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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Differential expression of midkine and Ki67 in gastric carcinoma and the clinical implications].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To investigate the expressions of midkine (MK) and Ki67 in gastric carcinoma (GC) and their relation with the clinicopathologic characteristics.
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[Analysis of ornithine transcarbamylase gene mutations in three boys affected with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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To identify the types of OTC gene mutations in three male patients with late onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD, MIM #311250).
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A preliminary assessment of the potential of using an acacia-biochar system for spent mine site rehabilitation.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Mining activities result in extensive soil degradation by removing the top soil, disturbing soil structure and altering microbial communities. Rehabilitation of spent mine sites through revegetation thus requires proper soil amendments. In this study, a pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a jarrah biochar on the growth and nutrient status of a native legume, Acacia tetragonophylla, grown in a mixture of topsoil and mine rejects. Two biochar application rates (37 and 74 t ha(-1)) and two types of biochar, namely nutrient-enriched and non-enriched, were tested. We measured the soil pH and electrical conductivity, the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents and C and N isotope composition (?(13)C and ?(15)N) of soil and plants, the foliar phosphorus content and the growth and leaf biomass of the plants. Whilst no significant effect of biochar was observed on plant growth, biochar amendment affected soil properties and plant nutritional status. The highest rate of biochar application increased soil pH, C content and C/N ratio, and decreased soil ?(13)C. Biochar application also enhanced photosynthetic N use efficiency, as showed by the increase in foliar C/N ratio, and biological N fixation rates, as indicated by foliar ?(15)N. These positive effects were not observed when biochar was nutrient-enriched due to the associated increase in soil N. Revegetation of mine sites with acacia in combination with biochar amendment constitutes a plausible alternative to the wide use of N fertiliser through the supply of additional N to the system, even though other nutrients may be required in order to enhance plant early growth.
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[Genetic analysis of ASS1, ASL and SLC25A13 in citrullinemia patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To detect potential mutations of Y9ASS1, ASL and SLC25A13 genes in four patients manifesting citrullinemia.
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Characterization of recombinant influenza A virus as a vector expressing respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein epitopes.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of respiratory infection in infants and the elderly, and no vaccine against this virus has yet been licensed. Here, we report a recombinant PR8 influenza virus with the RSV fusion (F) protein epitopes of the subgroup A gene inserted into the influenza virus non-structural (NS) gene (rFlu/RSV/F) that was generated as an RSV vaccine candidate. The rescued viruses were assessed by microscopy and Western blotting. The proper expression of NS1, the NS gene product, and the nuclear export protein (NEP) of rFlu/RSV/F was also investigated using an immunofluorescent assay. The rescued virus replicated well in the MDCK kidney cell line, A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line and CNE-2Z nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line. BALB/c mice immunized intranasally with rFlu/RSV/F had specific haemagglutination inhibition antibody responses against the PR8 influenza virus and RSV neutralization test proteins. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with rFlu/RSV/F elicited T helper type 1-dominant cytokine profiles against the RSV strain A2 virus. Taken together, our findings suggested that rFlu/RSV/F was immunogenic in vivo and warrants further development as a promising candidate vaccine.
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Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction of phenolics from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) inflorescences and evaluation of antioxidant activity in vitro.
Food Sci Technol Int
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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An efficient ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction technique was applied to extracting phenolics from broccoli inflorescences without organic solvents. The synergistic model of enzymolysis and ultrasonication simultaneously was selected, and the enzyme combination was optimized by orthogonal test: cellulase 7.5?mg/g FW (fresh weight), pectinase 10?mg/g FW, and papain 1.0?mg/g FW. The operating parameters in ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction were optimized with response surface methodology using Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power, 440?W; liquid to material ratio, 7.0:1?mL/g; pH value of 6.0 at 54.5?? for 10?min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of phenolics achieved 1.816?±?0.0187?mg gallic acid equivalents/gram FW. The free radical scavenging activity of ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction extracts was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl·assay with EC50 values of 0.25, and total antioxidant activity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay with ferric reducing antioxidant power value of 0.998?mmol FeSO4/g compared with the referential ascorbic acid of 1.184?mmol FeSO4/g.
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H2AX phosphorylation regulated by p38 is involved in Bim expression and apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells induced by imatinib.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Increasing evidence suggests that histone H2AX plays a critical role in regulation of tumor cell apoptosis and acts as a novel human tumor suppressor protein. However, the action of H2AX in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells is unknown. The detailed mechanism and epigenetic regulation by H2AX remain elusive in cancer cells. Here, we report that H2AX was involved in apoptosis of CML cells. Overexpression of H2AX increased apoptotic sensitivity of CML cells (K562) induced by imatinib. However, overexpression of Ser139-mutated H2AX (blocking phosphorylation) decreased sensitivity of K562 cells to apoptosis. Similarly, knockdown of H2AX made K562 cells resistant to apoptotic induction. These results revealed that the function of H2AX involved in apoptosis is strictly related to its phosphorylation (Ser139). Our data further indicated that imatinib may stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family member p38, and H2AX phosphorylation followed a similar time course, suggesting a parallel response. H2AX phosphorylation can be blocked by p38 siRNA or its inhibitor. These data demonstrated that H2AX phosphorylation was regulated by p38 MAPK pathway in K562 cells. However, the p38 MAPK downstream, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 and -2, which phosphorylated histone H3, were not required for H2AX phosphorylation during apoptosis. Finally, we provided epigenetic evidence that H2AX phosphorylation regulated apoptosis-related gene Bim expression. Blocking of H2AX phosphorylation inhibited Bim gene expression. Taken together, these data demonstrated that H2AX phosphorylation regulated by p38 is involved in Bim expression and apoptosis in CML cells induced by imatinib.
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[Relationship between expression of microRNA and inflammatory cytokines plasma level in pediatric patients with sepsis].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Sepsis is the major cause of death in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The clinical manifestations of early sepsis is very similar to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by non-infectious reason. This study aimed to investigate the expression of miRNA and inflammatory cytokines in plasma in pediatric sepsis patients and its clinical significance.
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PAH distribution and mass fluxes in the Three Gorges Reservoir after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Mass fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated for the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, based on concentration and discharge data from the Yangtze River. Virtual Organisms (VOs) have been applied during four campaigns in 2008, 2009 (twice) and 2011 at sampling sites distributed from Chongqing to Maoping. The total PAH mass fluxes ranged from 110 to 2,160 mg s(-1). Highest loads were determined at Chongqing with a decreasing trend towards Maoping in all four sampling campaigns. PAH remediation capacity of the TGR was found to be high as the mass flux reduced by more than half from upstream to downstream. Responsible processes are thought to be adsorption of PAH to suspended particles, dilution and degradation. Furthermore, the dependence of PAH concentration upon water depth was investigated at Maoping in front of the Three Gorges Dam. Although considerable differences could be revealed, there was no trend observable. Sampling of water with self-packed filter cartridges confirmed more homogenous PAH depth distribution. Moreover, PAH content of suspended particles was estimated from water concentrations gathered by VOs based on a water-particle separation model and subsequently compared to PAH concentration measured in water and in filter cartridges. It could be shown that the modeled data predicts the concentration caused by particle-bound PAHs to be about 6 times lower than PAHs dissolved in water. Besides, the model estimates the proportions of 5- and 6-ring PAHs being higher than in water phase.
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Artemisinin protects against dextran sulfate-sodium-induced inflammatory bowel disease, which is associated with activation of the pregnane X receptor.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Artemisinin has been used to treat malaria for centuries in the context of traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, the effects of artemisinin on pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A expression and its therapeutic role in inflammatory bowel disease were investigated. LS174T cells exposed to artemisinin at various concentrations and for different periods of time were examined with respect to the specific induction of CYP3A4 and PXR mRNA expression. Transient transfection experiments showed transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene through artemisinin to be PXR-dependent. An electrophoretic-mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that artemisinin activates the DNA-binding capacity of the PXR for the CYP3A4 element. These results indicate that the induction of CYP3A4 by artemisinin is mediated through the activation of PXR. Using animal models, it was demonstrated that artemisinin abrogates dextran sulfate sodium (DDS)-induced intestinal inflammation. Preadministration of artemisinin ameliorated the clinical hallmarks of colitis in DSS-treated mice as determined by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, rectal bleeding, colon length, and histology. Artemisinin was found to prevent or reduce the severity of colonic inflammation by inducing CYP3A expression by activation of PXR.
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The Correlation between Chemical Composition, as Determined by UPLC-TOF-MS, and Acute Toxicity of Veratrum nigrum L. and Radix paeoniae alba.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The eighteen incompatible medicaments is an important theory in traditional Chinese medicine. The theory suggests that drugs in the eighteen incompatible medicaments can be toxic when used together. Veratrum nigrum L. and Radix paeoniae alba belong to the eighteen incompatible medicaments and have been prohibited for thousands of years. This study offers preliminary insight into the mechanism and chemical constituents responsible for the incompatibility and toxicity of these two agents. Specifically, we performed toxicology studies to identify and quantify the constituent substances of the two agents. Experiments revealed that acute toxicity increases when the dose of V. nigrum L. is higher than, or equal to, RPA. UPLC-TOF-MS analysis showed that, although the volumes of V. nigrum L. were the same, the content of some veratrum alkaloids changed significantly and had a trend toward a highly positive correlation (|r| ? 0.8) with toxicity. This suggests that the increased toxicity of the V. nigrum L. and RPA combination was due mainly to increased content of the special veratrum alkaloids. The cytotoxicity of veratridine in SH-SY5Y cells was decreased with increasing paeoniflorin concentrations. This study provides insight into the mechanism behind the incompatibility theory of TCM.
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[Clinical observation of non-invasive ultrasonic cardiac output monitor combined passive leg raising test in predicting the children volume responsiveness].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To assess the ability of non-invasive ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM) combined with passive leg raising (PLR) test to predict volume responsiveness in septic shock children with spontaneous respiration.
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Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata).
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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An efficient ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) of Cucurbita moschata polysaccharides (CMCP) was established and the CMCP antioxidant activities were studied. The UAEE operating parameters (extraction temperature, ultrasonic power, pH, and liquid-to-material ratio) were optimized using the central composite design (CCD) and the mass transfer kinetic study in UAEE procedure was used to select the optimal extraction time. Enzymolysis and ultrasonication that were simultaneously conducted was selected as the UAEE synergistic model and the optimum extraction conditions with a maximum polysaccharide yield of 4.33 ± 0.15% were as follows: extraction temperature, 51.5 °C; ultrasonic power, 440 W; pH, 5.0; liquid-to-material ratio, 5.70:1 mL/g; and extraction time, 20 min. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro suggested that CMCP has good potential as a natural antioxidant used in the food or medicine industry because of their high reducing power and positive radical scavenging activity for DPPH radical.
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Influenza virus vaccine expressing fusion and attachment protein epitopes of respiratory syncytial virus induces protective antibodies in BALB/c mice.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important viral pathogen that causes life-threatening respiratory infections in both infants and the elderly; no vaccines are at present available. In this report, we examined the use of influenza virus as a vehicle for production of an experimental RSV vaccine. We used reverse genetics to generate a recombinant influenza A virus with epitopes from the RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) proteins (rFlu/RSV/F+G) in the influenza virus nonstructural (NS1) protein gene. Expression of RSV F+G epitope proteins was confirmed by Western blotting, and no changes in viral morphology were evident following examination by electron microscopy. BALB/c mice immunized intranasally with rFlu/RSV/F+G showed viral-specific antibody responses against both influenza and RSV. Total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgA were measured in mice immunized with rFlu/RSV/F+G, revealing robust cellular and mucosal immune responses. Furthermore, we found that rFlu/RSV/F+G conferred protection against subsequent influenza and RSV challenges, showing significant decreases in viral replication and obvious attenuation of histopathological changes associated with viral infections. These findings suggest that rFlu/RSV/F+G is a promising vaccine candidate, which should be further assessed using cotton rat and primate models.
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Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the first year following herbicide and scalping in a revegetation trial in south-east Queensland, Australia.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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During revegetation, the maintenance of soil carbon (C) pools and nitrogen (N) availability is considered essential for soil fertility and this study aimed to evaluate contrasting methods of site preparation (herbicide and scalping) with respect to the effects on soil organic matter (SOM) during the critical early establishment phase. Soil total C (TC), total N (TN), hot-water extractable organic C (HWEOC), hot-water extractable total N (HWETN), microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN), total inorganic N (TIN) and potentially mineralizable N (PMN) were measured over 53 weeks. MBC and MBN were the only variables affected by herbicide application. Scalping caused an immediate reduction in all variables, and the values remained low without any sign of recovery for the period of the study. The impact of scalping on HWETN and TIN lasted 22 weeks and stabilised afterwards. MBC and MBN were affected by both herbicide and scalping after initial treatment application and remained lower than control during the period of the study but did not decrease over time. While scalping had an inevitable impact on all soil properties that were measured, that impact did not worsen over time, and actually improved plant growth (unpublished data) while reducing site establishment costs. Therefore, it provides a useful alternative for weed control in revegetation projects where it is applied only once at site establishment and where SOM would be expected to recover as canopy closure is obtained and nutrient cycling through litterfall commences.
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Interactive forces between lignin and cellulase as determined by atomic force microscopy.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lignin is a complex polymer which inhibits the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose in lignocellulose biomass for biofuel production. Cellulase enzymes irreversibly bind to lignin, deactivating the enzyme and lowering the overall activity of the hydrolyzing reaction solution. Within this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to compare the adhesion forces between cellulase and lignin with the forces between cellulase and cellulose, and to study the moiety groups involved in binding of cellulase to lignin.
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Calculating osmotic pressure of xylitol solutions from molality according to UNIFAC model and measuring it with air humidity osmometry.
Pharm Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Abstract The osmotic pressure of xylitol solution at a wide concentration range was calculated according to the UNIFAC model and experimentally determined by our newly reported air humidity osmometry. The measurements from air humidity osmometry were compared with UNIFAC model calculations from dilute to saturated solution. Results indicate that air humidity osmometry measurements are comparable to UNIFAC model calculations at a wide concentration range by two one-sided test and multiple testing corrections. The air humidity osmometry is applicable to measure the osmotic pressure and the osmotic pressure can be calculated from the concentration.
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L-Proline: an efficient N,O-bidentate ligand for copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of primary and secondary benzylic alcohols at room temperature.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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A novel and highly practical copper-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation system with L-proline as the ligand at room temperature has been developed. A wide range of primary and secondary benzylic alcohols tested have been smoothly transformed into corresponding aldehydes and ketones with high yields and selectivities.
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Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of apoptosis-related genes and pathways regulated by H2AX in lung cancer A549 cells.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Histone H2AX is a novel tumor suppressor protein and plays an important role in apoptosis of cancer cells. However, the role of H2AX in lung cancer cells is unclear. The detailed mechanism and epigenetic regulation by H2AX remain elusive in cancer cells. We showed that H2AX was involved in apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells as in other tumor cells. Knockdown of H2AX strongly suppressed apoptosis of A549 cells. We clarified the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis regulated by H2AX based on genome-wide transcriptional analysis. Microarray data analysis demonstrated that H2AX knockdown in A549 cells affected expression of 3,461 genes, including upregulation of 1,435 and downregulation of 2,026. These differentially expressed genes were subjected to bioinformatic analysis for exploring biological processes regulated by H2AX in lung cancer cells. Gene ontology analysis showed that H2AX affected expression of many genes, through which, many important functions including response to stimuli, gene expression, and apoptosis were involved in apoptotic regulation of lung cancer cells. Pathway analysis identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and apoptosis as the most important pathways targeted by H2AX. Signal transduction pathway networks analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that two core genes, NFKB1 and JUN, were involved in apoptosis regulated by H2AX in lung cancer cells. Taken together, these data provide compelling clues for further exploration of H2AX function in cancer cells.
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Shifts in the abundance and community structure of soil ammonia oxidizers in a wet sclerophyll forest under long-term prescribed burning.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Fire shapes global biome distribution and promotes the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) play a vital role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen (N). However, behaviors of AOB and AOA under long-term prescribed burning remain unclear. This study was to examine how fire affected the abundances and communities of soil AOB and AOA. A long-term repeated forest fire experiment with three burning treatments (never burnt, B0; biennially burnt, B2; and quadrennially burnt, B4) was used in this study. The abundances and community structure of soil AOB and AOA were determined using quantitative PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library. More frequent fires (B2) increased the abundance of bacterium amoA gene, but tended to decrease archaeal amoA genes. Fire also modified the composition of AOA and AOB communities. Canonical correspondence analysis showed soil pH and dissolved organic C (DOC) strongly affected AOB genotypes, while nitrate-N and DOC shaped the AOA distribution. The increased abundance of bacterium amoA gene by fires may imply an important role of AOB in nitrification in fire-affected soils. The fire-induced shift in the community composition of AOB and AOA demonstrates that fire can disturb nutrient cycles.
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Calculating osmotic pressure according to nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor model.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Abstract The osmotic pressure of NaCl solutions was determined by the air humidity in equilibrium (AHE) method. The relationship between the osmotic pressure and the concentration was explored theoretically, and the osmotic pressure was calculated according to the nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor (N-Wilson-NRF) model from the concentration. The results indicate that the calculated osmotic pressure is comparable to the measured one.
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Determining osmotic pressure of drug solutions by air humidity in equilibrium method.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Abstract Objective: To establish a new osmotic pressure measuring method with a wide measuring range. Method: The osmotic pressure of drug solutions is determined by measuring the relative air humidity in equilibrium with the solution. The freezing point osmometry is used as a control. Results: The data obtained by the proposed method are comparable to those by the control method, and the measuring range of the proposed method is significantly wider than that of the control method. Conclusion: The proposed method is performed in an isothermal and equilibrium state, so it overcomes the defects of the freezing point and dew point osmometries which result from the heterothermal process in the measurement, and therefore is not limited to diluted solutions.
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Highly selective Wacker reaction of styrene derivatives: a green and efficient aerobic oxidative process promoted by benzoquinone/NaNO2/HClO4 under mild conditions.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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A green and efficient catalytic redox system for the aerobic oxidative Wacker oxidation of styrene derivatives at room temperature using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant without copper chloride has been developed. The newly developed system exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the smooth transformation of terminal styrene derivatives to the desired methyl ketones with up to 96% yield and >99% selectivity.
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Increased food intake in growth hormone-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) may be mediated by upregulating Agouti-related protein (AgRP).
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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In fish, food intake and feeding behavior are crucial for survival, competition, growth and reproduction. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit an enhanced growth rate, increased food intake and higher feed conversion rate. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of feeding regulation in GH-transgenic (TG) fish are not clear. In this study, we observed feeding behavior of TG and non-transgenic (NT) common carp, and analyzed the mRNA expression levels of NPY, AgRP I, orexin, POMC, CCK, and CART I in the hypothalamus and telencephalon after behavioral observation. We detected similar gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of TG and NT common carp, which had been cultured in the field at the same age. Furthermore, we tested the effects of GH on hypothalamus fragments in vitro to confirm our findings. We demonstrated that TG common carp displayed increased food intake and reduced food consumption time, which were associated with a marked increase in hypothalamic AgRP I mRNA expression. Our results suggest that elevated GH levels may influence food intake and feeding behavior by upregulating the hypothalamic orexigenic factor AgRP I in GH-transgenic common carp.
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Respiratory virus multiplex RT-PCR assay sensitivities and influence factors in hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infections.
Virol Sin
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Multiplex RT-PCR assays have been widely used tools for detection and differentiation of a panel of respiratory viral pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the Qiagen ResPlex II V2.0 kit and explored factors influencing its sensitivity. Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens were prospectively collected from pediatric inpatients with lower respiratory tract infections at the time of admission in the Shenzhen Childrens Hospital from May 2009 to April 2010. Total nucleic acids were extracted using the EZ1 system (Qiagen, Germany) and 17 respiratory viruses and genotypes including influenza A virus (FluA), FluB, parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV1), PIV2, PIV3, PIV4, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinoviruses (RhV), enteroviruses (EnV), human bocaviruses (hBoV), adenoviruses (AdV), four coronaviruses (229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1), and FluA 2009 pandemic H1N1(H1N1-p) were detected and identified by the ResPlex II kit. In parallel, 16 real-time TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to quantitatively detect each virus except for RhV. Influenza and parainfluenza viral cultures were also performed. Among the total 438 NPS specimens collected during the study period, one or more viral pathogens were detected in 274 (62.6%) and 201(45.9%) specimens by monoplex TaqMan RT-PCR and multiplex ResPlex, respectively. When results from monoplex PCR or cell culture were used as the reference standard, the multiplex PCR possessed specificities of 92.9-100.0%. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR for PIV3, hMPV, PIV1 and BoV were 73.1%, 70%, 66.7% and 55.6%, respectively, while low sensitivities (11.1%-40.0%) were observed for FluA, EnV, OC43, RSV and H1N1. Among the seven viruses/genotypes detected with higher frequencies, multiplex PCR sensitivities were correlated significantly with viral loads determined by the TaqMan RT-PCR in FluA, H1N1-p and RSV (p=0.011-0.000). The Qiagen ResPlex II multiplex RT-PCR kit possesses excellent specificity for simultaneous detection of 17 viral pathogens in NPS specimens in pediatric inpatients at the time of admission. The sensitivity of multiplex RT-PCR was influenced by viral loads, specimen process methods, primer and probe design and amplification condition.
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Warming rather than increased precipitation increases soil recalcitrant organic carbon in a semiarid grassland after 6 years of treatments.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Improved understanding of changes in soil recalcitrant organic carbon (C) in response to global warming is critical for predicting changes in soil organic C (SOC) storage. Here, we took advantage of a long-term field experiment with increased temperature and precipitation to investigate the effects of warming, increased precipitation and their interactions on SOC fraction in a semiarid Inner Mongolian grassland of northern China since April 2005. We quantified labile SOC, recalcitrant SOC and stable SOC at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths. Results showed that neither warming nor increased precipitation affected total SOC and stable SOC at either depth. Increased precipitation significantly increased labile SOC at the 0-10 cm depth. Warming decreased labile SOC (P?=?0.038) and marginally but significantly increased recalcitrant SOC at the 10-20 cm depth (P?=?0.082). In addition, there were significant interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on labile SOC and recalcitrant SOC at the 0-10 cm depth (both P<0.05), indicating that that results from single factor experiments should be treated with caution because of multi-factor interactions. Given that the absolute increase of SOC in the recalcitrant SOC pool was much greater than the decrease in labile SOC, and that the mean residence time of recalcitrant SOC is much greater, our results suggest that soil C storage at 10-20 cm depth may increase with increasing temperature in this semiarid grassland.
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Warming and increased precipitation have differential effects on soil extracellular enzyme activities in a temperate grassland.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Few studies have conducted the responses of soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) to climate change, especially over the long term. In this study, we investigated the six-year responses of soil EEA to warming and increased precipitation in a temperate grassland of northern China at two depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm. These extracellular enzymes included carbon-acquisition enzymes (?-glucosidase, BG), nitrogen-acquisition enzymes (N-acetylglucosaminidase, NAG; Leucine aminopeptidase, LAP) and phosphorus-acquisition enzymes (acid and alkaline phosphatases). The results showed that warming significantly increased acid phosphatase at the 0-10 cm depth and NAG at the 10-20 cm depth, but dramatically decreased BG and acid phosphatase in the subsurface. In contrast, increased precipitation significantly increased NAG, LAP and alkaline phosphatase in the surface and NAG, LAP and acid phosphatase in the subsurface. There was a significant warming and increased precipitation interaction on BG in the subsurface. Redundancy analysis indicated that the patterns of EEA were mainly driven by soil pH and NH(4)(+)-N and NO(3)(-)-N in the surface, while by NH(4)(+)-N and microbial biomass in the subsurface. Our results suggested that soil EEA responded differentially to warming and increased precipitation at two depths in this region, which may have implications for carbon and nutrient cycling under climate change.
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The effect of orexin-A on cardiac dysfunction mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion in ventrolateral medulla.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons, located in the perifornical region of the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) and projecting to the brain sites of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), involve in the increase of sympathetic activity, thereby regulating cardiovascular function. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the central orexin-A (OXA) could be involved in the cardiovascular dysfunction of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by releasing NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide anion (O2 (-)) generation in RVLM, AMI rat model established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to induce manifestation of cardiac dysfunction, monitored by the indicators as heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and left intraventricular pressure. The results showed that the expressions of OXA in LHA and orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) increased in RVLM of AMI rats. The double immunofluorescent staining indicated that OX1R positive cells and NAD(P)H oxidative subunit gp91phox or p47phox-immunoreactive (IR) cells were co-localized in RVLM. Microinjection of OXA into the cerebral ventricle significantly increased O2 (-) production and mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits when compared with aCSF-treated ones. Exogenous OXA administration in RVLM produced pressor and tachycardiac effects. Furthermore, the antagonist of OX1R and OX2R (SB-408124 and TCS OX2 29, respectively) or apocynin (APO), an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase, partly abolished those cardiovascular responses of OXA. HRV power spectral analysis showed that exogenous OXA led to decreased HF component of HRV and increased LF/HF ratio in comparison with aCSF, which suggested that OXA might be related to sympathovagal imbalance. As indicated by the results, OXA might participate in the central regulation of cardiovascular activities by disturbing the sympathovagal balance in AMI, which could be explained by the possibility that OXR and NAD(P)H-derived O2 (-) in RVLM mediates OXA-induced cardiovascular responses.
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Cardioprotective effects of a novel hydrogen sulfide agent-controlled release formulation of S-propargyl-cysteine on heart failure rats and molecular mechanisms.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Heart failure (HF) is one of the most serious diseases worldwide. S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), a novel modulator of endogenous hydrogen sulfide, is proved to be able to protect against acute myocardial ischemia. In order to produce more stable and sustainable hydrogen sulfide, we used controlled release formulation of SPRC (CR-SPRC) to elucidate possible cardioprotective effects on HF rats and investigate involved mechanisms on apoptosis and oxidation.
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Calculating critical relative humidity from solubility according to nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor model.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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The critical relative humidity (H(cr)) of 25 drugs and chemicals was determined by the air humidity in equilibrium (AHE) method. The relationship between the H(cr) and the solubility was explored theoretically, and the H(cr) was calculated according to the nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor (N-Wilson-NRF) model or Raoults law from their solubility. The results indicate that the calculated H(cr) is comparable to the measured one.
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Screening and identification of potential active components in crude Fructus Corni using solid-phase extraction and LC-LTQ-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Fructus Corni is derived from the dry ripe sarcocarp of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. (Cornaceae). It has attracted increasingly much attention as one of the most popular and valuable herbal medicine in clinic. This paper applied a rapid and validated method to the intrinsic quality control of Fructus Corni.
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[Describe relationship among multi-components of Siwu decoction using game theory].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Game theory is an important component of complex system theory, specially used in describing bilateral or multiple cooperation and confrontation. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription doctrines cover multiple connotation of game theory. Firstly multi-components of Siwu decoction were analyzed by using fuzzy set to get the membership functions. Then the revenue function was contructed and build the Siwu decoctions multi-player game model was built. Lastly the three kinds of different combinations Siwu decoction efficacy were analyzed by using the model to get the best compositions.
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Determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde of crude and processed Fructus Corni in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis sampling and liquid chromatography.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2011
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Fructus Corni is derived from the dry ripe sarcocarp of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) is an important active composition of the Fructus Corni. However, there have been no reports on the concentration of 5-HMF in freely moving rats using microdialysis coupled with HPLC.
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Simultaneous determination of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, crocin1, and rutin in crude and processed Fructus Gardeniae extracts by high performance liquid chromatography.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Fructus Gardeniae, commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) called Zhizi in chinese, is derived from the dried fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis of the Madder Family. To our knowledge, previously reported analytical methods were not developing for simultaneous determination of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, crocin1, and rutin in Fructus Gardeniae and its processed products of chaozheng pin (CZP) extracts.
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Defining global gene expression changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in female sGnRH-antisense transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system.
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Pharmacokinetic parameters of morroniside in iridoid glycosides of Fructus corni processing based on back-propagation neural network.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Fructus Corni is derived from the dry ripe sarcocarp of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. (Cornaceae). Morroniside is an active constituent of Fructus Corni used in many traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). This article describes a sensitive and specific assay for the quantitation of morroniside in rat plasma after oral administration of iridoid glycosides from Fructus Corni.
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Sodium nitrite catalyzed aerobic oxidative deoximation under mild conditions.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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A mild, simple process for the effective deoximation of a wide range of ketoximes and aldoximes has been developed, which utilizes available NaNO(2) as the catalyst and molecular oxygen as the green oxidant. Notably Amberlyst-15, which acts as the initiator of NaNO(2), can be reused without regeneration. This environmentally benign protocol could provide a valuable synthetic method for practical applications.
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Identification of metabolites of crude and processed Fructus Corni in rats by microdialysis sampling coupled with electrospray ionization linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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A microdialysis (MD) sampling coupled with electrospray ionization linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (LTQ-MS(n)) method has been developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of rat microdialysate metabolite profile of Fructus Corni, a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The purified samples were separated by a reversed-phase HPLC with C?? column under a gradient elution. Parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Fructus Corni of Jiu Zheng Pin (JZP, JZP is produced after steaming the crude drug pre-steeped in wine) were detected by the on-line MS(n) detector in negative scan model. The identification of the metabolites and their structural elucidation were performed by comparing the changes in molecular mass and defining sites of biotransformation based on the accurate MS(n) spectral information of diagnostic fragment ions. In this work, we used such strategies for the identification of the parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Fructus Corni in rats, and seven parent compounds and three new metabolites of Fructus Corni were found in rats for the first time. This study provides important structural information regarding to the metabolism of crude Fructus Corni and its JZP. Furthermore, this work also demonstrated the possibilities of using microdialysis sampling coupled with LC-MS(n) approach for identification of bioactive compounds from TCM in vivo.
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Global detection and identification of components from crude and processed traditional Chinese medicine by liquid chromatography connected with hybrid ion trap and time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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We herein present a chemical profiling method to efficiently process the information acquired by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)-electrospray ionization source in combination with hybrid ion trap and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-(ESI)-IT-TOF/MS), facilitating the structural determination of serial components contained in crude or processed traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Under the optimized UFLC and IT-TOF-MS(n) conditions, over 39 compounds were separated and detected in crude or processed Fructus corni within 25?min. The components were identified by comparing the mass spectra and retention time with reference compounds, or tentatively assigned by elucidating low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragment ions and matching empirical molecular formula with that of the published compounds. Several factors in the processing procedure were examined. The experimental results demonstrate that the chemical reactions that occurred in the processing procedure can be used to elucidate the processed mechanism of F. corni, which is regularly affected by the processing conditions. This study provides a novel approach and methodology to identify the complicated components from various complex mixtures such as crude TCM, processed TCM, and biological samples. It can be used as a valid analytical method for further understanding the processing mechanism of TCM, along with the intrinsic quality control of TCM and its processed product.
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Molecular analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from Chinese children with pharyngitis.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Streptococcus pyogenes is an important gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes various human diseases, of which streptococcal pharyngitis is the most common. In this work, a total of 185 S. pyogenes isolated from Chinese children with pharyngitis was analyzed by superantigen (SAg) genes, emm genotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-eight (31.4%) isolates were also typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The results indicate that most of the emm1 isolates possessed speA (88.5%) and speJ (83.6%), and few isolates possessed speI gene (13.1%). In contrast, none of the emm12-type isolates possessed speJ; few isolates possessed speA (5.2%); and most of the isolates possessed speI (91.7%). PFGE analysis revealed 25 different clusters, and MLST was performed for 2 predominant emm-type isolates; emm12 isolates belonged to ST36 while emm1 isolates belonged to ST28. As far as this collection is concerned, emm1 and emm12 are the prevalent genotypes among S. pyogenes strains associated with childrens pharyngitis in China. Most of the pharyngitis strains can be covered by a 26-valent vaccine. A strong correspondence is found only in the direction of emm type for both SAg profiles and PFGE types but not in the reverse direction.
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Adenosine A(2A)R modulates cardiovascular function by activating ERK1/2 signal in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of acute myocardial ischemic rats.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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To investigate the cardiovascular regulatory mechanism of adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in acute myocardial ischemic (AMI) rats.
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Plastic bronchitis in three children associated with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus infection.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2010
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Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon disorder generally associated with congenital heart disease or sickle cell acute chest syndrome. During the winter outbreak of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) [influenza A(H1N1)] virus infection, we cared for three children who developed plastic bronchitis without the typical underlying conditions. The diagnosis of plastic bronchitis was made using flexible bronchoscopy and was confirmed by histopathology. These children had influenza-like illness, and the assay for influenza A(H1N1) virus was positive in their nasopharyngeal swab and BAL fluid. The chest imaging showed consolidation or atelectasis. After bronchoscopic extraction of casts and antiviral treatment, all of the patients recovered, and there has been no recurrence of the plastic bronchitis. Infection with influenza A(H1N1) is known to cause inflammation and decreased mucociliary clearance, and this may place some patients, especially children, at risk for airway obstruction.
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Papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland.
Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie)
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2010
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A 35-year-old man complained of progressive exophthalmos on the left eye for six months. MRI revealed approximately 18 mm x 17 mm cyst neoplasm across the inner and outer muscle cone in the left orbital cavity. Extraction was performed. The cyst wall of the tumor had the infiltration of the cancer cells and contained the residual lacrimal gland tissue. The patient refused further cranio-orbital resection or preoperative/postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Following for nine years found no local recurrence or systemic metastasis.
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Relationship between critical relative humidity and solubility of drugs.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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Both the critical relative humidity (H(cr)) and the solubility are important physicochemical properties that affect the quality of drugs. However, the relationship between them is not noticed yet. By an analysis of interaction between molecules of drug and water, the conclusion logically obtained is: the higher the solubility is, the lower the H(cr) will be. To validate this idea, the H(cr) and the solubility of 33 drugs and chemicals were determined and a negative linear correlation was found between the two factors when the solubility was expressed as the mole fraction of water. This negative linear correlation was further confirmed by a computer simulation according to modified Debye-Hückel equation.
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Calculating critical relative humidity from solubility according to Pitzer ion interaction model.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2010
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The solubility and the critical relative humidity (H(cr)) of 14 drugs and inorganic salts were determined, the relationship between the H(cr) and the solubility was explored theoretically, and the H(cr) was calculated in the light of Raoults law and Pitzer ion interaction model from their solubility. The results indicate that the H(cr) values calculated by Raoults law in high humidity (H(cr)>80%) and by Pitzer ion interaction model in low humidity (H(cr)<80%) are comparable to the measured ones.
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The spatial factor, rather than elevated CO?, controls the soil bacterial community in a temperate Forest Ecosystem.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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The global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO?) concentration is expected to increase continuously over the next century. However, little is known about the responses of soil bacterial communities to elevated CO? in terrestrial ecosystems. This study aimed to partition the relative influences of CO?, nitrogen (N), and the spatial factor (different sampling plots) on soil bacterial communities at the free-air CO? enrichment research site in Duke Forest, North Carolina, by two independent techniques: an entirely sequencing-based approach and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Multivariate regression tree analysis demonstrated that the spatial factor could explain more than 70% of the variation in soil bacterial diversity and 20% of the variation in community structure, while CO? or N treatment explains less than 3% of the variation. For the effects of soil environmental heterogeneity, the diversity estimates were distinguished mainly by the total soil N and C/N ratio. Bacterial diversity estimates were positively correlated with total soil N and negatively correlated with C/N ratio. There was no correlation between the overall bacterial community structures and the soil properties investigated. This study contributes to the information about the effects of elevated CO? and soil fertility on soil bacterial communities and the environmental factors shaping the distribution patterns of bacterial community diversity and structure in temperate forest soils.
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Determining critical relative humidity by measuring air humidity in equilibrium directly.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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A method that simply, accurately and directly determines the critical relative humidity (H(cr)) of drugs by the measurement of the relative air humidity in equilibrium with saturated solution of drugs is presented. A new pocket humidity meter with a calibrated humidity sensor has been devised. The work of the humidity meter including the sensor is described. The principle for the proposed method is more rational and much simpler than that for both conventional methods and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) methods. Compared with conventional methods, the proposed method is simple, prompt and can save sample; compared with the DVS system, the pocket humidity meter is significantly simpler and cheaper. The H(cr) of eleven salts and drugs measured by the proposed method and conventional methods serves as a model. The results of two-tailed two samples t-test indicate that there is no significant difference between the new method and the conventional ones.
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A novel G473A mutation in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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Hereditary deficiency in human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is mostly caused by single nucleotide change in the G6PD gene which leads to single amino acid substitution. In 104 cases of Chinese children with G6PD deficiency, RT-PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) combined with DNA sequencing was carried out to screen the mutations within the coding region of G6PD gene. A novel missense mutation (G473A), predicting a Cys-to-Tyr substitution at codon 158, was identified in a male infant patient and confirmed in his mother. This G6PD variant (158 Tyr) showed decreased enzyme activity, belonging to WHO Class II. We designated this variant as G6PD Shenzhen by the birthplace of the propositus.
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Hospitalized children with 2009 influenza a (H1N1) infection in Shenzhen, China, november-december 2009.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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During the winter outbreak of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection in China, the number of confirmed cases and the fatal cases has grown rapidly. We describe the clinical characteristics of hospitalized children with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection in Shenzhen, China, November-December 2009.
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MAPKs and Mst1/Caspase-3 pathways contribute to H2B phosphorylation during UVB-induced apoptosis.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Apoptosis is a highly coordinated or programmed cell suicide mechanism in eukaryotes. Histone modification is associated with nuclear events in apoptotic cells. Specifically H2B phosphorylation at serine 14 (Ser14) catalyzed by Mst1 kinase has been linked to chromatin condensation during apoptosis. We report that activation of MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38) together with Mst1 and caspase-3 is required for phosphorylation of H2B (Ser14) during ultraviolet B light (UVB)-induced apoptosis. UVB can trigger activation of MAPKs and induce H2B phosphorylation at Ser14 but not acetylation in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 or p38 activity blocked H2B phosphorylation (Ser14). Furthermore, caspase-3 was activated by UVB to regulate Mst1 activity, which phosphorylates H2B at Ser14, leading to chromatin condensation. Full inhibition of caspase-3 activity reduced Mst1 activation and partially inhibited H2B phosphorylation (Ser14), but ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 activities were not affected. Taken together, these data revealed that H2B phosphorylation is regulated by both MAPKs and caspase-3/Mst1 pathways during UVB-induced apoptosis.
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Calculating the critical relative humidity from the solubility of electrolyte according to extended non-random two liquid model.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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According to thermodynamic principle, the critical relative humidity of electrolytes is closely related to their solubility. The authors explored the relationship theoretically and calculated the critical relative humidity of 21 electrolytes in the light of Raoults law, modified Debye-Hückel model and extended non-random two liquid (NRTL) model from their solubility. The results indicate that the critical relative humidity values calculated by Raoults law can not accord with the reported ones and there is a systematic error in high concentration range; the values calculated by modified Debye-Hückel model still can not accord with the reported ones well although without systematic error; and the values calculated by extended NRTL are comparable to the reported ones.
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Proteomic study of Mycoplasma suis using the gel-based shotgun strategy.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2009
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Mycoplasma suis (M. suis) is an uncultivable pathogen that colonizes the surface of porcine erythrocytes. In the present study, gel-based LC-MS/MS was performed to analyze the proteomic composition of M. suis. We identified 191 proteins with two or more peptides and additional 217 putative proteins with one peptide hit by cross-species searching the Mollicutes protein databases. Resultant proteins were classified based on their molecular functions. The majority of enzymes involved in central carbon metabolic pathways and nucleotide biosynthesis were confirmed by searching the KEGG database. The present study is the first report addressing the proteome of M. suis. Results indicate that the energy source of M. suis might depend mainly on glycometabolism.
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Proteomics analysis of two mice hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines with high and low lymph node metastasis rates provide potential protein markers for tumor malignancy attributes to lymphatic metastasis.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is recognized as an important factor involved in the tumor malignancy progression. Our previous study has indicated that the hepatocarcinoma cell line with 75% of LNM (Hca-F)-cell-induced neoplasia and the hepatocarcinoma cell line with 25% of LNM-induced neoplasia are accompanied with high (75%) and low (25%) incidences of LNM. In the current study, 62 and 54 protein spots were observed up-regulated and down-regulated in Hca-F cell relative to the hepatocarcinoma cell line with 25% of LNM by 2-D DIGE. Totally, 113 unique proteins were identified by HPLC-nano ESI-MS/MS analysis. The expression levels of Annexin A7, Ulch3, and ER protein 29 were validated by Western blotting analyses. The abnormally regulated proteins were categorized and annotated by protein analysis through evolutionary relationships analysis with the aid of the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery tool. Seventeen gene candidates concordantly expressed both at mRNA and protein levels. By making a challenge, we detected expression levels of Annexin A7 in primary gastric cancer (GC) and primary GC cancer tissues with LNMs by immunohistochemisty. Higher ratio of positive and strong expressions Annexin A7 in GC might correlate with the tumor progression. The repression of Annexin A7 inhibits the mobility and invasion abilities of Hca-F cell, increases the apoptosis rate of Hca-F cell. Current study narrows and provides certain specific protein candidates potentially playing important roles in LNM-associated cancers.
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[Effects of 18beta-glycyrrhizic acid and 18alpha-glycyrrhizic acid on mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome P450 3A in cultured rat primary hepatocyte].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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To study the effects of 18beta-glycyrrhizic acid and 18alpha-glycyrrhizic acid on mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome P450 3A in cultured rat primary hepatocyte.
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High macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from children with pharyngitis in China.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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To assess the macrolide resistance, phenotype, and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from Chinese children with pharyngitis.
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Relationship between expression of Pad1 homologue and multidrug resistance of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Multidrug resistance is an occasionally seen phenomenon in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), but the mechanism of multidrug resistance is not clear as yet. The purpose of the present study was to investigated whether expression of Pad1 homologue (POH1) plays a role in the onset of multidrug resistance of INS.
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Cationic polybutyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles for DNA delivery.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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To enhance the intracellular delivery potential of plasmid DNA using nonviral vectors, we used polybutyl cyanoacrylate (PBCA) and chitosan to prepare PBCA nanoparticles (NPs) by emulsion polymerization and prepared NP/DNA complexes through the complex coacervation of nanoparticles with the DNA. The object of our work is to evaluate the characterization and transfection efficiency of PBCA-NPs. The NPs have a zeta potential of 25.53 mV at pH 7.4 and size about 200 nm. Electrophoretic analysis suggested that the NPs with positive charges could protect the DNA from nuclease degradation and cell viability assay showed that the NPs exhibit a low cytotoxicity to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of transfection in HepG2 cells by the nanoparticles carrying plasmid DNA encoding for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-N1) was done by digital fluorescence imaging microscopy system and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Qualitative results showed highly efficient expression of GFP that remained stable for up to 96 hours. Quantitative results from FACS showed that PBCA-NPs were significantly more effective in transfecting HepG2 cells after 72 hours postincubation. The results of this study suggested that PBCA-NPs have favorable properties for nonviral delivery.
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Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a major factor for predicting the effects of organic wastes on soil bacterial communities assessed by DNA-based molecular techniques.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Current Australian legislation permits the beneficial application of grease trap waste (GTW) to agricultural soil, viewing it as a beneficial source of organic matter and soil conditioner containing no/low amounts of metals or pathogenic organisms. However, little is known about the influence of GTW on soil bacterial community. A field experiment was established at Menangle in south western Sydney in Australia to quantitatively assess the impacts of different types (GTW CO and GTW CL) and amounts of GTW application on the soil bacterial community and diversity. Furthermore, a municipal solid waste (MSW) compost was simultaneously examined to compare against the other organic wastes. Knowledge about the shifts in microbial community structure and diversity following the applications of organic wastes could help to evaluate the ecological consequences on the soil and thus to develop sound regulatory guidelines for the beneficial reuse of organic wastes in agricultural lands.
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Cyclin-dependent kinase-3-mediated c-Jun phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 enhances cell transformation.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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c-Jun is a component of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, and cell transformation, as well as cancer development. Herein, we found that cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-3, but not Cdk2 or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, is a novel kinase of c-Jun induced by stimulation with growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF). Cdk3 was shown to phosphorylate c-Jun at Ser63 and Ser73 in vitro and ex vivo. EGF-induced Cdk3 activation caused c-Jun phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73, resulting in increased AP-1 transactivation. Ectopic expression of Cdk3 resulted in anchorage-independent cell transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells induced by EGF and foci formation stimulated by constitutively active Ras (Ras(G12V)), which was mediated by AP-1 in NIH3T3 cells. These results showed that the Cdk3/c-Jun signaling axis plays an important role in EGF-stimulated cell proliferation and cell transformation.
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Nutrient limitation on ecosystem productivity and processes of mature and old-growth subtropical forests in China.
PLoS ONE
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Nitrogen (N) is considered the dominant limiting nutrient in temperate regions, while phosphorus (P) limitation frequently occurs in tropical regions, but in subtropical regions nutrient limitation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated N and P contents and N:P ratios of foliage, forest floors, fine roots and mineral soils, and their relationships with community biomass, litterfall C, N and P productions, forest floor turnover rate, and microbial processes in eight mature and old-growth subtropical forests (stand age >80 yr) at Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China. Average N:P ratios (mass based) in foliage, litter (L) layer and mixture of fermentation and humus (F/H) layer, and fine roots were 28.3, 42.3, 32.0 and 32.7, respectively. These values are higher than the critical N:P ratios for P limitation proposed (16-20 for foliage, ca. 25 for forest floors). The markedly high N:P ratios were mainly attributed to the high N concentrations of these plant materials. Community biomass, litterfall C, N and P productions, forest floor turnover rate and microbial properties were more strongly related to measures of P than N and frequently negatively related to the N:P ratios, suggesting a significant role of P availability in determining ecosystem production and productivity and nutrient cycling at all the study sites except for one prescribed disturbed site where N availability may also be important. We propose that N enrichment is probably a significant driver of the potential P limitation in the study area. Low P parent material may also contribute to the potential P limitation. In general, our results provided strong evidence supporting a significant role for P availability, rather than N availability, in determining ecosystem primary productivity and ecosystem processes in subtropical forests of China.
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Efficacy and safety of the ketogenic diet in Chinese children.
Seizure
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the ketogenic diet (KD) treatment of refractory childhood epilepsy in China and determine which children are more likely to respond.
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[Study on toxicity of uniform design-based compatible use of Veratrum nigrum and asarum].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
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The compatible use of Veratrum nigrum with asarum, is one of the eighteen incompatible pairs. To research the toxic regularity of the compatible use of V. nigrum and asarum, this experiment adopted the uniform design combining with acute toxicity test, with the number of died animals as the observation indicator. The results showed that the toxicity came from the common effect of V. nigrum and asarum, and V. nigrum after the compatible use, and V. nigrum made a greater contribution to the toxicity caused by the compatible use. But the toxicity did not absolutely enhance with the increase in use of V. nigrum.
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[K562 cells induces apoptosis of activated NK cells in vitro].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
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To investigate the apoptosis of NK cells induced by the erythroleukemia cell line K562 in vitro.
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[Metabonomic study on siwu tang in radiation-induced blood deficient mice].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
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To study the radiation-induced blood deficiency and the combination of prescription and syndrome of Siwu Tang using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupoles-time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS), in order to discover the changes in metabolic profiles of blood deficient mice induced by radiation, and clarify the relationship between blood deficient syndrome and the mechanism of Siwu Tang.
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Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes collected between 2005 and 2008 from Chinese children.
J. Med. Microbiol.
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The aim of this study was to explore the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes in children from different cities in mainland China who were diagnosed with scarlet fever, impetigo and pharyngitis, as well as to detect asymptomatic carriers, between 2005 and 2008, and to compare the results with isolates from rural Chinese children with acute glomerulonephritis in 2005 and in the 1990s. Susceptibility tests to determine MICs and analysis of the presence of erythromycin-resistant genes (mefA, ermB and ermA) and emm gene typing were performed on 466 S. pyogenes isolates from Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing and Shenzhen. Superantigen genes (speA and speC) were examined by performing PCR on isolates with the most prevalent emm genotype. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin, cefradine and ofloxacin. The highest rate of resistance was against clarithromycin (98.1?%), followed by erythromycin (97.6?%), azithromycin and clindamycin (both 97.2?%), and tetracycline (94.0?%). Among the 466 isolates, 421 (90.3?%) harboured the ermB gene, 145 (31.1?%) were speA-positive and 273 (58.6?%) were speC-positive. The speA gene was common in emm1.0 (88.8?%) and emm6.5 (83.3?%) genotypes. The speC gene was frequently observed in emm4.0 (90.0?%), emm12.0 (69.6?%), emm18.0 (66.7?%), emm22.0 (75.9?%) and emm80.0 (80.0?%) genotypes. The most prevalent emm genotypes in mainland China in recent years were emm1.0 and emm12.0. All isolates remained sensitive to ?-lactams and quinolone.
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Dual-functional click-triazole: a metal chelator and immobilization linker for the construction of a heterogeneous palladium catalyst and its application for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
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A novel SBA-15 supported catalyst PdL(n)@SBA-15 containing a 2-pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole ligand framework was prepared via a "click" route, in which the click-triazole acted as both a stable linker and a good chelator. The catalyst was characterized and applied for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols, and the product was obtained in up to 98% yield.
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S-Propargyl-Cysteine, a Novel Water-soluble Modulator of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide, Promotes Angiogenesis through Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
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Aims: Conventional revascularization strategies or drug therapies for ischemic heart disease (IHD) are designed for reperfusion of coronary arteries to salvage cardiomyocytes, but occasionally myocardial reperfusion injury can occur because of microcirculatory dysfunction. Therefore, a more microcirculation-friendly strategy should be explored to overcome and compensate the shortcomings of conventional strategies. In this work, we investigated the proangiogenic effect of S-Propargyl-Cysteine (SPRC), a novel water-soluble modulator of endogenous hydrogen sulfide, and elucidated the possible involved mechanisms to provide an experimental basis for angiogenesis-mediated drug therapy for IHD. Results: SPRC promoted cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and tube formation of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and increased angiogenesis in the rat aortic ring and Matrigel plug models. In a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia and a rat model of myocardial ischemia, SPRC also promoted angiogenesis after ligation of the left femoral artery or coronary artery to ameliorate ischemic conditions. In primary HUVEC, STAT3 phosphorylation was significantly induced after SPRC treatment. The critical roles of STAT3 in mediating the proangiogenic effect of SPRC were confirmed by RNA interference. Co-crystallization excluded the possible direct interaction between SPRC and STAT3, whereas co-immunoprecipitation revealed an enhanced interaction between VEGFR2 and STAT3 after SPRC treatment. Meanwhile, immuno?uorescence and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPRC induced the nuclear translocation of STAT3, followed by transcriptional activation of downstream promoters, particularly the Vegf promoter. Innovation and Conclusion: We present a novel STAT3-mediated mechanism in SPRC-induced angiogenesis and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of SPRC in ischemic disease through angiogenesis promotion.
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High frequency fire alters C:N:P stoichiometry in forest litter.
Glob Chang Biol
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Fire is a major driver of ecosystem change and can disproportionately affect the cycling of different nutrients. Thus, a stoichiometric approach to investigate the relationships between nutrient availability and microbial resource use during decomposition is likely to provide insight into the effects of fire on ecosystem functioning. We conducted a field litter bag experiment to investigate the long-term impact of repeated fire on the stoichiometry of leaf litter C, N and P pools, and nutrient-acquiring enzyme activities during decomposition in a wet sclerophyll eucalypt forest in Queensland, Australia. Fire frequency treatments have been maintained since 1972, including burning every two years (2yrB), burning every four years (4yrB) and no burning (NB). C:N ratios in freshly fallen litter were 29-42% higher and C:P ratios were 6-25% lower for 2yrB than NB during decomposition, with correspondingly lower 2yrB N:P ratios (27-32) than for NB (34-49). Trends in litter soluble and microbial N:P ratios were similar to the overall litter N:P ratios across fire treatments. Consistent with these, the ratio of activities for N-acquiring to P-acquiring enzymes in litter was higher for 2yrB than NB while 4yrB was generally intermediate between 2yrB and NB. Decomposition rates of freshly fallen litter were significantly lower for 2yrB (72±2% mass remaining at the end of experiment) than for 4yrB (59±3%) and NB (62±3%), a difference that may be related to effects of N limitation, lower moisture content, and/or litter C quality. Results for older mixed-age litter were similar to those for freshly fallen litter although treatment differences were less pronounced. Overall, these findings show that frequent fire (2yrB) decoupled N and P cycling, as manifested in litter C:N:P stoichiometry and in microbial biomass N:P ratio and enzymatic activities. These data indicate that fire induced a transient shift to N-limited ecosystem conditions during the post-fire recovery phase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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