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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of preeclampsia on umbilical cord blood stem cells in relation to breast cancer susceptibility in the offspring.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Women born from a preeclamptic (PE) pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Prenatal and early-life exposures are hypothesized to influence breast cancer susceptibility through their effect on stem cells. We examined stem cell populations in umbilical cord blood from PE pregnancies and compared with those from pregnancies without this condition. We isolated mononuclear cells from 58 PE and 197 normotensive (non-PE) umbilical cord blood samples and examined the different stem cell populations. Hematopoietic (CD34(+) and CD34(+)CD38(-)), endothelial (CD34(+)CD133(+), CD34(+)VEGFR2(+), CD133(+)VEGFR2(+), and CD34(+)CD133(+)VEGFR2(+)), and putative breast (EpCAM(+), EpCAM(+)CD49f(+), EpCAM(+)CD49f(+)CD117(+), CD49f(+)CD24(+), CD24(+)CD29(+), and CD24(+)CD29(+)CD49f(+)) stem/progenitor cell subpopulations were quantified by flow cytometry and compared between PE and normotensive samples. Hematopoietic CD34(+) cell counts were significantly lowered in PE compared to non-PE samples (p=0.039, Kruskal-Wallis test). Levels of CD34(+)CD133(+) endothelial progenitor cells were also lower in PE samples (p=0.032, multiple regression analysis). EpCAM(+) and EpCAM(+)CD49f(+) putative breast stem cell levels were significantly lowered in PE subjects (multiple regression analysis: p=0.038 and 0.007, respectively). Stratifying by newborn gender, EpCAM(+) and EpCAM(+)CD49f(+) stem cells were significantly lowered in PE samples of female, but not male, newborns. Umbilical cord blood samples from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia thus had significantly lower levels of hematopoietic, endothelial, and putative breast stem cells than normotensive controls. With a lowered breast cancer risk for offspring of a PE pregnancy, our findings provide support to the hypothesis that susceptibility to breast oncogenesis may be affected by conditions and processes during the prenatal period.
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Involvement of the HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the protective effects of losartan on fatty liver graft with ischaemia/reperfusion injury.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Besides cardioprotective effects, the AT1R (angiotensin-II type 1 receptor) antagonist losartan protects the liver from IRI [IR (ischaemia/reperfusion) injury], but the mechanism has not been fully determined. The HIF (hypoxia inducible factor)-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathways have been reported to be involved in the mechanism of liver IRI. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Wnt/HIF axis is part of the mechanism of the positive effect of AngII inhibition by losartan in liver IRI in rats. Various measurements were made in MCD/HF-NASH (methionine- and choline-deficient-diet/high-fat-diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) rats with liver IRI. Acute losartan pre-administration markedly reversed the IR-suppressed levels of the hepatic-protective factors IL (interleukin)-6, IFN (interferon)-?, Wnt3a, ?-catenin and HIF-1?, and decreased hepatic blood flow and IR-elevated serum ALT (alanine aminotransferase), hepatic TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-?, IL-1?, hepatic congestion, vacuolization and necrosis, hepatic Suzuki IRI scores, necrotic index and levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances) in MCD/HF-NASH rats. Furthermore, acute Wnt3a pre-treatment significantly inhibited IR-elevated serum ALT, hepatic Suzuki IRI scores and TBARS, and restored the IR-depleted ?-catenin/HIF-1? activity in MCD/HF-NASH rats. Simultaneous acute sFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2; a Wnt3a inhibitor) pre-treatment eliminated the losartan-related beneficial effects in MCD/HF-NASH rats with liver IRI, which was accompanied by a decrease in hepatic HIF-1?/?-catenin activity. Losartan-induced up-regulation of HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signalling was associated with the recovery of IR-inhibited hepatic Bcl-2, Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide), Cu/Zn-SOD (copper/zinc superoxide) and GSH levels, and the suppression of IR-increased hepatic catalase and caspase 3/caspase 8 levels in MCD/HF-NASH rats. In conclusion, up-regulation of the HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathways are part of the mechanism of the positive effects of losartan-related AngII inhibition in MCD/HF-NASH rats with liver IRI. Our study highlights the potential of the dual-organ protective agent losartan in NASH patients with steatotic livers and cardiovascular risk.
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Vitamin D3 treatment has comparative portal hypotensive effects as propranolol by decreasing intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic rats.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Vitamin D3 improves portal hypertension (PH) through the activation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in cirrhotic rats. Propranolol is a nonselective ?-blocker that is recommended for the treatment of PH. The present study aims to investigate the detail systemic and hepatic mechanisms of vitamin D3 and propranolol, alone or in combination, in cirrhotic rats.
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Spine venom of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) induces antiproliferation and apoptosis of human melanoma cells (A375.S2).
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) is a venomous starfish. In this study, the extraction of A. planci spine venom (ASV) was performed by phosphate saline buffer, followed by assaying the cytotoxicity on human normal and tumor cells. It was found that human melanoma cells (A375.S2) were the most sensitive to the ASV solution. The cells, after incubation with ASV, significantly appeared to decrease cell viability and increase lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release with a dose-dependent relationship. The extract of spine promoted loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and induced inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in human melanoma cells. The cells exhibited apoptosis by using propidium iodide (PI) staining of DNA fragmentation; it was then determined by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The molecular cytotoxicity of ASV was tested through evaluation of the apoptosis/necrosis ratio by double staining with annexin V and PI assay. The A. planci spine venom showed significant antiproliferation. The human melanoma cells revealed apoptosis at low dose (1.25 ?g/ml), and necrosis occurred at high dose (5 ?g/ml).
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Venous ligation: a novel strategy for glans enhancement in penile prosthesis implantation.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Although penile implantation remains a final solution for patients with refractory impotence, undesirable postoperative effects, including penile size reduction and cold sensation of the glans penis, remain problematic. We report results of a surgical method designed to avoid these problems. From 2003 to 2013, 35 consecutive patients received a malleable penile implant. Of these, 15 men (the enhancing group) were also treated with venous ligation of the retrocoronal venous plexus, deep dorsal vein, and cavernosal veins. The remaining 20 men formed the control group, treated with only a penile implant. Follow-up ranged from 1.1 to 10.0 years, with an average of 6.7 ± 1.5 years. Although preoperative glanular dimension did not differ significantly between the two groups, significant respective difference at one day and one year postoperatively was found in the glanular circumference (128.8 ± 6.8 mm versus 115.3 ± 7.2 mm and 130.6 ± 7.2 mm versus 100.5 ± 7.3 mm; both P<0.05), radius (38.8 ± 2.7 mm versus 37.1 ± 2.8 mm and 41.5 ± 2.6 mm versus 33.8 ± 2.9 mm; latter P<0.01), and satisfaction rate (91.7% versus 53.3%, P<0.01) as well. Based on our results, selective venous ligation appears to enhance the glans penis dimension in implant patients.
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Examining unidimensionality and improving reliability for the eight subscales of the SF-36 in opioid-dependent patients using Rasch analysis.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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The Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) is one of the most commonly used questionnaires for monitoring the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of opioid-dependent patients. However, the unidimensionality and reliability of the SF-36 have not been verified in opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study was to examine the unidimensionality and to improve the test reliability of the SF-36 for use in opioid-dependent patients.
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Andrographolide inhibits nuclear factor-?B activation through JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade in tumor necrosis factor-?-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Andrographolide is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, a herbal medicine widely used for treating anti-inflammation in Asia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of andrographolide in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exposed to a proinflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Treating TNF-?-stimulated VSMCs with andrographolide suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in TNF-?-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p65 phosphorylation was observed in andrographolide-treated VSMCs. However, andrographolide affected neither I?B? degradation nor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation under these conditions. Both treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, and treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of p65 phosphorylation. In addition, LY294002 and SP600125 both diminished Akt phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 had no effects on JNK phosphorylation. These results collectively suggest that therapeutic interventions using andrographolide can benefit the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases, and andrographolide-mediated inhibition of NF-?B activity in TNF-?-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade, an I?B?-independent mechanism.
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Contralateral acute subdural hematoma occurring after evacuation of subdural hematoma with coexistent contralateral subdural hygroma.
Neurosciences (Riyadh)
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Burr-hole craniostomy with closed-system drainage is a safe and effective method for the management of chronic subdural hematoma. However, contralateral acute subdural hematoma has been reported to be a rare and devastating complication. Only 3 cases have been described in the literature. Herein, we reported an 80-year-old male with chronic subdural hematoma and contralateral subdural hygroma. The burr-hole craniostomy with closed-system drainage was initially performed to treat the chronic subdural hematoma. Three days after surgery, weakness of the extremities developed, and contralateral acute subdural bleeding within the previous subdural hygroma was diagnosed by CT scan of the brain. The pathophysiological mechanism of this rare complication was discussed, and the relevant literature was also reviewed.
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Nano-textured fluidic biochip as biological filter for selective survival of neuronal cells.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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This is an innovative study to engineer biological filter to evaluate the effect of template surface structure and physiochemical properties that can be used for wide variety of applications in biological, health care as well as environmental protection. Specifically, planar silicon (Si) wafer and arrayed Si nano-tips (SiNT) templates were fabricated and coated with gold for various lengths of time to study the effect of surface charge, surface roughness, and hydrophilicity on biological activity of rat pheochromocytoma cell lines PC12. The initial growth and proliferation of PC12 cells on Si and SiNT templates showed an antipathy for the ultra-sharp SiNTs templates. In contrast, the same cells demonstrated a preferable adherence to and proliferation on planar Si templates, resulting in higher cell densities by three orders of magnitude than those on SiNT templates. It is hypothesized that SiNTs array does generate nano-fluidic effect such that the effective contact region for aqueous solution on SiNTs is lower than that on planar Si templates, thus decreasing adsorbable area for cell viability and survival. Moreover, the effect of the gold coating on cell number density was analyzed in terms of the surface roughness, zeta potential and wetting properties of the templates. It was determined that surface charge, as measured by the zeta potential, strongly correlated with the trend observed in the surface cell density, whereas no such correlation was observed for surface roughness or wetting properties in the ranges of our experiment conditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A:, 2014.
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Molecular epidemiology of human G2P[4] rotaviruses in Taiwan, 2004-2011.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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In 2006, two rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) became available on the private market in Taiwan. Although vaccine coverage is currently low, molecular surveillance of rotavirus strains can provide pertinent information for evaluation of the potential impact of vaccine introduction and infection control. During January 2008-December 2011, children aged <5years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled from sentinel surveillance hospitals in three geographic areas of Taiwan. Fecal specimens collected from enrolled patients were tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. For genotyping, gene specific primer sets were used to amplify and sequence the genes encoding the neutralization antigens, VP7 and VP4. The resulting sequences were then subjected to phylogenetic analysis. In brief, a total of 4052 fecal specimens were tested and 742 (18%) samples were positive for rotavirus. The annual range of rotavirus positive specimens varied between 16% and 20.7%. Of all specimens, genotype G1P[8] (63.3%) was the predominant strain, followed by G2P[4] (12.5%), G3P[8] (11.7%), and G9P[8] (5.1%). Uncommon strains were also detected in low percentages. We observed that the rotavirus positivity rate steadily decreased from 21% to 16% during 2008-2010, then slightly increased to 20% in 2011, when an increase in the number of G2P[4] cases was observed. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis was carried out to help understand any potential changes of G2P[4] rotaviruses over time. A number of G2P[4] strains collected between 2004 and 2011 were analyzed in detail and our analyses showed marked genetic and antigenic variability in the VP7 and VP4 genes. The Taiwanese strains could be classified into two major G2 VP7 lineages (IV and V) and two major P[4] VP4 lineages (IV and V) and several minor sublineages within lineage IV. Lineage V within both G2 and P[4] represented newly recognized genetic variants of the respective genotypes. The distribution of individual combinations of the G2 and P[4] (sub)lineages showed some temporal variations. This study provides further evidence for the great genetic diversity among G2P[4] strains and helps understand the epidemiological trends of these strains among children in Taiwan.
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Andrographolide induces vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis through a SHP-1-PP2A-p38MAPK-p53 cascade.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is considered a critical pathogenic process in inflammatory vascular diseases. We have previously demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A)-mediated NF-?B dephosphorylation contributes to the anti-inflammatory properties of andrographolide, a novel NF-?B inhibitor. In this study, we investigated whether andrographolide causes apoptosis, and characterized its apoptotic mechanisms in rat VSMCs. Andrographolide activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), leading to p53 phosphorylation. Phosphorylated p53 subsequently transactivated the expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein. Transfection with pp2a small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed andrographolide-induced p38MAPK activation, p53 phosphorylation, and caspase 3 activation. Andrographolide also activated the Src homology 1 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1), and induced PP2A dephosphorylation, both of which were inhibited by the SHP-1 inhibitor sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or shp-1 siRNA. SSG or shp-1 siRNA prevented andrographolide-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that andrographolide activates the PP2A-p38MAPK-p53-Bax cascade, causing mitochondrial dysfunction and VSMC death through an SHP-1-dependent mechanism.
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Direct phase selection of initial phases from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) for the improvement of electron density and ab initio structure determination.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (?1 and ?2) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the ?(DS) list as a criterion to select optimized phases ?(am) from ?1 or ?2 of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases ?(SAD) has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle ?(DS) in the range 35-145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where ?(DS) is the angle between the initial phase ?(SAD) and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase ?(DM)(NHL). The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination.
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Co-targeting of multiple microRNAs on factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) gene for the pathogenesis of head and neck carcinomas.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that inhibit the expression of target genes that play roles in tumorigenesis. miR-21, miR-31 and miR-184 are oncogenic miRNAs for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) is known to inactivate hypoxia induced downstream effectors and involved in HNSCC suppression. This study investigates whether miR-21, miR-31 and miR-184 target FIH in HNSCC. Methods: Reporter assays, Western blot analysis, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis and phenotypic assays were used to prove that miR-21, miR-31 and miR-184 directly target FIH. Clinicopathological implications of the gene expression were also analyzed. Results: miR-21, miR-31 and miR-184 directly bind to various sites in the 3'UTR of FIH transcript, and this binding is associated with decreased FIH protein expression in HNSCC cells. Treatment with the precursors of these miRNAs increases the proliferation and migration of HNSCC cells. Concomitant treatment with precursors repressed FIH and enhanced oncogenicity most profoundly. Up-regulation of miR-21, miR-31 and miR-184 expression is found in more than 80% HNSCC tumors and 72% tumors have concordant up-regulation of these three oncogenic miRNAs. Highest expression of these miRNAs is present in T4b and Stage IVB tumors. Down-regulation of FIH mRNA expression is noted in 69% HNSCC tumors, and in tumors exhibiting high expression of these miRNAs, the FIH mRNA expression is consistently down-regulated. Conclusion: This study provides novel clues indicating that miR-21, miR-31 and miR-184 co-target FIH tumor suppressor during pathogenesis in the vast majority of HNSCC. Head Neck, 2014.
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Role of right upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after tri-incisional esophagectomies.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Whereas standard (infracarinal) mediastinal lymphadenectomy refers to the clearance of lymph nodes in the middle and lower posterior mediastinum, extension along right side of trachea and upper mediastinum is termed extended lymphadenectomy. The benefit of an extended versus standard lymphadenectomy in esophageal cancer is unclear.
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Toxin and species identification of toxic octopus implicated into food poisoning in Taiwan.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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A food poisoning incident due to ingestion of unknown octopus occurred in Taipei in December, 2010. The serum and urine from victims (male 38 and 43 years old) were collected, determined the toxicity, and identified tetrodotoxin (TTX) by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It was found that only urine contained the trace of TTX. Then, two retained specimen (one without blue ring in the skin and another with small blue ring in the skin) were collected from victims and examined for the toxicity and toxin. Meanwhile, 6 specimens of octopus without blue ring in the skin and 4 specimens of octopus with blue ring in the skin were re-collected from the market. Both retained octopus samples were found to contain TTX. However, re-collected market's octopus without blue ring in the skin did not show to contain TTX the and was identified as Octopus aegina by using the analysis of cytochrome b gene (Cyt b) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Only octopus with blue ring in the skin contained TTX and was identified as Hapalochlaena fasciata by using the analysis of Cyt b and COI. Therefore, this octopus food poisoning was caused by toxic octopus H. fasciata and the causative agent was TTX.
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Treatment outcomes of patients with different subtypes of large cell carcinoma of the lung.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Although large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) are the variants of large cell carcinoma (LCC) of lung, there are few studies comparing them. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristic and treatment outcomes of LCNEC, LELC, and classic LCC.
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Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glycosyltransferase-1 from Bacillus cereus.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Glycosyltransferases (GTs), which are distributed widely in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, play a role in synthesizing biological compounds. Glycosyltransferase-1 from Bacillus cereus (BcGT-1), which is capable of transferring glucose to small molecules such as kaempferol and quercetin, has been identified as a member of the family 1 glycosyltransferases which utilize uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-glucose) as the sugar donor. BcGT-1 (molecular mass 45.5?kDa) has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to X-ray diffraction of BcGT-1 crystals to 2.10?Å resolution, the crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.56, b = 84.81, c = 100.12?Å, ? = 78.36, ? = 84.66, ? = 84.84°. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of four BcGT-1 molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 50.27%.
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Compact light-emitting diode lighting ring for video-assisted thoracic surgery.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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In this work, a foldable ring-shaped light-emitting diode (LED) lighting assembly, designed to attach to a rubber wound retractor, is realized and tested through porcine animal experiments. Enabled by the small size and the high efficiency of LED chips, the lighting assembly is compact, flexible, and disposable while providing direct and high brightness lighting for more uniform background illumination in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). When compared with a conventional fiber bundle coupled light source that is usually used in laparoscopy and endoscopy, the much broader solid angle of illumination enabled by the LED assembly allows greatly improved background lighting and imaging quality in VATS.
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Birth size in the most recent pregnancy and maternal mortality in premenopausal breast cancer by tumor characteristics.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The main aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between measures of offspring size at birth in the most recent pregnancy before premenopausal breast cancer diagnosis and the risks of maternal breast cancer mortality, taking tumor characteristics into account. We also aimed to investigate if these associations are modified by age at childbirth, time since childbirth, parity, and age at diagnosis. We followed 6,019 women from their date of premenopausal breast cancer (diagnosed from 1992 to 2008) until emigration, death or December 31st, 2009, whichever occurred first. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for parity, age at diagnosis, and education level, to estimate associations between women pregnancy, cancer characteristics and offspring birth characteristics, and mothers' mortality risk. In stratified analyses, mortality risks were estimated by tumor stage, ER or PR status. There was no association between offspring birth weight (HR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.99-1.01, when used as a continuous variable), birth weight for gestational age or ponderal index, and premenopausal breast cancer mortality. Similarly, in analyses stratified by tumor stage, receptor status, and time difference between last pregnancy and date of diagnosis, we found no associations between birth size and breast cancer mortality. Our findings suggest that the hypothesis that "premenopausal breast cancer mortality is associated with offspring birth characteristics in the most recent pregnancy before the diagnosis" may not be valid. In addition, these associations are not modified by tumor characteristics.
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Factors affecting the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in assessing the severity of hepatic steatosis.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Ultrasonography has long been recognized as a useful tool for detecting hepatic steatosis in clinical practice. However, whether it can assess the severity of hepatic steatosis and which factors affect its diagnostic accuracy remain unclear.
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Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability, and construct validity of the SF-36 health survey in people who abuse heroin.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is considered an important outcome indicator in substances abuse studies. However, psychometric properties of HRQOL measures are largely unknown in people who abuse heroin. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine data quality, scaling properties, reliability, and construct validity of the 36-Item Short Form healthy survey (SF-36) in people who abuse heroin.
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Concomitant inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis by chronic hydrogen-rich saline and N-acetylcysteine treatments improves systemic, splanchnic and hepatic hemodynamics of cirrhotic rats.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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In cirrhosis, increased oxidative stress leads to systemic and splanchnic hyperdynamic circulation, splanchnic angiogenesis, portosystemic collateral formation, hepatic endothelial dysfunction, increased intrahepatic resistance and the subsequent portal hypertension. Like N-acetylcysteine, hydrogen-rich saline is a new documented antioxidant with the potential to treat the complications of liver diseases.
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Antioxidative and anticancer activities of various ethanolic extract fractions from crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci).
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Many studies currently researching marine invertebrates to determine the therapeutic potential of their bioactive materials have been showing very promising results. The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, an Echinodermata of the class Asteroidea, is infamous as the unique venomous starfish and as a destroyer of coral reefs. Starfish possesses many useful pharmacological and biological characteristics. In this study, A. planci was extracted with 70% ethanol and lyophilized to obtain an ethanol fraction. The ethanol fraction was dissolved with water and defatted with petroleum ether to obtain a non-polar fraction. The residual solution was successively partitioned with ethylacetate and butanol to obtain an ethylacetate fraction and butanol fraction, respectively. Four fractions were used to examine the antioxidant and anticancer properties. The ethanol fraction of A. planci contained the highest antioxidant effects such as ABTS, DPPH, Fe(2+) chelating activity and reducing power when compared with four fractions. Among the four fractions, the butanol fraction was especially shown to inhibit human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells' proliferation, which is involved in the apoptotic progression. This fraction could induce apoptosis and even necrosis in A375.S2 cells as evidenced by double staining with an Annexin V-FITC and PI assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. These results indicated that the starfish A. planci is a good resource for obtaining the biologically active substances for antioxidant and anticancer effects.
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Supervised Phase II Cardiac Exercise Therapy Shortens the Recovery of Exercise Capacity in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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[Purpose] To investigate the effects of Phase II cardiac exercise therapy (CET) on exercise capacity and changes in coronary risk factors (CRFs) of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). [Subjects] Thirty male subjects with AMI were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). Another 30 age-matched subjects with patent coronary arteries served as a normal-control group (NCG). [Methods] Subjects in EG (n=20) trained using a stationary bicycle for 30?min at their target heart rate twice a week for 8 weeks. Exercise capacity was defined as the maximal metabolic equivalents (METs) that subjects reached during the symptom-limited maximal exercise test. HR, BP and RPP were recorded. Subjects in EG and CG received exercise tests and screening for CRFs at the beginning of, end of, and 3 months after Phase II CET, while subjects in NCG participated only in the 1st test. [Results] METs of CG did not improve until the 3rd test, while RPP at the 2nd test showed a significant increase. However, EG showed increased METs at the 2nd test without increase of RPP, and increased their high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) during the follow-up period between the 2nd and 3rd tests. [Conclusion] Phase II CET shortens the recovery time of exercise capacity, helps to maintain the gained exercise capacity and increases HDL-C in phase III.
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Long-term cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonist therapy decreases bacterial translocation in rats with cirrhosis and ascites.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Intestinal hyperpermeability, impaired peritoneal macrophages (PMs) phagocytosis, and bacterial translocation (BT), resulting in increased systemic and local infection/inflammation such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) together with increased tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) levels, are all implicated in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis-related complications. Manipulation of the cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R), which are expressed on the gut mucosa and PMs, has been reported to modulate intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory cytokine release. Our study aims to explore the effects of chronic CB1R/CB2R agonist/antagonist treatments on relevant abnormalities in cirrhotic ascitic rats.
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Maternal and cord blood hormones in relation to birth size.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Birth size has been associated with adult life diseases, but the endocrine factors that are likely involved are not established. We evaluated the associations of maternal and cord blood hormones with birth size in normal pregnancies, and examined possible effect modification by maternal height, on the basis of prior suggestive evidence. In a prospective study of normal singleton pregnancies in Boston, USA and Shanghai, China, maternal hormone levels at the 27th gestational week were available for 225 pregnancies in Boston and 281 in Shanghai and cord blood measurements for 92 pregnancies in Boston and 110 in Shanghai. Pearson partial correlation coefficients of log-transformed hormone levels with birth weight and length were calculated. Overall, positive correlations with birth weight were found for maternal estriol (r = 0.19; p < 0.001) and progesterone (r = 0.15; p < 0.001) and these associations were more evident among taller mothers. There was an inverse association of cord blood progesterone (r = -0.16; p < 0.03) with birth weight. In Boston, cord blood IGF-1 was positively associated with birth weight (r = 0.22; p < 0.04) and length (r = 0.25; p < 0.02), particularly among taller mothers (r = 0.43 and 0.38, respectively; p < 0.02), whereas among taller mothers in Shanghai the associations of IGF-2 with birth size appeared to be at least as strong as those of IGF-1. In conclusion, maternal estriol and progesterone, and cord blood IGF-1 were positively correlated with birth size. All correlations tended to be more pronounced among offspring of taller mothers. Among taller mothers in Shanghai, IGF-2 appeared to be at least as strongly associated with birth size as IGF-1.
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Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist correlates with hepatic venous pressure gradient and predicts occurrence of overall complications and bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1? and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) are increased in cirrhotic patients. We aimed to investigate whether these cytokines correlate with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), the severity of liver cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis.
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PMC, a potent hydrophilic ?-tocopherol derivative, inhibits NF-?B activation via PP2A but not I?B?-dependent signals in vascular smooth muscle cells.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The hydrophilic ?-tocopherol derivative, 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-hydroxychromane (PMC), is a promising alternative to vitamin E in clinical applications. Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension and abdominal aortic aneurysms. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of PMC in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exposed to pro-inflammatory stimuli, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) combined with interferon (IFN)-?. Treatment of LPS/IFN-?-stimulated VSMCs with PMC suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in LPS/IFN-?-induced nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation was also observed in PMC-treated VSMCs. The translocation and phosphorylation of p65, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inactivation and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly inhibited by PMC in LPS/IFN-?-activated VSMCs. However, neither I?B? degradation nor I?B kinase (IKK) or ribosomal s6 kinase-1 phosphorylation was affected by PMC under these conditions. Both treatments with okadaic acid, a PP2A-selective inhibitor, and transfection with PP2A siRNA markedly reversed the PMC-mediated inhibition of iNOS expression, NF-?B-promoter activity and p65 phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation analysis of the cellular extracts of LPS/IFN-?-stimulated VSMCs revealed that p65 colocalizes with PP2A. In addition, p65 phosphorylation and PP2A inactivation were induced in VSMCs by treatment with H(2)O(2), but neither I?B? degradation nor IKK phosphorylation was observed. These results collectively indicate that the PMC-mediated inhibition of NF-?B activity in LPS/IFN-?-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the ROS-PP2A-p65 signalling cascade, an IKK-I?B?-independent mechanism. Therapeutic interventions using PMC may therefore be beneficial for the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases.
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Benzodiazepine-associated hepatic encephalopathy significantly increased healthcare utilization and medical costs of Chinese cirrhotic patients: 7-year experience.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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In cirrhosis, hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines (BZD) and precipitating hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, economic impact and modifiable factors that are associated with the excess risk of BZD-associated HE in cirrhotic patients.
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Microwave assistance of labeling hippuric acid by I-131.
Appl Radiat Isot
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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This work presents a novel approach for labeling hippuric acid with I-131 using microwaves. It utilizes copper(II) acetate as a catalyst of the labeling. The process involves the use of this catalytic copper(II) acetate at low dilutions that were nevertheless sufficient to produce labeled hippuric acid with high radiochemical purity in a short time. Therefore, the novel technique overcomes the limitations of previously reported conventional methods that involve heating.
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Long-term outcomes of dialysis patients after coronary revascularization: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The outcomes of Chinese patients undergoing dialysis after coronary revascularization are unknown. We examined the outcomes of Taiwanese dialysis patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or coronary stenting.
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Glycyrrhizic acid attenuated glycative stress in kidney of diabetic mice through enhancing glyoxalase pathway.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Antiglycative effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) in kidney of diabetic mice were examined.
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Efforts to reduce the door-to-needle time of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke: Video-assisted therapeutic risk communication.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Explaining the risks and benefits of recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rtPA) to eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within a few minutes is important but difficult. We examined whether a new thrombolysis program can decrease the door-to-needle (DTN) time when treating patients with AIS.
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Is renal dysfunction associated with adverse stroke outcome after thrombolytic therapy?
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Renal dysfunction is a prevalent comorbidity in acute stroke patients requiring thrombolytic therapy. Reports studying the relationship between renal dysfunction and risk of postthrombolytic symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) are contradictory. We aimed to compare the safety and effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke patients with and without renal dysfunction.
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Detecting potential adverse reactions of sulpiride in schizophrenic patients by prescription sequence symmetry analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous studies have demonstrated sulpiride to be significantly more effective than haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine in schizophrenic treatment; however, only limited information is available on the potential risks associated with sulpiride treatment. This study attempts to provide information on the potential risks of sulpiride treatment of schizophrenia, especially with regard to unexpected adverse effects.
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Apicidin-Resistant HA22T Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells strongly activated the Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling Pathway and MMP-2 Expression via the IGF-IR/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Enhancing Cell Metastatic Effect.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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The IGF-IR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibited GSK3-? activity by phosphorylation and this promoted ?-catenin nuclear localization. Our previous study indicated that ?-catenin mRNA level was significantly higher in tumor areas than in non-tumor ones, especially in late pathologic stage tumors. However, ?-catenin inhibition resulted in significantly suppressed migration and invasion ability of HA22T cells. Thus, Wnt/?-catenin pathway over-activation might be involved in metastatic enhancement of apicidin-resistant HA22T cell metastasis. Apicidin-resistant (AR) HA22T cells showed higher ?-catenin nuclear accumulation and significantly decreased GSK-3-? protein level, in relation to parental cells. Results also indicated that AR cells increased abundantly in Tbx3, a downstream target of Wnt/?-catenin that it is implicated in liver cancer. AR cells also inhibited the MEK/ERK/PEA3 pathway which promoted MMP-2 activation. But, apicidin-resistant effect was totally reversed by LY294002 and AG1024. In conclusion, Apicidin-R HA22T cells activated the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and induced, MMP-2 expression via IGF-IR/PI3K/Akt signaling further enhancing cell the metastatic effects.
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The Tzu Chi Nomograms for Peak Flow Rate in Children: Comparison with Miskolc Nomogram.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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To report the first ranking method based age- and gender-specific nomograms for peak flow rate (Qmax).
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for stroke recovery.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) associated with better recovery after stroke?
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Crystal structures of vertebrate dihydropyrimidinase and complexes from Tetraodon nigroviridis with lysine carbamylation: metal and structural requirements for post-translational modification and function.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Lysine carbamylation, a post-translational modification, facilitates metal coordination for specific enzymatic activities. We have determined structures of the vertebrate dihydropyrimidinase from Tetraodon nigroviridis (TnDhp) in various states: the apoenzyme as well as two forms of the holoenzyme with one and two metals at the catalytic site. The essential active-site structural requirements have been identified for the possible existence of four metal-mediated stages of lysine carbamylation. Only one metal is sufficient for stabilizing lysine carbamylation; however, the post-translational lysine carbamylation facilitates additional metal coordination for the regulation of specific enzymatic activities through controlling the conformations of two dynamic loops, Ala(69)-Arg(74) and Met(158)-Met(165), located in the tunnel for the substrate entrance. The substrate/product tunnel is in the "open form" in the apo-TnDhp, in the "intermediate state" in the monometal TnDhp, and in the "closed form" in the dimetal TnDhp structure, respectively. Structural comparison also suggests that the C-terminal tail plays a role in the enzymatic function through interactions with the Ala(69)-Arg(74) dynamic loop. In addition, the structures of the dimetal TnDhp in complexes with hydantoin, N-carbamyl-?-alanine, and N-carbamyl-?-amino isobutyrate as well as apo-TnDhp in complex with a product analog, N-(2-acetamido)-iminodiacetic acid, have been determined. These structural results illustrate how a protein exploits unique lysines and the metal distribution to accomplish lysine carbamylation as well as subsequent enzymatic functions.
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Oral Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose concentrations and promotes cardiac function in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Impaired regulation of blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and the associated elevation of blood glucose levels are known to increase the risk of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). In the present study, a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32, was evaluated for its potential to reduce blood glucose levels and to provide protection against DC risks in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM rats. The blood glucose levels of the STZ-induced DM rats when treated with L. reuteri GMN-32 decreased from 4480 to 3620 mg/l (with 107 colony-forming units (cfu)/d) and 3040 mg/l (with 109 cfu/d). Probiotic treatment also reduced the changes in the heart caused by the effects of DM. Furthermore, the Fas/Fas-associated protein with death domain pathway-induced caspase 8-mediated apoptosis that was observed in the cardiomyocytes of the STZ-induced DM rats was also found to be controlled in the probiotic-treated rats. The results highlight that L. reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose levels, inhibits caspase 8-mediated apoptosis and promotes cardiac function in DM rats as observed from their ejection fraction and fractional shortening values. In conclusion, the administration of L. reuteri GMN-32 probiotics can regulate blood glucose levels, protect cardiomyocytes and prevent DC in DM rats.
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FeoC from Klebsiella pneumoniae contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Iron is essential for pathogen survival, virulence, and colonization. Feo is suggested to function as the ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) transporter. The enterobacterial Feo system is composed of 3 proteins: FeoB is the indispensable component and is a large membrane protein likely to function as a permease; FeoA is a small Src homology 3 (SH3) domain protein that interacts with FeoB; FeoC is a winged-helix protein containing 4 conserved Cys residues in a sequence suitable for harboring a putative iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster. The presence of an iron-sulfur cluster on FeoC has never been shown experimentally. We report that under anaerobic conditions, the recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae FeoC (KpFeoC) exhibited hyperfine-shifted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and a UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance spectrum characteristic of a paramagnetic center. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results were consistent only with the [4Fe-4S] clusters. Substituting the cysteinyl sulfur with oxygen resulted in significantly reduced cluster stability, establishing the roles of these cysteines as the ligands for the Fe-S cluster. When exposed to oxygen, the [4Fe-4S] cluster degraded to [3Fe-4S] and eventually disappeared. We propose that KpFeoC may regulate the function of the Feo transporter through the oxygen- or iron-sensitive coordination of the Fe-S cluster.
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Prognostic significance of partial tumor regression after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: a meta-analysis.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Complete tumor regression after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer has been associated with better disease-free and overall survival. The survival experience for patients with partial tumor regression is less clear.
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Is maternal height a risk factor for breast cancer?
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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We hypothesize that the link between height and the risk of breast cancer may, to some extent, be accounted for by an association between maternal height and the risk of breast cancer. Unlike mothers of smaller stature, among taller mothers, maternal size does not impose constraints on fetal growth, thus allowing growth-enhancing pregnancy hormones, including estriol and insulin-like growth factors, to exercise their growth potential and be positively associated with birth size and, thus, the risk of breast cancer.
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National survey of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke in taiwan 2003-2010.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Data on thrombolytic therapy at the national level is scarce in Asia. Understanding current practice pattern is important for a policy maker in decision making. This cross-sectional study analyzed the utilization pattern of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in Taiwan from 2003 through 2010 and identified factors associated with post-therapy intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and mortality. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we retrieved inpatient claims for patients with AIS. The frequency of thrombolytic therapy in AIS admissions and its association with the characteristics of patients, physicians, and hospitals were analyzed. Factors predicting ICH and in-hospital mortality were also analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. Of 394,988 patients with AIS, 2385 (.60%) had received thrombolytic therapy. The utilization rate increased from .03% in 2003 to 1.51% in 2010. Thrombolytic therapy was adopted earlier in a belt of high-frequency counties across rural midwestern Taiwan, twice the rate in the Taipei and Kaohsiung cities. The neurology specialty and hospitals service volume were the most dominant factors related to higher utilization, in addition to weekend admission and the patients age and comorbidities. ICH and in-hospital mortality rates were 3.48% and 7.71%, respectively. Patients given thrombolytic therapy in hospitals with thrombolysis cases more than the 5.5/year had a lower risk of ICH (odds ratio: .53; 95% confidence interval: .31-.88). Compared with most developed countries, there is indeed much unmet need for stroke thrombolysis in Taiwan. Effective mechanism should be implemented to increase the thrombolysis rate safely and improve outcome for patients with AIS.
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Protein crystallization prediction with AdaBoost.
Int J Data Min Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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To determine the structure of a protein by X-ray crystallography, the protein needs to be purified and crystallized first. However, some proteins cannot be crystallized. This makes the average cost of protein structure determination much higher. Thus it is desired to predict the crystallizability of a protein by a computational method before starting the wet-lab procedure. Features from the primary structure of a target protein are collected first. With a proper set of features, protein crystallizability can be predicted with a high accuracy. In this research, 74 features from previous researches are re-examined by two filter-mode feature selection methods. The selected features are then used for crystallization prediction by three versions of AdaBoost. The Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are also tested for comparison. The best prediction accuracy of AdaBoost reaches 93 percent and 48 important features are identified from the collected 74 features.
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Screening preeclamptic cord plasma for proteins associated with decreased breast cancer susceptibility.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Preeclampsia, a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, has been found to reduce the subsequent risk for breast cancer in female offspring. As this protective effect could be due to exposure to preeclampsia-specific proteins during intrauterine life, the proteomic profiles of umbilical cord blood plasma between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies were compared. Umbilical cord plasma samples, depleted of 14 abundant proteins, were subjected to proteomic analysis using the quantitative method of nanoACQUITY ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with elevated energy mode of acquisition(E) (NanoUPLC-MS(E)). Sixty-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which 15 and 6 proteins were only detected in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies, respectively. Additionally, expression of 8 proteins (gelsolin, complement C5, keratin type I cytoskeletal 10, pigment epithelium-derived factor, complement factor B, complement component C7, hemoglobin subunit gamma-2 and alpha-fetoprotein) were up-regulated in preeclampsia with a fold change of ?2.0 when compared to normotensive pregnancies. The identification of alpha-fetoprotein in preeclamptic umbilical cord blood plasma supported the validity of this screen as alpha-fetoprotein has anti-estrogenic properties and has previously been linked to preeclampsia as well as a reduced breast cancer risk. The findings of this pilot study may provide new insights into the mechanistic link between preeclampsia and potentially reduced breast cancer susceptibility in adult life.
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HBV-DNA level at 6 months of entecavir treatment predicts HBeAg loss in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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To evaluate whether on-treatment HBV-DNA level could predict the treatment response to entecavir in hepatitis B e antigen (HBe)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.
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Comparison of survival among neoadjuvant chemoradiation responders, non-responders and patients receiving primary resection for locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: does neoadjuvant chemoradiation benefit all?
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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While neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery has been shown to improve the survival of patients with locally advanced oesophageal cancer, it is not known whether neoadjuvant chemoradiation has a beneficial or harmful effect on the non-responders. We aimed to compare the outcomes among neoadjuvant chemoradiation responders, non-responders and patients receiving primary oesophagectomies for resectable locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
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IL-22 activates oxidant signaling in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate cell-signaling processes in response to various ligands and play important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The present study reports that interleukin-22 (IL-22) elicits signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) through a ROS-dependent mechanism. We find that pulmonary artery SMCs express IL-22 receptor alpha 1 and that IL-22 activates STAT3 through this receptor. IL-22-induced signaling is found to be mediated by NADPH oxidase, as indicated by the observations that the inhibition and siRNA knock-down of this enzyme inhibit IL-22 signaling. IL-22 triggers the oxidative modifications of proteins through protein carbonylation and protein glutathionylation. Mass spectrometry identified some proteins that are carbonylated in response to IL-22 stimulation, including ?-enolase, heat shock cognate 71kDa protein, mitochondrial 60kDa heat shock protein, and cytoplasmic 2 actin and determined that ?-tubulin is glutathionylated. Protein glutathionylation and STAT3 phosphorylation are enhanced by the siRNA knock-down of glutaredoxin, while IL-22-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation is suppressed by knocking down thioredoxin interacting protein, an inhibitor of thioredoxin. IL-22 is also found to promote the growth of SMCs via NADPH oxidase. In rats, pulmonary hypertension is found to be associated with increased smooth muscle IL-22 expression. These results show that IL-22 promotes the growth of pulmonary vascular SMCs via a signaling mechanism that involves NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidation.
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Associations of placental weight with maternal and cord blood hormones.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Placental weight has been associated with mammographic pattern and coronary heart disease in the adult offspring, but the mechanisms are unknown. We evaluated the associations of maternal and cord blood hormones with placental weight in normal pregnancies.
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Long-term outcome of young onset Parkinsons disease after subthalamic stimulation--a cross-sectional study.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Age of onset is considered a poor prognostic factor for subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) outcome in the case of Parkinsons disease (PD). The goal of current study is to identify the long-term impact of STN-DBS for young onset PD (YOPD) patients.
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Surgical outcomes in lung cancer presenting as ground-glass opacities of 3 cm or less: A review of 5 years experience.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has become increasingly popular recently and more pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGOs) are being identified. However, the treatment for these GGOs remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the clinical and pathological characteristics and to demonstrate the longterm surgical outcomes in patients undergoing resection for GGOs in our institute.
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Is thymectomy necessary in nonmyasthenic patients with early thymoma?
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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In thymoma patients without myasthenia gravis, it is debatable whether thymectomy should be performed in addition to thymomectomy, the procedure in which the thymoma alone is resected. In this study, we proposed to compare the surgical results in early-stage nonmyasthenic thymoma patients who underwent thymomectomy with and without extended thymectomy.
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High seroprevalence of human herpesvirus type 8 in patients with end-stage renal disease in Taiwan.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) is the aetiologic agent of Kaposis sarcoma (KS). The incidence of KS in renal transplant patients is much higher than in healthy controls. The risk is even higher among recipients seropositive for HHV-8 before transplantation. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are immunocompromised and are candidates for renal transplantation, but HHV-8 seroprevalence in ESRD patients has not been well documented.
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Development of an educational program for staffs of emergency medical service to improve their awareness of stroke within 3 hours of symptom onset: a pilot study.
Acta Neurol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Timely identification and transport are crucial for the pre-hospital management of stroke by emergency medical service (EMS) providers. In this preliminary study, our aim was to develop an educational program which can improve 1) stroke knowledge and 2) triage accuracy of identifying acute stroke within 3 hours of symptom onset by dedicated EMS providers in Tainan city.
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Obese children at higher risk for having overactive bladder symptoms: A community-based study.
Neurourol. Urodyn.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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To investigate the association between obesity and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy children.
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High expression of high-mobility group box 1 in the blood and lungs is associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an important mediator in multiple pathological conditions, but the expression of HMGB1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not yet been completely investigated. We aimed to analyze the relationship between HMGB1 expression in blood and lung tissue and the development of COPD.
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High k nanophase zinc oxide on biomimetic silicon nanotip array as supercapacitors.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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A 3D trenched-structure metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanocapacitor array with an ultrahigh equivalent planar capacitance (EPC) of ~300 ?F cm(-2) is demonstrated. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) bilayer dielectric is deposited on 1 ?m high biomimetic silicon nanotip (SiNT) substrate using the atomic layer deposition method. The large EPC is achieved by utilizing the large surface area of the densely packed SiNT (!5 × 10(10) cm(-2)) coated conformally with an ultrahigh dielectric constant of ZnO. The EPC value is 30 times higher than those previously reported in metal-insulator-metal or metal-insulator-semiconductor nanocapacitors using similar porosity dimensions of the support materials.
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Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive Phytoconstituent Andrographolide.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) Nees, generally known as "king of bitters," is an herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae. In China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia, this plant has been widely used for treating sore throat, flu, and upper respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide, a major bioactive chemical constituent of the plant, has shown anticancer potential in various investigations. Andrographolide and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models asthma, stroke, and arthritis. In recent years, pharmaceutical chemists have synthesized numerous andrographolide derivatives, which exhibit essential pharmacological activities such as those that are anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, antifeedant, and antiviral. However, what is noteworthy about this paper is summarizing the effects of andrographolide against cardiovascular disease, platelet activation, infertility, and NF- ? B activation. Therefore, this paper is intended to provide evidence reported in relevant literature on qualitative research to assist scientists in isolating and characterizing bioactive compounds.
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Anti-VEGFR agents ameliorate hepatic venous dysregulation/microcirculatory dysfunction, splanchnic venous pooling and ascites of NASH-cirrhotic rat.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) agents improve hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Detail interactions among recruited/activated leucocytes, hepatic angiogenesis and fibrogenesis, splanchnic blood pooling, decreased hepatic veins to fluctuated splanchnic blood volume (hepatic venous dysregulation), portal hypertensive syndrome and ascites have never explored in cirrhosis. Our study used two anti-VEGFR agents - brivanib and sorafenib - to elucidate the relationship between above abnormalities of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-cirrhotic rats.
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Stage at diagnosis and mortality in women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC).
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Converging evidence indicates that women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have increased mortality compared to women with breast cancer not diagnosed near pregnancy (non-PABC). Our aim was to investigate if the stage distribution differs between PABC and non-PABC and if stage at diagnosis can explain the poorer prognosis observed among women with PABC. We identified 3,282 breast cancers in women aged 15-44 years at diagnosis for whom staging data (tumor size, nodal involvement, metastasis) were available in the Swedish Cancer Register between 2002 and 2009. Information on reproductive history and vital status was obtained from the Multi-Generation Register and the Cause of Death Register. PABC was defined as breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and up to 2 years after delivery (n = 317). Non-PABC was defined as cases diagnosed before pregnancy or more than 2 years postpartum. Stage distributions were compared between PABC and non-PABC, and mortality rates were modeled using Cox regression. Compared to women with non-PABC, the mortality was almost 50 % higher in women with PABC [unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.47 (95 % CI 1.04-2.08)], a difference which was reduced after adjustment for age and calendar year of diagnosis [HR 1.27 (95 % CI 0.88-1.83)]. Although advanced stage of breast cancer at diagnosis was more common among PABC than among non-PABC, further adjustment for stage only slightly reduced the HR [1.22 (95 % CI 0.84-1.78)]. The difference in mortality between PABC and non-PABC was more pronounced among women above 35 years and among women with PABC diagnosed within 1 year postpartum. Age, rather than stage at diagnosis, appears to act as the principal driver of the increased mortality observed in women with PABC. However, these findings do not preclude an untoward influence on mortality by pregnancy-associated factors affecting tumor aggressiveness and progression.
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Validating the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke in a National Health Insurance claims database.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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The National Health Insurance Research Database, which uses claims data from hospitals contracted with the National Health Insurance (NHI) program in Taiwan, has been widely used for stroke research. The diagnostic accuracy of the NHI claims data with regard to acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has rarely been validated. The aim of this study was to validate the diagnosis of AIS in NHI claims data using the Taiwan Stroke Registry (TSR) as a reference.
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Relative contraindications for percutaneous tracheostomy: from the surgeons perspective.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) has gained worldwide acceptance as a bedside procedure by intensivists, but its popularity has declined based on reports of some relative contraindications. The aim of this study was to ascertain the perioperative comorbidities of PT when it is performed by surgeons with experience performing standard tracheostomy.
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Use of antiepileptic drugs and risk of hypothyroidism.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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This study aimed to investigate the risk of clinically significant hypothyroidism among all the currently available antiepileptic drugs (AED).
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Different effectiveness of subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinsons disease: A comparative cohort study at 1 year and 5 years.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) has been shown to produce long-term symptom improvement in Parkinsons disease. The aim of this study was to identify the target symptoms that show the most improvement at 1 year and at 5 years after STN-DBS.
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Crystal Structure of Dimeric Flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio gigas Suggests a Potential Binding Region for the Electron-Transferring Partner.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Flavodoxins, which exist widely in microorganisms, have been found in various pathways with multiple physiological functions. The flavodoxin (Fld) containing the cofactor flavin mononucleotide (FMN) from sulfur-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio gigas (D. gigas) is a short-chain enzyme that comprises 146 residues with a molecular mass of 15 kDa and plays important roles in the electron-transfer chain. To investigate its structure, we purified this Fld directly from anaerobically grown D. gigas cells. The crystal structure of Fld, determined at resolution 1.3 Å, is a dimer with two FMN packing in an orientation head to head at a distance of 17 Å, which generates a long and connected negatively charged region. Two loops, Thr59-Asp63 and Asp95-Tyr100, are located in the negatively charged region and between two FMN, and are structurally dynamic. An analysis of each monomer shows that the structure of Fld is in a semiquinone state; the positions of FMN and the surrounding residues in the active site deviate. The crystal structure of Fld from D. gigas agrees with a dimeric form in the solution state. The dimerization area, dynamic characteristics and structure variations between monomers enable us to identify a possible binding area for its functional partners.
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Effects of group music intervention on psychiatric symptoms and depression in patient with schizophrenia.
Complement Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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To examine the effects of a group music therapy on psychiatric symptoms and depression for patient with schizophrenia in a psychiatric nursing home.
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Diagnostic value of tumor markers in lung adenocarcinoma-associated cytologically negative pleural effusions.
Cancer Cytopathol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Cytology fails to detect neoplastic cells in approximately 40% to 50% of malignant pleural effusions (PEs), which commonly accompany lung adenocarcinomas. The diagnostic accuracy of various tumor markers in lung adenocarcinoma-associated cytologically negative pleural effusions (LAC-CNPEs) has been poor. The current study attempted to maximize diagnostic efforts in distinguishing LAC-CNPEs from benign PEs.
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Novel bioactivity of ellagic Acid in inhibiting human platelet activation.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Pomegranates are widely consumed either as fresh fruit or in beverage form as juice and wine. Ellagic acid possesses potent antioxidative properties; it is known to be an effective phytotherapeutic agent with antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic qualities. Ellagic acid (20 to 80? ? M) exhibited a potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen; however, it did not inhibit platelet aggregation stimulated by thrombin, arachidonic acid, or U46619. Treatment with ellagic acid (50 and 80? ? M) significantly inhibited platelet activation stimulated by collagen; this alteration was accompanied by the inhibition of relative [Ca(2+)] i mobilization, and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) ? 2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and Akt, as well as hydroxyl radical (OH(?)) formation. In addition, ellagic acid also inhibited p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, ellagic acid did not significantly affect PKC activation and platelet aggregation stimulated by PDBu. This study is the first to show that, in addition to being considered a possible agent for preventing tumor growth, ellagic acid possesses potent antiplatelet properties. It appears to initially inhibit the PLC?2-PKC cascade and/or hydroxyl radical formation, followed by decreased phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt, ultimately inhibiting platelet aggregation.
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