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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Bullying Victimization and Perpetration and Their Correlates in Adolescents Clinically Diagnosed With ADHD.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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To examine the prevalence rates of bullying involvement and their correlates in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan.
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Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.
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Clinical applications of the indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of anti-cell membrane-associated DNA antibodies in Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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BackgroundJuvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) has a higher mortality risk compared to adult-onset SLE. We compared the diagnostic value of anti-cmDNA antibodies with that of anti-nucleosome antibodies (AnuA), anti-Sm antibodies and anti-dsDNA antibodies and human B lymphocyte Raji cells with that of human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells as substrates in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect anti-cmDNA antibodies in JSLE patients.MethodsWe recruited 92 JSLE patients and 71 patients with other rheumatic diseases. Anti-cmDNA antibodies and ANA were detected in patient sera using indirect immunofluorescence assays. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected by combining ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence. Anti-Sm antibodies were detected by double immunodiffusion assay and immunoblotting, while anti-nucleosome antibodies (AnuA) were detected by ELISA.ResultsJSLE group had a significantly higher percentage of patients positive for anti-cmDNA compared to patients with other rheumatoid diseases. Using one antibody for diagnosis, anti-cm DNA antibodies has highest accuracy as 84.0%, using 2 antibodies, the combination of anti-cm DNA and anti-dsDNA antibodies has 90.8 % accuracy. Raji cells used as substrate demonstrated a stronger intensity of fluorescent patterns compared to HL60 cells.ConclusionThe high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of detection of anti-cmDNA antibodies make it a valuable diagnostic tool for JSLE.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.182.
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A new strategy using ALDHhigh-CD8+T cells to inhibit tumorigenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Currently, many studies suggest that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, tumorigenesis, metastasis and recurrence. CSCs have been identified from various human and murine tumors. The identification of CSCs allows us to develop strategies to target the CSCs.
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The clinicopathological significance of microRNA-155 in breast cancer: a meta-analysis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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Previous studies demonstrated that the associations between expression level of microRNA-155 (miR-155) and clinicopathological significance of breast cancer remained inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis based on eligible studies to summarize the possible associations.
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Comprehensive treatment of a functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with multifocal liver metastases.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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A 64-year-old man was admitted to the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center with chief complaints of recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea for about 3 years and with a history of surgical repair for intestinal perforation owing to stress ulcer. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a primary tumor on the pancreatic tail with multifocal liver metastases. Pathological and immunohistochemistry staining revealed the lesion to be a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET). According to the latest World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) classification, the tumor was classified as stage IV functional G1 pNET. After referral to the multidisciplinary treatment board (MDT), the patient was started on periodic dose of omeprazole, somatostatin analogues and Interferon ? (IFN?) and had scanning follow-ups. Based upon the imaging results, CT-guided radioactive iodine-125 ((125)I) seeds implantation therapy, radiofrequency ablation therapy (RFA) or microwave ablation technique were chosen for the treatment of the primary tumor. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), RFA and microwave ablation techniques were decided upon for liver metastases. The patient showed beneficial response to the treatment with clinically manageable low-grade side effects and attained partial remission (RECIST criteria) with a good quality of life.
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The significance of single nucleotide polymorphism rs2070770 in CD20 gene in Chinese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the significance of polymorphisms in the CD20 gene in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We sequenced exons 3-8 in 160 patients with de novo DLBCL and detected the expression of CD20 via immunohistochemistry. We found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs17155019 in the 5' untranslated region and rs2070770 (ILE72/ILE72) in exon 4. There was no significant difference in genotype frequencies of SNPs between patients and controls (p = 0.855 and 0.251, respectively). In patients who received rituximab-containing chemotherapies, the T allele of rs2070770 was significantly associated with superior overall survival (OS) (p = 0.029) and progression-free survival (p = 0.045). Analogously, in patients who did not receive rituximab, the T allele of rs2070770 (p = 0.047) was also significantly associated with longer OS. In conclusion, SNPs of CD20 were not high risk factors of DLBCL, but the T allele of rs2070770 was a potential indicator of superior survival.
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Alterations of digestive enzyme activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, fed dietary probiotics.
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics on digestive enzymes activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were studied. A total of 400 fish were reared in two cages and fed with a basal diet (control group, CG) or diet supplemented with commercial probiotics (treatment group, TG) for 80 days. Enzymes activities analysis indicated that protease and ?-amylase activities increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in TG. Light microscopy observation demonstrated the decrease of wall thickness and muscularis thickness in foregut (P < 0.01), the increase of those in hindgut (P < 0.05), the increase of folds height in foregut (P < 0.01) and midgut in TG (P < 0.05). DGGE results of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA confirmed that the richness and diversity of intestinal microbial species increased in TG. The similarity between the commercial bacteria product and intestinal microbiota of TG were higher than the microbiota from CG. The quantities of bacterium, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, present an increasing trend from foregut to hindgut both in two groups. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study to reveal the effect of dietary probiotics on intestinal digestive enzymes activities, morphology and microbiota in paddlefish.
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Explicit and implicit heroin-related cognitions and heroin use among patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Craving is an important issue in substance use disorder. To achieve a better understanding of the cognitive processing systems of craving, the cognitive processes of craving have been considered as two distinct processes. One system, based on rule-based inferences and named explicit cognition, is more conscious and effortful. The other system, based on prior learned association and named implicit cognition, is unconscious and effortless. How explicit and implicit cognitions are associated with heroin use in patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is not clear. This study aimed to explore the relationship between explicit and implicit cognition and heroin use in patients undergoing MMT.
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Psychiatric Diagnoses, Emotional-Behavioral Symptoms and Functional Outcomes in Adolescents Born Preterm with Very Low Birth Weights.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Children born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight ?1,500 g) run risks of neurodevelopmental disorders. Studies of adolescent outcome are relatively few. In this follow-up survey, we examined the emotional-behavioral symptoms, psychiatric diagnoses and functional status in a geographically-based birth cohort of VLBW adolescents (average 13.4 years) as registered in a level III center of a recently developed Asian country. Psychiatric interviews were conducted. Parents were asked to fill out the Child Behavioral Checklist and the Current Status Survey. Results revealed that neonatal survival rate was 75.7 % (112/148). In the follow-up, 26.2 % of the adolescents required individualized educational plan; 52.5 % were with at least one neuropsychiatric diagnosis (e.g. cerebral palsy 24.6 %, intellectual disabilities 21.3 %, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder 19.7 %), and 32.8 % of the participants were disabled. Logistic regression found that neonatal sepsis and grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage were most predictive of a disabled status in adolescence.
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Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in bone tissue regeneration: new insight and perspectives.
Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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The study of bone tissue regeneration in orthopaedic diseases has stimulated great interest among bone tissue engineering specialists and orthopaedic surgeons. Combinations of biomaterials, growth factors and stem cells for repairing bone have been much studied and researched, yet remain a challenge for both scientists and clinicians pursuing regenerative medicine. The purpose of this review was to elucidate the role of sequential release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in producing better outcomes in the field of bone tissue regeneration.
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Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study.
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Application of neural networks with novel independent component analysis methodologies to a Prussian blue modified glassy carbon electrode array.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Sodium potassium absorption ratio (SPAR) is an important measure of agricultural water quality, wherein four exchangeable cations (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) should be simultaneously determined. An ISE-array is suitable for this application because its simplicity, rapid response characteristics and lower cost. However, cross-interferences caused by the poor selectivity of ISEs need to be overcome using multivariate chemometric methods. In this paper, a solid contact ISE array, based on a Prussian blue modified glassy carbon electrode (PB-GCE), was applied with a novel chemometric strategy. One of the most popular independent component analysis (ICA) methods, the fast fixed-point algorithm for ICA (fastICA), was implemented by the genetic algorithm (geneticICA) to avoid the local maxima problem commonly observed with fastICA. This geneticICA can be implemented as a data preprocessing method to improve the prediction accuracy of the Back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The ISE array system was validated using 20 real irrigation water samples from South Australia, and acceptable prediction accuracies were obtained.
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The association of Internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The aims of this study were to examine the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with various dimensions of anxiety (physical anxiety symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic) and depression symptoms (depressed affect, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect) and self-esteem among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan.
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Severity of alprazolam dependence and associated features among long-term alprazolam users from psychiatric outpatient clinics in Taiwan.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the correlations between the severity of alprazolam dependence and socio-demographic characteristics, the characteristics of alprazolam use, psychiatric comorbidity, and beliefs toward alprazolam use among long-term alprazolam users in Taiwan.
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The inhibition of proactive interference among adults with Internet gaming disorder.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Cognitive control plays a pivotal role in the mechanism of addictive behavior. The aim of the study was to evaluate the deficit in inhibition of proactive interference of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) using a directed forgetting task among young adults.
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Brain correlates of response inhibition in Internet gaming disorder.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The present study aimed to evaluate the brain correlates of response inhibition among subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD).
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Harmful alcohol use among Aboriginal people in southern Taiwan: the prevalence, correlates, and adverse drinking effects.
J Addict Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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This cross-sectional study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of harmful alcohol use among aboriginal people in southern Taiwan and to examine the associations between harmful alcohol use and adverse drinking effects. Four hundred forty-nine aboriginal adults were recruited from two townships in southern Taiwan to complete the questionnaires. Among the aborigines, 59.7% scored an 8 or above on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, including 26.7% who were found to be hazardous drinkers (AUDIT level II), 18.5% who were harmful drinkers (level III), and 14.5% who were with likely dependence (level IV). Male aborigines who participated less in religious activities, had stressful life events, were cigarette smokers, or were betel quid chewers were more likely to have harmful alcohol use. Harmful alcohol use was also associated with an inability to work and with arguments with other people. Our study suggests that aboriginal people in southern Taiwan experience alcohol-related risks at rates as high as other worldwide populations for which AUDIT results are available. Individuals with AUDIT scores at levels II and III are generally candidates for brief interventions delivered in generalist health settings. Individuals with AUDIT scores at level IV should be referred for an addiction specialty evaluation and possible treatment as well as lower-risk individuals (those with AUDIT levels II-III) if they have concurrent physical or psychiatric disorders.
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Mediating effects of depression and anxiety on the relationship between bullying involvement and pain problems among adolescents in Taiwan.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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This study aimed to examine the mediating effects of depression and anxiety on the relationships of bullying victimization and perpetration with pain among adolescents in Taiwan.
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[Expression and clinical significance of gastric dramatic down-related gene in gastric cancer and precancerous lesions].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To investigate the expression and clinical significance of gastric dramatic down-related gene (GDDR) in gastric cancer and precancerous lesion tissues.
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Role of hepatic and intestinal p450 enzymes in the metabolic activation of the colon carcinogen azoxymethane in mice.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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P450-mediated bioactivation of azoxymethane (AOM), a colon carcinogen, leads to the formation of DNA adducts, of which O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-mG) is the most mutagenic and contributes to colon tumorigenesis. To determine whether P450 enzymes of the liver and intestine both contribute to AOM bioactivation in vivo, we compared tissue levels of AOM-induced DNA adducts, microsomal AOM metabolic activities, and incidences of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) among wild-type (WT), liver-specific P450 reductase (Cpr)-null (LCN), and intestinal epithelium-specific Cpr-null (IECN) mice. At 6 h following AOM treatment (at 14 mg/kg, s.c.), O(6)-mG and N(7)-mG levels were highest in the liver, followed by the colon, and then small intestine in WT mice. As expected, hepatic adduct levels were significantly lower (by >60%) in LCN mice but unchanged in IECN mice, whereas small-intestinal adduct levels were unchanged or increased in LCN mice but lower (by >50%) in IECN mice compared to that in WT mice. However, colonic adduct levels were unchanged in IECN mice compared to that in WT mice and increased in LCN mice (by 1.5-2.9-fold). The tissue-specific impact of the CPR loss in IECN and LCN mice on microsomal AOM metabolic activity was confirmed by rates of formation of formaldehyde and N(7)-mG in vitro. Furthermore, the incidence of ACF, a lesion preceding colon cancer, was similar in the three mouse strains. Thus, AOM-induced colonic DNA damage and ACF formation is not solely dependent on either hepatic or intestinal microsomal P450 enzymes. P450 enzymes in both the liver and intestine likely contribute to AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis.
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TP53 Pro72 allele potentially increases the poor prognostic significance of TP53 mutation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Previous studies have investigated the associations between TP53 mutations and codon 72 polymorphisms and prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the joint effect of TP53 mutations and TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms on CLL prognosis remains uncertain. We used direct sequencing to detect TP53 mutations and codon 72 genotype in 207 patients with CLL. The Pro/Pro genotype was associated with an increased incidence of TP53 mutations and deletion, but had no apparent effect on biological tumor behavior or clinical response. Compared to patients with wild-type p53, patients with TP53 mutations and the Pro72 allele (Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro genotypes) were associated with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region status and chemorefractoriness. Overall survival (OS) in the entire patient group was differed significantly between patients with TP53 mutations and either the Pro72 allele or Arg/Arg homozygotes (P = 0.014). Notably, patients with TP53 mutation and the Pro72 allele experienced a 23.7-fold increase in hazard ratio (95% CI 3.38-165.9; P = 0.001) for OS compared with patients with wild-type p53 and those with the Arg/Arg genotype. The TP53 Pro72 allele potentially increases the prognostic significance of TP53 mutations in CLL.
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One-year follow up of PTSD and depression in elderly aboriginal people in Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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This paper describes a 1-year follow-up of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and depression in an elderly minority population who experienced Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan.
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Clinical correlates of unawareness of deficits among patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To investigate the associations between unawareness of deficits and clinical correlates, including apathy and depression, among patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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The association between premenstrual dysphoric disorder and internet use disorder.
Women Health
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is an important women's mental health issue. This study aimed to investigate the association between Internet use disorder (IUD), PMDD, and their associated factors, such as stress and impulsivity. Women with PMDD (n = 79) and controls (n = 76) were recruited from the community. The diagnoses of PMDD and IUD were confirmed by psychiatric interviews. Participants were evaluated with the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in both the premenstrual and follicular phases. Women with PMDD were more likely to have IUD. Women with PMDD had greater severity of IUD, perceived stress, and impulsivity than the control group in the premenstrual phase. Impulsivity mediated the association between PMDD and IUD, while both impulsivity and perceived stress mediated the association between PMDD and IUD severity. Thus, IUD should be evaluated and treated among women with PMDD, particularly for those with higher impulsivity or higher perceived stress. Strategies for stress management and counseling for impulsivity should be provided to women with PMDD, particular to those comorbid with IUD.
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Association between school bullying levels/types and mental health problems among Taiwanese adolescents.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Few studies have compared the risks of mental health problems among the adolescents with different levels and different types of bullying involvement experiences.
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Evaluation of the diagnostic criteria of Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5 among young adults in Taiwan.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The DSM-5 proposed the diagnostic criteria of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and suggested that more evidence is necessary before it is included as a standard disorder in the DSM system. The aims of this study were to: 1) evaluate the diagnostic validity of individual criteria of IGD in the DSM-5 and the criteria of craving and irritability; 2) determine the optimal cut-off point for the IGD criteria in the DSM-5. We recruited 75 subjects with IGD, 75 without IGD, and 75 in remission from IGD based on the Diagnostic Criteria of Internet Addiction for College Students (DC-IA-C). All participants underwent a diagnostic interview based on the diagnostic criteria of IGD in the DSM-5 and completed the CIAS and QGU-B. Except for the "deceiving" and "escape" criteria, all criteria of IGD had diagnostic accuracy ranging from 77.3% to 94.7% to differentiate university students with IGD from remitted students. The criterion of craving had diagnostic accuracy of 88% and the criteria of irritability had an accuracy of 68.7%. Fulfilling 5 or more criteria of IGD in the DSM-5 was the best cut-off point to differentiate young adults with IGD from healthy or remitted users.
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The exacerbation of depression, hostility, and social anxiety in the course of Internet addiction among adolescents: a prospective study.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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In adolescent populations worldwide, Internet addiction is prevalent and is often comorbid with depression, hostility, and social anxiety of adolescents. This study aimed at evaluating the exacerbation of depression, hostility, and social anxiety in the course of getting addiction to Internet or remitting from Internet addiction among adolescents.
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Gonadotrophic hormone and reinforcement sensitivity systems in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Behavior inhibition and behavior approach system (BIS/BAS) determine the sensitivity to aversion and rewarding stimuli, respectively. This study aimed at evaluating the BIS/BAS of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and effect of estrogen and progesterone on the BIS/BAS.
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Altered brain activation during response inhibition and error processing in subjects with Internet gaming disorder: a functional magnetic imaging study.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impulsivity and brain correlates of response inhibition and error processing among subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We evaluated the response inhibition and error processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in subjects with IGD and controls. Twenty-six men with IGD for at least 2 years and 23 controls with no history of IGD were recruited as the IGD and control groups, respectively. All subjects performed the event-related designed Go/No-go task under fMRI and completed questionnaires related to Internet addiction and impulsivity. The IGD group exhibited a higher score for impulsivity than the control group. The IGD group also exhibited higher brain activation when processing response inhibition over the left orbital frontal lobe and bilateral caudate nucleus than controls. Both the IGD and control groups exhibited activation of the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during error processing. The activation over the right insula was lower in the subjects with IGD than the control group. Our results support the fact that the fronto-striatal network involved in response inhibition, and the salience network, anchored by the anterior cingulate and insula, contributes to error processing. Further, adults with IGD have impaired insular function in error processing and greater activation of the fronto-striatal network in order to maintain their response inhibition performance.
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Comparison of VFA titration procedures used for monitoring the biogas process.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Titrimetric determination of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) contents is a common way to monitor a biogas process. However, digested manure from co-digestion biogas plants has a complex matrix with high concentrations of interfering components, resulting in varying results when using different titration procedures. Currently, no standardized procedure is used and it is therefore difficult to compare the performance among plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate four titration procedures (for determination of VFA-levels of digested manure samples) and compare results with gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. Two of the procedures are commonly used in biogas plants and two are discussed in literature. The results showed that the optimal titration results were obtained when 40 mL of four times diluted digested manure was gently stirred (200 rpm). Results from samples with different VFA concentrations (1-11 g/L) showed linear correlation between titration results and GC measurements. However, determination of VFA by titration generally overestimated the VFA contents compared with GC measurements when samples had low VFA concentrations, i.e. around 1 g/L. The accuracy of titration increased when samples had high VFA concentrations, i.e. around 5 g/L. It was further found that the studied ionisable interfering components had lowest effect on titration when the sample had high VFA concentration. In contrast, bicarbonate, phosphate and lactate had significant effect on titration accuracy at low VFA concentration. An extended 5-point titration procedure with pH correction was best to handle interferences from bicarbonate, phosphate and lactate at low VFA concentrations. Contrary, the simplest titration procedure with only two pH end-points showed the highest accuracy among all titration procedures at high VFA concentrations. All in all, if the composition of the digested manure sample is not known, the procedure with only two pH end-points should be the procedure of choice, due to its simplicity and accuracy.
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The association between suicidality and Internet addiction and activities in Taiwanese adolescents.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations of suicidal ideation and attempt with Internet addiction and Internet activities in a large representative Taiwanese adolescent population.
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Axonal transport plays a crucial role in mediating the axon-protective effects of NmNAT.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Deficits in axonal transport are thought to contribute to the pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases. Expressing the slow Wallerian degeneration protein (Wld(S)) or related nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferases (NmNATs) protects axons against damage from a broad range of insults, but the ability of these proteins to protect against inhibition of axonal transport has received little attention. We set out to determine whether these proteins can protect the axons of cultured hippocampal neurons from damage due to hydrogen peroxide or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and, in particular, whether they can reduce the damage that these agents cause to the axonal transport machinery. Exposure to these insults inhibited the axonal transport of both mitochondria and of the vesicles that carry axonal membrane proteins; this inhibition occurred hours before the first signs of axonal degeneration. Expressing a cytoplasmically targeted version of NmNAT1 (cytNmNAT1) protected the axons against both insults. It also reduced the inhibition of transport when cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide and enhanced the recovery of transport following both insults. The protective effects of cytNmNAT1 depend on mitochondrial transport. When mitochondrial transport was inhibited, cytNmNAT1 was unable to protect axons against either insult. The protective effects of mitochondrially targeted NmNAT also were blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial transport. These results establish that NmNAT robustly protects the axonal transport system following exposure to OGD and reactive oxygen species and may offer similar protection in other disease models. Understanding how NmNAT protects the axonal transport system may lead to new strategies for neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases.
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Deficits in neuronal cytochrome P450 activity attenuate opioid analgesia but not opioid side effects.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Morphine-like analgesics act on µ opioid receptors in the CNS to produce highly effective pain relief, but the same class of receptors also mediates non-therapeutic side effects. The analgesic properties of morphine were recently shown to require the activity of a brain neuronal cytochrome P450 epoxygenase, but the significance of this pathway for opioid side effects is unknown. Here we show that brain P450 activity is not required for three of morphine?s major side effects (respiratory depression, constipation, and locomotor stimulation). Following systemic or intracerebroventricular administration of morphine, transgenic mice with brain neuron - specific reductions in P450 activity showed highly attenuated analgesic responses as compared with wild-type (control) mice. However, brain P450-deficient mice showed normal morphine-induced side effects (respiratory depression, locomotor stimulation, and inhibition of intestinal motility). Pretreatment of control mice with the P450 inhibitor CC12 similarly reduced the analgesia, but not these side effects of morphine. Because activation of brain µ opioid receptors produces both opioid analgesia and opioid side effects, dissociation of the mechanisms for the therapeutic and therapy-limiting effects of opioids has important consequences for the development of analgesics with reduced side effects and/or limited addiction liability.
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Comparison of long-term results between laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy and open gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for advanced gastric cancer.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare surgical outcomes and oncologic efficacy of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) versus open gastrectomy (OG) for advanced gastric cancer.
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Dependence, misuse, and beliefs regarding use of hypnotics by elderly psychiatric patients taking zolpidem, estazolam, or flunitrazepam.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To examine the prevalence rates and correlates of dependence on, misuse of, and beliefs regarding use of hypnotics in elderly psychiatric patients with long-term use of zolpidem, estazolam, or flunitrazepam.
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Bidirectional associations between family factors and Internet addiction among adolescents in a prospective investigation.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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This study aimed at evaluating the effect of family factors on the occurrence of Internet addiction and determining whether Internet addiction could make any difference in the family function.
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Brain activation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction in internet gaming disorder.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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We evaluated neural substrates related to the loss of control in college students with internet gaming disorder (IGD). We hypothesized that deficit in response inhibition under gaming cue distraction was the possible mechanism for the loss of control internet use. Eleven cases of IGD and 11 controls performed Go/NoGo tasks with/without gaming distraction in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. When the gaming picture was shown as background while individuals were performing Go/NoGo tasks, the IGD group committed more commission errors. The control group increased their brain activations more over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal lobe under gaming cue distraction in comparison with the IGD group. Furthermore, brain activation of the right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe were negatively associated with performance of response inhibition among the IGD group. The results suggest that the function of response inhibition was impaired under gaming distraction among the IGD group, and individuals with IGD could not activate right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe to keep cognitive control and attention allocation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction. This mechanism should be addressed in any intervention for IGD.
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College students with Internet addiction decrease fewer Behavior Inhibition Scale and Behavior Approach Scale when getting online.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The aim of the study is to compare the reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline interaction. The effect of gender, Internet addiction, depression, and online gaming on the difference of reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline were also evaluated.
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Chemogenomics knowledgebased polypharmacology analyses of drug abuse related G-protein coupled receptors and their ligands.
Front Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Drug abuse (DA) and addiction is a complex illness, broadly viewed as a neurobiological impairment with genetic and environmental factors that influence its development and manifestation. Abused substances can disrupt the activity of neurons by interacting with many proteins, particularly G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A few medicines that target the central nervous system (CNS) can also modulate DA related proteins, such as GPCRs, which can act in conjunction with the controlled psychoactive substance(s) and increase side effects. To fully explore the molecular interaction networks that underlie DA and to effectively modulate the GPCRs in these networks with small molecules for DA treatment, we built a drug-abuse domain specific chemogenomics knowledgebase (DA-KB) to centralize the reported chemogenomics research information related to DA and CNS disorders in an effort to benefit researchers across a broad range of disciplines. We then focus on the analysis of GPCRs as many of them are closely related with DA. Their distribution in human tissues was also analyzed for the study of side effects caused by abused drugs. We further implement our computational algorithms/tools to explore DA targets, DA mechanisms and pathways involved in polydrug addiction and to explore polypharmacological effects of the GPCR ligands. Finally, the polypharmacology effects of GPCRs-targeted medicines for DA treatment were investigated and such effects can be exploited for the development of drugs with polypharmacophore for DA intervention. The chemogenomics database and the analysis tools will help us better understand the mechanism of drugs abuse and facilitate to design new medications for system pharmacotherapy of DA.
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Altered neurochemical metabolites in Alzheimers disease patients with unawareness of deficits.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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ABSTRACT Background: Unawareness of deficits is common and is associated with poor outcomes in Alzheimers disease (AD); however, little is known about correlated neurobiochemical changes. Methods: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine neurobiochemical correlates of unawareness of deficits as assessed by the Dementia Deficit Scale in 36 patients with AD. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate area and right orbitofrontal area. Concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine, and other neurometabolites were calculated. Results: Nineteen (52.8%) participants had relative unawareness of deficits. This condition was negatively correlated with NAA/creatine in the anterior cingulate area (? = -0.36, p = 0.025) and positively correlated with NAA/creatine in the right orbitofrontal area (? = 0.41, p = 0.009) after controlling for dementia severity. Conclusions: These findings suggest unawareness of deficits in AD was associated with the altered neurochemical metabolites in the anterior cingulate area and right orbitofrontal area. However, the two areas might have opposite neuronal functions in unawareness of deficits.
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The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.
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Regulation of intestinal cytochrome p450 expression by hepatic cytochrome p450: possible involvement of fibroblast growth factor 15 and impact on systemic drug exposure.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Tissue-specific deletion of the gene for NADPH-cytochrome P450 (P450) reductase (CPR), the essential electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, in either liver or intestine, leads to upregulation of many P450 genes in the tissue with the Cpr deletion. Here, by studying the liver-specific Cpr-null (LCN) mouse, we examined whether an interorgan regulatory pathway exists, such that a loss of hepatic CPR would cause compensatory changes in intestinal P450 expression and capacity for first-pass metabolism of oral drugs. We show for the first time that intestinal expression of CYP2B, 2C, and 3A proteins was increased in LCN mice by 2- to 3-fold compared with wild-type (WT) mice, accompanied by significant increases in small intestinal microsomal lovastatin-hydroxylase activity and systemic clearance of oral lovastatin (at 5 mg/kg). Additional studies showed that the hepatic Cpr deletion, which caused large decreases in bile acid (BA) levels in the liver, intestine, plasma, and intestinal content, led to drastic decreases in the mRNA levels of intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), a target gene of the BA receptor farnesoid X receptor. Furthermore, treatment of mice with FGF19 (the human counterpart of mouse FGF15) abolished the difference between WT and LCN mice in small intestinal (SI) CYP3A levels at 6 hours after the treatment. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized direct role of intestinal FGF15/19 in the regulation of SI P450 expression and may have profound implications for the prediction of drug exposure in patients with compromised hepatic P450 function.
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Adaptive behaviors in high-functioning taiwanese children with autism spectrum disorders: an investigation of the mediating roles of symptom severity and cognitive ability.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Correlational and regression analyses were used to explore the relationships among the constructs of cognitive, symptomatic and adaptive domains. Results revealed that average General Adaptive Composites of these children (home: 74.0; school: 74.6) was below average FSIQ. Profile analysis revealed that Social domain was the weakness among the adaptive abilities assessed at school and home. Cognitive abilities had positive relationship with adaptive function, while autistic severity had a weak negative relationship with adaptive function. Also, the younger the age the child got diagnosed, the less severe the current symptoms of autism were. The implication for emphasizing adaptive skills intervention was discussed.
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Design of meso-TiO2@MnO(x)-CeO(x)/CNTs with a core-shell structure as DeNO(x) catalysts: promotion of activity, stability and SO2-tolerance.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Developing low-temperature deNOx catalysts with high catalytic activity, SO2-tolerance and stability is highly desirable but remains challenging. Herein, by coating the mesoporous TiO2 layers on carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-supported MnOx and CeOx nanoparticles (NPs), we obtained a core-shell structural deNOx catalyst with high catalytic activity, good SO2-tolerance and enhanced stability. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, H2 temperature-programmed reduction and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption have been used to elucidate the structure and surface properties of the obtained catalysts. Both the specific surface area and chemisorbed oxygen species are enhanced by the coating of meso-TiO2 sheaths. The meso-TiO2 sheaths not only enhance the acid strength but also raise acid amounts. Moreover, there is a strong interaction among the manganese oxide, cerium oxide and meso-TiO2 sheaths. Based on these favorable properties, the meso-TiO2 coated catalyst exhibits a higher activity and more extensive operating-temperature window, compared to the uncoated catalyst. In addition, the meso-TiO2 sheaths can serve as an effective barrier to prevent the aggregation of metal oxide NPs during stability testing. As a result, the meso-TiO2 overcoated catalyst exhibits a much better stability than the uncoated one. More importantly, the meso-TiO2 sheaths can not only prevent the generation of ammonium sulfate species from blocking the active sites but also inhibit the formation of manganese sulfate, resulting in a higher SO2-tolerance. These results indicate that the design of a core-shell structure is effective to promote the performance of deNOx catalysts.
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Low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH? over nanoflaky MnOx on carbon nanotubes in situ prepared via a chemical bath deposition route.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Nanoflaky MnO(x) on carbon nanotubes (nf-MnO(x)@CNTs) was in situ synthesized by a facile chemical bath deposition route for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH?. This catalyst was mainly characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N? adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H? temperature-programmed reduction (H?-TPR) and NH? temperature-programmed desorption (NH?-TPD). The SEM, TEM, XRD results and N? adsorption-desorption analysis indicated that the CNTs were surrounded by nanoflaky MnO(x) and the obtained catalyst exhibited a large surface area as well. Compared with the MnO(x)/CNT and MnO(x)/TiO? catalysts prepared by an impregnation method, the nf-MnO(x)@CNTs presented better NH?-SCR activity at low temperature and a more extensive operating temperature window. The XPS results showed that a higher atomic concentration of Mn(4+) and more chemisorbed oxygen species existed on the surface of CNTs for nf-MnO(x)@CNTs. The H?-TPR and NH?-TPD results demonstrated that the nf-MnO(x)@CNTs possessed stronger reducing ability, more acid sites and stronger acid strength than the other two catalysts. Based on the above mentioned favourable properties, the nf-MnO(x)@CNT catalyst has an excellent performance in the low-temperature SCR of NO to N? with NH?. In addition, the nf-MnO(x)@CNT catalyst also presented favourable stability and H?O resistance.
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Gender differences in heroin users receiving methadone maintenance therapy in Taiwan.
J Addict Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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This study examined gender differences in heroin users who first received MMT. Compared with men, female heroin users were younger and more likely to be unemployed, to have family members using illicit substances, to initiate heroin use at a younger age, to begin MMT earlier after starting heroin use, to have methamphetamine use, to initiate methamphetamine use at a younger age, and to report a child-raising burden and a prior history of traumatic experiences. Men were more likely to have use of betel quid, and to initiate alcohol, nicotine and betel quid use at a younger age than women.
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Construction of a Spirooxindole Amide Library through Nitrile Hydrozirconation-Acylation-Cyclization Cascade.
ACS Comb Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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A library of spirooxindoles containing varied elements of structural and stereochemical diversity has been constructed via a three step, one pot nitrile hydrozirconation-acylation-cyclization reaction sequence from common acyclic indole intermediates. The resulting library was evaluated for novelty through comparison with MLSMR and Maybridge compound collections.
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The effect of serotonin 1A receptor polymorphism on the cognitive function of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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Estrogen and serotonin play vital roles in the mechanism of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Cognitive deficit in the premenstrual phase contributes to impaired life function among women with PMDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties in cognitive control and working memory (WM) in PMDD and to explore the effects of gonadotropic hormone and polymorphism of serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A; rs6295) on cognitive deficit in PMDD. Women with PMDD completed diagnostic interviewing, questionnaire assessment, the Go/Nogo task, 2-back and 3-back tasks, and gonadotropic hormone analysis in the premenstrual and follicular phases. Further, they were followed up for two menstrual cycles to confirm two consecutive symptomatic cycles. A total of 59 subjects with PMDD and 74 controls completed all evaluation, fulfilled the criteria, and entered into the final analysis. The results demonstrated cognitive control and WM decline in the premenstrual among women with PMDD. The G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) was found to be associated with impaired WM in the premenstrual phase and premenstrual decline of cognitive function. It also contributed to the vulnerability of cognitive function to the menstrual cycle effect and PMDD effect. As the G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) involves in reducing serotonin neurotransmission, our results provide insight into the serotonin mechanism of cognitive function among women with PMDD.
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An innovative method for coordinate measuring machine one-dimensional self-calibration with simplified experimental process.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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In this paper, an innovative method for CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) self-calibration is proposed. In contrast to conventional CMM calibration that relies heavily on a high precision reference standard such as a laser interferometer, the proposed calibration method is based on a low-cost artefact which is fabricated with commercially available precision ball bearings. By optimizing the mathematical model and rearranging the data sampling positions, the experimental process and data analysis can be simplified. In mathematical expression, the samples can be minimized by eliminating the redundant equations among those configured by the experimental data array. The section lengths of the artefact are measured at arranged positions, with which an equation set can be configured to determine the measurement errors at the corresponding positions. With the proposed method, the equation set is short of one equation, which can be supplemented by either measuring the total length of the artefact with a higher-precision CMM or calibrating the single point error at the extreme position with a laser interferometer. In this paper, the latter is selected. With spline interpolation, the error compensation curve can be determined. To verify the proposed method, a simple calibration system was set up on a commercial CMM. Experimental results showed that with the error compensation curve uncertainty of the measurement can be reduced to 50%.
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Mechanisms of permanent loss of olfactory receptor neurons induced by the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile: effects on stem cells and noninvolvement of acute induction of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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We explored the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of two olfactory toxicants, the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) and the anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMZ), on olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) regeneration in mouse olfactory epithelium (OE). DCBN, but not MMZ, induced inflammation-like pathological changes in OE, and DCBN increased interleukin IL-6 levels in nasal-wash fluid to much greater magnitude and duration than did MMZ. At 24h after DCBN injection, the population of horizontal basal cells (HBCs; reserve, normally quiescent OE stem cells) lining the DMM became severely depleted as some of them detached from the basal lamina, and sloughed into the nasal cavity along with the globose basal cells (GBCs; heterogeneous population of stem and progenitor cells), neurons, and sustentacular cells of the neuroepithelium. In contrast, the layer of HBCs remained intact in MMZ-treated mice, as only the mature elements of the neuroepithelium were shed. Despite the respiratory metaplasia accompanying the greater severity of the DCBN lesion, residual HBCs that survived intoxication were activated by the injury and contributed to the metaplastic respiratory epithelium, as shown by tracing their descendants in a K5CreEr(T2)::fl(stop)TdTomato strain of mice in which recombination causes HBCs to express TdTomato in advance of the lesion. But, contrary to published observations with MMZ, the HBCs failed to form ORNs. A role for IL-6 in suppressing ORN regeneration in DCBN-treated mice was rejected by the failure of the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone to prevent the subsequent respiratory metaplasia in the DMM, suggesting that other factors lead to HBC neuro-incompetence.
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The BH3-only protein Puma plays an essential role in p53-mediated apoptosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics and functions of BH3-only proteins Puma, Noxa and Bim in the prognosis, therapy and drug resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Puma, Noxa and Bim mRNAs were evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and correlations between their expression levels and CLL prognostic markers were analyzed. Primary CLL samples were treated in vitro with fludarabine to investigate the role of Puma, Noxa and Bim in the response to chemotherapeutic drugs which act through activation of the p53 pathway. We found that a low expression level of Puma was associated with some markers of poor prognosis. However, the level of Noxa or Bim was not different in patients with CLL with variant clinical features and prognostic factors. Puma expression was up-regulated after fludarabine treatment in primary CLL cells, but there was no significant difference for Noxa and Bim. Up-regulation of Puma occurred only in CLL cells with functional p53. CLL cells with p53 abnormalities were deficient in the activation of Puma by chemotherapeutics. These results suggest that a lack of Puma induction may contribute to the development of resistance to anticancer agents in CLL.
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Brain activation deficit in increased-load working memory tasks among adults with ADHD using fMRI.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Working memory (WM) is impaired among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the brain activation deficit for low-level or increased-load WM among adults with ADHD. A total of 20 adults with ADHD and controls were recruited according to diagnostic interviewing by a psychiatrist. Phonological and visual-spatial 2-back and 3-back tasks were performed under functional magnetic resonance scanning. The results demonstrated that both the adults with ADHD and the controls exhibited activation of the fronto-parietal network for WM, and the intensity was greater in the adult ADHD group. The ADHD group had higher brain activation over the bilateral anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal lobe, hippocampus, and supplementary motor area (SMA) for phonological WM than the control group. When the task loading increased from 2-back to 3-back tasks, the adults with ADHD perceived greater difficulty. The control group exhibited increased brain activation over the frontal-parietal network in response to increased phonological WM load. However, the ADHD group showed decreased brain activation over the left precuneus, insula, and SMA. Further analysis demonstrated that the ADHD group exhibited a greater decrease in brain activation over the left fronto-parietal network, including the precuneus, SMA, insula/inferior frontal lobe, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, than the control group. These results suggest that adults with ADHD pay more effort to low demanding phonological WM. On the other hand, brain activation of the left fronto-parietal network is impaired when the demands of WM exceed the capacity of adults with ADHD.
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Depressive mood and frontal alpha asymmetry during the luteal phase in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience moderate to severe physical and mood symptoms during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. The purposes of this study were to examine whether there were significant differences in frontal alpha asymmetry between PMDD and non-PMDD women during a depressive induction condition during the luteal and follicular phases and to examine the relations between premenstrual distress and depressive symptoms, and frontal alpha asymmetry.
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Association between Problematic Cellular Phone Use and Suicide: The Moderating Effect of Family Function and Depression.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Suicidal ideation and attempt among adolescents are risk factors for eventual completed suicide. Cellular phone use (CPU) has markedly changed the everyday lives of adolescents. Issues about how cellular phone use relates to adolescent mental health, such as suicidal ideation and attempts, are important because of the high rate of cellular phone usage among children in that age group. This study explored the association between problematic CPU and suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents and investigated how family function and depression influence the association between problematic CPU and suicidal ideation and attempts.
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Mediating effects of bullying involvement on the relationship of body mass index with social phobia, depression, suicidality, and self-esteem and sex differences in adolescents in Taiwan.
Child Abuse Negl
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The aims of this study were to examine the mediating effect of bullying involvement on the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and mental health problems, including social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem among adolescents in Taiwan. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was also examined. Five thousand two hundred and fifty-two students of high schools completed the questionnaires. Victimization and perpetration of passive and active bullying were assessed using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height measurements. The Social Phobia Inventory, the Mandarin Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the suicidality-related questionnaire from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were applied to assess social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem, respectively. The mediating effect of bullying involvement on the associations between increased BMI and mental health problems was examined by the Sobel test. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was tested by the multiple-group structural equation model. Victimization of passive and active bullying and perpetration of passive bullying, but not perpetration of active bullying, had a mediating effect on the relationships between increased BMI and all four mental health problems. Sex did not have a significant moderation effect on the mediating role of bullying involvement. Bullying involvement should be a target of prevention and intervention in developing a strategy to improve mental health among adolescents with increased BMI.
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Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition-Chinese version index scores in Taiwanese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition-Chinese version (WISC-IV-Chinese) has been in clinical use in Taiwan since 2007. Research is needed to determine how the WISC-IV, modified from its earlier version, will affect its interpretation in clinical practice in a Mandarin-speaking context.
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Gambling in Taiwan: problems, research and policy.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has evaluated unique gambling experiences in Taiwan.
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Predictors for dropping-out from methadone maintenance therapy programs among heroin users in southern Taiwan.
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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This study examined the methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) retention rates of heroin users in Taiwan and the predictors for dropout in the 18-month period after starting MMT. We consecutively recruited 368 intravenous heroin users receiving MMT in 2007-2008 and applied Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to determine the predictive effect of pre- and in-treatment variables on early discontinuation of MMT. The retention rate at 18 months was 32.3%. High heroin expenses, more severe harm caused by heroin use, perceived lower family support, and lower methadone dosage at 3 months after starting MMT increased the risk of dropout in the follow-up period.
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High expression of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 7B mRNA predicts poor prognosis in mantle cell lymphoma.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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In order to determine the relationship between expression of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoform 7B (PDE7B) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) progression, PDE7B mRNA expression was measured by qRT-PCR in 21 untreated MCL patients with bone marrow involvement and 20 healthy donors. The expression level of PDE7B was markedly higher in MCL patients compared with normal controls (P=0.001), and the higher level of PDE7B expression was associated with unfavorable cytogenetic characteristics in MCL. It was showed that higher expression of PDE7B might be a novel unfavorable prognostic indicator in MCL, which possess important clinical significance.
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Association between types of involvement in school bullying and different dimensions of anxiety symptoms and the moderating effects of age and gender in Taiwanese adolescents.
Child Abuse Negl
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations of various types of school bullying involvement experiences with different dimensions of anxiety symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and to examine the moderating effects of gender and age on the associations in Taiwanese adolescent students aged at 11-18.
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High levels of CD20 expression predict good prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Heterogeneity of CD20 expression exists in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), therefore, we explored the prognostic significance of CD20 expression in Chinese patients with CLL. Multiparameter flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of CD20 in CD5(+) CD19(+) cells. In 172 CLL patients, the median expression percent of CD20 was 97.82% (range, 0-100), and the median mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD20 in CLL cells was 731.45 (range, 0.00-9071.90). The percentage of CD20(+) cells in the patient group with mutated variable region of immunoglobulin genes (IGHV) was higher than in the non-mutant IGHV group (mean, 92.1% vs 80.4%, P < 0.001). There were no differences in the MFI of CD20(+) cells in all prognostic factor groups. Representation of the data using a receiver operating characteristic plot reflected separation between the two IGHV groups, with an area under the curve of 0.661 (95% confidence interval, 0.569-0.753). At the cut-off value of 60.3% for percentage of CD20, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.00% and 38.46%, respectively. Patients whose percentage of CD20 antigen was above 60.3% had longer treatment-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.452; 95% confidence interval, 0.232-0.884, P = 0.020). Percentage and MFI of CD20 were the variables not associated with treatment-free survival by multivariate Cox regression analysis (P < 0.05). High level of CD20 expression in de novo CLL appears to be associated with a good prognosis.
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Social anxiety in online and real-life interaction and their associated factors.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Social anxiety was compared between online and real-life interaction in a sample of 2,348 college students. Severity of social anxiety in both real-life and online interaction was tested for associations with depression, Internet addiction, Internet activity type (gaming versus chatting), and scores on Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Activation System (BAS) scales. The results showed that social anxiety was lower when interacting online than when interacting offline. Depression, Internet addiction, and high BIS and BAS scores were associated with high social anxiety. The social anxiety decreased more in online interaction among subjects with high social anxiety, depression, BIS, and BAS. This result suggests that the Internet has good potential as an alternative medium for delivering interventions for social anxiety. Further, the effect of BIS on social anxiety is decreased in online interaction. More attention should be paid for BIS when the treatment for social anxiety is delivered online.
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Distinctive microRNA signature is associated with the diagnosis and prognosis of acute leukemia.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are of great importance in pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis of acute leukemia (AL). We studied five AL-related miRNAs to confirm the significance of these miRNAs in AL. Samples tested included acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 107 cases; acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 40 cases. Five AL-related miRNAs: miR-128, let-7b, miR-223, miR-181a and miR-155 expression were detected by qRT-PCR. Analysis showed that miRNA-128 expression was significantly higher in ALL (P<0.001). However, the let-7b and miR-223 expressions in ALL were significantly lower than in AML (P<0.001). Compared with normal controls, miR-128 expression was significantly higher in ALL (P<0.001), but there was no significant difference in AML (P=0.900). The expressions of Let-7b and miR-223 in AL group were higher than in normal controls (P<0.001). MiR-181a was quantitatively detected in 107 AML patients, and we found that the expression of miR181a in M1 or M2 patients was significantly higher compared with it in M4 or M5 (P=0.013). According to karyotype, 84 cases of AML were classified into three groups named favorable, moderate and poor. It was found that the expression of miR-181a in favorable prognosis group was significantly lower than in poor prognosis group (P=0.015). In FLT3-ITD mutation positive patients, the miR-155 expression was significantly higher than in the negative group (P=0.002). These results support that miR-128, let-7b, miR-223 and miR181a have a diagnosis value in AL, while miR-181a and miR-155 are of great prognostic significance in AML.
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Full-length human glutaminase in complex with an allosteric inhibitor.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Glutaminase (GLS1/2) catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate and ammonia. The level of a splice variant of GLS1 (GAC) is elevated in certain cancers, and GAC is specifically inhibited by bis-2-(5-phenylacetimido-1,2,4,thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES). We report here the first full-length crystal structure of GAC in the presence and absence of BPTES molecules. Two BPTES molecules bind at an interface region of the GAC tetramer in a manner that appears to lock the GAC tetramer into a nonproductive conformation. The importance of these loops with regard to overall enzymatic activity of the tetramer was revealed by a series of GAC point mutants designed to create a BPTES resistant GAC.
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[mRNA levels detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and their clinical significance].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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This study was aimed to investigate the expression level of murine double minute 4 (MDM4) mRNA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and its prognostic value in CLL. By means of ?-actin as internal reference, the real-time quantitative RT-PCR was set up. The expression of MDM4 mRNA in 66 CLL patients was measured by fluorescence dye SYBR Green I. The dispersion of MDM4 expression ratio of groups with different prognostic factors was described by using Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed that the median MDM4 mRNA expression level was 0.037098 (0.088245-0.014875) in CLL patients. The expression level of MDM4 mRNA was significantly higher in patients with P53 gene deletion than that in patients without P53 gene deletion (0.13167 vs 0.030927) (p < 0.001), and also significantly higher in patients with P53 mutation than that in patients without P53 mutation (0.13167 vs 0.03077) (p < 0.001). MDM4 expression was also associated with Binet stages (p = 0.044) and ATM gene deletion (p = 0.046), but was not associated with LDH (p = 0.216), ?(2)-MG (p = 0.314), TK1 (p = 0.300), ZAP-70 (p = 0.559), CD38 (p = 0.513) and IgVH mutation status (p = 0.333). It is concluded that the expression level of MDM4 is significantly higher in patients with P53 deletion or mutation. MDM4 expression is significantly associated with Binet stages and ATM gene deletion. MDM4 may be an important prognostic factor in CLL.
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Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects.
Addict Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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This study aimed to evaluate brain correlates of cue-induced craving to play online games in subjects with Internet gaming addiction (IGA), subjects in remission from IGA and controls. The craving response was assessed by event-related design of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs). Fifteen subjects with IGA, 15 in remission from IGA and 15 controls were recruited in this study. The subjects were arranged to view the gaming screenshots and neutral images under investigation of fMRIs. The results showed that bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), precuneus, left parahippocampus, posterior cingulate and right anterior cingulate were activated in response to gaming cues in the IGA group and their activation was stronger in the IGA group than those in the control group. Their region-of-interest was also positively correlated with subjective gaming urge under cue exposure. These activated brain areas represent the brain circuit corresponding to the mechanism of substance use disorder. Thus, it would suggest that the mechanism of IGA is similar to substance use disorder. Furthermore, the IGA group had stronger activation over right DLPFC and left parahippocampus than did the remission group. The two areas would be candidate markers for current addiction to online gaming and should be investigated in future studies.
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Subtypes of mild cognitive impairment among the elderly with major depressive disorder in remission.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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Cognitive impairment in remitted late-life depression varies and might be associated with greater risk of dementia in some individuals. This study aimed to classify the subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in late-life major depressive disorder in remission and to examine their clinical correlates and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features.
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Using multiple assessments to evaluate medical students clinical ability in psychiatric clerkships.
Acad Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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No single assessment method can successfully evaluate the clinical ability of medical students in psychiatric clerkships; however, few studies have examined the efficacy of multiple assessments, especially in psychiatry. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among different types of assessments of medical students clinical ability in psychiatric clerkships and whether it is reasonable to use multiple assessments.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.