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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Combined Use of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Responses Is a Powerful Diagnostic Tool of Active Tuberculosis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Immune-based assays are promising tools to help to formulate diagnosis of active tuberculosis. A multiparameter flow cytometry assay assessing T-cell responses specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the combination of both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses accurately discriminated between active tuberculosis and latent infection.
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Impaired Degranulation and Proliferative Capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD8+ T Cells in HIV-Infected Individuals With Latent Tuberculosis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection have substantially higher rates of progression to active tuberculosis than HIV-uninfected individuals with latent tuberculosis. To explore HIV-induced deficits in M. tuberculosis-specific CD8(+) T-cell functions, we compared interferon ? production, degranulation, and proliferation of CD8(+) T cells in response to M. tuberculosis peptides (ESAT-6/CFP-10) between HIV-infected (median CD4(+) T-cell count, 522 cells/µL; interquartile range, 318-585 cells/µL) and HIV-uninfected individuals with latent tuberculosis from South Africa. We found that M. tuberculosis-specific degranulation and proliferative capacities were impaired in the HIV-infected group. Thus, our results suggest that HIV coinfection compromises CD8(+) T-cell functions in latent tuberculosis.
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Patients with tuberculosis disease have Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8 T cells with a pro-apoptotic phenotype and impaired proliferative capacity, which is not restored following treatment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CD8 T cells play a critical role in control of chronic viral infections; however, the role of these cells in containing persistent bacterial infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is less clear. We assessed the phenotype and functional capacity of CD8 T cells specific for the immunodominant Mtb antigens CFP-10 and ESAT-6, in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease, before and after treatment, and in healthy persons with latent Mtb infection (LTBI). In patients with TB disease, CFP-10/ESAT-6-specific IFN-?+ CD8 T cells had an activated, pro-apoptotic phenotype, with lower Bcl-2 and CD127 expression, and higher Ki67, CD57, and CD95 expression, than in LTBI. When CFP-10/ESAT-6-specific IFN-?+ CD8 T cells were detectable, expression of distinct combinations of these markers was highly sensitive and specific for differentiating TB disease from LTBI. Successful treatment of disease resulted in changes of these markers, but not in restoration of CFP-10/ESAT-6-specific CD8 or CD4 memory T cell proliferative capacity. These data suggest that high mycobacterial load in active TB disease is associated with activated, short-lived CFP-10/ESAT-6-specific CD8 T cells with impaired functional capacity that is not restored following treatment. By contrast, LTBI is associated with preservation of long-lived CFP-10/ESAT-6-specific memory CD8 T cells that maintain high Bcl-2 expression and which may readily proliferate.
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Heterologous vaccination against human tuberculosis modulates antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell function.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Heterologous prime-boost strategies hold promise for vaccination against tuberculosis. However, the T-cell characteristics required for protection are not known. We proposed that boost vaccines should induce long-lived functional and phenotypic changes to T cells primed by Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and/or natural exposure to mycobacteria. We characterized changes among specific CD4(+) T cells after vaccination with the MVA85A vaccine in adults, adolescents, and children. CD4(+) T cells identified with Ag85A peptide-bearing HLA class II tetramers were characterized by flow cytometry. We also measured proliferative potential and cytokine expression of Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cells. During the effector phase, MVA85A-induced specific CD4(+) T cells coexpressed IFN-? and IL-2, skin homing integrins, and the activation marker CD38. This was followed by contraction and a transition to predominantly IL-2-expressing, CD45RA(-) CCR7(+) CD27(+) or CD45RA(+) CCR7(+) CD27(+) specific CD4(+) T cells. These surface phenotypes were similar to Ag85A-specific T cells prior to MVA85A. However, functional differences were observed postvaccination: specific proliferative capacity was markedly higher after 6-12 months than before vaccination. Our data suggest that MVA85A vaccination may modulate Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T-cell function, resulting in greater recall potential. Importantly, surface phenotypes commonly used as proxies for memory T-cell function did not associate with functional effects of vaccination.
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8+ T cells are functionally and phenotypically different between latent infection and active disease.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Protective immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains poorly understood and the role of Mtb-specific CD8(+) T cells is controversial. Here we performed a broad phenotypic and functional characterization of Mtb-specific CD8(+) T cells in 326 subjects with latent Mtb infection (LTBI) or active TB disease (TB). Mtb-specific CD8(+) T cells were detected in most (60%) TB patients and few (15%) LTBI subjects but were of similar magnitude. Mtb-specific CD8(+) T cells in LTBI subjects were mostly T EMRA cells (CD45RA(+) CCR7(-)), coexpressing 2B4 and CD160, and in TB patients were mostly TEM cells (CD45RA(-) CCR7(-)), expressing 2B4 but lacking PD-1 and CD160. The cytokine profile was not significantly different in both groups. Furthermore, Mtb-specific CD8(+) T cells expressed low levels of perforin and granulysin but contained granzymes A and B. However, in vitro-expanded Mtb-specific CD8(+) T cells expressed perforin and granulysin. Finally, Mtb-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses were less frequently detected in extrapulmonary TB compared with pulmonary TB patients. Mtb-specific CD8(+) T-cell proliferation was also greater in patients with extrapulmonary compared with pulmonary TB. Thus, the activity of Mtb infection and clinical presentation are associated with distinct profiles of Mtb-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. These results provide new insights in the interaction between Mtb and the host immune response.
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Functional capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell responses in humans is associated with mycobacterial load.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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High Ag load in chronic viral infections has been associated with impairment of Ag-specific T cell responses; however, the relationship between Ag load in chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and functional capacity of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells in humans is not clear. We compared M. tuberculosis-specific T cell-associated cytokine production and proliferative capacity in peripheral blood from adults with progressively higher mycobacterial loads-that is, persons with latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI), with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), and smear-positive TB. Patients with smear-positive TB had decreased polyfunctional IFN-?(+)IL-2(+)TNF-?(+) and IL-2-producing specific CD4 T cells and increased TNF-? single-positive cells, when compared with smear-negative TB and LTBI. TB patients also had increased frequencies of M. tuberculosis-specific CD8 T cells, compared with LTBI. M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferative capacity was profoundly impaired in individuals with smear-positive TB, and correlated positively with ex vivo IFN-?(+)IL-2(+)TNF-?(+) CD4 T cells, and inversely with TNF-? single-positive CD4 T cells. During 6 mo of anti-TB treatment, specific IFN-?(+)IL-2(+)TNF-?(+) CD4 and CD8 T cells increased, whereas TNF-? and IFN-? single-positive T cells decreased. These results suggest progressive impairment of M. tuberculosis-specific T cell responses with increasing mycobacterial load and recovery of responses during therapy. Furthermore, these data provide a link between specific cytokine-producing subsets and functional capacity of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells, and between the presence of specific CD8 T cells ex vivo and active TB disease. These data have potentially significant applications for the diagnosis of TB and for the identification of T cell correlates of TB disease progression.
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HIV-specific gag responses in early infancy correlate with clinical outcome and inversely with viral load.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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Many HIV-infected infants progress to AIDS during the first year of life when antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not given. The immune determinants of progression to AIDS are not known. We hypothesized that distinct HIV-specific T cell responses correlate with viral load and survival over the first year of life. Whole blood of infants at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age was incubated with HIV antigens Gag and Env. The frequency of specific T cells producing interferon (IFN)-? was then measured by flow cytometry. Viral load and CD4% in HIV(+) infants were determined at each time point. ART was not available for this population at the time of sample collection. Those infants who survived to 12 months of age (n=12) had lower viral loads and higher Gag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses at 3 months, compared with infants who died (n=8). Furthermore, the frequency of Gag-specific CD4(+) T cells correlated inversely with viral load at 3 and 6 months of age. Together these data indicate that the early presence of quantitatively higher Gag-specific T cell responses in HIV-infected infants is associated with lower viral loads and decreased mortality in the first year of life. Our data support the design of a vaccine that preferentially elicits Gag responses, which may result in lower levels of viremia and possibly improve outcome.
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A molecular assay for sensitive detection of pathogen-specific T-cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Here we describe the development and validation of a highly sensitive assay of antigen-specific IFN-? production using real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for two reporters--monokine-induced by IFN-? (MIG) and the IFN-? inducible protein-10 (IP10). We developed and validated the assay and applied it to the detection of CMV, HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) specific responses, in a cohort of HIV co-infected patients. We compared the sensitivity of this assay to that of the ex vivo RD1 (ESAT-6 and CFP-10)-specific IFN-? Elispot assay. We observed a clear quantitative correlation between the two assays (P<0.001). Our assay proved to be a sensitive assay for the detection of MTB-specific T cells, could be performed on whole blood samples of fingerprick (50 uL) volumes, and was not affected by HIV-mediated immunosuppression. This assay platform is potentially of utility in diagnosis of infection in this and other clinical settings.
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Dominant TNF-?+ Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cell responses discriminate between latent infection and active disease.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Rapid diagnosis of active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains a clinical and laboratory challenge. We have analyzed the cytokine profile (interferon-? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-2 (IL-2)) of Mtb-specific T cells by polychromatic flow cytometry. We studied Mtb-specific CD4+ T cell responses in subjects with latent Mtb infection and active tuberculosis disease. The results showed substantial increase in the proportion of single-positive TNF-? Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells in subjects with active disease, and this parameter was the strongest predictor of diagnosis of active disease versus latent infection. We validated the use of this parameter in a cohort of 101 subjects with tuberculosis diagnosis unknown to the investigator. The sensitivity and specificity of the flow cytometry-based assay were 67% and 92%, respectively, the positive predictive value was 80% and the negative predictive value was 92.4%. Therefore, the proportion of single-positive TNF-? Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells is a new tool for the rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis disease.
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HIV-1 infection impairs the bronchoalveolar T-cell response to mycobacteria.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
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The risk of developing active tuberculosis in persons with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is substantially increased shortly after HIV-1 seroconversion. Immune responses in the lung are important to restrict the growth of M. tuberculosis to prevent the development of disease.
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Immunodominant HIV-1 Cd4+ T cell epitopes in chronic untreated clade C HIV-1 infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2009
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A dominance of Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses is significantly associated with a lower viral load in individuals with chronic, untreated clade C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. This association has not been investigated in terms of Gag-specific CD4+ T cell responses, nor have clade C HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell epitopes, likely a vital component of an effective global HIV-1 vaccine, been identified.
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SATVI - after 10 years closing in on a new and better vaccine to prevent tuberculosis.
S. Afr. Med. J.
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The vision of the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative (SATVI) (www.satvi.uct.ac.za) is A World Without TB and our mission is Innovative and high-quality TB vaccine research in Africa, to impact the global epidemic. Over the last 10 years, our focus has been twofold: first, clinical trials of BCG and of new candidate vaccines, and second, complementary research that addresses critical questions in TB vaccine development. SATVI is now widely regarded as the leading TB vaccine clinical research site in the world.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.