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Meta-review of protein network regulating obesity between validated obesity candidate genes in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Worldwide obesity and related comorbidities are increasing, but identifying new therapeutic targets remains a challenge. A plethora of microarray studies in diet-induced obesity models has provided large datasets of obesity associated genes. In this review, we describe an approach to examine the underlying molecular network regulating obesity, and we discuss interactions between obesity candidate genes. We conducted network analysis on functional protein-protein interactions associated with 25 obesity candidate genes identified in a literature-driven approach based on published microarray studies of diet-induced obesity. The obesity candidate genes were closely associated with lipid metabolism and inflammation. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (Pparg) appeared to be a core obesity gene, and obesity candidate genes were highly interconnected, suggesting a coordinately regulated molecular network in adipose tissue. In conclusion, the current network analysis approach may help elucidate the underlying molecular network regulating obesity and identify anti-obesity targets for therapeutic intervention.
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A nutrigenomic framework to identify time-resolving responses of hepatic genes in diet-induced obese mice.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Obesity and its related complications have emerged as global health problems; however, the pathophysiological mechanism of obesity is still not fully understood. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 20, and 24 weeks and the time course was systemically analyzed specifically for the hepatic transcriptome profile. Genes that were differentially expressed in the HFD-fed mice were clustered into 49 clusters and further classified into 8 different expression patterns: long-term up-regulated (pattern 1), long-term downregulated (pattern 2), early up-regulated (pattern 3), early down-regulated (pattern 4), late up-regulated (pattern 5), late down-regulated (pattern 6), early up-regulated and late down-regulated (pattern 7), and early down-regulated and late up-regulated (pattern 8) HFD-responsive genes. Within each pattern, genes related with inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism were extracted, and then, a protein-protein interaction network was generated. The pattern specific sub-network was as follows: pattern 1, cellular assembly and organization, and immunological disease, pattern 2, lipid metabolism, pattern 3, gene expression and inflammatory response, pattern 4, cell signaling, pattern 5, lipid metabolism, molecular transport, and small molecule biochemistry, pattern 6, protein synthesis and cell-to cell signaling and interaction and pattern 7, cell-to cell signaling, cellular growth and proliferation, and cell death. For pattern 8, no significant sub-networks were identified. Taken together, this suggests that genes involved in regulating gene expression and inflammatory response are up-regulated whereas genes involved in lipid metabolism and protein synthesis are down-regulated during diet-induced obesity development.
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Induction of olfaction and cancer-related genes in mice fed a high-fat diet as assessed through the mode-of-action by network identification analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of obesity and metabolic diseases are not well understood. To gain more insight into the genetic mediators associated with the onset and progression of diet-induced obesity and metabolic diseases, we studied the molecular changes in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) by using a mode-of-action by network identification (MNI) analysis. Oligo DNA microarray analysis was performed on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and muscles of male C57BL/6N mice fed a normal diet or HFD for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Each of these data was queried against the MNI algorithm, and the lists of top 5 highly ranked genes and gene ontology (GO)-annotated pathways that were significantly overrepresented among the 100 highest ranked genes at each time point in the 3 different tissues of mice fed the HFD were considered in the present study. The 40 highest ranked genes identified by MNI analysis at each time point in the different tissues of mice with diet-induced obesity were subjected to clustering based on their temporal patterns. On the basis of the above-mentioned results, we investigated the sequential induction of distinct olfactory receptors and the stimulation of cancer-related genes during the development of obesity in both adipose tissues and muscles. The top 5 genes recognized using the MNI analysis at each time point and gene cluster identified based on their temporal patterns in the peripheral tissues of mice provided novel and often surprising insights into the potential genetic mediators for obesity progression.
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Predicting tissue-specific expressions based on sequence characteristics.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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In multicellular organisms, including humans, understanding expression specificity at the tissue level is essential for interpreting protein function, such as tissue differentiation. We developed a prediction approach via generated sequence features from overrepresented patterns in housekeeping (HK) and tissue-specific (TS) genes to classify TS expression in humans. Using TS domains and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs), sequence characteristics were used as indices of expressed tissues in a Random Forest algorithm by scoring exclusive patterns considering the biological intuition; TFBSs regulate gene expression, and the domains reflect the functional specificity of a TS gene. Our proposed approach displayed better performance than previous attempts and was validated using computational and experimental methods.
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Identification of functional BrFAD2-1 gene encoding microsomal delta-12 fatty acid desaturase from Brassica rapa and development of Brassica napus containing high oleic acid contents.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Microsomal delta-12 fatty acid desaturase (FAD2) functions in the first committed step of the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids via the desaturation of oleic acid to linoleic acid. In this study, two FAD2 genes were identified through genome-wide analysis of Brassica rapa. One BrFAD2-1 gene harbors functional sequence information, but another BrFAD2-2 gene has mutations that generated a premature stop codon, rendering it nonfunctional. From a database of 120,000 B. rapa expressed sequence tags, we determined that all sequences coding for FAD2 corresponded to the BrFAD2-1 gene. The BrFAD2-1 protein was shown to share high sequence homology (71-99%) with FAD2 proteins from other plant species. An intron in the 5-untranslated region and three histidine boxes in the protein, which are characteristic of plant FAD2 genes, have been well-conserved. BrFAD2-1 transcripts were detected in various organs of B. rapa. When a pBrFAD2-1:mRFP construct was introduced into tobacco epidermal cells, the fluorescent signal was noted in the endoplasmic reticulum. Ectopic expression of BrFAD2-1:mRFP complemented the Arabidopsis fad2-2 mutant. Finally, transgenic Korean rapeseed Tammi containing high oleic acid contents (78 mol%) was developed via the expression of the BrFAD2-1 gene in an antisense orientation. The data demonstrate that B. rapa harbors only one functional FAD2 that can be utilized for the development of the high-oleic acid Korean rapeseed cultivar Tammi, which might be useful for both human consumption and industrial applications.
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In silico identification and characterization of microRNAs and their putative target genes in Solanaceae plants.
Genome
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs ranging from 19 to 25 nucleotides. The miRNA control various cellular functions by negatively regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The miRNA regulation over their target genes has a central role in regulating plant growth and development; however, only a few reports have been published on the function of miRNAs in the family Solanaceae. We identified Solanaceae miRNAs and their target genes by analyzing expressed sequence tag (EST) data from five different Solanaceae species. A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of EST data of Solanaceae species revealed the presence of at least 11 miRNAs and 54 target genes in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), 22 miRNAs and 221 target genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), 12 miRNAs and 417 target genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), 46 miRNAs and 60 target genes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and 7 miRNAs and 28 target genes in Nicotiana benthamiana. The identified Solanaceae miRNAs and their target genes were deposited in the SolmiRNA database, which is freely available for academic research only at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/SolmiRNA. Our data indicate that the Solanaceae family has both conserved and specific miRNAs and that their target genes may play important roles in growth and development of Solanaceae plants.
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Genome-wide identification of the subcellular localization of the Escherichia coli B proteome using experimental and computational methods.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Escherichia coli K-12 and B strains have most widely been employed for scientific studies as well as industrial applications. Recently, the complete genome sequences of two representative descendants of E. coli B strains, REL606 and BL21(DE3), have been determined. Here, we report the subproteome reference maps of E. coli B REL606 by analyzing cytoplasmic, periplasmic, inner and outer membrane, and extracellular proteomes based on the genome information using experimental and computational approaches. Among the total of 3487 spots, 651 proteins including 410 non-redundant proteins were identified and characterized by 2-DE and LC-MS/MS; they include 440 cytoplasmic, 45 periplasmic, 50 inner membrane, 61 outer membrane, and 55 extracellular proteins. In addition, subcellular localizations of all 4205 ORFs of E. coli B were predicted by combined computational prediction methods. The subcellular localizations of 1812 (43.09%) proteins of currently unknown function were newly assigned. The results of computational prediction were also compared with the experimental results, showing that overall precision and recall were 92.16 and 92.16%, respectively. This work represents the most comprehensive analyses of the subproteomes of E. coli B, and will be useful as a reference for proteome profiling studies under various conditions. The complete proteome data are available online (http://ecolib.kaist.ac.kr).
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Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato.
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Long-term adaptation of global transcription and metabolism in the liver of high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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This study investigated the global transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring at multiple time points over 24 wk in response to a high-fat diet (HFD).
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Complete genome sequence of the metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting endophyte Variovorax paradoxus S110.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2010
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Variovorax paradoxus is a microorganism of special interest due to its diverse metabolic capabilities, including the biodegradation of both biogenic compounds and anthropogenic contaminants. V. paradoxus also engages in mutually beneficial interactions with both bacteria and plants. The complete genome sequence of V. paradoxus S110 is composed of 6,754,997 bp with 6,279 predicted protein-coding sequences within two circular chromosomes. Genomic analysis has revealed multiple metabolic features for autotrophic and heterotrophic lifestyles. These metabolic diversities enable independent survival, as well as a symbiotic lifestyle. Consequently, S110 appears to have evolved into a superbly adaptable microorganism that is able to survive in ever-changing environmental conditions. Based on our findings, we suggest V. paradoxus S110 as a potential candidate for agrobiotechnological applications, such as biofertilizer and biopesticide. Because it has many associations with other biota, it is also suited to serve as an additional model system for studies of microbe-plant and microbe-microbe interactions.
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Genome sequence of the polymyxin-producing plant-probiotic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa E681.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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Paenibacillus polymyxa E681, a spore-forming, low-G+C, Gram-positive bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of winter barley grown in South Korea, has great potential for agricultural applications due to its ability to promote plant growth and suppress plant diseases. Here we present the complete genome sequence of P. polymyxa E681. Its 5.4-Mb genome encodes functions specialized to the plant-associated lifestyle and characteristics that are beneficial to plants, such as the production of a plant growth hormone, antibiotics, and hydrolytic enzymes.
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Complete sequencing and comparative analyses of the pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plastome revealed high frequency of tandem repeats and large insertion/deletions on pepper plastome.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Plants in the family Solanaceae are used as model systems in comparative and evolutionary genomics. The complete chloroplast genomes of seven solanaceous species have been sequenced, including tobacco, potato and tomato, but not peppers. We analyzed the complete chloroplast genome sequence of the hot pepper, Capsicum annuum. The pepper chloroplast genome was 156,781 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,783 bp. The content and the order of 133 genes in the pepper chloroplast genome were identical to those of other solanaceous plastomes. To characterize pepper plastome sequence, we performed comparative analysis using complete plastome sequences of pepper and seven solanaceous plastomes. Frequency and contents of large indels and tandem repeat sequences and distribution pattern of genome-wide sequence variations were investigated. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis using concatenated alignments of coding sequences was performed to determine evolutionary position of pepper in Solanaceae. Our results revealed two distinct features of pepper plastome compared to other solanaceous plastomes. Firstly, large indels, including insertions on accD and rpl20 gene sequences, were predominantly detected in the pepper plastome compared to other solanaceous plastomes. Secondly, tandem repeat sequences were particularly frequent in the pepper plastome. Taken together, our study represents unique features of evolution of pepper plastome among solanaceous plastomes.
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Network analysis of hepatic genes responded to high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice: nutrigenomics data mining from recent research findings.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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Obesity and its associated complications, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and some cancers, have been a global health problem with a rapid increase of the obese population. In this study, we selected 31 obesity candidate genes in the liver of high-fat-induced obese C57BL/6J mice through investigation of literature search and analyzed functional protein-protein interaction of the genes using the STRING database. Most of the obesity candidate genes were closely connected through lipid metabolism, and in particular acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 appeared to be a core obesity gene. Overall, genes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, and gluconeogenesis were up-regulated, and genes involved in sterol biosynthesis, insulin signaling, and oxidative stress defense system were down-regulated with a high-fat diet. Future identification of core obesity genes and their functional targets is expected to provide a new way to prevent obesity by phytochemicals or functional foods on the basis of food and nutritional genomics.
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Genome sequences of Escherichia coli B strains REL606 and BL21(DE3).
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2009
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Escherichia coli K-12 and B have been the subjects of classical experiments from which much of our understanding of molecular genetics has emerged. We present here complete genome sequences of two E. coli B strains, REL606, used in a long-term evolution experiment, and BL21(DE3), widely used to express recombinant proteins. The two genomes differ in length by 72,304 bp and have 426 single base pair differences, a seemingly large difference for laboratory strains having a common ancestor within the last 67 years. Transpositions by IS1 and IS150 have occurred in both lineages. Integration of the DE3 prophage in BL21(DE3) apparently displaced a defective prophage in the lambda attachment site of B. As might have been anticipated from the many genetic and biochemical experiments comparing B and K-12 over the years, the B genomes are similar in size and organization to the genome of E. coli K-12 MG1655 and have >99% sequence identity over approximately 92% of their genomes. E. coli B and K-12 differ considerably in distribution of IS elements and in location and composition of larger mobile elements. An unexpected difference is the absence of a large cluster of flagella genes in B, due to a 41 kbp IS1-mediated deletion. Gene clusters that specify the LPS core, O antigen, and restriction enzymes differ substantially, presumably because of horizontal transfer. Comparative analysis of 32 independently isolated E. coli and Shigella genomes, both commensals and pathogenic strains, identifies a minimal set of genes in common plus many strain-specific genes that constitute a large E. coli pan-genome.
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Evolution of ribosomal DNA-derived satellite repeat in tomato genome.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Tandemly repeated DNA, also called as satellite DNA, is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes. Satellite repeats can expand and contract dramatically, which may cause genome size variation among genetically-related species. However, the origin and expansion mechanism are not clear yet and needed to be elucidated.
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Genome sequence of the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis AD011.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis is a probiotic bacterium that naturally inhabits the guts of most mammals, including humans. Here we report the complete genome sequence of B. animalis subsp. lactis AD011 that was isolated from an infant fecal sample. Biological functions encoded in a single circular chromosome of 1,933,695 bp, smallest among the completely sequenced bifidobacterial genomes, are suggestive of their probiotic functions, such as utilization of bifidogenic factors and a variety of glycosidic enzymes and biosynthesis of polysaccharides.
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Biological features of core networks that result from a high-fat diet in hepatic and pulmonary tissues in mammary tumour-bearing, obesity-resistant mice.
Br. J. Nutr.
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We previously demonstrated that the chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes lung and liver metastases of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice. To examine early transcriptional responses to tumour progression in the liver and lungs of HFD-fed mice, 4-week-old female BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: sham-injected, control diet (CD)-fed; sham-injected, HFD-fed (SH); 4T1 cell-injected, CD-fed (TC); 4T1 cell-injected, HFD-fed (TH). Following 16 weeks of either a CD or HFD, 4T1 cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice in the TC and TH groups and all mice were continuously fed identical diets. At 14 d post-injection, RNA was isolated from hepatic and pulmonary tissues for microarray analysis of mRNA expression. Functional annotation and core network analyses were conducted for the TH/SH Unique gene set. Inflammation in hepatic tissues and cell mitosis in pulmonary tissues were the most significant biological functions in the TH/SH Unique gene set. The biological core networks of the hepatic TH/SH Unique gene set were characterised as those genes involved in the activation of acute inflammatory responses (Orm1, Lbp, Hp and Cfb), disordered lipid metabolism and deregulated cell cycle progression. Networks of the pulmonary Unique gene set displayed the deregulation of cell cycle progression (Cdc20, Cdk1 and Bub1b). These HFD-influenced alterations may have led to favourable conditions for the formation of both pro-inflammatory and pro-mitotic microenvironments in the target organs that promote immune cell infiltration and differentiation, as well as the infiltration and proliferation of metastatic tumour cells.
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Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars.
BMC Genomics
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Roses (Rosa sp.), which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants--making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars.
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Time-dependent network analysis reveals molecular targets underlying the development of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Genes Nutr
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Prolonged high-fat diet leads to the development of obesity and multiple comorbidities including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but the underlying molecular basis is not fully understood. We combine molecular networks and time course gene expression profiles to reveal the dynamic changes in molecular networks underlying diet-induced obesity and NASH. We also identify hub genes associated with the development of NASH. Core diet-induced obesity networks were constructed using Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) based on 332 high-fat diet responsive genes identified in liver by time course microarray analysis (8 time points over 24 weeks) of high-fat diet-fed mice compared to normal diet-fed mice. IPA identified five core diet-induced obesity networks with time-dependent gene expression changes in liver. These networks were associated with cell-to-cell signaling and interaction (Network 1), lipid metabolism (Network 2), hepatic system disease (Network 3 and 5), and inflammatory response (Network 4). When we merged these core diet-induced obesity networks, Tlr2, Cd14, and Ccnd1 emerged as hub genes associated with both liver steatosis and inflammation and were altered in a time-dependent manner. Further, protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed Tlr2, Cd14, and Ccnd1 were interrelated through the ErbB/insulin signaling pathway. Dynamic changes occur in molecular networks underlying diet-induced obesity. Tlr2, Cd14, and Ccnd1 appear to be hub genes integrating molecular interactions associated with the development of NASH. Therapeutics targeting hub genes and core diet-induced obesity networks may help ameliorate diet-induced obesity and NASH.
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Screening of tissue-specific genes and promoters in tomato by comparing genome wide expression profiles of Arabidopsis orthologues.
Mol. Cells
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Constitutive overexpression of transgenes occasionally interferes with normal growth and developmental processes in plants. Thus, the development of tissue-specific promoters that drive transgene expression has become agriculturally important. To identify tomato tissue-specific promoters, tissue-specific genes were screened using a series of in silico-based and experimental procedures, including genome-wide orthologue searches of tomato and Arabidopsis databases, isolation of tissue-specific candidates using an Arabidopsis microarray database, and validation of tissue specificity by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and promoter assay. Using these procedures, we found 311 tissue-specific candidate genes and validated 10 tissue-specific genes by RT-PCR. Among these identified genes, histochemical analysis of five isolated promoter::GUS transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis plants revealed that their promoters have different but distinct tissue-specific activities in anther, fruit, and root, respectively. Therefore, it appears these in silico-based screening approaches in addition to the identification of new tissue-specific genes and promoters will be helpful for the further development of tailored crop development.
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Prioritization of SNPs for genome-wide association studies using an interaction model of genetic variation, gene expression, and trait variation.
Mol. Cells
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The identification of true causal loci to unravel the statistical evidence of genotype-phenotype correlations and the biological relevance of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a challenging issue in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we introduced a novel method for the prioritization of SNPs based on p-values from GWAS. The method uses functional evidence from populations, including phenotype-associated gene expressions. Based on the concept of genetic interactions, such as perturbation of gene expression by genetic variation, phenotype and gene expression related SNPs were prioritized by adjusting the p-values of SNPs. We applied our method to GWAS data related to drug-induced cytotoxicity. Then, we prioritized loci that potentially play a role in druginduced cytotoxicity. By generating an interaction model, our approach allowed us not only to identify causal loci, but also to find intermediate nodes that regulate the flow of information among causal loci, perturbed gene expression, and resulting phenotypic variation.
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A genome-wide comparison of NB-LRR type of resistance gene analogs (RGA) in the plant kingdom.
Mol. Cells
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Plants express resistance (R) genes to recognize invaders and prevent the spread of pathogens. To analyze nucleotide binding site, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) genes, we constructed a fast pipeline to predict and classify the R gene analogs (RGAs) by applying in-house matrices. With predicted ~37,000 RGAs, we can directly compare RGA contents across entire plant lineages, from green algae to flowering plants. We focused on the highly divergent NBLRRs in land plants following the emergence of mosses. We identified entire loss of Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor, NBLRR (TNL) in Poaceae family of monocots and interestingly from Mimulus guttatus (a dicot), which leads to the possibility of species-specific TNL loss in other sequenced flowering plants. Using RGA maps, we have elucidated a positive correlation between the cluster sizes of NB-LRRs and their numbers. The cluster members were observed to consist of the same class of NB-LRRs or their variants, which were probably generated from a single locus for an R gene. Our website ( http://sol.kribb.re.kr/PRGA/ ), called plant resistance gene analog (PRGA), provides useful information, such as RGA annotations, tools for predicting RGAs, and analyzing domain profiles. Therefore, PRGA provides new insights into R-gene evolution and is useful in applying RGA as markers in breeding and or systematic studies.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.