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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rapamycin protects kidney against ischemia reperfusion injury through recruitment of NKT cells.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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NKT cells play a protective role in ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, of which the trafficking in the body and recruitment in injured organs can be influenced by immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, we investigated the effects of rapamycin on kidneys exposed to IR injury in early stage and on trafficking of NKT cells in a murine model.
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The comparison of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retrograde intrarenal surgery for stones larger than 2 cm in patients with a solitary kidney: a matched-pair analysis.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To compare the treatment outcomes between retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) for the management of stones larger than 2 cm in patients with solitary kidney.
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Duplicated copy of CHRNA7 increases risk and worsens prognosis of COPD and lung cancer.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Recent genome-wide association studies implicated that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are common susceptible genes of two contextual diseases: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. We aimed to test whether the copy number variations (CNVs) in nAChRs have hereditary contributions to development of the two diseases. In two, two-stage, case-control studies of southern and eastern Chinese, a common CNV-3956 that duplicates the cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, ?7 (CHRNA7) gene was genotyped in a total of 7880 subjects and its biological phenotype was assessed. The ?4-copy of CNV-3956 increased COPD risk (?4-copy vs 2/3-copy: OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.23-1.68) and caused poor lung function, and it similarly augmented risk (OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.29-1.73) and worsened prognosis (hazard ratio (HR)=1.25, 95% CI=1.07-1.45) of lung cancer. The ?4-copy was estimated to account for 1.56% of COPD heritability and 1.87% of lung cancer heritability, respectively. Phenotypic analysis further showed that the ?4-copy of CNV-3956 improved CHRNA7 expression in vivo and increased the carriers' smoking amount. The CNV-3956 of CHRNA7 contributed to increased risks and poor prognoses of both COPD and lung cancer, and this may be a genetic biomarker of the two diseases.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.229.
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Identification of a novel small-molecule agonist for human G protein-coupled receptor 3.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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G protein-coupled receptor 3 (GPR3) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) predominantly expressed in mammalian brain and oocytes. GPR3 plays important roles in these two organs and is known as a G?s-coupled receptor-activated constitutively in cells. However, the signal transduction pathway and pharmacological function of GPR3 remain unclear because of the lack of a specific ligand. By use of a human embryonic kidney 293 cell line stably expressing FLAG-GPR3-green fluorescent protein, a chemical screening for GPR3 ligands was performed using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence cAMP assay. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) was identified as a novel agonist of GPR3 with weak or no cross-reactivity with other GPCRs. DPI was further characterized to activate several GPR3-mediated signal transduction pathways, including Ca(2+) mobilization, cAMP accumulation, membrane recruitment of ?-arrestin2, and receptor desensitization. Parallel studies revealed that the activity of DPI is much more pronounced than sphingosine 1-phosphate, a previously reported GPR3 agonist. Our study identified a novel and specific agonist of GPR3, which provides a useful tool for further study of this orphan GPCR.
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Boosting functional avidity of CD8+ T cells by vaccinia virus vaccination depends on intrinsic T-cell MyD88 expression but not the inflammatory milieu.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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T-cell functional avidity is a crucial determinant for efficient pathogen clearance. Although recombinant DNA priming coupled with a vaccinia-vectored vaccine (VACV) boost has been widely used to mount robust CD8+ T-cell responses, how VACV boost shapes the properties of memory CD8+ T cells remains poorly defined. Here, we characterize the memory CD8+ T cells boosted by VACV and demonstrate that the intrinsic expression of MyD88 is critical for their high functional avidity. Independent of selection of clones with high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) or of enhanced proximal TCR signaling, the VACV boost significantly increased T-cell functional avidity through a decrease in the activation threshold. VACV-induced inflammatory milieu is not sufficient for this improvement, as simultaneous administration of the DNA vaccine and mock VACV had no effects on the functional avidity of memory CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, reciprocal adoptive transfer models revealed that the intrinsic MyD88 pathway is required for instructing the functional avidity of CD8+ T cells boosted by VACV. Taking these results together, the intrinsic MyD88 pathway is required for the high functional avidity of VACV-boosted CD8+ T cells independent of TCR selection or the VACV infection-induced MyD88-mediated inflammatory milieu.
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Epidemiologic report and serologic findings for household contacts of three cases of influenza A (H7N9) virus infection.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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We conducted epidemiologic investigations and serologic assays on household contacts that were extensively exposed to three influenza A (H7N9) virus infected case-patients before infection-control practices were implemented.
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[Glucagon-like peptide-1 regulates lipometabolism by down-regulating adipose triglyceride lipase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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To investigate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on glycolipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and explore the mechanism.
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Mitochondrial genome of the Emberiza cioides (Emberizidae: Emberiza).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Abstract Emberiza cioides is a passerine bird of eastern Asia which belongs to the genus Emberiza in the bunting family Emberizidae. The complete mitochondrial genome of E. cioides was obtained for the first time. The circular genome (16,765?bp in length) consists of 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes) and 1 control region. Except for 8 tRNA genes and ND6 gene, all the genes were distributed in plus strand which were identical to those of most vertebrates.
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Mitochondrial genome of the Anas acuta (Anatidae: Anas).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Abstract The Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) is a common large duck with widely geographic distribution. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of A. acuta (16,599?bp in length) was been analyzed for building the database. Similar to the typical mtDNA of vertebrates, it contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and a non-coding region (D-loop). All the genes in A. acuta were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and 10 tRNA genes which were encoded on the L-strand.
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[Study on the effect of Klotho gene interferred by plasmid-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) on sinoatrial node pacing channel gene].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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The study was aimed to assess the effect of Klotho gene and sinoatrial node pacing channel gene (HCN4 and HCN2) for studying sick sinus syndrome, with Klotho gene under the interference of Plasmid-mediated short hairpin RNA. Twenty-five C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups, i. e, plasmid shRNA 24h group, plasmid shRNA 12h group, sodium chloride 24h group and sodium chloride 12h group. Plasmid shRNA 50microL (1microg/microL) and sodium chloride 50microl were respectively injected according to mice vena caudalis into those in plasmid shRNA group and sodium chloride group. After 12h or 24h respectively, all mice were executed and their sinoatrial node tissues were cut. The mRNA of Klotho, HCN4 and HCN2 gene were detected by RT-PCR. The results of RT-PCR showed that Klotho, HCN4 and HCN2 mRNA levels were lower compared with those in sodium chloride 12h group after 12h interference interval. The results indicated that there might be the a certain relationship between Klotho gene and sinoatrial node pacing channel gene.
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A functional polymorphism in the promoter of ERK5 gene interacts with tobacco smoking to increase the risk of lung cancer in Chinese populations.
Mutagenesis
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 (MEK5)/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-5 (ERK5) pathway plays a pro-oncogenic role in tumourigenesis by anticell apoptosis, promoting cell proliferation and differentiation in response to extracellular stimuli. As overexpressed MEK5/ERK5 is involved in the development of lung cancer, we hypothesised that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MEK5 and ERK5 genes may influence gene expression and thus be associated with lung cancer risk. Five putative functional polymorphisms (rs3743353T>C, rs7172582C>T and rs2278076A>G of MEK5 and rs3866958G>T and rs2233083C>T of ERK5) were genotyped in two independent case-control studies with a total of 1559 lung cancer patients and 1679 controls in southern and eastern Chinese population. We found the rs3866958G>T of ERK5 was significantly associated with lung cancer risk, while other SNPs were not. Compared with the rs3866958TG/TT genotypes, the GG genotype conferred an increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.51, P = 5.0×10(-4)), and this effect was more pronounced in smokers, accompanying with a significant interaction with smoking (P interaction = 0.013). The GG genotype also had significant higher mRNA levels of ERK5 in lung cancer tissues than TG/TT genotypes (P = 1.0×10(-4)); the luciferase reporter with the G allele showed significant higher transcription activities than the T allele, especially after the treatment with tobacco extract in vitro. Our data indicated that the functional polymorphism rs3866958G>T in ERK5 was associated with an increased lung cancer risk in smokers by virtue of the positive interaction with smoking on promoting the ERK5 expression, which might be a valuable indicator for predicting lung cancer risk in smokers.
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Sipa1 promoter polymorphism predicts risk and metastasis of lung cancer in Chinese.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Signal-induced proliferation associated gene 1 (Sipa1) is a signal transducer to activate the Ras-related proteins and modulate cell progression, differentiation, adhesion and cancer metastasis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Sipa1 are associated with lung cancer risk and metastasis. Three common SNPs (rs931127A > G, rs2448490G > A, and rs3741379G > T) were genotyped in a discovery set of southern Chinese population and then validated the promising SNPs in a validation set of an eastern Chinese population in a total of 1559 lung cancer patients and 1679 cancer-free controls. The results from the two sets were consistent, the rs931127GG variant genotype had an increased risk of lung cancer compared to the rs931127AA/GA genotypes (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.09-1.49) after combination of the two populations, and the rs931127GG interacted with pack-year smoked on increasing lung cancer risk (P = 0.037); this SNP also had an effect on patients clinical stages (P = 0.012) that those patients with the rs931127GG genotype had a significant higher metastasis rate and been advanced N, M stages at diagnosis. However, these associations were not observed for rs2448490G > A and rs3741379G > T in the discovery set. Our data suggest that the SNP rs931127A > G in the promoter of Sipa1 was significantly associated with lung cancer risk and metastasis, which may be a biomarker to predict the risk and metastasis of lung cancer.
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Sequential establishment of stripe patterns in an expanding cell population.
Science
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2011
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Periodic stripe patterns are ubiquitous in living organisms, yet the underlying developmental processes are complex and difficult to disentangle. We describe a synthetic genetic circuit that couples cell density and motility. This system enabled programmed Escherichia coli cells to form periodic stripes of high and low cell densities sequentially and autonomously. Theoretical and experimental analyses reveal that the spatial structure arises from a recurrent aggregation process at the front of the continuously expanding cell population. The number of stripes formed could be tuned by modulating the basal expression of a single gene. The results establish motility control as a simple route to establishing recurrent structures without requiring an extrinsic pacemaker.
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[Effect of klotho gene on the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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The aim of the studies was to investigate klotho gene effect on the endothelial dysfunction of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this study, ten SHR and ten normal Wistar rats, all 22 week old, were prepared. After given intraperitoneal anesthesia, the rats brains, lungs, hearts, kidneys and aortas were removed. The identification was made by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Compared with the normal group, the klotho mRNA and protein in SHR were less than those in the control group with normal corresponding values, while Endothelin-1 (ET-1)s mRNA and protein were more than those of normal group. The analysis of the correlation of mRNA and protein in heart and aorta revealed that klotho gene was negatively correlated to ET-1. The results showed that klotho significantly decreased in SHR, which might be influenced by hypertension-induced damage on the endothelial function.
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Early adaptive humoral immune responses and virus clearance in humans recently infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Few studies on the humoral immune responses in human during natural influenza infection have been reported. Here, we used serum samples from pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza infected patients to characterize the humoral immune responses to influenza during natural infection in humans. We observed for the first time that the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza induced influenza A-specific IgM within days after symptoms onset, whereas the unit of IgG did not changed. The magnitude of influenza A-specific IgM antibodies might have a value in predicting the rate of virus clearance to some degree. However, the newly developed IgM was not associated with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) activities in the same samples but correlated with HI activities of subsequently collected sera which were mediated by IgG antibodies, indicating that IgM was critical for influenza infection and influences subsequent IgG antibody responses. These findings provide new important insights on the human immunity to natural influenza infection.
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Multiple alkane hydroxylase systems in a marine alkane degrader, Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Alcanivorax dieselolei strain B-5 is a marine bacterium that can utilize a broad range of n-alkanes (C(5) -C(36) ) as sole carbon source. However, the mechanisms responsible for this trait remain to be established. Here we report on the characterization of four alkane hydroxylases from A. dieselolei, including two homologues of AlkB (AlkB1 and AlkB2), a CYP153 homologue (P450), as well as an AlmA-like (AlmA) alkane hydroxylase. Heterologous expression of alkB1, alkB2, p450 and almA in Pseudomonas putida GPo12 (pGEc47?B) or P. fluorescens KOB2?1 verified their functions in alkane oxidation. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that these genes could be induced by alkanes ranging from C(8) to C(36) . Notably, the expression of the p450 and almA genes was only upregulated in the presence of medium-chain (C(8) -C(16) ) or long-chain (C(22) -C(36) ) n-alkanes, respectively; while alkB1 and alkB2 responded to both medium- and long-chain n-alkanes (C(12) -C(26) ). Moreover, branched alkanes (pristane and phytane) significantly elevated alkB1 and almA expression levels. Our findings demonstrate that the multiple alkane hydroxylase systems ensure the utilization of substrates of a broad chain length range.
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Anti-IL-23 antibody blockade of IL-23/IL-17 pathway attenuates airway obliteration in rat orthotopic tracheal transplantation.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) has been a major obstacle to long-term allograft survival after lung transplantation, and the underlying mechanism is not well understood. As IL-23/IL-17 pathway has been shown to play important roles in airway inflammation, in this study we have investigated the role of IL-23/IL-17 pathway in acute and chronic airway allograft rejection. We used a rat OB model in orthotopic tracheal transplantation, and investigated the effects of anti-IL-23 blockade antibody on acute and chronic airway allograft rejection. Anti-IL-23 antibody impaired the function of IL-23 in inducing IL-17 production. The rats that received allografts and treated with anti-IL-23 antibody showed significantly less symptom of airway obliteration and chronic transplant rejection compared with control rats which received physiological saline or IgG antibody. Taken together, our results suggest that anti-IL-23 antibody is effective in protecting allograft rejection and the development of chronic OB in allo-tracheal transplantation. These findings may have implications for new therapies to prevent OB and allograft rejection in human lung transplantation.
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Cell death caused by single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated targeted genomic sequence modification.
Oligonucleotides
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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Targeted gene repair directed by single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs) offers a promising tool for biotechnology and gene therapy. However, the methodology is currently limited by its low frequency of repair events, variability, and low viability of "corrected" cells. In this study, we showed that during ssODN-mediated gene repair reaction, a significant population of corrected cells failed to divide, and were much more prone to undergo apoptosis, as marked by processing of caspases and PARP-1. In addition, we found that apoptotic cell death triggered by ssODN-mediated gene repair was largely independent of the ATM/ATR kinase. Furthermore, we examined the potential involvement of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in this "correction reaction-induced" cell death. Result showed that while defective MMR greatly enhanced the efficiency of gene correction, compromising the MMR system did not yield any viable corrected clone, indicating that the MMR machinery, although plays a critical role in determining ssODN-directed repair, was not involved in the observed cellular genotoxic responses.
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Alcanivorax hongdengensis sp. nov., an alkane-degrading bacterium isolated from surface seawater of the straits of Malacca and Singapore, producing a lipopeptide as its biosurfactant.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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A taxonomic study was carried out on strain A-11-3(T), which was isolated from an oil-enriched consortia from the surface seawater of Hong-Deng dock in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. Cells were aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming irregular rods. The strain was catalase- and oxidase-negative. It grew on a restricted spectrum of organic compounds, including some organic acids and alkanes. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain A-11-3(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Alcanivorax jadensis (96.8 % sequence similarity), Alcanivorax borkumensis (96.8 %), Alcanivorax dieselolei (94.8 %), Alcanivorax venustensis (94.2 %) and Alcanivorax balearicus (94.0 %). The predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 0) (31.2 %), C(18 : 1)omega7c (24.8 %), C(18 : 0) (9.6 %), C(12 : 0) (8.3 %), C(16 : 1)omega7c (8.3 %) and C(16 : 0) 3-OH (5.1 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.7 mol%. Moreover, the strain produced lipopeptides as its surface-active compounds. According to physiological and biochemical tests, DNA-DNA hybridization results and sequence comparisons of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, the gyrB gene and the alkane hydroxylase gene alkB1, strain A-11-3(T) was affiliated with the genus Alcanivorax but could be readily distinguished from recognized Alcanivorax species. Therefore strain A-11-3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Alcanivorax for which the name Alcanivorax hongdengensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A-11-3(T) (=CGMCC 1.7084(T)=LMG 24624(T)=MCCC 1A01496(T)).
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Transcriptomic assay of CD8+ T cells in treatment-naïve HIV, HCV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.
PLoS ONE
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Co-infection with HIV and HCV is very common. It is estimated that over 5 million people are co-infected with HIV and HCV worldwide. Accumulated evidence shows that each virus alters the course of infection of the other one. CD8+ T cells play a crucial role in the eradication of viruses and infected target cells. To the best of our knowledge, no one has investigated the gene expression profiles in HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals.
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Development of skewed functionality of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells from primary to early chronic phase of HIV infection.
PLoS ONE
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In recent years, the prevalence of HIV-1 infection has been rapidly increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, it remains unknown how the host immune system responds to the infection in this population. We assessed the quantity of HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses by using Elispot assay and their functionalities by measuring 5 CD8(+) T-cell evaluations (IL-2, MIP-1?, CD107a, TNF-?, IFN-?) with flow cytometry assays among 18 primarily and 37 early chronically HIV-infected MSM. Our results demonstrated that subjects at early chronic phase developed HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses with higher magnitudes and more diversified functionalities in comparison with those at primary infection. However, populations with IL-2(+) CD107a(+) or in combination with other functionality failed to develop in parallel. The multifunctional but not monofunctional HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were associated with higher CD4(+) T -cell counts and lower viral loads. These data revealed that prolonged infection from primary to early chronic infection could selectively increase the functionalities of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in HIV-infected MSM population, the failure to develop IL-2 and cytotoxic functionalities in parallel may explain why the increased HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were unable to enhance the containment of HIV-1 replication at the early chronic stage.
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Stripe formation in bacterial systems with density-suppressed motility.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
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Engineered bacteria in which motility is reduced by local cell density generate periodic stripes of high and low density when spotted on agar plates. We study theoretically the origin and mechanism of this process in a kinetic model that includes growth and density-suppressed motility of the cells. The spreading of a region of immotile cells into an initially cell-free region is analyzed. From the calculated front profile we provide an analytic ansatz to determine the phase boundary between the stripe and the no-stripe phases. The influence of various parameters on the phase boundary is discussed.
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R280T mutation of p53 gene promotes proliferation of human glioma cells through GSK-3?/PTEN pathway.
Neurosci. Lett.
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p53 mutation is associated with "gain-of-function" capabilities of human cancers. We aim to identify p53 mutations in human glioma cells and to explore the potential mechanism for mutant p53-promoted cellular growth. Whole genomic DNA was isolated from SWO-38, a human glioma cell line and amplified for the region of exons 5, 6, and 8 in p53 gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By means of direct sequencing of PCR products and alignment analysis using BLAST database, a mutation of G to C transition at codon 280 of p53 exon 8 (AGA?ACA), i.e. R280T was detected in SWO-38 cells. Knockdown of R280T mutant p53 by RNA interference inhibited the GSK-3?/PTEN associated cell proliferation, and PI3K/Akt but not Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway was involved in this process. Furthermore, depletion or overexpression of PTEN alone did not affect cell proliferation and cell cycle, implicating the impairment of PTEN function in SWO-38 cells. However, knockdown of both PTEN and p53 mutation could significantly rescue the p53 depletion-mediated growth inhibition, suggesting that the R280T mutation in glioma may promote the proliferation through an underlying mechanism related to PTEN. Our observations indicate that the R280T mutation of p53 regulates the proliferation of human glioma cells related to the GSK-3?/PTEN pathway. These findings provide valuable insights for better understanding the molecular mechanism of uncontrolled growth of glioma cells.
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In vitro infection of human umbilical cord blood CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells by HIV-1 CRF07_BC enveloped pseudovirus.
Curr. HIV Res.
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To determine whether CRF07_BC, one of the most predominant strains that accounts for one third HIV-1 prevalence in China, has the ability to infect hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), human Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) derived CD34+ HPCs isolated with high purity were infected by HIV-1 pseudotyped with CRF07_BC envelope. After HIV-1 infection, ~0.86% CD34+ HPCs were co-stained for CD34 and intracellular HIV Gag. HIV p24 antigen was detectable and reached maximal release between day 2-4 after HIV-1 infection. The data of nested Alu-LTR PCR proved the integration of HIV-1 genome into the host genome occurred in HIV-1-infected HPCs. These data demonstrated that the envelope of CRF07_BC from China has the capability of resulting in infection to CD34+ HPCs, which may serve as a mechanism for long-term latency of HIV-1 infection in vivo.
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Oxygen therapy for pneumonia in adults.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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Oxygen therapy is widely used in the treatment of lung diseases. However, the effectiveness of oxygen therapy as a treatment for pneumonia is not well known.
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Avian reovirus triggers autophagy in primary chicken fibroblast cells and Vero cells to promote virus production.
Arch. Virol.
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Avian reovirus (ARV) is an important cause of disease in poultry. Although ARV is known to induce apoptosis in infected cells, the interaction between ARV and its target cells requires further elucidation. In this report, we show that the ARV isolate strain GX/2010/1 induces autophagy in both Vero and primary chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) cells based on the appearance of an increased number of double-membrane vesicles, the presence of GFP-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) dot formation, and the elevated production of LC3II. We further demonstrate that the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR pathway contributes to autophagic induction by ARV infection. Moreover, treatment of ARV-infected cells with the autophagy inducer rapamycin increased viral yields, while inhibition of the autophagosomal pathway using chloroquine led to a decrease in virus production. Altogether, our studies strongly suggest that autophagy may play a critical role in determining viral yield during ARV infection.
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Effects of a Functional Variant c.353T>C in Snai1 on Risk of Two Contextual Diseases: COPD and Lung Cancer.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays key roles in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.