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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Light-Induced Cytosolic Activation of Reduction-Sensitive Camptothecin-Loaded Polymeric Micelles for Spatiotemporally Controlled in Vivo Chemotherapy.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Nanomedicines capable of smart operation at the targeted site have the potential to achieve the utmost therapeutic benefits. Providing nanomedicines that respond to endogenous stimuli with an additional external trigger may improve the spatiotemporal control of their functions, while avoiding drawbacks from their inherent tissue distribution. Herein, by exploiting the permeabilization of endosomes induced by photosensitizer agents upon light irradiation, we complemented the intracellular action of polymeric micelles incorporating camptothecin (CPT), which can sharply release the loaded drug in response to the reductive conditions of the cytosol, as an effective strategy for precisely controlling the function of these nanomedicines in vivo, while advancing toward a light-activated chemotherapy. These camptothecin-loaded micelles (CPT/m) were stable in the bloodstream, with minimal drug release in extracellular conditions, leading to prolonged blood circulation and high accumulation in xenografts of rat urothelial carcinoma. With the induction of endosomal permeabilization with the clinically approved photosensitizer, Photofrin, the CPT/m escaped from the endocytic vesicles of cancer cells into the cytosol, as confirmed both in vitro and in vivo by real-time confocal laser microscopies, accelerating the drug release from the micelles only in the irradiated tissues. This spatiotemporal switch significantly enhanced the in vivo antitumor efficacy of CPT/m without eliciting any toxicity, even at a dose 10-fold higher than the maximum tolerated dose of free CPT. Our results indicate the potential of reduction-sensitive drug-loaded polymeric micelles for developing safe chemotherapies after activation by remote triggers, such as light, which are capable of permeabilizing endosomal compartments.
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Factor Structure of the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Community Sample of Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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The current study tested the factor structure of the 41-item SCARED in assessing anxiety in a sample of Hong Kong adolescents. Data were collected from 5,226 youths (54.5 % boys) aged 12-18. Results showed that the scale and the five subscales had high internal consistency. However, confirmatory factor analyses showed that the original five-factor model did not fit the data collected in this sample. Instead, the results revealed a seven-factor model consisting of one second-order factor of anxiety and seven first-order factors: the four original factors of General Anxiety, Panic/Somatic Syndromes, Social Anxiety, and School Phobia and three new factors representing different aspects of Separation Anxiety. Group invariance in the Boys and Girls models was found. It is recommended that the three new factors (Fear of Loneliness, Separation Fear, Worry about Harm) be further developed by adding new items so as to enhance the content and construct validities of the SCARED when used with Hong Kong adolescents.
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Factors Related to Self-Reported Attention Deficit Among Incoming University Students.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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This study was designed to explore physical, social/behavioral, and mental health factors among incoming university students with elevated self-reported ADHD symptoms.
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Differences between patients with schizophrenia with and without co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders in a taiwanese public psychiatric hospital.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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This study aimed to examine the factors related to and the outcomes of schizophrenic patients with co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders (MUDs). All schizophrenic patients discharged from a psychiatric hospital between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2006, were monitored. This study compared the important demographic and clinical variables between patients with co-occurring MUDs and those without, and postdischarge measured time to rehospitalization during a 1-year period. Seven hundred fifty-six patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 88 (11.6%) reported the use of methamphetamine. Univariate analyses indicated that male sex, low educational level, discharge against medical advice, missed first appointment after discharge, co-occurring other illicit substance use disorder, age (younger), diazepam equivalents prescribed at discharge (higher), number of previous admissions within the past 5 years (higher), and length of hospital stay (longer) were predictive of patients with co-occurring MUDs. There were also significant differences in time to rehospitalization between these two groups during the follow-up periods. Many factors can be identified in schizophrenic patients with co-occurring MUDs. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients with co-occurring MUDs were more likely to be rehospitalized. Future studies in many different mental health systems are needed before these findings can be generalized.
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Spatial and Temporal Analysis on the Distribution of Active Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Tracking Accuracy with the Kriging Method.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy.
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Aldosterone induced galectin-3 secretion in vitro and in vivo: from cells to humans.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Patients with primary aldosteronism are associated with increased myocardial fibrosis. Galectin-3 is one of the most important mediators between macrophage activation and myocardial fibrosis.
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Cognition-Modulated Frontal Activity in Prediction and Augmentation of Antidepressant Efficacy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Higher rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) activity correlated with frontal theta power (frontal?) is associated with better antidepressant responses. The antidepressant efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) varied widely; however, the effects of TMS might be modulated by manipulating the pretreatment neural states. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate whether manipulated frontal? before rTMS treatment could predict and augment antidepressant responses. A computerized rACC-engaging cognitive task (RECT) was exploited continuously for 10 min to patients with major depressive disorder. In total, 36 patients were randomized to 3 groups (Group-A: RECT[active] + rTMS[active]; Group-B: RECT[sham] + rTMS[active]; Group-C: RECT[active] + rTMS[sham]). Frontal? and whole-brain glucose uptakes were assessed. We found that the RECT-modulated increases in frontal? correlated well with rACC glucose uptakes. The treatment responders demonstrated a significant increase in frontal? after RECT. Post-RECT frontal? had good sensitivity/specificity in predicting antidepressant responses to rTMS. Group-A had more reduction in total depression scores, had more responders, and was more likely to achieve remission than other groups (Group-A [41.6%] > Group-B [16.6%] > Group-C [0%], P < 0.05). A significant enhancement in the post-1st-rTMS frontal? was observed in Group-A responders but not in Group-B responders, supporting the argument that RECT-modulated rTMS augmented rTMS efficacy. In conclusion, this study suggests that manipulating pre-rTMS neural activity could predict and augment antidepressant effects to rTMS treatment.
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Hypokalemia correlated with arterial stiffness but not microvascular endothelial function in patients with primary aldosteronism.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Hypokalemia in primary aldosteronism (PA) patients correlates with higher levels of cardiovascular events and altered left ventricular geometry. However, the influence of aldosterone on microvascular endothelial function and the effect of hypokalemia on the vascular structure still remain unclear.
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Morphological and morphometric evaluation of the ilium, fibula, and scapula bones for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the osteometric boundaries of the ilium, fibula, and scapula beyond which reconstruction of oromandibular and craniofacial defects, using these free flaps, may not be optimal. Fibula, scapula, and iliac bones were obtained bilaterally from 33 female and 27 male European adult cadavers (n?=?60). Adapting classical anthropometric methods to surgical needs by modifying the measuring bone localizations and measurement points, a measuring system of osteometry and morphometry was used, to quantify the usable bone length of the iliac crest, fibula, and lateral border of the scapula and to localize an oval region (OR) in the ilium. The thin, translucent OR of ilium was localized 6.24?±?5.6 cm posterior to the maximum concavity between the anterior superior (ASIS) and anterior inferior iliac spine and 2.67?±?6.0 cm caudal to the intermediate line of the iliac crest. The available iliac crest was measured from ASIS to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) 24.75?±?12.6 cm, fibula supplied 17.02?±?19.1 cm harvestable bone, and the lateral border of the scapula 9.43?±?8.5 cm. The OR influenced the harvestable bone shape and volume of the ilium. Measuring of the localization points of OR, we found that the size of the OR was very variable and that the height of the neomandible reconstructed with iliac crest might alter with aging. Our findings contribute with knowledge of detailed morphometric measurements on commonly used donor bones to the planning strategies of volumetric defects in oral and maxillofacial region by precise osteometric localization method of OR and relativized length measurements. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:638-645, 2014.
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Reconstruction for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible: superiority of free iliac bone flap to fibula flap in postoperative infection and healing.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is not an uncommon complication after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Although definitive treatment has been confirmed as radical excision of the necrotic bone with simultaneous vascularized osteocutaneous flap reconstruction, it remains a unique challenge. In this study, we compare our results of reconstruction with free iliac and fibula flaps in flap survival, bony union, and postoperative complications.
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Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease patients.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Abstract Background: Tubulointerstitial damage is a final common pathway of most renal diseases. Whether urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), a biomarker for renal tubular damage, is of prognostic value for clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has not been well investigated. Methods: The uNGAL and proteinuria levels were measured among a cohort of 473 advanced CKD patients of various etiologies recruited during 2002-2009. Results: The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 32.3±22.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) 680 (255-1248) mg/g and 132 (27.9%) participants had diabetes. The baseline uNGAL level was significantly associated with male gender, eGFR, UPCR, and hemoglobin. The hazard ratio (HR) of the highest uNGAL tertile for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 3.44 (95% CI 1.47-8.06, p=0.004). With the adjustment of urine creatinine and urine protein, HR of the highest urine NGAL-to-creatinine ratio (UNCR) tertile and the highest urine NGAL-to-protein ratio (UNPR) tertile was 3.06 (95% CI 1.19-7.90, p=0.02) and 2.10 (95% CI 1.13-3.89, p=0.02), respectively. UNPR increased the prediction of survival model for ESRD. HR of the highest UNCR tertile and UNPR tertile for cardiovascular (CV) events was 2.21 (95% CI 0.81-5.98, p=0.08) and 2.79 (95% CI 1.25-6.26, p=0.01), respectively. None of these were associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions: Elevated uNGAL in CKD patients is associated with risks for ESRD and probably CV events. UNPR could improve the prediction for ESRD.
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Modulating the interference effect on spatial working memory by applying transcranial direct current stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Brain Cogn
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Spatial working memory (SWM) is the ability to temporarily store and manipulate spatial information. It has a limited capacity and is quite vulnerable to interference. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been shown to be a part of the SWM network but its specific functional role still remains unknown. Here we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that provides polarity-specific stimulation over the targeted region, to investigate the specific role of the right DLPFC in resolving interference in SWM. A forward- and backward-recall computerized Corsi Block Tapping task (CBT), both with and without a concurrent motor interference task (the modified Luria manual sequencing task) was used to measure SWM capacity and reaction time. The results showed that motor interference impeded accuracy and prolonged reaction time in forward and backward recall for SWM. Anodal tDCS over right DLPFC yielded the tendency to shorten participants' reaction time in the conditions with interference (forward with interference, and backward with interference). Most importantly, anodal tDCS significantly improved participants' SWM span when cognitive demand was the highest (the "backward-recall with motor interference" condition). These results suggest that (1) the right DLPFC plays a crucial role in dealing with the cross-domain motor interference for spatial working memory and (2) the anodal tDCS over right DLPFC improved SWM capacity particularly when task difficulty demands more complex mental manipulations that could be due to the facilitatory effect of anodal tDCS which enhanced the DLPFC function within central executive system at the top-down attentional level.
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Complexity of heart rate variability predicts outcome in intensive care unit admitted patients with acute stroke 
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a predictor of acute stroke outcome. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of a novel non-linear method for analysis of HRV, multiscale entropy (MSE) and outcome of patients with acute stroke who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
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Variability in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate by Area under the Curve Predicts Renal Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Greater variability in renal function is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have demonstrated the predictive value of renal function variability in relation to renal outcomes. This study investigates the predictive ability of different methods of determining estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) variability for progression to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in CKD patients. This was a prospective observational study, which enrolled 1,862 CKD patients. The renal end point was defined as commencement of RRT. The variability in eGFR was measured by the area under the eGFR curve (AUC)%. A significant improvement in model prediction was based on the -2 log likelihood ratio statistic. During a median 28.7-month follow-up, there were 564 (30.3%) patients receiving RRT. In an adjusted Cox model, a smaller initial eGFR AUC%_12M (P < 0.001), a smaller peak eGFR AUC%_12M (P < 0.001), and a larger negative eGFR slope_12M (P < 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of renal end point. Two calculated formulas: initial eGFR AUC%_12M and eGFR slope_12M were the best predictors. Our results demonstrate that the greater eGFR variability by AUC% is associated with the higher risk of progression to RRT.
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Long-Term Outcomes of Simultaneous Skin and Bowel Flaps for Esophageal Reconstruction.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Esophageal reconstruction can be performed with skin or bowel flaps. The choice of flap remains controversial, as the long-term outcomes of skin flaps cannot always be assessed in patients with limited life expectancies due to advanced malignancy, unlike the pediatric and benign cases which have had esophageal reconstruction using bowel flaps. We report the long-term clinical and histopathological outcomes in a series of 45 cases repaired with combined skin and bowel flaps.Four patients developed symptomatic strictures after corrosive esophageal injuries were repaired with a combination of a tubed free radial forearm fasciocutaneous flap and a pedicled bowel flap. On average, 24 years had passed since uneventful initial esophageal reconstructions. Barium esophagograms were obtained in all cases and pathological examination was performed upon all surgical specimens.The cutaneous portions of the reconstructed esophagus exhibited a variety of findings on barium examination. Each of the 4 cases developed an esophagocutaneous fistula after revision; an average of 4 surgeries was required to close these fistulae. The inner surfaces of the portion of esophagus repaired with skin flaps showed extensive ulceration, polypoid lesions, and fibrosis. Pathology specimens from skin flaps showed extensive acute and chronic inflammation, microabscesses, fibrosis, and acanthosis, with depletion and degeneration of the pilosebaceous units. By contrast, adjacent parts of the esophagus repaired with bowel were widely patent with normal appearing mucosa.Our findings indicate that a bowel flap is durable with good tolerance to gastrointestinal content over long periods, whereas skin flaps often developed morphological changes and could not maintain long-term esophageal function without eventual stricture and dysphagia. We therefore recommend use of bowel flaps for esophageal reconstruction in patients with long life expectancy.
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The precuneus and visuospatial attention in near and far space: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.
Brain Stimul
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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There is a large body of evidence for the involvement of the parietal cortex in orientation and navigation in space. This has been supplemented by investigation of the contribution of a number of subregions using transcranial magnetic stimulation.
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Infectious scleritis in Taiwan-a 10-year review in a tertiary-care hospital.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features of infectious scleritis with distinct inciting events and to analyze the factors associated with poor visual outcome.
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The role of superior temporal sulcus in the control of irrelevant emotional face processing: A transcranial direct current stimulation study.
Neuropsychologia
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Emotional faces are often salient cues of threats or other important contexts, and may therefore have a large effect on cognitive processes of the visual environment. Indeed, many behavioral studies have demonstrated that emotional information can modulate visual attention and eye movements. The aim of the present study was to investigate (1) how irrelevant emotional face distractors affect saccadic behaviors and (2) whether such emotional effects reflect a specific neural mechanism or merely biased selective attention. We combined a visual search paradigm that incorporated manipulation of different types of distractor (fearful faces or scrambled faces) and delivered anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the superior temporal sulcus and the frontal eye field to investigate the functional roles of these areas in processing facial expressions and eye movements. Our behavioral data suggest that irrelevant emotional distractors can modulate saccadic behaviors. The tDCS results showed that while rFEF played a more general role in controlling saccadic behavior, rSTS is mainly involved in facial expression processing. Furthermore, rSTS played a critical role in processing facial expressions even when such expressions were not relevant to the task goal, implying that facial expressions and processing may be automatic irrespective of the task goal.
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Explicit and implicit heroin-related cognitions and heroin use among patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Craving is an important issue in substance use disorder. To achieve a better understanding of the cognitive processing systems of craving, the cognitive processes of craving have been considered as two distinct processes. One system, based on rule-based inferences and named explicit cognition, is more conscious and effortful. The other system, based on prior learned association and named implicit cognition, is unconscious and effortless. How explicit and implicit cognitions are associated with heroin use in patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is not clear. This study aimed to explore the relationship between explicit and implicit cognition and heroin use in patients undergoing MMT.
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Oxytocin receptor gene rs53576 polymorphism modulates oxytocin-dopamine interaction and neuroticism traits--a SPECT study.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Brain oxytocin and dopamine systems interact to modulate social cognitive behavior. Whether the interactions are modulated by oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variations remains unclear. Considering the dopamine transporter (DAT) availability as an endophenotype and the degree of dopamine-mediated neuroticism as a phenotype of the OXTR genotypes, the current molecular imaging study used [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to measure the striatal DAT availability and the 57-item Maudsley Personality Inventory to measure neuroticism personality traits in healthy individuals to investigate (A) the correlation between the rs53576 (G/A) of OXTR and the striatal DAT availability, (B) the correlation between the peripheral oxytocin level and striatal DAT availability among different OXTR rs53576 (G/A) genotypes, and (C) whether neuroticism traits could be modified by oxytocin in certain OXTR rs53576 genotypes. The results showed that the striatal DAT availability in the AG+GG group was significantly lower than that in the AA group (2.08±0.47 vs. 1.90±0.32, p=0.04). Only individuals with one or two copies of the G allele of rs53576 showed a negative correlation between DAT availability and oxytocin level (r=-0.41, p=0.002). Furthermore, the oxytocin×DAT interaction was significantly correlated with the MPI neuroticism score in the AA group. Further analyses showed that the DAT availability was correlated with the neuroticism score only in the AA group with a low oxytocin level (r=0.74, p=0.002). The results indicated that the OXTR rs53576 is connected with the striatal DAT availability in vivo and modulates the interactions between the oxytocinergic and dopaminergic systems. Carriers with a specific rs53576 OXTR genotype may present a greater biological sensitivity as well as stress reactivity in terms of environmental adaptation.
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Efficacy of prefrontal theta-burst stimulation in refractory depression: a randomized sham-controlled study.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation could modulate cortical excitability and has the potential to treat refractory depression. However, there has been a lack of large randomized studies of the antidepressant efficacy of different forms of theta-burst stimulation, such as intermittent and continuous theta-burst stimulation. A randomized sham-controlled study was conducted to investigate antidepressant efficacy of theta-burst stimulation and to compare efficacy among left-prefrontal intermittent theta-burst stimulation, right-prefrontal continuous theta-burst stimulation and a combination of them in patients showing different levels of antidepressant refractoriness. A group of 60 treatment-refractory patients with recurrent major depressive disorder were recruited and randomized to four groups (Group A: continuous theta-burst stimulation; Group B: intermittent theta-burst stimulation; Group C: a combination of continuous and intermittent theta-burst stimulation; and Group D: sham theta-burst stimulation; 15 patients were included in each group). After 2 weeks of theta-burst stimulation treatment, depression improved in all groups. Groups B and C had better antidepressant responses (as reflected by % decreases in depression score) than Groups A and D (P = 0.001, post hoc analysis: B > A, B > D, C > A, and C > D), even after controlling for age and refractoriness scores. The mean antidepressant effect was highest in Group C and followed by that in Group B. Additionally, a significant placebo effect was found in patients with low refractoriness; this disappeared in patients with moderate-to-high refractoriness. A significant correlation existed between refractoriness scores and treatment responses. Treatment refractoriness was a significant factor negatively predicting efficacy of theta-burst stimulation (P = 0.039). This randomized sham-controlled study demonstrated that active theta-burst stimulation is a well-tolerated form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and has good antidepressant efficacy, particularly in depressed subjects within a certain range of treatment refractoriness.
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Latissimus dorsi-rib pedicle flap for mandibular reconstruction as a salvage procedure for failed free fibula flap.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Mandibular reconstruction is usually performed by using free vascular flaps. However, there are instances in which it must be carried out with pedicle flaps. Insofar, the main option recommended is the pectoralis major (PM) + rib pedicle flap.
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Effects of the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin on Monocyte-Secreted Chemokines.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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BackgroundMammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as sirolimus and its derivative, everolimus, are potent immunosuppressive and antiproliferative drugs. Inflammatory diseases are characterized by immunological dysfunction, and monocyte recruitment underlies the mechanism of cell damage. Chemokines attract inflammatory cells to sites of inflammation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8); the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2); the regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed, presumably secreted protein (RANTES/CCL5); the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1¿ (CCL3); and MIP-1ß (CCL4) are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation. However, whether mTOR inhibitors moderate the production of chemokines in monocytes remains unclear.MethodsA human monocyte cell line, THP-1, and primary monocytes obtained from human volunteers, were stimulated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and then treated with sirolimus. The expression of the MCP-1, RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1¿, MIP-1ß, and TNF-¿ proteins was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and intracellular signalling was examined using western blotting.ResultsSirolimus significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of MCP-1, IL-8, RANTES, MIP-1¿, and MIP-1ß in the THP-1 cells and human primary monocytes. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors that were examined suppressed the LPS-induced expression of MCP-1, IL-8, RANTES, MIP-1¿, and MIP-1ß. In addition, sirolimus suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and p65 in the THP-1 and human primary monocytes.ConclusionSirolimus downregulates the expression of chemokines in monocytes, including MCP-1, RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1¿, and MIP-1ß, by inhibiting the NF-¿B-p65 and MAPK-p38 signalling pathways.
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Transcranial direct current stimulation over right posterior parietal cortex changes prestimulus alpha oscillation in visual short-term memory task.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Alpha band activity changes accompanied with the level attentional state, and recent studies suggest that such oscillation is associated with activities in the posterior parietal cortex. Here we show that artificially elevating parietal activity via positively-charged electric current through the skull can rapidly and effortlessly change people's prestimulus alpha power and improve subsequent performance on a visual short-term memory (VSTM) task. This modulation of alpha power and behavioral performance, however, is dependent on people's natural VSTM capability such that only the low performers benefitted from the stimulation, whereas high performers did not. This behavioral dichotomy is accounted by prestimulus alpha powers around the parieto-occipital regions: low performers showed decreased prestimulus alpha power, suggesting improvement in attention deployment in the current paradigm, whereas the high performers did not benefit from tDCS as they showed equally-low prestimulus alpha power before and after the stimulation. Together, these results suggest that prestimulus alpha power, especially in low performers, can be modulated by anodal stimulation and alter subsequent VSTM performance/capacity. Thus, measuring alpha before stimulus onset may be as important as measuring other VSTM-related electrophysiological components such as attentional allocation and memory capacity related components (i.e. N2 posterior-contralateral, N2pc, or contralateral delay activity, CDA). In addition, low VSTM performers perhaps do not suffer not only from poor VSTM capacity, but also from broad attentional mechanisms, and prestimulus alpha may be an useful tool in understanding the nature of individual differences in VSTM.
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Systolic blood pressure and outcomes in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease patients: evidence from a taiwanese cohort.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is ?140mm Hg. However, the SBP target provides no suggested lower limit, and some studies indicate that a lower SBP target may be harmful. We aimed to investigate the J-shaped relationship between SBP and clinical outcomes in CKD patients and the factors that modify this relationship.
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Lymphedema fat graft: an ideal filler for facial rejuvenation.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Lymphedema is a chronic disorder characterized by lymph stasis in the subcutaneous tissue. Lymphatic fluid contains several components including hyaluronic acid and has many important properties. Over the past few years, significant research has been performed to identify an ideal tissue to implant as a filler. Because of its unique composition, fat harvested from the lymphedema tissue is an interesting topic for investigation and has significant potential for application as a filler, particularly in facial rejuvenation. Over a 36-month period, we treated and assessed 8 patients with lymphedematous limbs who concurrently underwent facial rejuvenation with lymphedema fat (LF). We conducted a pre- and post-operative satisfaction questionnaire survey and a histological assessment of the harvested LF fat. The overall mean general appearance score at an average of 6 months after the procedure was 7.2±0.5, demonstrating great improvement. Patients reported significant improvement in their skin texture with a reading of 8.5±0.7 and an improvement in their self-esteem. This study demonstrates that LF as an ideal autologous injectable filler is clinically applicable and easily available in patients with lymphedema. We recommend the further study and clinical use of this tissue as it exhibits important properties and qualities for future applications and research.
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Macular parameters of Stratus optical coherence tomography for assessing glaucoma in high myopia.
Clin Exp Optom
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The aim was to assess the macular parameters of glaucoma in highly myopic subjects.
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Assessment of the cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes of a fourth-generation synchronous telehealth program for the management of chronic cardiovascular disease.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Telehealth programs are a growing field in the care of patients. The evolution of information technology has resulted in telehealth becoming a fourth-generation synchronous program. However, long-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness analysis of fourth-generation telehealth programs have not been reported in patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases.
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Plasma apelin: A novel biomarker for predicting diabetes.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Apelin regulates insulin sensitivity and secretion in animals. However, whether plasma apelin predicts incident diabetes in humans remains unknown.
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Reconstruction after orbital exenteration using gracilis muscle free flap.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Orbital exenteration (OE) is a disfiguring procedure, which typically includes the removal of the entire eyeball including the globe, extraocular muscles, and periorbital soft tissues after malignancies excision or trauma. Several methods of orbital reconstruction have been attempted with varying success. In this report, we analyze results of the use of gracilis muscle free flap for reconstruction of OE defects and its feasibility for prosthetic rehabilitation.
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Clinical characteristics of alternaria keratitis.
J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Purpose. Alternaria spp. are an uncommon cause of mycotic keratitis. Previous studies on Alternaria keratitis have generally been limited to case reports. We examined the clinical characteristics of Alternaria keratitis in this study. Methods. The characteristics and outcomes of 7 patients with culture-proven Alternaria keratitis treated in our hospital were compared with 25 previously reported cases. Results. The risk factors for Alternaria keratitis were trauma in 5 patients and soft contact lenses in 1 patient. Six patients with early diagnosis (<2 weeks) were cured with medical antimicrobial treatment; a patch graft was required in 1 patient with perforation. When incorporated with previous reports on Alternaria keratitis (n = 32), 14 (44%) infections followed trauma, 10 (31%) were associated with preexisting corneal disease or previous ocular surgery, and 5 (16%) occurred in soft contact lens wearers. Successful medical treatment was achieved in 23 (72%) patients, including 10 out of 21 eyes (48%) treated with natamycin and/or amphotericin B. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed in 9 (28%) cases. Conclusions. Alternaria keratitis is generally associated with specific risk factors and responds to medical treatment when early diagnosis is performed and prompt antifungal treatment is initiated.
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The potential of transcranial magnetic stimulation for population-based application: a region-based illustrated brief overview.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The awareness of the global trends in neuroscience study, especially in the cognitive neuroscience field, should be increased. One notable approach is the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) not only as a research tool but also as a choice for treatment and rehabilitation in neurological disorders, such as post-stroke hemiplegia, visuospatial neglect syndrome, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and psychiatric conditions such as major depression and schizophrenia. All of these occur in significant numbers in highly populated regions. This paper briefly discusses the basic protocols and potential benefits of using TMS with the aim of providing insight that is useful in the design of future public health strategies in highly populated regions with a large neurocognitive burden of disease where this technique is currently underemployed.
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Voluntarily-generated unimanual preparation is associated with stopping success: evidence from LRP and lateralized mu ERD before the stop signal.
Psychol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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According to the race models of the stop-signal paradigm, stopping success (successful vs. unsuccessful stopping) is attributed to the finishing times of a go and a stop process. In addition to those factors involving processing times, in the present study we sought to use electrophysiological measures to find factors involving activations that could affect stopping success. We hypothesized that voluntarily-generated unimanual preparation would be a factor. To assess voluntarily-generated unimanual preparation in the stop-signal paradigm, we used a selective-stopping task without any precue. The selective-stopping task also allowed us to assess reaction times (RTs) even when stopping was successful. We demonstrated shorter RTs in signal-respond (i.e. unsuccessful stopping) than in signal-inhibit (successful stopping) trials, as is predicted by the race models. More importantly, we also demonstrated different pre-signal lateralized readiness potentials between the two types of trials and larger lateralized mu ERD in signal-respond than in signal-inhibit trials, suggesting that voluntarily-generated unimanual preparation affects stopping success. In addition to what is described in the race models of the stop-signal paradigm, the present results therefore demonstrated measures of pre-signal activations that could influence stopping success.
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Pediatric microbial keratitis in Taiwan: clinical and microbiological profiles, 1998-2002 versus 2008-2012.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To identify the change in clinical and microbiological profiles of pediatric microbial keratitis in Taiwan between 1998-2002 and 2008-2012.
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Modified Charles procedure and lymph node flap transfer for advanced lower extremity lymphedema.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Treatment of advanced lymphedema remains a challenge in reconstructive surgery. Microsurgical techniques seem to be effective in early stage lymphedema, however in advanced stages their role is not well established. In this study, we present a novel approach for advanced lymphedema combining excisional procedure (Charles) with transferring lymph node flap.
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Sex-specific associations between plasma oxytocin levels and schizotypal personality features in healthy individuals.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Oxytocin (OT) has been shown to play a crucial role in the biology of social interaction. Sex differences associated with this neuropeptide system have been reported. OT may serves as an indicator of interpersonal stress, especially in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex-specific associations between plasma OT levels and schizotypal personality features, especially in interpersonal dimension, in healthy individuals.
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Revealing the brain's adaptability and the transcranial direct current stimulation facilitating effect in inhibitory control by multiscale entropy.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The abilities to inhibit impulses and withdraw certain responses are critical for human's survival in a fast-changing environment. These processes happen fast, in a complex manner, and sometimes are difficult to capture with fMRI or mean electrophysiological brain signal alone. Therefore, an alternative measure that can reveal the efficiency of the neural mechanism across multiple timescales is needed for the investigation of these brain functions. The present study employs a new approach to analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) signal: the multiscale entropy (MSE), which groups data points with different timescales to reveal any occurrence of repeated patterns, in order to theoretically quantify the complexity (indicating adaptability and efficiency) of neural systems during the process of inhibitory control. From this MSE perspective, EEG signals of successful stop trials are more complex and information rich than that of unsuccessful stop trials. We further applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), with anodal electrode over presupplementary motor area (preSMA), to test the relationship between behavioral modification with the complexity of EEG signals. We found that tDCS can further increase the EEG complexity of the frontal lobe. Furthermore, the MSE pattern was found to be different between high and low performers (divided by their stop-signal reaction time), where the high-performing group had higher complexity in smaller scales and less complexity in larger scales in comparison to the low-performing group. In addition, this between-group MSE difference was found to interact with the anodal tDCS, where the increase of MSE in low performers benefitted more from the anodal tDCS. Together, the current study demonstrates that participants who suffer from poor inhibitory control can efficiently improve their performance with 10min of electrical stimulation, and such cognitive improvement can be effectively traced back to the complexity within the EEG signals via MSE analysis, thereby offering a theoretical basis for clinical intervention via tDCS for deficits in inhibitory control.
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Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes.
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Association of angiopoietin-2 with renal outcome in chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The pathophysiological mechanisms of renal function progression in chronic kidney disease (CKD) have still not been completely explored. In addition to well-known traditional risk factors, non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, have gradually attracted physicians' attention. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) impairs endothelial function through preventing angiopoietin-1 from binding to Tie2 receptor. Whether Ang-2 is associated with renal function progression in CKD is unknown.
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P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration are associated with renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as a noninvasive tool to evaluate left atrial enlargement. This study was designed to assess whether P wave parameters were associated with renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This longitudinal study enrolled 439 patients with CKD stages 3-5. Renal end points were defined as the commencement of dialysis or death. Change in renal function was measured using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected for heart rate, i.e., corrected P wave dispersion and corrected maximum P wave duration. The values of P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration were 88.8±21.7 ms and 153.3±21.7 ms, respectively. During the follow-up period (mean, 25.2 months), 95 patients (21.6%) started hemodialysis and 30 deaths (6.8%) were recorded. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that increased P wave dispersion [hazard ratio (HR), 1.020; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.009-1.032; P<0.001] and maximum P wave duration (HR, 1.013; 95% CI, 1.003-1.024; P?=?0.012) were associated with progression to renal end points. Furthermore, increased P wave dispersion (unstandardized coefficient ??=?-0.016; P?=?0.037) and maximum P wave duration (unstandardized coefficient ??=?-0.014; P?=?0.040) were negatively associated with the eGFR slope. We demonstrated that increased P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration were associated with progression to the renal end points of dialysis or death and faster renal function decline in CKD patients. Screening CKD patients on the basis of P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration may help identify patients at high risk for worse renal outcomes.
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Hepatitis C virus infection increases risk of developing end-stage renal disease using competing risk analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are closely linked and both increase patient mortality. The association of HCV and risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not been analyzed with competing risk model.
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Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones.
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s) would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Experiment 1: left or right side), pitch discrimination (Experiment 2: high, med, or low tone), and spatial-plus-pitch (Experiment 3: left or right; high, med, or low) discrimination task. In Experiment 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand's reaction time (RT). No effect of hand proximity was found in Experiments 2 or 3, where a choice RT task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results that the perceptual and attentional effect of hand proximity is not limited to one specific modality, but applicable to the entire "space" near the hands, including stimuli of different modality (at least visual and auditory) within that space. While these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. (2006), we also discuss the possibility of a dual mechanism hypothesis to reconcile findings from the multimodal and magno/parvocellular account.
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Evaluation of circulating adipokines and abdominal obesity as predictors of significant myocardial ischemia using gated single-photon emission computed tomography.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. Adipocytes secrete adipokines, including the newly discovered adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and chemerin. Adipokines contribute to the pathogenesis of CAD. In patients with CAD, the presence of significant ischemia predicts adverse outcomes. It is unknown whether adipokines can be better predictors of the presence of significant myocardial ischemia than conventional risk factors. This study aimed to compare adipokines with clinical risk factors and abdominal obesity as predictive factors for significant myocardial ischemia.
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Epithelial phenotype in total sclerocornea.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To understand whether the epithelial phenotype in total sclerocornea is corneal or conjunctival in origin.
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Motor empathy is a consequence of misattribution of sensory information in observers.
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human behavior depends crucially on the ability to interact with others and empathy has a critical role in enabling this to occur effectively. This can be an unconscious process and based on natural instinct and inner imitation (Montag et al., 2008) responding to observed and executed actions (Newman-Norlund et al., 2007). Motor empathy relating to painful stimuli is argued to occur via the mirror system in motor areas (Rizzolatti and Luppino, 2001). Here we investigated the effects of the location of emotional information on the responses of this system. Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes from the right first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle in the hand elicited by single pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered over the left motor cortex were measured while participants observed a video of a needle entering a hand over the FDI muscle, representing a painful experience for others. To maintain subjects' internal representation across different viewing distances, we used the same size of hand stimuli both in peripersonal and extrapersonal space. We found a reduced MEP response, indicative of inhibition of the corticospinal system, only for stimuli presented in peripersonal space and not in extrapersonal space. This empathy response only occurring for near space stimuli suggests that it may be a consequence of misidentification of sensory information as being directly related to the observer. A follow up experiment confirmed that the effect was not a consequence of the size of the stimuli presented, in agreement with the importance of the near space/far space boundary for misattribution of body related information. This is consistent with the idea that empathy is, at least partially, a consequence of misattribution of perceptual information relating to another to the observer and that pain perception is modulated by the nature of perception of the pain.
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Functional Outcome Analysis After Anterolateral Thigh Flap Reconstruction of Pharyngoesophageal Defect.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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Pharyngoesophageal defects are traditionally reconstructed with jejunal or radial forearm flaps. Recently, anterolateral thigh flaps have served for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction. We tell of our experience with anterolateral thigh flap for the reconstruction of pharyngoesophageal defect for the past 5 years. This study presents another modified flap design and refinement of surgical techniques.
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Far space neglect in conjunction but not feature search following transcranial magnetic stimulation over right posterior parietal cortex.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Near and far space coding in the human brain is a dynamic process. Areas in dorsal as well as ventral visual association cortex including right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC), right frontal eye field (rFEF) and right ventral occipital cortex (rVO) have been shown to be important in visuospatial processing, but the involvement of these areas when the information is in near or far space remains unclear. There is a need for investigations of these representations to help explain the pathophysiology of hemispatial neglect, and the role of near and far space is crucial to this. We used a conjunction visual search task employing an elliptical array to investigate the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered over rFEF, rPPC and rVO on the processing of targets in near and far space and at a range of horizontal eccentricities. Like previous studies, we found that rVO was involved in far space search and rFEF was involved regardless of the distance to the array. It was found that rPPC was involved in search only in far space with a neglect-like effect when the target was located in the most eccentric locations. No effects were seen for any site for a feature search task. As the search arrays had higher predictability with respect to target location than is often the case this data may form a basis for clarifying both the role of PPC in visual search, its contribution to neglect and the importance of near and far space in these.
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Histological changes of the voice tube and possible clinical consequences after voice reconstruction with free ileocolon flap.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Free ileocolon flap has become a valid option for restoration of speech after pharyngolaryngectomy. After transfer, deprivation of the trophic intestinal contents and exposure to chronic intermittent airflow could substantially modify the structure of the voice tube, compromising its function. Biopsy specimens from 14 voice tube segments were examined. Sections were evaluated after staining with hematoxylin-eosin, trichromic Masson, and antiproliferating cell nuclear antigen. In all samples, the mucosa displayed diffuse atrophy and decreased proliferation rate, and in some areas only a single layer of goblet cells and enterocytes was present. Erosions, ulcerations, and dysplastic changes were absent and the alterations were limited to the mucosal layer. None of the patients experienced problems related to the modifications of the mucosa. The changes detected in the voice tube mucosa seem to indicate a physiologic adaptation to the new environment as proved by disappearance of the chronic inflammatory infiltrate and absence of erosions when the steady state was reached.
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Dyslipoproteinemia and impairment of renal function in diabetic kidney disease: an analysis of animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials.
Rev Diabet Stud
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Dyslipoproteinemia is highly prevalent in diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Both diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, lower high-density lipoprotein, and higher small, dense low-density lipoprotein. A number of observational studies have reported that dyslipidemia may be associated with albuminuria, renal function impairment, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population, and especially in CKD and DKD patients. Diabetic glomerulopathy and the related albuminuria are the main manifestations of DKD. Numerous animal studies support the finding that glomerular atherosclerosis is the main mechanism of glomerulosclerosis in CKD and DKD. Some randomized, controlled trials suggest the use of statins for the prevention of albuminuria and renal function impairment in CKD and DKD patients. However, a large clinical study, the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), does not support that statins could reduce ESRD in CKD. In this article, we analyze the complex association of dyslipoproteinemia with DKD and deduce its relevance from animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials. We show that special subgroups could benefit from the statin treatment.
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Association of cholesterol levels with mortality and cardiovascular events among patients with CKD and different amounts of proteinuria.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Malnutrition and/or inflammation may modify the risk relationship of total cholesterol with cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. However, it is unclear whether the relationship of total cholesterol with cardiovascular events and mortality varies by proteinuria.
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The neural development of response inhibition in 5- and 6-year-old preschoolers: an ERP and EEG study.
Dev Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Many studies have used event-related potential and neural oscillations to probe the underlying neural mechanisms of inhibitory control in adults, but little has been done in typically developing preschoolers. In this study we tested healthy preschool children between the ages of 5 and 6, and observed better response inhibition in 6-year-olds compared to 5-year-olds. Importantly, this age-related difference could not be explained by the N2 component from event-related potential, but was reflected in an increase in right frontal beta power from electroencephalogram. These results suggest that frontal beta power during the preschool period may reflect neural development of inhibitory control.
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Gender differences in heroin users receiving methadone maintenance therapy in Taiwan.
J Addict Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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This study examined gender differences in heroin users who first received MMT. Compared with men, female heroin users were younger and more likely to be unemployed, to have family members using illicit substances, to initiate heroin use at a younger age, to begin MMT earlier after starting heroin use, to have methamphetamine use, to initiate methamphetamine use at a younger age, and to report a child-raising burden and a prior history of traumatic experiences. Men were more likely to have use of betel quid, and to initiate alcohol, nicotine and betel quid use at a younger age than women.
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Free fibular flap with periosteal excess for mandibular reconstruction.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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In microvascular transfer of fibular osteocutaneous flap for mandible reconstruction after cancer ablation, good bone union is necessary to allow timely radiation therapy after surgery. As the area of bone contact between fibula and the original mandible at the edge of the mandibular defect is small, a periosteal excess at both ends of the fibula covering the bone junction can be used to increase the chance of bone union. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a periosteal excess surrounding both ends of the fibula flap can provide better blood supply and, therefore, ensure bone union and wound healing at 6 weeks after surgery and before radiation therapy initiation.
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Myocardial ultrasound tissue characterization of patients with primary aldosteronism.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Primary aldosteronism (PA), an underdiagnosed cause of hypertension, is associated with more significant cardiac remodeling and myocardial fibrosis than is essential hypertension (EH). The aim of this study was to validate myocardial fibrosis and to evaluate factors associated with the degree of myocardial fibrosis in patients with PA. We prospectively analyzed 62 patients with PA (including 46 patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma and 16 with bilateral hyperplasia) between October 2006 and October 2010, and we enrolled 17 patients with EH as the control group. Echocardiography, including ultrasonic tissue characterization using cyclic variation of integrated backscatter (CVIBS), was performed in individuals in both groups. Among patients with PA, the diastolic blood pressures and plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly higher than those of patients with EH. Moreover, the serum potassium levels and the plasma renin activities were significantly lower in patients with EH. As observed by echocardiography, patients with PA had greater interventricular septal thickness, greater left ventricular posterior wall thickness, and higher left ventricular mass indexes than did patients with EH. Patients with PA had significantly lower CVIBS values than patients with EH (7.1 ± 2.2 vs. 8.7 ± 1.5 dB; p = .005). In a correlation study that corrected for various clinical parameters, only log-transformed plasma renin activity values correlated significantly with CVIBS values. Ultrasonic tissue characterization with CVIBS is a useful tool for determining the extent of myocardial fibrosis. Patients with PA exhibit a more severe degree of myocardial fibrosis, as detected by CVIBS, than do patients with EH. Moreover, the severity of fibrosis, as detected by CVIBS, correlates with log-transformed plasma renin activity values.
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The change of insulin levels after six weeks antidepressant use in drug-naïve major depressive patients.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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A reciprocal relationship between diabetes risk and depression has been reported. There are few studies investigating glucose-insulin homeostasis before and after short-term antidepressant treatment in drug-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD) patients.
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Clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of a synchronous telehealth service for seniors and nonseniors with cardiovascular diseases: quasi-experimental study.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Telehealth based on advanced information technology is an emerging health care strategy for managing chronic diseases. However, the cost-effectiveness and clinical effect of synchronous telehealth services in older patients with cardiovascular diseases has not yet been studied. Since 2009, the Telehealth Center at the National Taiwan University Hospital has provided a range of telehealth services (led by a cardiologist and staffed by cardiovascular nursing specialists) for cardiovascular disease patients including (1) instant transmission of blood pressure, pulse rate, electrocardiography, oximetry, and glucometry for analysis, (2) mutual telephone communication and health promotion, and (3) continuous analytical and decision-making support.
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Management of infected groin wounds after vascular surgery.
Surg Infect (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Management of an infected groin wound after vascular surgery may be a challenge. We report a retrospective series of cases of the management of groin defects and an algorithm for their management based on our own experience and related literature.
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Association of Fluid Overload With Kidney Disease Progression in Advanced CKD: A Prospective Cohort Study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Fluid overload is a common phenomenon in patients in a late stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, little is known about whether fluid overload is related to kidney disease progression in patients with CKD. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to assess the association of the severity of fluid status and kidney disease progression in an advanced CKD cohort.
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The treatment of composite defect of bone and soft tissues with a combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior and rib free flap.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Composite defects of bone and soft tissues represent a reconstructive challenge. Several techniques have been described in the medical literature; however, extensive composite defects should be reconstructed with microvascular free tissue transfer. The purpose of this report is to present the use of a composite latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior and rib free flap (LD-SA/rib) as an alternative procedure in patients who cannot undergo more commonly used vascularized bone-containing free flap reconstruction.
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Survival of transferred ileum after ischemia time longer than 1 hour: a clinical result different from animal studies.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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The aim of this study was to identify the ischemic tolerance of the ileum. In microvascular transfer of autologous bowel segments, the most critical factor for survival is ischemic time. In earlier animal studies, the tolerance of ischemic time was shorter for the ileum than for the jejunum, and an ischemic time of <1 hour was suggested for microvascular transfer of the ileum. It was believed that there are more bacteria in the ileum than in the jejunum and therefore autolysis and necrosis will be triggered sooner after the initiation of ischemia. However, in a clinical scenario, the tolerance for ischemic time of the ileum has not yet been clarified.
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Association of dyslipidemia with renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the relationship between dyslipidemia with renal outcomes in patients with moderate to advanced CKD remains controversial. Hence, our objective is to determine whether dyslipidemia is independently associated with rapid renal progression and progression to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in CKD patients. The study analyzed the association between lipid profile, RRT, and rapid renal progression (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] slope <-6 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/yr) in 3303 patients with stages 3 to 5 CKD. During a median 2.8-year follow-up, 1080 (32.3%) participants commenced RRT and 841 (25.5%) had rapid renal progression. In the adjusted models, the lowest quintile (hazard ratios [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.49) and the highest two quintiles of total cholesterol (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.52 and HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.65 respectively) increased risks for RRT (vs. quintile 2). Besides, the highest quintile of total cholesterol was independently associated with rapid renal progression (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.83). Our study demonstrated that certain levels of dyslipidemia were independently associated with RRT and rapid renal progression in CKD stage 3-5. Assessment of lipid profile may help identify high risk groups with adverse renal outcomes.
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Predictors for dropping-out from methadone maintenance therapy programs among heroin users in southern Taiwan.
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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This study examined the methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) retention rates of heroin users in Taiwan and the predictors for dropout in the 18-month period after starting MMT. We consecutively recruited 368 intravenous heroin users receiving MMT in 2007-2008 and applied Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to determine the predictive effect of pre- and in-treatment variables on early discontinuation of MMT. The retention rate at 18 months was 32.3%. High heroin expenses, more severe harm caused by heroin use, perceived lower family support, and lower methadone dosage at 3 months after starting MMT increased the risk of dropout in the follow-up period.
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TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Association between the levels of carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and aldosterone in patients with primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
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Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels predict cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury better than albuminuria or urinary cystatin C levels.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major concern among clinicians in prescribing cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This study evaluated and compared the ability of urinary biomarkers, including urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C, and the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) to predict cisplatin-induced AKI. Thirty-three cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy were prospectively studied, including 10 (30%) who developed AKI (the study group). Changes of urinary biomarkers were compared at 4 hours, 8 hours, and 12 hours, and 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, and 4 days after cisplatin intravenous infusions (75mg/m(2)) versus the baseline. There was a significant increase in urinary NGAL levels from 12 hours to 4 days (p<0.05) compared to baseline after cisplatin infusion in the AKI group. The magnitude of these changes over time differed significantly by group (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operating curve describing the relationship between urinary NGAL levels and AKI within 12 hours was 0.865 (95% confidence interval=0.691-1.000). Urinary NGAL levels independently predicted AKI 12 hours after cisplatin (p=0.045) after adjustments for age, gender, body mass index, baseline serum creatinine, and urinary total protein. Urinary NGAL levels may be an early biomarker of AKI in patients receiving cisplatin-based treatment.
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Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis: A Review of Hospital Cases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is an important public health issue. The study aimed to characterize the patient demographics, clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility, and clinical outcomes of keratitis caused by S. aureus, and to make a comparison between MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates.
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The incidence and relative risk of stroke among patients with bipolar disorder: a seven-year follow-up study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study aimed to estimate the incidence and relative risk of stroke and post-stroke all-cause mortality among patients with bipolar disorder.
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A CMMI-based approach for medical software project life cycle study.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In terms of medical techniques, Taiwan has gained international recognition in recent years. However, the medical information system industry in Taiwan is still at a developing stage compared with the software industries in other nations. In addition, systematic development processes are indispensable elements of software development. They can help developers increase their productivity and efficiency and also avoid unnecessary risks arising during the development process. Thus, this paper presents an application of Light-Weight Capability Maturity Model Integration (LW-CMMI) to Chang Gung Medical Research Project (CMRP) in the Nuclear medicine field. This application was intended to integrate user requirements, system design and testing of software development processes into three layers (Domain, Concept and Instance) model. Then, expressing in structural System Modeling Language (SysML) diagrams and converts part of the manual effort necessary for project management maintenance into computational effort, for example: (semi-) automatic delivery of traceability management. In this application, it supports establishing artifacts of "requirement specification document", "project execution plan document", "system design document" and "system test document", and can deliver a prototype of lightweight project management tool on the Nuclear Medicine software project. The results of this application can be a reference for other medical institutions in developing medical information systems and support of project management to achieve the aim of patient safety.
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The dorsal attentional system in oculomotor learning of predictive information.
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The dorsal attentional network is known for its role in directing top-down visual attention toward task-relevant stimuli. This goal-directed nature of the dorsal network makes it a suitable candidate for processing and extracting predictive information from the visual environment. In this review we briefly summarize some of the findings that delineate the neural substrates that contribute to predictive learning at both levels within the dorsal attentional system: including the frontal eye field (FEF) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We also discuss the similarities and differences between these two regions when it comes to learning predictive information. The current findings from the literature suggest that the FEFs may be more involved in top-down spatial attention, whereas the parietal cortex is involved in processing task-relevant attentional influences driven by stimulus salience, both contribute to the processing of predictive cues at different time points.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.