Background/Aims: To investigate the clinical features, imaging characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the clinical, imaging, and follow-up data of 13 patients (median age, 59 years; range, 21-67 years) with primary pulmonary MALT lymphoma. Results: The main clinical manifestations were chest discomfort (six patients), cough (two), fever (two), chest pain (one), and no obvious symptoms (two). Six patients underwent surgery; three had postoperative chemotherapy; four had chemotherapy alone; and three only had symptomatic and supportive treatment. The follow-up duration was one to 11 years, with one patient lost to follow-up. Two patients died (two years and 11 years post-diagnosis). As of this report, the remaining 10 patients were alive with no disease progression. Conclusions: Pulmonary MALT lymphoma has atypical clinical manifestations and non-specific imaging changes, and the diagnosis depends on a pathological examination. For patients with confined lesions for which conventional biopsy cannot be performed, surgical excision plays an important role in clarifying the diagnosis and obtaining good therapeutic results and a good prognosis.
Genetic markers can be used in combination with ecophysiological crop models to predict the performance of genotypes. Crop models can estimate the contribution of individual markers to crop performance in given environments. The objectives of this study were to explore the use of crop models to design markers and virtual ideotypes for improving yields of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress.
The drive toward more sustainable agriculture has raised the profile of crop plant nutrient-use efficiency. Here we show that a major rice nitrogen-use efficiency quantitative trait locus (qNGR9) is synonymous with the previously identified gene DEP1 (DENSE AND ERECT PANICLES 1). The different DEP1 alleles confer different nitrogen responses, and genetic diversity analysis suggests that DEP1 has been subjected to artificial selection during Oryza sativa spp. japonica rice domestication. The plants carrying the dominant dep1-1 allele exhibit nitrogen-insensitive vegetative growth coupled with increased nitrogen uptake and assimilation, resulting in improved harvest index and grain yield at moderate levels of nitrogen fertilization. The DEP1 protein interacts in vivo with both the G? (RGA1) and G? (RGB1) subunits, and reduced RGA1 or enhanced RGB1 activity inhibits nitrogen responses. We conclude that the plant G protein complex regulates nitrogen signaling and modulation of heterotrimeric G protein activity provides a strategy for environmentally sustainable increases in rice grain yield.
Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been demonstrated to be present in several tissues and cells unrelated to systemic calcium homeostasis, where it regulates a series of diverse cellular functions. A previous study indicated that CaSR is expressed in mouse glomerular mesangial cells (MCs), and stimulation of CaSR induces cell proliferation. However, the signaling cascades initiated by CaSR activation in MCs are currently unknown. In this study, our data demonstrate that CaSR mRNA and protein are expressed in a human mesangial cell line. Activating CaSR with high extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) or spermine induces a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Interestingly, the CaSR activation-induced increase in [Ca2+]i results not only from intracellular Ca2+ release from internal stores but also from canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC)-dependent Ca2+ influx. This increase in Ca2+ was attenuated by treatment with a nonselective TRPC channel blocker but not by treatment with a voltage-gated calcium blocker or Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor. Furthermore, stimulation of CaSR by high [Ca2+]o enhanced the expression of TRPC3 and TRPC6 but not TRPC1 and TRPC4, and siRNA targeting TRPC3 and TRPC6 attenuated the CaSR activation-induced [Ca2+]i increase. Further experiments indicate that 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), a known activator of receptor-operated calcium channels, significantly enhances the CaSR activation-induced [Ca2+]i increase. Moreover, under conditions in which intracellular stores were already depleted with thapsigargin (TG), CaSR agonists also induced an increase in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that calcium influx stimulated by CaSR agonists does not require the release of calcium stores. Finally, our data indicate that pharmacological inhibition and knock down of TRPC3 and TRPC6 attenuates the CaSR activation-induced cell proliferation in human MCs. With these data, we conclude that CaSR activation mediates Ca2+ influx and cell proliferation via TRPC3 and TRPC6 in human MCs.
We report herein a mild and catalytic phosphonofluorination of unactivated alkenes. With catalysis by AgNO3, the condensation of various unactivated alkenes with diethyl phosphite and Selectfluor reagent in CH2Cl2/H2O/HOAc at 40 °C led to the efficient synthesis of ?-fluorinated alkylphosphonates with good stereoselectivity and wide functional group compatibility. A mechanism involving silver-catalyzed oxidative generation of phosphonyl radicals and silver-assisted fluorine atom transfer is proposed.
Juvenile hormone (JH) plays key roles in both metamorphosis and adult reproductive processes. Farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT) is thought to be an important enzyme in the JH biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing methylation of farnesoic acid (FA) to methyl farnesoate (MF). A full-length cDNA (NlFAMeT) encoding a 299 amino acid putative FAMeT was isolated from the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Hemiptera: Geometroidea), a major rice pest in many parts of Asia. NlFAMeT showed high amino acid identities (52-54%) with other insect FAMeTs. Although the NlFAMeT transcript was expressed highly in corpus allatum (CA) and brain (without CA), no correlation was found between NlFAMeT transcript and JH titers. Although only a low level of NlFAMeT transcript was detected in the ovary, a high level was found in the abdomen and should be in one or more tissues undefined in the abdomen. Also, NlFAMeT transcript had a positive change during the vitellogenesis in female adults. These data indicated that NlFAMeT might not be a key enzyme in JH synthesis in N. lugens, but that it may play an important role in the ovary development. It might also be important in some unknown process in a so-far unidentified tissue in the abdomen.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful strategy for gene function study in insects. Here, we described the development of a RNAi technique by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Based on the mortality and RNAi efficiency criteria, the conjunctive between prothorax and mesothorax was selected as the injection site and 50 nl as injection volume. Three genes with different expression patterns were selected to evaluate the RNAi efficiency. A comparable 40% decrease of gene expression was observed at the 4th day after injection for the ubiquitously expressed calreticulin and the gut specific cathepsin-B genes, but only 25% decrease at the 5th day for the central nervous system specific Nlbeta2 gene. Double injection could increase the RNAi efficiency, such as from 25% to 53% for Nlbeta2 gene. The gene knockdown technique developed in this study will be an essential post-genomic tool for further investigations in N. lugens.
Trehalose is the main blood sugar of insects, and the enzyme trehalase is involved in energy metabolism and controlling trehalose levels in cells. Two forms (soluble and membrane-bound) of trehalase and the corresponding genes (NlTre-1 and NlTre-2) were identified from the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Both NlTre-1 and NlTre-2 contain trehalase signature motifs, and NlTre-2 contains a putative transmembrane domain. Comparison of trehalase activity and gene mRNA level at different developmental stages, or following application of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), suggests that NlTre-1 and NlTre-2 encode a soluble trehalase and a membrane-bound trehalase respectively. Soluble trehalase activity accounted for the majority of total trehalase activity in N. lugens. Only soluble trehalase activity and NlTre-1 mRNA level could be induced by 20E. Additionally, only soluble trehalase activity was significantly higher in macropterous individuals than in brachypterous morphs. These results indicate that only soluble trehalase is differentially expressed between macropterous and brachypterous individuals and is more responsive to hormone stimulus.
SSR markers are desirable markers in analysis of genetic diversity, quantitative trait loci mapping and gene locating. In this study, SSR markers were developed from two genomic libraries enriched for (GA)n and (CA)n of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China. A total of 100 SSR markers among the 193 primer pairs detected polymorphism between two mapping parents of an F(2) population, i.e. "B100" of cultivated S. italica and "A10" of wild S. viridis. Excluding 14 markers with unclear amplifications, and five markers unlinked with any linkage group, a foxtail millet SSR linkage map was constructed by integrating 81 new developed SSR markers with 20 RFLP anchored markers. The 81 SSRs covered nine chromosomes of foxtail millet. The length of the map was 1,654 cM, with an average interval distance between markers of 16.4 cM. The 81 SSR markers were not evenly distributed throughout the nine chromosomes, with Ch.8 harbouring the least (3 markers) and Ch.9 harbouring the most (18 markers). To verify the usefulness of the SSR markers developed, 37 SSR markers were randomly chosen to analyze genetic diversity of 40 foxtail millet accessions. Totally 228 alleles were detected, with an average 6.16 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for each locus ranged from 0.413 to 0.847, with an average of 0.697. A positive correlation between PIC and number of alleles and between PIC and number of repeat unit were found [0.802 and 0.429, respectively (P < 0.01)]. UPGMA analysis revealed that the 40 foxtail millet cultivars could be grouped into five clusters in which the landraces grouping was largely consistent with ecotypes while the breeding varieties from different provinces in China tended to be grouped together.
Human androgen receptor (AR) contains a highly polymorphic polyglutamine tract encoded by CAG repeats [(CAG)n] in exon 1 of the AR gene. The CAG repeats, ranging from 11 to 38, have been reported to be inversely correlated with AR activity. A case-control study involving 261 polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and 278 healthy controls was conducted. Fluorescently labeled DNA fragments containing (CAG)n were obtained by PCR and genotyped via capillary electrophoresis. AR (CAG)n ranges were 6, 12-28 in PCOS cases and 9, 10, 12-32 in controls. In the PCOS group, a higher frequency of short (CAG)n alleles was found compared with that of controls (P=0.007). Similarly, CAG biallelic mean distributions also showed statistical difference between the two groups (P=0.025). In conclusion, shorter alleles of the (CAG)n in exon 1 of the AR gene enhanced the susceptibility to PCOS, either by upregulating AR activity or by causing hyperandrogenism.
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