved accuracy is regarded as clinically accurate enough for our target applications.
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A complete-pelvis segmentation framework for image-free total hip arthroplasty (THA): methodology and clinical study.
Int J Med Robot
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Complete-pelvis segmentation in antero-posterior pelvic radiographs is required to create a patient-specific three-dimensional pelvis model for surgical planning and postoperative assessment in image-free navigation of total hip arthroplasty.
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Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of human coronavirus NL63 main protease in complex with an inhibitor.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Human coronavirus NL63 mainly infects younger children and causes cough, fever, rhinorrhoea, bronchiolitis and croup. It encodes two polyprotein precursors required for genome replication and transcription. Each polyprotein undergoes extensive proteolytic processing, resulting in functional subunits. This process is mainly mediated by its genome-encoded main protease, which is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, the main protease of human coronavirus NL63 was crystallized in complex with a Michael acceptor. The complex crystals diffracted to 2.85?Å resolution and belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 87.2, c = 212.1?Å. Two molecules were identified per asymmetric unit.
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Self-referenced frequency comb measurement by using a polarization line-by-line pulse shaper.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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A polarization line-by-line pulse shaper is used for generation and noniterative spectral phase retrieval of optical arbitrary waveforms (OAWs) spanning over the entire repetition period. The method is completely reference-free, making it particularly attractive in measuring high repetition-rate OAW.
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Activation of neutral-sphingomyelinase, MAPKs, and p75 NTR-mediating caffeic acid phenethyl ester-induced apoptosis in C6 glioma cells.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of propolis, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-tumor activities. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of CAPE and addressed the role of p53 and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in regulating CAPE-induced apoptosis in C6 glioma cells.
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7T MRI detects deterioration in subchondral bone microarchitecture in subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis as compared with healthy controls.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To determine how subchondral bone microarchitecture is altered in patients with mild knee osteoarthritis.
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HIV-1 genital shedding is suppressed in the setting of high genital antiretroviral drug concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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It is not known if fluctuations in genital tract antiretroviral drug concentrations correlate with genital virus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
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RhoA/rho kinase signaling reduces connexin43 expression in high glucose-treated glomerular mesangial cells with zonula occludens-1 involvement.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling has been suggested to be involved in diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis. Altered expression of connexin43 (Cx43) has been found in kidneys of diabetic animals. Both of them have been found to regulate nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation in high glucose-treated glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between RhoA/ROCK signaling and Cx43 in the DN pathogenesis. We found that upregulation of Cx43 expression inhibited NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation induced by RhoA/ROCK signaling in GMCs. Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK signaling attenuated the high glucose-induced decrease in Cx43. F-actin accumulation and an enhanced interaction between zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Cx43 were observed in high glucose-treated GMCs. ZO-1 depletion or disruption of F-actin formation also inhibited the reduction in Cx43 protein levels induced by high glucose. In conclusion, activated RhoA/ROCK signaling induces Cx43 degradation in GMCs cultured in high glucose, depending on F-actin regulation. Increased F-actin induced by RhoA/ROCK signaling promotes the association between ZO-1 and Cx43, which possibly triggered Cx43 endocytosis, a mechanism of NF-?B activation in high glucose-treated GMCs.
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Derivation of marine water quality criteria for metals based on a novel QICAR-SSD model.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Establishment of water quality criteria (WQC) is one procedure for protection of marine organisms and their ecosystems. This study, which integrated two separate approaches, quantitative ion character-activity relationships (QICARs) and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), developed a novel QICAR-SSD model. The QICARs predict relative potencies of individual elements while SSDs integrate relative sensitivities among organisms. The QICAR-SSD approach was applied to derive saltwater WQC for 34 metals or metalloids. Relationships between physicochemical properties of metal ions and their corresponding potencies for acute toxicity to eight selected marine species were determined. The softness index (?p) exhibited the strongest correlation with the acute toxicity of metals (r (2)?>?0.66, F?>?5.88, P?
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Resistin-induced stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression through Toll-like receptor 4 and activation of p38 MAPK/ NF?B signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) (CXC chemokine ligand-12)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is involved in the carcinogenesis of human gastric cancer, where it stimulates angiogenesis and favors metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs. In addition, resistin is suggested to be an important link between obesity and the development of gastric cancer. Resistin has identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. A limited number of studies have investigated the association of resistin and SDF-1 with gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which resistin influences the expression of SDF-1 in gastric carcinoma cells.
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Spontaneous ureteral rupture and review of the literature.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Spontaneous ureteral rupture is defined as non-traumatic urinary leakage from the ureter. This is a diagnosis that, although uncommon, is important for emergency physicians to know about. The literature is relatively sparse.
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Gadolinium promoted proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblast NIH3T3 cells through Rac and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a fibrosing disorder disease developed in patients with underlying renal insufficiency following exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Previous studies have demonstrated that GdCl3 can promote NIH3T3 fibroblast cell proliferation, which provide a new clue to the role of GBCAs in the development of NSF. In the present study, we further clarify the molecular mechanism of Gd-promoted proliferation. The results showed that intervention with the Rac inhibitor NSC23766 abrogated Gd-promoted proliferation. The levels of active Rac1 significantly increased in Gd-treated cells detected by pull-down assays. In addition, the phosphorylation of Akt was significantly elevated in the treatment group, which was blocked by NSC23766. NSC23766 also reduced the migration of NIH3T3 cells enhanced by Gd. Moreover, the F-actin cytoskeleton was strengthened and the mitotic cell numbers was significantly increased after exposure to Gd. These results suggest that Rac and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, as well as integrin-mediated signal pathway may play important roles in Gd-induced cell proliferation. In addition, under serum-free condition, Gd could decrease ROS accumulation and increase NIH3T3 cell survival.
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A novel rat model simulating biliary atresia after a kasai operation.
J Invest Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The mechanisms of liver fibrosis in biliary atresia (BA) after a Kasai operation deserve studying to improve the clinical outcomes. This study aimed to create a rat model simulating BA after a Kasai operation.
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The effects of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) on cell proliferation and phenotypic transformation of rat mesangial cells induced by high glucose.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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To investigate the effects of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) on proliferation and phenotypic transformation of rat mesangial cells (MCs) under high glucose conditions and its possible signal transduction pathway.
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Differential Regulation of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages from Diabetic Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation are features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its vascular complications. However, the effects of diabetic monocyte-derived macrophages on vascular SMC proliferation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-proliferative effect of macrophages isolated from DM patients on vascular SMCs. Macrophage-conditioned media (MCM) were prepared from macrophages isolated from DM patients. DM-MCM treatment induced HASMC proliferation, decreased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expressions, and increased microRNA (miR)-17-5p and miR-221 expressions. Inhibition of either miR-17-5p or miR-221 inhibited DM-MCM-induced cell proliferation. Inhibition of miR-17-5p abolished DM-MCM-induced p21Cip1 down-regulation; and inhibition of miR-221 attenuated the DM-MCM-induced p27Kip1 down-regulation. Furthermore, blocking assays demonstrated that PDGF-CC in DM-MCM is the major mediators of cell proliferation in SMCs. In conclusion, our present data support the hypothesis that SMC proliferation stimulated by macrophages may play critical roles in vascular complications in DM patients and suggest a new mechanism by which arterial disease is accelerated in diabetes.
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A computer-based automated algorithm for assessing acinar cell loss after experimental pancreatitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The change in exocrine mass is an important parameter to follow in experimental models of pancreatic injury and regeneration. However, at present, the quantitative assessment of exocrine content by histology is tedious and operator-dependent, requiring manual assessment of acinar area on serial pancreatic sections. In this study, we utilized a novel computer-generated learning algorithm to construct an accurate and rapid method of quantifying acinar content. The algorithm works by learning differences in pixel characteristics from input examples provided by human experts. HE-stained pancreatic sections were obtained in mice recovering from a 2-day, hourly caerulein hyperstimulation model of experimental pancreatitis. For training data, a pathologist carefully outlined discrete regions of acinar and non-acinar tissue in 21 sections at various stages of pancreatic injury and recovery (termed the "ground truth"). After the expert defined the ground truth, the computer was able to develop a prediction rule that was then applied to a unique set of high-resolution images in order to validate the process. For baseline, non-injured pancreatic sections, the software demonstrated close agreement with the ground truth in identifying baseline acinar tissue area with only a difference of 1%±0.05% (p?=?0.21). Within regions of injured tissue, the software reported a difference of 2.5%±0.04% in acinar area compared with the pathologist (p?=?0.47). Surprisingly, on detailed morphological examination, the discrepancy was primarily because the software outlined acini and excluded inter-acinar and luminal white space with greater precision. The findings suggest that the software will be of great potential benefit to both clinicians and researchers in quantifying pancreatic acinar cell flux in the injured and recovering pancreas.
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Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and associated genes induced by grape seed extracts in the primary muscle cells of goats in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study was conducted to investigate how the activity and expression of certain paramount antioxidant enzymes respond to grape seed extract (GSE) addition in primary muscle cells of goats. Gluteal primary muscle cells (PMCs) isolated from a 3-week old goat were cultivated as an unstressed cell model, or they were exposed to 100 µM H2O2 to establish a H2O2-stimulated cell model. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in combination with other relevant antioxidant indexes [i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC)] in response to GSE addition were tested in the unstressed and H2O2-stimulated cell models, and the relative mRNA levels of the CAT, GuZu-SOD, and GPx-1 genes were measured by qPCR. In unstressed PMCs, GSE addition at the dose of 10 µg/ml strikingly attenuated the expression levels of CAT and CuZn-SOD as well as the corresponding enzyme activities. By contrast, in cells pretreated with 100 µM H2O2, the expression and activity levels of these two antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml. GSE addition promoted GPx activity in both unstressed and stressed PMCs, while the expression of the GPx 1 gene displayed partial divergence with GPx activity, which was mitigated by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml in unstressed PMCs. GSH remained comparatively stable except for GSE addition to H2O2-stimulated PMCs at 60 µg/ml, in which a dramatic depletion of GSH occurred. Moreover, GSE addition enhanced TAOC in unstressed (but not H2O2-stimulated) PMCs. GSE addition exerted a bidirectional modulating effect on the mRNA levels and activities of CAT and SOD in unstressed and stressed PMCs at a moderate dose, and it only exhibited a unidirectional effect on the promotion of GPx activity, reflecting its potential to improve antioxidant protection in ruminants.
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Pch2 is a hexameric ring ATPase that remodels the chromosome axis protein Hop1.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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In budding yeast the pachytene checkpoint 2 (Pch2) protein regulates meiotic chromosome axis structure by maintaining the domain-like organization of the synaptonemal complex proteins homolog pairing 1 (Hop1) and molecular zipper 1 (Zip1). Pch2 has also been shown to modulate meiotic double-strand break repair outcomes to favor recombination between homologs, play an important role in the progression of meiotic recombination, and maintain ribosomal DNA stability. Pch2 homologs are present in fruit flies, worms, and mammals, however the molecular mechanism of Pch2 function is unknown. In this study we provide a unique and detailed biochemical analysis of Pch2. We find that purified Pch2 is an AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) protein that oligomerizes into single hexameric rings in the presence of nucleotides. In addition, we show Pch2 binds to Hop1, a critical axial component of the synaptonemal complex that establishes interhomolog repair bias, in a nucleotide-dependent fashion. Importantly, we demonstrate that Pch2 displaces Hop1 from large DNA substrates and that both ATP binding and hydrolysis by Pch2 are required for Pch2-Hop1 transactions. Based on these and previous cell biological observations, we suggest that Pch2 impacts meiotic chromosome function by directly regulating Hop1 localization.
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Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in rural China: Using MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping methods.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Background: The genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) have been found to be related to the risk of transmission and the development of drug resistance of this pathogen. Thus, exploring the molecular characteristics of MTB is helpful for understanding and controlling the spread of strains in areas with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Methods: We recruited 512 sputum smear-positive tuberculosis patients from 30 counties from 1 April to 30 June 2010; 503 MTB strains were isolated and 497 were successfully genotyped. We genotyped the strains based on a new 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) method in combination with spacer-oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) technology. Results: Based on spoligotyping, 487 strains displayed known patterns, and 10 were absent from the current global spoligotyping database (SpolDB4). The predominant spoligotypes belonged to the Beijing or Beijing-like family (81.1%). When we used the new 15-locus (MIRU-15) set for the MIRU-VNTR analysis, 388 different patterns were identified, including 46 clusters and 342 unique patterns. The combination of spoligotyping and MIRU-15 demonstrated a high discriminatory power. The proportion of clusters varied significantly between the Beijing and non-Beijing family strains, but no significant association was observed between multidrug resistance and Beijing family strains. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the Beijing family strains are the most prevalent in rural China. Spoligotyping in combination with the new MIRU-15 technique is useful for the epidemiological analysis of MTB transmission and could be used as a first-line method for the large-scale genotyping of MTB.
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Cumulative latency advance underlies fast visual processing in desynchronized brain state.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Fast sensory processing is vital for the animal to efficiently respond to the changing environment. This is usually achieved when the animal is vigilant, as reflected by cortical desynchronization. However, the neural substrate for such fast processing remains unclear. Here, we report that neurons in rat primary visual cortex (V1) exhibited shorter response latency in the desynchronized state than in the synchronized state. In vivo whole-cell recording from the same V1 neurons undergoing the two states showed that both the resting and visually evoked conductances were higher in the desynchronized state. Such conductance increases of single V1 neurons shorten the response latency by elevating the membrane potential closer to the firing threshold and reducing the membrane time constant, but the effects only account for a small fraction of the observed latency advance. Simultaneous recordings in lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and V1 revealed that LGN neurons also exhibited latency advance, with a degree smaller than that of V1 neurons. Furthermore, latency advance in V1 increased across successive cortical layers. Thus, latency advance accumulates along various stages of the visual pathway, likely due to a global increase of membrane conductance in the desynchronized state. This cumulative effect may lead to a dramatic shortening of response latency for neurons in higher visual cortex and play a critical role in fast processing for vigilant animals.
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Separation of hydrophobic organic compound from surfactant solutions with activated carbon in a fixed bed.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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The adsorption behavior of phenanthrene (PHE) in Triton X-100 (TX100) solutions with fixed activated carbon (AC) bed was studied to recover the surfactant. The effect of various parameters like bed depths, flow rates, influent TX100 concentration, and influent PHE concentration were investigated. The breakthrough time of both TX100 and PHE increased with the increase of bed height and decrease of flow rate and influent concentration. In the case of fixed length, a lower flow rate, higher concentration of TX100, and lower concentration of PHE will benefit the longer effective surfactant recovery time. The adsorption data were integrated into bed depth service time models. The height of exchange zone of TX100 should be much shorter than that of PHE, which provides conditions to separate the hydrophobic organic compound from surfactant solutions with AC in a fixed bed. It is likely that the adsorption process is controlled by hydrophobic interaction.
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Recurrence risk model for esophageal cancer after radical surgery.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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The aim of the present study was to construct a risk assessment model which was tested by disease-free survival (DFS) of esophageal cancer after radical surgery.
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Damage properties simulations of self-healing composites.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Self-healing materials are inspired by biological systems in which damage triggers an autonomic healing response. The damage properties of a self-healing polymer composite were investigated by numerical simulation in this paper. Unit cell models with single-edge centered crack and single-edge off-centered crack were employed to investigate the damage initiation and crack evolution by the extended finite element method (XFEM) modeling. The effect of microcapsules Youngs modulus on composites was investigated. Result indicates the microcapsules Youngs modulus has little effect on the unit cells carrying capacity. It was found that during the crack propagation process, its direction is attracted toward the microcapsules, which makes it helpful for the microcapsules to be ruptured by the propagating crack fronts resulting in release of the healing agent into the cracks by capillary action.
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Etiology of genital ulcer disease and association with HIV infection in Malawi.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic management for patients presenting with genital ulcer disease (GUD) in developing countries. However, effective treatment guidelines depend on a current country-specific GUD etiological profile, which may change over time.
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Improved CCT uniformity of white LED using remote phosphor with patterned sapphire substrate.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The light distribution of a light-emitting diode (LED), using remote phosphor with a patterned sapphire substrate, is evaluated in this study. Three kinds of substrates of the remote phosphors, including planar sapphire (PS), partially patterned sapphire (PPS), and fully patterned sapphire (FPS) are prepared. The LED with the remote phosphor of FPS delivers much better uniformity of the correlated color temperature (CCT) in a far-field pattern than the CCT obtained in the cases of PS and PPS. The results are majorly attributed to the improvement in the scattering ability of the blue light in the FPS; thereby increasing the excitation of the phosphor particles in comparison to the ability of the device assembled with the remote phosphor of PS or PPS.
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[Preparation and bio-evaluation of tissue engineered scaffold based on decellularized whole heart extracellular matrix].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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To investigate a method for preparing decellularized rat heart scaffold, and to detect and evaluate the decellularized scaffold.
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Efficient panchromatic organic sensitizers with dihydrothiazole derivative as ?-bridge for dye-sensitized solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Novel organic dyes CC201 and CC202 with dihydrothiazole derivative as ?-bridge have been synthesizedand applied in the DSSCs. With the synergy electron-withdrawing of dihydrothiazole and cyanoacrylic acid, these two novel dyes CC201 and CC202 show excellent response in the region of 500-800 nm. An efficiency as high as 6.1% was obtained for the device fabricated by sensitizer CC202 together with cobalt electrolyte under standard light illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)). These two novel D-?-A panchromatic organic dyes gave relatively high efficiencies except common reported squaraine dyes.
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Cidea controls lipid droplet fusion and lipid storage in brown and white adipose tissue.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Excess lipid storage in adipose tissue results in the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders including diabetes, fatty liver and cardiovascular diseases. The lipid droplet (LD) is an important subcellular organelle responsible for lipid storage. We previously observed that Fsp27, a member of the CIDE family proteins, is localized to LD-contact sites and promotes atypical LD fusion and growth. Cidea, a close homolog of Fsp27, is expressed at high levels in brown adipose tissue. However, the exact role of Cidea in promoting LD fusion and lipid storage in adipose tissue remains unknown. Here, we expressed Cidea in Fsp27-knockdown adipocytes and observed that Cidea has similar activity to Fsp27 in promoting lipid storage and LD fusion and growth. Next, we generated Cidea and Fsp27 double-deficient mice and observed that these animals had drastically reduced adipose tissue mass and a strong lean phenotype. In addition, Cidea/Fsp27 double-deficient mice had improved insulin sensitivity and were intolerant to cold. Furthermore, we observed that the brown and white adipose tissues of Cidea/Fsp27 double-deficient mice had significantly reduced lipid storage and contained smaller LDs compared to those of Cidea or Fsp27 single deficient mice. Overall, these data reveal an important role of Cidea in controlling lipid droplet fusion, lipid storage in brown and white adipose tissue, and the development of obesity.
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Hypermethylation of EDNRB promoter contributes to the risk of colorectal cancer.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common digestive malignancies in the world. EDNRB is a new candidate tumor suppressor gene which is often down-regulated or even silenced by promoter hypermethylation in various human cancers. However, the function of EDNRB gene in CRC remains unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and DNA methylation of EDNRB in CRC tissues.
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[Clinical efficacy of subtalar joint arthrodesis with percutaneous opposite parallel cannulated screws].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To explore the clinical efficacy of subtalar joint arthrodesis with percutaneous opposite parallel cannulated screws for severe subtalar joint arthritis.
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Reactive oxygen species production by catechol stabilized copper nanoparticles.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants.
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Band specific changes in thalamocortical synchrony in field potentials after Cardiac Arrest induced global hypoxia.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Cardiac Arrest (CA) leads to a global hypoxic-ischemic injury in the brain leading to a poor neurological outcome. Understanding the mechanisms of functional disruption in various regions of the brain may be essential for the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic solutions. Using controlled laboratory experiment with animal models of CA, our primary focus here is on understanding the functional changes in the thalamus and the cortex, associated with the injury and acute recovery upon resuscitation. Specifically, to study the changes in thalamocortical synchrony through these periods, we acquired local field potentials (LFPs) from the ventroposterior lateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus and the forelimb somatosensory cortex (S1FL) in rats after asphyxial CA. Band-specific relative Hilbert phases were used to analyze synchrony between the LFPs. We observed that the CA induced global ischemia changes the local phase-relationships by introducing a phase-lag in both the thalamus and the cortex, while the synchrony between the two regions is nearly completely lost after CA.
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Effect of hypothermia on cortical and thalamic signals in anesthetized rats.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Beneficial effects of hypothermia on subjects with neuro-pathologies have been well demonstrated in both animal studies and clinical trials. Although it is known that temperature significantly impacts neurological injuries, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We studied the effect of temperature modulation on neural signals in the cortex and the thalamus in uninjured brains of anesthetized rats. Six rats were divided into a hypothermic (32 to 34 °C, n=3) and a hyperthermic group (38.5 to 39.5 °C, n=3). EEG, and extracellular signals from somatosensory cortex and the ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus were recorded at different temperature phases (normothermia (36.5 to 37.5 °C) and hypothermia or hyperthermia). During hypothermia, similar burst suppression (BS) patterns were observed in cortical and thalamic signals as in EEG, but thalamic activity was not completely under suppression when both EEG and cortical signals were electrically silent. In addition, our results showed that hypothermia significantly increased the burst suppression ratio (BSR) in EEG, cortical and thalamic signals by 3.42, 3.25, 7.29 times respectively (P<0.01), and prolonged the latency of neuronal response in cortex to median nerve stimulation from 9 ms to 16 ms (P<0.01). Furthermore, during normothermia, the correlation coefficient between thalamic and cortical signals was 0.35±0.02 while during hypothermia, it decreased to 0.16±0.03 with statistical significance (P<0.01). These results can potentially assist in better understanding the effects of hypothermia.
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A wireless hybrid chemical sensor for detection of environmental volatile organic compounds.
IEEE Sens J
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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A hybrid sensor for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air is developed. The device combines two orthogonal sensing principles, selective molecular binding with a microfabricated quartz tuning fork detector and separation of analytes with a column. The tuning fork detector is functionalized with molecular imprinted polymers for selective binding to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), and the separation column provides further discrimination of the analytes for real world complex sample analysis. The device is wireless, portable, battery-powered, and cell-phone operated, and it allows reliable detection in parts per billion (ppb) by volume-levels of BTEX in the presence of complex interferents. The hybrid device is suitable for occupational, environmental health, and epidemiological applications.
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Changes of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- regulatory T cells in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing surgery.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Little is known about the regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the peripheral blood after surgery of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In this study, we investigated whether CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- regulatory T cells are decreased in the peripheral blood of NSCLC patients undergoing surgery. The study group (n=49) comprised NSCLC, and the control group (n=24) consisted of age- and sex-matched nonmalignant diseases. The prevalence of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- Tregs was analyzed using flow cytometry. The study group showed significantly higher percentage of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- Tregs than control. The percentage of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- Tregs increased with tumor stage. One way ANOVA test shows the significant differences between all subgroups. LSD test shows that there was a statistical significance between each of the two subgroups except stage II in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs and control vs. each stage, stage I vs. stage III, and stage IV in CD8+CD28- Tregs. There is no significant difference among stages II, III, and IV in CD8+CD28- Tregs. No differences were found between squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These levels were dropped significantly after operation. Furthermore postoperative Treg percentage in the early stages (stage I and stage II) was not statistically different from that of controls. Postoperative Treg percentage in advanced stage (III+IV) remained above the values shown by controls. Our findings indicate that the percentage of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- Tregs correlated with the pathological stage in NSCLC and tumor burden.
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AP-1 regulates sphingosine kinase 1 expression in a positive feedback manner in glomerular mesangial cells exposed to high glucose.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Our previous studies have confirmed that the sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)-sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway in the kidney under diabetic conditions is closely correlated with the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The activation of SphK1-S1P pathway by high glucose (HG) can increase the expression of fibronectin (FN), an important fibrotic component, in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) by promoting the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor AP-1. However, the mechanism responsible for the sustained activation of SphK1-S1P pathway remains unclear. Given the binding motifs for AP-1 within the first intron of the SphK1 gene, we speculated that the activated AP-1 in the kidney under HG condition possibly regulates SphK1 expression in a positive feedback manner, thereby promoting the sustained activation of SphK1-S1P pathway and mediating the pathological progression of DN. Here, we observed the effect of AP-1 on SphK1 expression in GMCs and explored the molecular mechanism involved in the sustained activation of SphK1-S1P pathway. We found two consensus binding motifs for AP-1 in the promoter sequences and non-coding region downstream of the transcriptional initiation of the rat SphK1 gene by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The treatment of GMCs with both HG and S1P significantly increased the protein expression of c-Jun and c-Fos, and obviously enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun at Ser63 and Ser73, and c-Fos at Ser32. Knockdown of c-Jun and c-Fos with siRNAs substantially inhibited the expression of SphK1 and FN, whereas overexpression of c-Jun and c-Fos significantly increased the expression of SphK1 and FN. Curcumin treatment greatly decreased the levels of c-Jun, c-Fos, SphK1, and FN in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats. SiRNAs targeting SphK1 and S1P2 receptor respectively inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun (ser63 and ser73) and c-Fos (ser32), as well as FN expression under both normal and HG conditions. Our data demonstrate that the activated SphK1-S1P signaling pathway in GMCs under diabetic conditions is closely associated with AP-1 to form a positive feedback loop. This positive feedback loop functions as an important molecular basis for the sustained activation of the SphK1-S1P pathway and increased FN expression that lead to the initiation and progression of DN.
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Biomechanical properties and mechanobiology of the articular chondrocyte.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To withstand physiological loading over a lifetime, human synovial joints are covered and protected by articular cartilage, a layer of low-friction, load-bearing tissue. The unique mechanical function of articular cartilage largely depends on the composition and structural integrity of the cartilage matrix. The matrix is produced by highly specialized resident cells called chondrocytes. Under physiological loading, chondrocytes maintain the balance between degradation and synthesis of matrix macromolecules. Under excessive loading or injury, however, degradation exceeds synthesis, causing joint degeneration and, eventually, osteoarthritis (OA). Hence, the mechanoresponses of chondrocytes play an important role in the development of OA. Despite its clear importance, the mechanobiology of articular chondrocytes is not well understood. To summarize our current understanding, here we review studies of the effect of mechanical forces on mechanical and biological properties of articular chondrocytes. First, we present the viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus, chondrocyte, pericellular matrix, and chondron. Then we discuss how these properties change in OA. Finally, we discuss the responses of normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes to a variety of mechanical stimuli. Studies reviewed here may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of OA and may help in development of effective biophysical treatment.
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[Gene expressions of LOXs and MMPs of the ACL fibroblasts cells co-cultured with synovial cells].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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The progress of research on the the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) wound healing demonstrates that the synovial tissue in the knee joint plays a very important role in the healing process of injured ACL. Therefore, the molecular response mechanisms of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and matrix metalloproteina (MMP) in normal/injured ACL fibroblast cells could be considered to perform the major analysis function of injured ACL healing mechanism. The mRNA expressions of LOXs and MMPs and the activity expressions of MMP-2 in ACL fibroblasts co-cultured with synovial cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and zymography. The results showed that co-culture could regulate the mRNA expressions of LOXs and MMPs in the ACL fibroblasts cells. These results suggest that the differential expressions of LOXs and MMP-1, 2, 3 in co-cultured ACL indicate that interaction crosstalk do exist between ACL cells and synovial cells and provide a theoretical basis for subsequent exploration of the mechanisms and treatment of ACL injury and repair.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.