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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Flexible Single Crystal Silicon Nanomembrane Photonic Crystal Cavity.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Flexible inorganic electronic devices promise numerous applications, especially in fields that could not be covered satisfactorily by conventional rigid devices. Benefits on a similar scale are also foreseeable for silicon photonic components. However, the difficulty in transferring intricate silicon photonic devices has deterred widespread development. In this paper, we demonstrate a flexible single crystal silicon nanomembrane photonic crystal microcavity through a bonding and substrate removal approach. The transferred cavity shows a quality factor of 2.2×10^4, and could be bended to a curvature of 5 mm radius without deteriorating the performance compared to its counterparts on rigid substrates. A thorough characterization of the device reveals that the resonant wavelength is a linear function of the bending-induced strain. The device also shows a curvature-independent sensitivity to the ambient index variation.
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Evaluation of liver tissue damage and grasp stability using finite element analysis.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Minimizing tissue damage and maintaining grasp stability are essential considerations in surgical grasper design. Most past and current research analyzing graspers used for tissue manipulation in minimally invasive surgery is based on in vitro experiments. Most previous work assessed tissue injury and grasp security by visual inspection; only a few studies have quantified it. The goal of the present work is to develop a methodology with which to compute tissue damage magnitude and grasp quality that is appropriate for a wide range of grasper-tissue interaction. Using finite element analysis (FEA), four graspers with varying radii of curvature and four graspers with different tooth sizes were analyzed while squeezing and pulling liver tissue. All graspers were treated as surgical steel with linear elastic material properties. Nonlinear material properties of tissue used in the FEA as well as damage evaluation were derived from previously reported in vivo experiments. Computed peak stress, integrated stress, and tissue damage were compared. Applied displacement is vertical and then horizontal to the tissue surface to represent grasp and retraction. A close examination of the contact status of each node within the grasper-tissue interaction surface was carried out to investigate grasp stability. The results indicate less tissue damage with increasing radius of curvature. A smooth wave pattern reduced tissue damage at the cost of inducing higher percentage of slipping area. This methodology may be useful for researchers to develop and test various designs of graspers. Also it could improve surgical simulator performance by reflecting more realistic tissue material properties and predicting tissue damage for the student.
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[Effects of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling monoclonal antibody].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Objective To investigate the influence of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling monoclonal antibody (mAb). Methods The pH value of colloidal gold was adjusted by K2CO3 solution. Then colloidal gold with a range of pH 5.0-9.0 labeled enterovirus 71 (EV71)-VP1 mAb respectively, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was added to block the unreacted sites on the gold colloids for further experiments. The changes in the properties of colloidal gold in the progress of colloidal gold labeling mAb were monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Finally, Mey's test was adopted to identify the stability of immunogold, and the sensitivity of the strip was evaluated by detecting gradual dilution of serum. Results EV71-VP1 mAb could be conjugated with colloidal gold at pH7.0-8.5, and at this optimal pH, the test strip presented a good sensitivity. Conclusion pH is an important factor to ensure the stability of immunogold and to determine the conjugation effect between colloidal gold and mAb. The study confirmed that UV/Vis spectroscopy can evaluate the influence of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling mAb and set up an optimal pH for colloidal gold labeling using UV/Vis spectroscopy.
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[Meta-analysis of leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast in the treatment of allergic rhinitis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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To evaluate the treatment outcomes of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) as monotherapy or combined with the second-generation oral H1-histamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR), and to provide a basis for optimizing clinical therapeutic strategies.
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MicroRNA silencing for cancer therapy targeted to the tumour microenvironment.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs expressed in different tissue and cell types that suppress the expression of target genes. As such, microRNAs are critical cogs in numerous biological processes, and dysregulated microRNA expression is correlated with many human diseases. Certain microRNAs, called oncomiRs, play a causal role in the onset and maintenance of cancer when overexpressed. Tumours that depend on these microRNAs are said to display oncomiR addiction. Some of the most effective anticancer therapies target oncogenes such as EGFR and HER2; similarly, inhibition of oncomiRs using antisense oligomers (that is, antimiRs) is an evolving therapeutic strategy. However, the in vivo efficacy of current antimiR technologies is hindered by physiological and cellular barriers to delivery into targeted cells. Here we introduce a novel antimiR delivery platform that targets the acidic tumour microenvironment, evades systemic clearance by the liver, and facilitates cell entry via a non-endocytic pathway. We find that the attachment of peptide nucleic acid antimiRs to a peptide with a low pH-induced transmembrane structure (pHLIP) produces a novel construct that could target the tumour microenvironment, transport antimiRs across plasma membranes under acidic conditions such as those found in solid tumours (pH approximately 6), and effectively inhibit the miR-155 oncomiR in a mouse model of lymphoma. This study introduces a new model for using antimiRs as anti-cancer drugs, which can have broad impacts on the field of targeted drug delivery.
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Healthy humans with a narrow upper airway maintain patency during quiet breathing by dilating the airway during inspiration.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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A patent upper airway is essential for survival. Increased age, obesity and some upper airway anatomical features are associated with failure to maintain upper airway patency during sleep, leading to obstructive sleep apnoea. However, many healthy subjects with these risk factors do not develop this condition. The aim of this study was to determine how anatomical factors and active dilator muscle contraction contribute to upper airway patency in healthy volunteers across a broad range of age and body mass index (BMI). A 'tagged' magnetic resonance imaging technique quantified respiratory-related motion of the anterior and lateral walls of the upper airway during quiet breathing in the supine position. Fifty-two subjects aged 22-68 years with BMI from 17.5 to 40.1 kg m(-2) were studied. Higher BMI was associated with smaller airway cross-sectional area at the level of soft palate (P < 0.05). The genioglossus moved anteriorly to dilate the upper airway during inspiration. This movement increased with increasing BMI, increasing age, a smaller airway area, and steeper tongue-base angle (all P < 0.05). Motion of the lateral upper airway at the soft-palate level was variable and less strongly linked to anatomical features of the upper airway. Multiple regression indicated that anterior genioglossus motion decreased with increasing airway area (P = 0.03) and with increasing tongue-base angle (P = 0.02). These data suggest that healthy humans, including those whose anatomy places them at increased risk of airway closure, can maintain upper airway patency by dynamically dilating the airway during inspiration.
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Cisplatin and paclitaxel target significant long noncoding RNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The objectives of this study were to identify specific long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to clarify the function of cisplatin and paclitaxel on the confirmed laryngeal cancer lncRNAs. Fifty-four pairs of laryngeal tumor and adjacent normal tissue were collected. Candidate lncRNAs were searched in authorized databases. The significant lncRNAs were identified and confirmed through high-output real-time PCR. Chemotherapy assay evaluated the influences of cisplatin and paclitaxel on the significant lncRNAs. Thirty-seven cancer-related candidate lncRNAs were selected. Three up-expressed and two down-expressed significant lncRNAs were identified and confirmed. The expressions of lncRNA CDKN2B-AS1, HOTAIR and MALAT1 were dramatically reduced with the increasing concentration of cisplatin and paclitaxel and also lengthening of the treatment duration. Cisplatin and paclitaxel have target function on significant lncRNAs in LSCC, which presents novel molecular targets to cure LSCC patients and also leads an orientation for developing new drugs.
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Population-based cohort study on the risk of malignancy in East Asian children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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To investigate the association and magnitude of risk between JIA, its associated treatment and cancer development in Taiwanese children.
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Effects of simulated microgravity on Streptococcus mutans physiology and biofilm structure.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Long-term spaceflights will eventually become an inevitable occurrence. Previous studies have indicated that oral infectious diseases, including dental caries, were more prevalent in astronauts due to the effect of microgravity. However, the impact of the space environment, especially the microgravity environment, on the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans, a major caries-associated bacterium, is yet to be explored. In the present study, we investigated the impact of simulated microgravity on the physiology and biofilm structure of S. mutans. We also explored the dual-species interaction between S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis under a simulated microgravity condition. Results indicated that the simulated microgravity condition can enhance the acid tolerance ability, modify the biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution of S. mutans, and increase the proportion of S. mutans within a dual-species biofilm, probably through the regulation of various gene expressions. We hypothesize that the enhanced competitiveness of S. mutans under simulated microgravity may cause a multispecies micro-ecological imbalance, which would result in the initiation of dental caries. Our current findings are consistent with previous studies, which revealed a higher astronaut-associated incidence of caries. Further research is required to explore the detailed mechanisms.
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Alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the rat brain following gamma knife surgery.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Gamma knife surgery (GKS) is used for the treatment of various brain diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying brain injury following irradiation remain to be elucidated. Given that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is closely associated with pathological angiogenesis and the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), the present study was designed to analyze temporal alterations in VEGF expression in the cerebral cortex and the effect of VEGF on cerebral edema in rats following GKS. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to GKS at maximum doses of 60 Gy. Animals were sacrificed between 4 and 24 weeks after GKS. Immunohistochemistry, enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction (RT?PCR) were employed for detecting VEGF expression. The vessel density was measured by CD31+ cell count and vascular structures were examined using electron microscopy. Brain water content and BBB permeability were measured in the present study. VEGF expression in the irradiated cortex progressively increased until 16 weeks after GKS when the maximal expression was reached, and then gradually decreased to the control level 24 weeks after GKS. These findings were confirmed by RT?PCR. A mild decrease in vessel density was observed 4 weeks after GKS, followed by an increase in vessel density between 8 and 20 weeks later. Furthermore, previous studies also demonstrated vascular damage, opening of the BBB and an increase in brain water content occurring simultaneously. To the best of our knowledge, these data demonstrated for the first time dynamic changes in VEGF expression following GKS and also suggest the importance of VEGF expression in pathological angiogenesis and edema formation following GKS.
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Involvement of chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) in the formation and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) has been related to several malignancies. The predictive value of CRM1 in the malignance and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), however, is not clear yet. In this study, we displayed that CRM1 expression was up-regulated in ESCC using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Statistical analysis demonstrated that patients with high CRM1 levels indicated shorter survival period. We further found that silencing CRM1 caused apoptosis in ESCC cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of CRM1 disturbed the expression of tumor suppressor proteins and inhibited NF-?B activity in ESCC cell lines, especially if the cell line was treated with 5-fluorouracil. In consequence, our results for the first time indicated that CRM1 was dysregulated in ESCC, and suppression of CRM1 expression which resulted in inhibiting of NF-?B signaling might be developed into a new strategy in ESCC therapy.
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Detection and attribution of vegetation greening trend in China over the last 30 years.
Glob Chang Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The reliable detection and attribution of changes in vegetation growth is a prerequisite for the development of strategies for the sustainable management of ecosystems. This is an extraordinary challenge. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively detect and attribute a greening trend in China over the last three decades. We use three different satellite-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) datasets for detection as well as five different process-based ecosystem models for attribution. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition are identified as the most likely causes of the greening trend in China, explaining 85% and 41% of the average growing-season LAI trend (LAIGS ) estimated by satellite datasets (average trend of 0.0070 yr(-1) , ranging from 0.0035 yr(-1) to 0.0127 yr(-1) ), respectively. The contribution of nitrogen deposition is more clearly seen in southern China than in the north of the country. Models disagree about the contribution of climate change alone to the trend in LAIGS at the country scale (one model shows a significant increasing trend, whereas two others show significant decreasing trends). However, the models generally agree on the negative impacts of climate change in north China and Inner Mongolia and the positive impact in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. Provincial forest area change tends to be significantly correlated with the trend of LAIGS (P<0.05), and marginally significantly (P=0.07) correlated with the residual of LAIGS trend, calculated as the trend observed by satellite minus that estimated by models through considering the effects of climate change, rising CO2 concentration, and nitrogen deposition, across different provinces. This result highlights the important role of China's afforestation program in explaining the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause G1 phase arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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In daily life, humans are exposed to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) generated by electric appliances, and public concern is increasing regarding the biological effects of such exposure. Numerous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMF exposure. Here we show that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, inhibiting cell proliferation. To present well-founded results, we comprehensively evaluated the biological effects of ELF-EMFs at the transcriptional, protein, and cellular levels. Human HaCaT cells from an immortalized epidermal keratinocyte cell line were exposed to a 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMF for 144 h. The ELF-EMF could cause G1 arrest and decrease colony formation. Protein expression experiments revealed that ELF-EMFs induced the activation of the ATM/Chk2 signaling cascades. In addition, the p21 protein, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 and G2/M, exhibited a higher level of expression in exposed HaCaT cells compared with the expression of sham-exposed cells. The ELF-EMF-induced G1 arrest was diminished when the CHK2 gene expression (which encodes checkpoint kinase 2; Chk2) was suppressed by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). These findings indicate that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Based on the precise control of the ELF-EMF exposure and rigorous sham-exposure experiments, all transcriptional, protein, and cellular level experiments consistently supported the conclusion. This is the first study to confirm that a specific pathway is triggered by ELF-EMF exposure.
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Attenuation of neuropathic pain by saikosaponin a in a rat model of chronic constriction injury.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Despite immense advances in the treatment strategies, the effective treatment of patients suffering from neuropathic pain remains challenging. Saikosaponin a possesses anti-inflammatory activity. However, the role of saikosaponin a in neuropathic pain is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of saikosaponin a on neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. After CCI, rats were administered saikosaponin a (6.25, 12.50 and 25.00 mg/kg intraperitoneal, once daily) for 14 days. Mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were assessed before surgery and on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after CCI. Our results showed that CCI significantly decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency on days 1, 3, 7 and 14, as compared with sham groups, however, saikosaponin a reversed this effects. In addition, saikosaponin a inhibited CCI-induced the levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2 in spinal cord. Western blot analysis demonstrated that saikosaponin a reduced the elevated expression of p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-?B in the spinal cord induced by CCI. These results suggest that saikosaponin a could effectively attenuate neuropathic pain in CCI rats by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways in spinal cord.
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The origin of high electrolyte-electrode interfacial resistances in lithium cells containing garnet type solid electrolytes.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Dense LLZO (Al-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12) pellets were processed in controlled atmospheres to investigate the relationships between the surface chemistry and interfacial behavior in lithium cells. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies revealed that Li2CO3 was formed on the surface when LLZO pellets were exposed to air. The distribution and thickness of the Li2CO3 layer were estimated by a combination of bulk and surface sensitive techniques with various probing depths. First-principles thermodynamic calculations confirmed that LLZO has an energetic preference to form Li2CO3 in air. Exposure to air and the subsequent formation of Li2CO3 at the LLZO surface is the source of the high interfacial impedances observed in cells with lithium electrodes. Surface polishing can effectively remove Li2CO3 and dramatically improve the interfacial properties. Polished samples in lithium cells had an area specific resistance (ASR) of only 109 ? cm(2) for the LLZO/Li interface, the lowest reported value for Al-substituted LLZO. Galvanostatic cycling results obtained from lithium symmetrical cells also suggest that the quality of the LLZO/lithium interface has a significant impact on the device lifetime.
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A prospective, randomised, controlled multicentre study comparing cervical disc replacement with anterior cervical decompression and fusion.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Total cervical artificial disc replacement (TDR) simulates normal disc structure, thus avoiding the drawbacks of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). This prospective, randomized, controlled and multicentre study aimed to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes by comparing cervical disc replacement using Mobi-C disc prostheses with ACDF.
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Prognostic significance of ?-H2AX in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma after surgery.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The clinical significance of ?-H2AX in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not yet been established. This study was performed to assess the expression of nuclear ?-H2AX in benign and malignant laryngeal lesions and to assess its clinicopathological significance.
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Synergistic tumor suppression by combined inhibition of telomerase and CDKN1A.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in mediating growth inhibition upon telomere dysfunction. Here, we show that loss of the p53 target gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, also known as p21(WAF1/CIP1)) increases apoptosis induction following telomerase inhibition in a variety of cancer cell lines and mouse xenografts. This effect is highly specific to p21, as loss of other checkpoint proteins and CDK inhibitors did not affect apoptosis. In telomerase, inhibited cell loss of p21 leads to E2F1- and p53-mediated transcriptional activation of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis, resulting in increased apoptosis. Combined genetic or pharmacological inhibition of telomerase and p21 synergistically suppresses tumor growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simultaneous inhibition of telomerase and p21 also suppresses growth of tumors containing mutant p53 following pharmacological restoration of p53 activity. Collectively, our results establish that inactivation of p21 leads to increased apoptosis upon telomerase inhibition and thus identify a genetic vulnerability that can be exploited to treat many human cancers containing either wild-type or mutant p53.
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HNO?-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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We developed a HNO3-assisted polyol reduction method to synthesize ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates routinely. The edge length of the synthesized Ag microplates reaches 50 ?m, and their top facets are (111). The mechanism for dramatically enlarging single-crystalline Ag structure stems from a series of competitive anisotropic growths, primarily governed by carefully tuning the adsorption of Ag(0) by ethylene glycol and the desorption of Ag(0) by a cyanide ion on Ag(100). Finally, we measured the propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons along the air/Ag interface under 534 nm laser excitation. Our single-crystalline Ag microplate exhibited a propagation length (11.22 ?m) considerably greater than that of the conventional E-gun deposited Ag thin film (5.27 ?m).
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Duodenal CCK cells from male mice express multiple hormones including ghrelin.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Enteroendocrine (EEC) cells have a pivotal role in intestinal nutrient sensing and release hormones that orchestrate food digestion and regulate appetite. EEC cells are found scattered throughout the intestine and have typically been classified based on the primary hormone they contain. I cells represent a subset of EEC cells that secrete cholecystokinin (CCK) and are mainly localized to the duodenum. Recent studies have shown that I cells express mRNAs encoding several gut hormones. In this study, we investigated the hormonal profile of murine fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted duodenal I cells using semiquantitative RT-PCR, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and immunostaining methods. We report that I cells are enriched in mRNA transcripts encoding CCK and also other key gut hormones, including neurotensin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), secretin, peptide YY, proglucagon, and ghrelin (Ghrl). Furthermore, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified I cells and immunostaining confirmed the presence of these gut hormones in duodenal I cells. Immunostaining highlighted that subsets of I cells in both crypts and villi coexpress differential amounts of CCK, Ghrl, GIP, or peptide YY, indicating that a proportion of I cells contain several hormones during maturation and when fully differentiated. Our results reveal that although I cells express several key gut hormones, including GIP or proglucagon, and thus have a considerable overlap with classically defined K and L cells, approximately half express Ghrl, suggesting a potentially important subset of duodenal EEC cells that require further consideration.
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Th17 cell frequency and IL-17 concentration correlate with pre- and postoperative pain sensation in patients with intervertebral disk degeneration.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Numerous studies have revealed the presence of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in pathologic intervertebral disk (IVD) tissues and the contribution of Th17-associated cytokines to the development of this disease. However, the pre- and postoperative changes in the proportion of Th17 cells and the concentration of IL-17 in the peripheral blood of patients with IVD degeneration are not clear. The levels of Th17 frequency and the interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentration in peripheral blood from patients and volunteers were examined by flow cytometry and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The clinical results were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). These results were subjected to a correlation analysis. Compared with the normal controls, the proportion of Th17 cells and the concentration of IL-17 were significantly increased preoperatively in patients with IVD degeneration. Postoperatively, the levels of Th17 cells and the expression of IL-17 were dramatically decreased. The correlation analysis of the VAS pain scores, Th17 cell frequency, and IL-17 concentration, including the pre- and postoperative levels and the changes induced by the surgery, revealed a positive correlation. The authors' results explain the contribution of Th17 cells and IL-17 to the pain sensation experienced by patients with IVD degeneration. These 2 factors may be good indicators for the evaluation of the surgical outcome of patients with lumbar disk herniation.
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Grating-coupled silicon-on-sapphire integrated slot waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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We demonstrate subwavelength bidirectional grating (SWG) coupled slot waveguide fabricated in silicon-on-sapphire for transverse electric polarized wave operation at 3.4 ?m wavelength. Coupling efficiency of 29% for SWG coupler is experimentally achieved. Propagation loss of 11??dB/cm has been experimentally obtained for slot waveguides. Two-step taper mode converters with an insertion loss of 0.13 dB are used to gradually convert the strip waveguide mode into slot waveguide mode.
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Multi-level cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) versus single-level CDA for the treatment of cervical disc diseases: a meta-analysis.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) was developed to treat cervical degenerated disc diseases with the advantages of preserving the kinematics of the functional spinal unit. However, the safety and reliability of multi-level CDA are still controverted when comparing to the single-level CDA. It has shown unclear benefits in terms of clinical results, functional recovery, heterotopic ossification, and the need for secondary surgical procedures. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effectiveness of multi-level cervical arthroplasty over single-level CDA for the treatment of cervical spondylosis and disc diseases.
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Antibacterial effect of dental adhesive containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate on the development of Streptococcus mutans biofilm.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05). In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.
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Screening of SSR markers associated with scale cover pattern and mapped to a genetic linkage map of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
J. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Fish scale is an attractive model in bone physiology research and is also a crucial character for breeding new varieties. Thus, it is important to identify loci in the genome associated with scale formation. In this study, 290 microsatellite markers in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were selected and tested for their segregation in a full-sib mapping panel containing 96 individuals (population 1). Association analysis identified seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) (HLJ2509, HLJ3227, HLJ3675, HLJ3766, HLJ3863, FGFR1, FGFR7) that showed significant correlation with scale cover pattern in population 1. When the seven SSRs were investigated in two other populations, seven and five SSRs were significantly correlated with scale cover pattern in population 2 (116 individuals) and population 3 (57 individuals), respectively. The exceptions were FGFR1 and HLJ3227. A genetic linkage map was constructed using the 290 SSRs and 241 SSRs were mapped into 47 linkage groups (LGs), with 2-15 markers per LG. The map spanned 2,241.7 cM, with LG sizes that varied from 1.1 to 124.9 cM. All seven markers associated with scale cover mapped into LG3. We considered that a gene cluster that affected the scale cover pattern possibly existed in LG3. By aligning the seven markers with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) genome, we identified six candidate genes (atoh1a, ptch1, bmp1a, fgfr1a, fgf17, wnt5a) that may be associated with scale formation. We propose that the seven markers could be used with marker-assisted selection to breed a new variety of common carp, and the six candidate genes could help in understanding the scale cover mechanism.
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Interleukin-17 induces CC chemokine receptor 6 expression and cell migration in colorectal cancer cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and its ligand CCL20 are involved in human colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis and can promote the progression of CRC. In addition, interleukin-17 (IL-17), produced by a T cell subset named "Th17," has been identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and has emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. However, the relevance of IL-17 in the development and progression of CRC still remains to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IL-17 on the cell migration of CRC cells. Human CRC HCT-116 cells were used to study the effect of IL-17 on CCR6 expression and cell migration in CRC cells. IL-17 treatment induced migration of HCT-116 cells across the Boyden chamber membrane and increased the expression level of the CCR6. Inhibition of CCR6 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and neutralizing antibody inhibited IL-17-induced cell migration. By using specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), we demonstrated that the activation of ERK and p38 pathways are critical for IL-17-induced CCR6 expression and cell migration. Promoter activity and transcription factor ELISA assays showed that IL-17 increased NF-?B-DNA binding activity in HCT-116 cells. Inhibition of NF-?B activation by specific inhibitors and siRNA blocked the IL-17-induced CCR6 expression. Our findings support the hypothesis that CCR6 up-regulation stimulated by IL-17 may play an active role in CRC cell migration. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Antibacterial activity and ion release of bonding agent containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles.
Dent Mater
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Recurrent caries at the margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to develop bonding agent with the double benefits of antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities, to investigate the effects of NACP filler level and solution pH on Ca and P ion release from adhesive, and to examine the antibacterial and dentin bond properties.
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[Clinical analysis of the correlation factors of chronic sinusitis osteitis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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To analyse the severity of chronic sinusitis osteitis and the correlation factors by global osteitis scoring scale(GOSS).
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Tongue Stiffness is Lower in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea During Wakefulness Compared With Matched Control Subjects.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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This study aimed to determine whether tongue stiffness (shear modulus) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is different for controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), and to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on stiffness.
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Transcriptome profiling in imipenem-selected Acinetobacter baumannii.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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Carbapenem-resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii has gradually become a global challenge. To identify the genes involved in carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii, the transcriptomic responses of the completely sequenced strain ATCC 17978 selected with 0.5 mg/L (IPM-2 m) and 2 mg/L (IPM-8 m) imipenem were investigated using RNA-sequencing to identify differences in the gene expression patterns.
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Acarbose treatment and the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients: a nationwide seven-year follow-up study.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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To investigate the potential benefits of acarbose treatment on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes by using nationwide insurance claim dataset.
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Oral cavity contains distinct niches with dynamic microbial communities.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Microbes colonize human oral surfaces within hours after delivery. During postnatal development, physiological changes, such as the eruption of primary teeth and replacement of the primary dentition with permanent dentition, greatly alter the microbial habitats, which, in return, may lead to community composition shifts at different phases in people's lives. By profiling saliva, supragingival and mucosal plaque samples from healthy volunteers at different ages and dentition stages, we observed that the oral cavity is a highly heterogeneous ecological system containing distinct niches with significantly different microbial communities. More importantly, the phylogenetic microbial structure varies with ageing. In addition, only a few taxa were present across the whole populations, indicating a core oral microbiome should be defined based on age and oral niches.
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Anti-EGFR MoAb treatment in colorectal cancer: limitations, controversies, and contradictories.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Anti-epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) treatment for chemotherapy refractory or metastatic colorectal cancer has obtained great achievement. However, not every colorectal patient responds to such molecular-targeted agent well. Biomarkers associated with anti-EGFR resistance are not limited to KRAS mutation up to now. It was recently reported that cross-talking molecular effectors interacted with EGFR-related pathway were also negative predictor for anti-EGFR treatment. However, the limited data, controversial results, and contradictories between in vitro and clinical studies restrict the clinical application of these new biomarkers. Although the current theory of tumor microenvironment supported the application of multi-target treatment, the results from the clinical studies were less than expected. Moreover, WHO or RECIST guideline for response assessment in anti-EGFR MoAb treatment was also queried by recent AIO KRK-0306 trial. This review focuses on these controversies, contradictories, and limitations, in order to uncover the unmet needs in current status of anti-EGFR MoAb treatment in colorectal cancer.
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Activation of neutral-sphingomyelinase, MAPKs, and p75 NTR-mediating caffeic acid phenethyl ester-induced apoptosis in C6 glioma cells.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of propolis, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-tumor activities. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of CAPE and addressed the role of p53 and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in regulating CAPE-induced apoptosis in C6 glioma cells.
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Resistin-induced stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression through Toll-like receptor 4 and activation of p38 MAPK/ NF?B signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) (CXC chemokine ligand-12)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is involved in the carcinogenesis of human gastric cancer, where it stimulates angiogenesis and favors metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs. In addition, resistin is suggested to be an important link between obesity and the development of gastric cancer. Resistin has identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. A limited number of studies have investigated the association of resistin and SDF-1 with gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which resistin influences the expression of SDF-1 in gastric carcinoma cells.
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Clinical and radiographic evaluation of cervical disk replacement: a retrospective study.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Studies have shown the effectiveness of cervical disk replacement. However, clinical outcomes, particularly by radiographic assessment during the 36-month follow-up visit, have not been reported for cervical disk replacement with Mobi-C (LDR, Austin, Texas) disk prostheses. A retrospective study was conducted at 10 centers across China and included 65 patients who underwent single-level Mobi-C disk prosthesis replacement from October 2009 to July 2010. Clinical and radiographic data were collected before replacement, 7 days postoperatively, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. Clinical and neurologic outcomes were assessed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, visual analog scale (VAS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Odom's criteria. Static and dynamic radiographs were measured to determine intervertebral height and range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine, the functional spinal unit, the treated segment, and adjacent segments. JOA, VAS, and NDI scores showed statistically significant improvement 36 months after replacement (P<.05). The ROM of the cervical spine, functional spinal unit, treated segment, and adjacent segments did not show a significant difference before and after replacement (P>.05). The intervertebral height of the treated segment increased significantly, and the intervertebral height of adjacent segments showed no statistical significance between time points and at follow-up. Clinical outcomes indicated that Mobi-C artificial cervical disk replacement is reliable. Radiographic data showed that it plays a role in reconstruction or maintenance of intervertebral height and ROM of the cervical spine, functional spinal unit, treated segment, and adjacent segments after Mobi-C cervical disk replacement.
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Trends in Specific Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis: A Survey of Chinese ENT Specialists.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a suitable but uncommon treatment option for allergic rhinitis (AR) in China. The current understanding and attitude of Chinese ENT (ear, nose, and throat) specialists in regards to SIT is unclear. This study investigates current trends in the awareness and application status of SIT among Chinese ENT specialists.
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Effects of fluid structure interaction in a three dimensional model of the spinal subarachnoid space.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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It is unknown whether spinal cord motion has a significant effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and therefore the importance of including fluid structure interaction (FSI) in computational fluid dynamics models (CFD) of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS) is unclear. This study aims to determine the effects of FSI on CSF pressure and spinal cord motion in a normal and in a stenosis model of the SAS. A three-dimensional patient specific model of the SAS and spinal cord were constructed from MR anatomical images and CSF flow rate measurements obtained from a healthy human being. The area of SAS at spinal level T4 was constricted by 20% to represent the stenosis model. FSI simulations in both models were performed by running ANSYS CFX and ANSYS Mechanical in tandem. Results from this study show that the effect of FSI on CSF pressure is only about 1% in both the normal and stenosis models and therefore show that FSI has a negligible effect on CSF pressure.
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Effect of the size-selective silver clusters on lithium peroxide morphology in lithium-oxygen batteries.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Lithium-oxygen batteries have the potential needed for long-range electric vehicles, but the charge and discharge chemistries are complex and not well understood. The active sites on cathode surfaces and their role in electrochemical reactions in aprotic lithium-oxygen cells are difficult to ascertain because the exact nature of the sites is unknown. Here we report the deposition of subnanometre silver clusters of exact size and number of atoms on passivated carbon to study the discharge process in lithium-oxygen cells. The results reveal dramatically different morphologies of the electrochemically grown lithium peroxide dependent on the size of the clusters. This dependence is found to be due to the influence of the cluster size on the formation mechanism, which also affects the charge process. The results of this study suggest that precise control of subnanometre surface structure on cathodes can be used as a means to improve the performance of lithium-oxygen cells.
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Identification and characterization of lysine-methylated sites on histones and non-histone proteins.
Comput Biol Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Protein methylation is a kind of post-translational modification (PTM), and typically takes place on lysine and arginine amino acid residues. Protein methylation is involved in many important biological processes, and most recent studies focused on lysine methylation of histones due to its critical roles in regulating transcriptional repression and activation. Histones possess highly conserved sequences and are homologous in most species. However, there is much less sequence conservation among non-histone proteins. Therefore, mechanisms for identifying lysine-methylated sites may greatly differ between histones and non-histone proteins. Nevertheless, this point of view was not considered in previous studies. Here we constructed two support vector machine (SVM) models by using lysine-methylated data from histones and non-histone proteins for predictions of lysine-methylated sites. Numerous features, such as the amino acid composition (AAC) and accessible surface area (ASA), were used in the SVM models, and the predictive performance was evaluated using five-fold cross-validations. For histones, the predictive sensitivity was 85.62% and specificity was 80.32%. For non-histone proteins, the predictive sensitivity was 69.1% and specificity was 88.72%. Results showed that our model significantly improved the predictive accuracy of histones compared to previous approaches. In addition, features of the flanking region of lysine-methylated sites on histones and non-histone proteins were also characterized and are discussed. A gene ontology functional analysis of lysine-methylated proteins and correlations of lysine-methylated sites with other PTMs in histones were also analyzed in detail. Finally, a web server, MethyK, was constructed to identify lysine-methylated sites. MethK now is available at http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/MethK/.
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A novel approach for discovering condition-specific correlations of gene expressions within biological pathways by using cloud computing technology.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Microarrays are widely used to assess gene expressions. Most microarray studies focus primarily on identifying differential gene expressions between conditions (e.g., cancer versus normal cells), for discovering the major factors that cause diseases. Because previous studies have not identified the correlations of differential gene expression between conditions, crucial but abnormal regulations that cause diseases might have been disregarded. This paper proposes an approach for discovering the condition-specific correlations of gene expressions within biological pathways. Because analyzing gene expression correlations is time consuming, an Apache Hadoop cloud computing platform was implemented. Three microarray data sets of breast cancer were collected from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and pathway information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes was applied for discovering meaningful biological correlations. The results showed that adopting the Hadoop platform considerably decreased the computation time. Several correlations of differential gene expressions were discovered between the relapse and nonrelapse breast cancer samples, and most of them were involved in cancer regulation and cancer-related pathways. The results showed that breast cancer recurrence might be highly associated with the abnormal regulations of these gene pairs, rather than with their individual expression levels. The proposed method was computationally efficient and reliable, and stable results were obtained when different data sets were used. The proposed method is effective in identifying meaningful biological regulation patterns between conditions.
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Distinct Epidermal Keratinocytes Respond to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Differently.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Following an increase in the use of electric appliances that can generate 50 or 60 Hz electromagnetic fields, concerns have intensified regarding the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on human health. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested the carcinogenic potential of environmental exposure to ELF-EMFs, specifically at 50 or 60 Hz. However, the biological mechanism facilitating the effects of ELF-EMFs remains unclear. Cellular studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMFs. The inconsistent results might have been due to diverse cell types. In our previous study, we indicated that 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMFs will cause G1 arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether ELF-EMFs cause similar effects in a distinct epidermal keratinocyte, primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), by using the same ELF-EMF exposure system and experimental design. We observed that ELF-EMFs exerted no effects on cell growth, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and the activation of ATM signaling pathway in NHEK cells. We demonstrated that the 2 epidermal keratinocytes responded to ELF-EMFs differently. To further validate this finding, we simultaneously exposed the NHEK and HaCaT cells to ELF-EMFs in the same incubator for 168 h and observed the cell growths. The simultaneous exposure of the two cell types results showed that the NHEK and HaCaT cells exhibited distinct responses to ELF-EMFs. Thus, we confirmed that the biological effects of ELF-EMFs in epidermal keratinocytes are cell type specific. Our findings may partially explain the inconsistent results of previous studies when comparing results across various experimental models.
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Differential Regulation of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages from Diabetic Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation are features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its vascular complications. However, the effects of diabetic monocyte-derived macrophages on vascular SMC proliferation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-proliferative effect of macrophages isolated from DM patients on vascular SMCs. Macrophage-conditioned media (MCM) were prepared from macrophages isolated from DM patients. DM-MCM treatment induced HASMC proliferation, decreased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expressions, and increased microRNA (miR)-17-5p and miR-221 expressions. Inhibition of either miR-17-5p or miR-221 inhibited DM-MCM-induced cell proliferation. Inhibition of miR-17-5p abolished DM-MCM-induced p21Cip1 down-regulation; and inhibition of miR-221 attenuated the DM-MCM-induced p27Kip1 down-regulation. Furthermore, blocking assays demonstrated that PDGF-CC in DM-MCM is the major mediators of cell proliferation in SMCs. In conclusion, our present data support the hypothesis that SMC proliferation stimulated by macrophages may play critical roles in vascular complications in DM patients and suggest a new mechanism by which arterial disease is accelerated in diabetes.
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Ex Vivo Response to Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors of the HIV Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Derived from HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR). However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+) isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi.
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Progressive Degradation of Crude Oil n-Alkanes Coupled to Methane Production under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although methanogenic degradation of hydrocarbons has become a well-known process, little is known about which crude oil tend to be degraded at different temperatures and how the microbial community is responded. In this study, we assessed the methanogenic crude oil degradation capacity of oily sludge microbes enriched from the Shengli oilfield under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The microbial communities were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes combined with cloning and sequencing. Enrichment incubation demonstrated the microbial oxidation of crude oil coupled to methane production at 35 and 55°C, which generated 3.7±0.3 and 2.8±0.3 mmol of methane per gram oil, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that crude oil n-alkanes were obviously degraded, and high molecular weight n-alkanes were preferentially removed over relatively shorter-chain n-alkanes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the concurrence of acetoclastic Methanosaeta and hydrogenotrophic methanogens but different methanogenic community structures under the two temperature conditions. Candidate divisions of JS1 and WWE 1, Proteobacteria (mainly consisting of Syntrophaceae, Desulfobacteraceae and Syntrophorhabdus) and Firmicutes (mainly consisting of Desulfotomaculum) were supposed to be involved with n-alkane degradation in the mesophilic conditions. By contrast, the different bacterial phylotypes affiliated with Caldisericales, "Shengli Cluster" and Synergistetes dominated the thermophilic consortium, which was most likely to be associated with thermophilic crude oil degradation. This study revealed that the oily sludge in Shengli oilfield harbors diverse uncultured microbes with great potential in methanogenic crude oil degradation over a wide temperature range, which extend our previous understanding of methanogenic degradation of crude oil alkanes.
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Identification of under-detected periodicity in time-series microarray data by using empirical mode decomposition.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Detecting periodicity signals from time-series microarray data is commonly used to facilitate the understanding of the critical roles and underlying mechanisms of regulatory transcriptomes. However, time-series microarray data are noisy. How the temporal data structure affects the performance of periodicity detection has remained elusive. We present a novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to examine this effect. We applied EMD to a yeast microarray dataset and extracted a series of intrinsic mode function (IMF) oscillations from the time-series data. Our analysis indicated that many periodically expressed genes might have been under-detected in the original analysis because of interference between decomposed IMF oscillations. By validating a protein complex coexpression analysis, we revealed that 56 genes were newly determined as periodic. We demonstrated that EMD can be used incorporating with existing periodicity detection methods to improve their performance. This approach can be applied to other time-series microarray studies.
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Conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor-transduced mesenchymal stem cells promote axon regeneration and functional recovery of injured sciatic nerve.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease that often results in axonal degeneration and the loss of neurons, ultimately leading to limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Currently, there are no effective treatments for PNI. In the present study, we transduced conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen tubes to investigate their regenerative effects on rat peripheral nerves in an in vivo transection model. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen tubes demonstrated their ability to be resorbed in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of the CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after application of CDNF-MSCs. Quantitative analysis of neurofilament 200 (NF200) and S100 immunohistochemistry showed significant enhancement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration in the group receiving CDNF-MSCs (CDNF-MSCs group) compared with the control groups. Myelination thickness, axon diameter and the axon-to fiber diameter ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the CDNF-MSCs group at 8 and 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. After surgery, the sciatic functional index, target muscle weight, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing demonstrated functional recovery. Light and electron microscopy confirmed successful regeneration of the sciatic nerve. The greater numbers of HRP-labeled neuron cell bodies and increased sciatic nerve index values (SFI) in the CDNF-MSCs group suggest that CDNF exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo. We also observed higher target muscle weights and a significant improvement in muscle atrophism in the CDNF-MSCs group. Collectively, these findings indicate that CDNF gene therapy delivered by MSCs is capable of promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery, likely because of the significant neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of CDNF and the superior environment offered by MSCs and collagen tubes.
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Oral microbiota distinguishes acute lymphoblastic leukemia pediatric hosts from healthy populations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In leukemia, oral manifestations indicate aberrations in oral microbiota. Microbiota structure is determined by both host and environmental factors. In human hosts, how health status shapes the composition of oral microbiota is largely unknown. Taking advantage of advances in high-throughput sequencing, we compared the composition of supragingival plaque microbiota of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) pediatric patients with healthy controls. The oral microbiota of leukemia patients had lower richness and less diversity compared to healthy controls. Microbial samples clustered into two major groups, one of ALL patients and another of healthy children, with different structure and composition. Abundance changes of certain taxa including the Phylum Firmicutes, the Class Bacilli, the Order Lactobacillales, the Family Aerococcaceae and Carnobacteriaceae, as well as the Genus Abiotrophia and Granulicatella were associated with leukemia status. ALL patients demonstrated a structural imbalance of the oral microbiota, characterized by reduced diversity and abundance alterations, possibly involved in systemic infections, indicating the importance of immune status in shaping the structure of oral microbiota.
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Berberine-induced apoptotic and autophagic death of HepG2 cells requires AMPK activation.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the primary liver cancer, is one of the most malignant human tumors with extremely poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of berberine in a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2), and to study the underlying mechanisms by focusing on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling cascade.
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miR-18a downregulates DICER1 and promotes proliferation and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, common in Southeast Asia and the southern provinces of China, often has metastasized by the time of diagnosis; thus there exists the need for improved diagnosis and treatment. Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), which post-transcriptionally regulate protein expression, contribute to the processes of tumorigenesis, including metastasis and cellular invasion. Here, we studied the effect of one miRNA, miR-18a-which is believed to target the miRNA-processing enzyme DICERl-on nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In situ hybridization revealed that miR-18a was more highly expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues than in control tissues (P < 0.05), and the overexpression correlated with clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), but not with age and gender (P > 0.05). In vitro analysis of HK1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells transfected with miR-18a exhibited significantly decreased expression of DICER1 mRNA and protein but significantly increased proliferation and invasion properties compared to control cells (P < 0.05). Finally, nude mice injected with miR-18a transfected-HK1 cells displayed significantly increased tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that miR-18a expression can promote proliferation and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and that these activities may occur through its regulation of DICER1.
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Association study on ADAM33 polymorphisms in mite-sensitized persistent allergic rhinitis in a Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The ADAM33 gene has been identified as a potentially important asthma candidate gene and polymorphisms in this gene have been shown to be associated with asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis.
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HIV-1 entry and trans-infection of astrocytes involves CD81 vesicles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Astrocytes are extensively infected with HIV-1 in vivo and play a significant role in the development of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Despite their extensive infection, little is known about how astrocytes become infected, since they lack cell surface CD4 expression. In the present study, we investigated the fate of HIV-1 upon infection of astrocytes. Astrocytes were found to bind and harbor virus followed by biphasic decay, with HIV-1 detectable out to 72 hours. HIV-1 was observed to associate with CD81-lined vesicle structures. shRNA silencing of CD81 resulted in less cell-associated virus but no loss of co-localization between HIV-1 and CD81. Astrocytes supported trans-infection of HIV-1 to T-cells without de novo virus production, and the virus-containing compartment required 37°C to form, and was trypsin-resistant. The CD81 compartment observed herein, has been shown in other cell types to be a relatively protective compartment. Within astrocytes, this compartment may be actively involved in virus entry and/or spread. The ability of astrocytes to transfer virus, without de novo viral synthesis suggests they are capable of sequestering and protecting virus and thus, they could potentially facilitate viral dissemination in the CNS.
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Effects of statins on incident dementia in patients with type 2 DM: a population-based retrospective cohort study in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are prone to develop dementia. Results from a recent study indicated that statin users had lower chance of developing incident dementia. However there is little information on the potential benefits of statin use on dementia in patients with T2DM cohort.
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Soil microbial community responses to a decade of warming as revealed by comparative metagenomics.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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Soil microbial communities are extremely complex, composed of thousands of low-abundance species (<0.1% of total). How such complex communities respond to natural or human-induced fluctuations, including major perturbations such as global climate change, remains poorly understood, severely limiting our predictive ability of soil ecosystem functioning and resilience. In this study, we compared twelve whole-community shotgun metagenomic datasets from a grassland soil in Midwest USA; half representing soil that was undergoing infrared warming by 2°C for 10 years, which simulated the effects of climate change, and the other half representing the adjacent soil that received no warming and thus, served as control. Our analyses revealed that the heated communities showed significant shifts in composition and predicted metabolism, and these shifts were community-wide as opposed to being attributable to a few taxa. Key metabolic pathways related to carbon turnover, e.g., cellulose degradation (?13%) and CO2 production (?10%), and nitrogen, e.g., denitrification (?12%), were enriched under warming, which was consistent with independent physicochemical measurements. These community shifts were interlinked, in part, with higher primary productivity of the aboveground plant communities stimulated by warming, revealing that most of the additional, plant-derived soil carbon was likely respired by microbial activity. Warming also enriched for a higher abundance of sporulation genes and genomes with higher G+C% content. Collectively, our results indicate that the microbial communities of the temperate grassland soils play important roles in mediating the feedback responses to climate change and advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms of community adaptation to environmental perturbations.
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[The effect of middle ear effusion on enzymatic digestion of DNA in middle ear effusions of chronic otitis media with effusion].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To determine whether or not the bacterial DNA which was detected by PCR comes from viable bacteria.
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[Anti-allergic effects of the probiotic preparations of enterococcus on experimental allergic rhinitis in mice].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic effects of lysozyme/heat-treated Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 (LFK) and heat-treated Enterococcus faecium sp. TN-3 (TN) on experimental allergic rhinitis (AR).
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Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone protects retinal pigment epithelium cells from oxidative stress through activation of melanocortin 1 receptor-Akt-mTOR signaling.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Patients with age related macular degeneration (AMD) will develop vision loss in the center of the visual field. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell apoptosis is an important contributor of AMD. In this study, we explored the pro-survival effect of ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) on oxidative stressed RPE cells. We found that ?-MSH receptor melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) was functionally expressed in primary and transformed RPE cells. RPE cells were response to ?-MSH stimulation. ?-MSH activated Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Erk1/2 signalings in RPE cells, which were inhibited by MC1R siRNA knockdown. ?-MSH protected RPE cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis, an effect that was almost abolished when MC1R was depleted by siRNA. ?-MSH-mediated S6K1 activation and pro-survival effect against H2O2 was inhibited by Akt inhibitors (perifosine, MK-2206 and LY294002). Further, mTOR inhibition by rapamycin, or by mTOR siRNA knockdown, diminished ?-MSHs pro-survival effect in RPE cells. Thus, Akt and its downstream mTOR signaling mediates ?-MSH-induced survival in RPE cells. In summary, we have identified a new ?-MSH-MC1R physiologic pathway that reduces H2O2-induced RPE cell damage, and might minimize the risk of developing AMD.
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Sustained delivery of proangiogenic microRNA-132 by nanoparticle transfection improves endothelial cell transplantation.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Transplantation of endothelial cells (ECs) for therapeutic vascularization or tissue engineering is a promising method for increasing tissue perfusion. Here, we report on a new approach for enhanced EC transplantation using targeted nanoparticle transfection to deliver proangiogenic microRNA-132 (miR-132) to cultured ECs before their transplantation, thereby sensitizing cells to the effects of endogenous growth factors. We synthesized biodegradable PLGA polymer nanoparticles (NPs) that were loaded with miR-132 and coated with cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptides that target integrin ?v?3 expressed on cultured human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), increasing NP uptake through clathrin-coated pits. Unlike previously reported NPs for miR delivery, these NPs slowly release RNA for several weeks. The endocytosed NPs remain in clathrin-coated vesicles from which they mediate intracellular delivery of siRNA or miRNA. Transfection of HUVECs with miR-132 enhances growth factor-induced proliferation and migration in 2D culture, producing a 1.8- and 5-fold increase, respectively. However, while the effects of conventional transfection were short-lived, NP transfection produced protein knockdown and biological effects that were significantly longer in duration (?6 d). Transfection of HUVECs with miR-132 NP resulted in a 2-fold increase in the number of microvessels per square millimeter compared to lipid after transplantation into immunodeficient mice and led to a higher number of mural cell-invested vessels than control transfection. These data suggest that sustained delivery of miR-132 encapsulated in a targeted biodegradable polymer NP is a safe and efficient strategy to improve EC transplantation and vascularization.-Devalliere, J., Chang, W. G., Andrejecsk, J. W., Abrahimi, P., Cheng, C. J., Jane-wit, D., Saltzman, W. M., Pober, J. S. Sustained delivery of proangiogenic microRNA-132 by nanoparticle transfection improves endothelial cell transplantation.
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[Influence of levocarnitine on heart function and endocrine among patients with heart faliure].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To observe the efficacy of levocarnitine in treating elderly patients with chronic heart failure and to explore its impact on cardiac function and endocrine.
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Multiplexed detection of xylene and trichloroethylene in water by photonic crystal absorption spectroscopy.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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We experimentally demonstrate simultaneous selective detection of xylene and trichloroethylene (TCE) using multiplexed photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) by near-infrared optical absorption spectroscopy on a chip. Based on the slow light effect of photonic crystal structure, the sensitivity of our device is enhanced to 1 ppb (v/v) for xylene and 10 ppb (v/v) for TCE in water. Multiplexing is enabled by multimode interference power splitters and Y-combiners that integrate multiple PCWs on a silicon chip in a silicon-on-insulator platform.
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Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) was determined in this study. The mitogenome is 16,790?bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the putative origin of the light strand replication) with a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.26% for A, 29.00% for C, 16.23% for G and 24.51% for T, with a slight AT bias of 54.77%.
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[The effect of plasma radiofrequency ablation on nasal mucosa provocative tests for allergic rhinitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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In order to explore the effect of plasma radiofrequency ablation on nasal mucosa provocative tests for allergic rhinitis.
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Esthetic comparison of white-spot lesion treatment modalities using spectrometry and fluorescence.
Angle Orthod
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Abstract Objective: To compare the esthetic improvements of white-spot lesions (WSLs) treated by fluoride, casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), or resin infiltration. Materials and Methods: WSLs were created on human enamel and randomly assigned to four groups: NaF (500 ppm), CPP-ACP, resin infiltration (Icon), or distilled deionized water (DDW; control group). The color change (?E) of each specimen was measured with a Crystaleye spectrophotometer, and fluorescence loss (?Q) was measured by quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), at different time points after treatment: baseline (0 weeks), 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks. Results: The ?E and ?Q baseline values for the four groups before the treatments did not differ significantly. Icon treatment improved the WSL color significantly and gave the lowest ?E (2.9 ± 1.2 on average) compared with other treatments (P < .01). The Icon treatment also resulted in a significant change in the ?Q of WSLs compared with baseline (P < .01). In the NaF and CPP-ACP treatment groups, ?Q showed significant recovery compared with the baseline values only after 4 weeks after treatment (P < .05). Conclusions: Resin infiltration is more effective than NaF or CPP-ACP in providing esthetic improvement of WSLs.
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Aquaporin-4 expression in post-traumatic syringomyelia.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is an astroglial water channel protein that plays an important role in the transmembrane movement of water within the central nervous system. AQP4 has been implicated in numerous pathological conditions involving abnormal fluid accumulation, including spinal cord edema following traumatic injury. AQP4 has not been studied in post-traumatic syringomyelia, a condition that cannot be completely explained by current theories of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. Alterations of AQP4 expression or function may contribute to the fluid imbalance leading to syrinx formation or enlargement. The aim of this study was to examine AQP4 expression levels and distribution in an animal model of post-traumatic syringomyelia. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were used to assess AQP4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in an excitotoxic amino acid/arachnoiditis model of post-traumatic syringomyelia in Sprague-Dawley rats. At all time-points, GFAP-positive astrocytes were observed in tissue surrounding syrinx cavities, although western blot analysis demonstrated an overall decrease in GFAP expression, except at the latest stage investigated. AQP4 expression was significantly higher at the level of syrinx at three and six weeks following the initial syrinx induction surgery. Significant increases in AQP4 expression also were observed in the upper cervical cord, rostral to the syrinx except in the acute stage of the condition at the three-day time-point. Immunostaining showed that AQP4 was expressed around all syrinx cavities, most notably adjacent to a mature syrinx (six- and 12-week time-point). This suggests a relationship between AQP4 and fluid accumulation in post-traumatic syringomyelia. However, whether this is a causal relationship or occurs in response to an increase in fluid needs to be established.
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Hyperosmotic response of streptococcus mutans: from microscopic physiology to transcriptomic profile.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Oral streptococci metabolize carbohydrate to produce organic acids, which not only decrease the environmental pH, but also increase osmolality of dental plaque fluid due to tooth demineralization and consequent calcium and phosphate accumulation. Despite these unfavorable environmental changes, the bacteria continue to thrive. The aim of this study was to obtain a global view on strategies taken by Streptococcus mutans to deal with physiologically relevant elevated osmolality, and perseveres within a cariogenic dental plaque.
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Respiratory Movement of Upper Airway Tissue in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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To measure real-time movement of the tongue and lateral upper airway tissues in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects during wakefulness using tagged magnetic resonance imaging.
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Associations between surface markers on blood monocytes and carotid atherosclerosis in HIV-positive individuals.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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Chronic HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including in patients with virological suppression. Persistent innate immune activation may contribute to the development of CVD via activation of monocytes in these patients. We investigated whether changes in monocyte phenotype predict subclinical atherosclerosis in virologically suppressed HIV-positive individuals with low cardiovascular risk. We enroled 51 virologically suppressed HIV-positive individuals not receiving protease inhibitors or statins and 49 age-matched uninfected controls in this study. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) was used as a surrogate marker for CVD, and traditional risk factors, including Framingham risk scores, were recorded. Markers of monocyte activation (CD14, CD16, CCR2, CX3CR1, CD38, HLA-DR and CD11b) were measured in whole-blood samples by flow cytometry. Associations were assessed using univariate and multivariate median regressions. Median cIMT was similar between HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants (P=0.3), although HIV-positive patients had significantly higher Framingham risk score (P=0.009) and systemic inflammation. Expression of two monocyte markers, CD11b and CX3CR1, independently predicted carotid artery thickness in HIV-positive individuals after controlling for Framingham risk score (P=0.025 and 0.015, respectively). These markers were not predictive of carotid artery thickening in controls. Our study indicates that monocyte surface markers may serve as novel predictors of CVD in HIV-positive individuals and is consistent with an important role for monocyte activation in the progression of HIV-related cardiovascular pathology.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 3 December 2013; doi:10.1038/icb.2013.84.
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Regeneration of mammalian cochlear and vestibular hair cells through Hes1/Hes5 modulation with siRNA.
Hear. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The Notch pathway is a cell signaling pathway determining initial specification and subsequent cell fate in the inner ear. Previous studies have suggested that new hair cells (HCs) can be regenerated in the inner ear by manipulating the Notch pathway. In the present study, delivery of siRNA to Hes1 and Hes5 using a transfection reagent or siRNA to Hes1 encapsulated within poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles increased HC numbers in non-toxin treated organotypic cultures of cochleae and maculae of postnatal day 3 mouse pups. An increase in HCs was also observed in cultured cochleae and maculae of mouse pups pre-conditioned with a HC toxin (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal or neomycin) and then treated with the various siRNA formulations. Treating cochleae with siRNA to Hes1 associated with a transfection reagent or siRNA to Hes1 delivered by PLGA nanoparticles decreased Hes1 mRNA and up-regulated Atoh1 mRNA expression allowing supporting cells (SCs) to acquire a HC fate. Experiments using cochleae and maculae of p27(kip1)/-GFP transgenic mouse pups demonstrated that newly generated HCs trans-differentiated from SCs. Furthermore, PLGA nanoparticles are non-toxic to inner ear tissue, readily taken up by cells within the tissue of interest, and present a synthetic delivery system that is a safe alternative to viral vectors. These results indicate that when delivered using a suitable vehicle, Hes siRNAs are potential therapeutic molecules that may have the capacity to regenerate new HCs in the inner ear and possibly restore human hearing and balance function.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.