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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Livin contributes to tumor hypoxia-induced resistance to cytotoxic therapies in glioblastoma multiforme.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Purpose: Tumor hypoxia is one of the crucial microenvironments to promote therapy resistance (TR) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Livin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, contributes anti-apoptosis. However, the role of tumor hypoxia in Livin regulation and its impact on TR are unclear. Experimental Design: Livin expression and apoptosis for tumor hypoxic cells derived from human glioblastoma xenografts or in vitro hypoxic stress-treated glioblastoma cells were determined by western blotting, immunofluorescence imaging and annexin V staining assay. The mechanism of hypoxia-induced Livin induction was investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and reporter assay. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of Livin were utilized to investigate the role of Livin on tumor hypoxia-induced TR in vitro or in vivo. Results: The upregulation of Livin expression and downregulation of caspase activity were observed under cycling and chronic hypoxia in glioblastoma cells and xenografts, concomitant with increased TR to ionizing radiation and temozolomide. However, knockdown of Livin inhibited these effects. Moreover, hypoxia activated Livin transcription through the binding of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? to the Livin promoter. The targeted inhibition of Livin by the cell-permeable peptide (TAT-Lp15) in intracerebral glioblastoma-bearing mice demonstrated a synergistic suppression of tumor growth and increased survival rate in standard-of-care treatment with radiation plus temozolomide. Conclusions: These findings indicate a novel pathway that links upregulation of Livin to tumor hypoxia-induced TR in GBM and suggest that targeting Livin using cell-permeable peptide may be effective therapeutic strategy for tumor microenvironment-induced TR.
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Prognostic Value of Metastatic N1 Lymph Node Ratio and Angiolymphatic Invasion in Patients With Pathologic Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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With regard to pathologic stage IIA (pIIA) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there is a paucity of literature evaluating the risk factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors of DFS and OS in patients with NSCLC pIIA.We performed a retrospective review of 98 stage II patients (7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer) who underwent lung resection from January 2005 to February 2011. Of these, 23 patients were excluded for this study because of loss of follow-up or different substage, and 75 patients with pIIA were included for further univariate and multivariate analysis. Risk factors for DFS and OS were analyzed, including age, gender, smoking history, operation method, histology, differential grade, visceral pleural invasion, angiolymphatic invasion, and metastatic N1 lymph node ratio (LNR).Of the 75 patients with pIIA NSCLC who were examined, 29 were female and 46 were male, with a mean age of 61.8 years (range: 34-83 years). The average tumor size was 3.188?cm (range: 1.10-6.0?cm). Under univariate analysis, angiolymphatic invasion and metastatic N1 LNR were risk factors for DFS (P?=?0.011, P?=?0.007). Under multivariate analysis, angiolymphatic invasion and metastatic N1 LNR were all independent risk factors for DFS, while adjuvant chemotherapy and higher metastatic N1 LNR were independent prognostic factors for OS.For patients with pIIA, higher metastatic N1 LNR and angiolymphatic invasion were related to poor DFS. In addition to DFS, higher metastatic N1 LNR was also a poor prognostic factor for OS rates and adjuvant therapy effectiveness. Clinical physicians should devise different postsurgical follow-up programs depending on these factors, especially for patients with high risk.
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Local Pathology and Systemic Serum Bupivacaine After Subcutaneous Delivery of Slow-Releasing Bupivacaine Microspheres.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Prolonged local anesthesia, particularly desirable to minimize acute and chronic postoperative pain, has been provided by microspheres that slowly release bupivacaine (MS-Bup). In this study, we report on the systemic drug concentrations and the local dermatopathology that occur after subcutaneous injection of MS-Bup.
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[Chemical constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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In order to find the cardiotonic constituents of lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., the investigation was carried out. Silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, medium-pressure MCI and reverse phase ODS column chromatography were used to separate the 90% EtOH extract of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. The structures of the isolated compounds have been identified by chemical properties and spectroscopic analyses. Ten compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated as benzoic acid-5-hydroxy-2-benzoyl-amino methyl ester (1), honokiol (2), pinoresinol (3), salicylic acid (4), p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (5), songorine (6), karakoline (7), mesaconitine (8), hypaconitine (9) and 14-benzoylhypaconitine (10), separetely. Compound 1 is a new compound and its structure has been established by NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR and X-Ray. Compound 2-5 are isolated from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. for the first time.
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Serum Biomarkers Predictive of Significant Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Chronic Hepatitis B.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 index are noninvasive biomarkers to evaluate hepatic fibrosis. However, their usefulness in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients remains unclear.
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Fractioned dose regimen of sunitinib for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a pharmacokinetic and treatment efficacy study.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Sunitinib has shown benefit in patients with imatinib (IM)-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). However, its advantages are somewhat diminished because of associated toxicities. Herein, we clarify the efficacy and safety of fractioned dose regimen of sunitinib by a pharmacokinetic and efficacy study.
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PROPER: comprehensive power evaluation for differential expression using RNA-seq.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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RNA-seq has become a routine technique in differential expression (DE) identification. Scientists face a number of experimental design decisions, including the sample size. The power for detecting differential expression is affected by several factors, including the fraction of DE genes, distribution of the magnitude of DE, distribution of gene expression level, sequencing coverage and the choice of type I error control. The complexity and flexibility of RNA-seq experiments, the high-throughput nature of transcriptome-wide expression measurements and the unique characteristics of RNA-seq data make the power assessment particularly challenging.
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Influence of Superior Laryngeal Nerve Injury on Glottal Configuration/Function of Thyroidectomy-Induced Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury may induce unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). During thyroidectomy, the most common cause of UVFP, the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), is also at risk of injury. In the literature, the influence of SLN injury on glottal configuration and function in patients with UVFP remains controversial. The present study investigates SLN injury influence on glottal configuration and function in patients with UVFP after thyroidectomy.
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CD151-?3?1 integrin complexes suppress ovarian tumor growth by repressing slug-mediated EMT and canonical Wnt signaling.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Human ovarian cancer is diagnosed in the late, metastatic stages but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We report a surprising functional link between CD151-?3?1 integrin complexes and the malignancy of serous-type ovarian cancer. Analyses of clinical specimens indicate that CD151 expression is significantly reduced or diminished in 90% of metastatic lesions, while it remains detectable in 58% of primary tumors. These observations suggest a putative tumor-suppressing role of CD151 in ovarian cancer. Indeed, our analyses show that knocking down CD151 or ?3 integrin enhances tumor cell proliferation, growth and ascites production in nude mice. These changes are accompanied by impaired cell-cell contacts and aberrant expression of E-cadherin, Mucin 5AC and fibronectin, largely reminiscent of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like change. Importantly, Slug, a master regulator of EMT, is markedly elevated. Knocking down Slug partially restores CD151-?3?1 integrin complex-dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Moreover, disruption of these adhesion protein complexes is accompanied by a concomitant activation of canonical Wnt signaling, including elevated levels of ?-catenin and Axin-2 as well as resistance to the inhibition in ?-catenin-dependent transcriptional complexes. Together, our study demonstrates that CD151-?3?1 integrin complexes regulate ovarian tumor growth by repressing Slug-mediated EMT and Wnt signaling.
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Prolonged survival by combined treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor in a rat small-for-size liver transplantation model.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Despite the great advances and excellent outcomes of liver transplantation (LT), small-for-size (SFS) graft syndrome is a life-threatening complication that remains to be overcome. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of combined treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor on SFS liver graft syndrome.
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Laryngeal electromyography and prognosis of unilateral vocal fold paralysis-A long-term prospective study.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To confirm the value of using laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) to predict the long-term prognosis of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), and elucidate the adequate timing of LEMG.
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Sorption affinities of sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine to two sorbents under co-sorption systems.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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The Kd of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on activated carbon (AC) was larger than that of SMX on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SC), but the competition of SMX with carbamazepine (CBZ) for adsorption sites was weaker on AC than SC. Thus, a large Kd value does not necessarily reflect a high affinity. The analysis of the apparent sorption, competition, desorption hysteresis, and the sorption thermodynamics for SMX and CBZ did not provide sufficient information to distinguish their sorption affinities. The release of the adsorbed CBZ was not altered with SMX as the competitor, but SMX release increased significantly after CBZ addition. The higher sorption affinity of CBZ may be explained by the interactions of the CBZ benzene rings with the aromatic structures of the adsorbents. Although the thermodynamic meaning cannot be described, the release ratio of the adsorbed pollutants provides useful information for understanding pollutant sorption strength and associated risks.
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Airway pH monitoring in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea using the Dx-pH oropharyngeal probe: preliminary report of a prospective cohort study.
Clin Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To investigate the laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) episodes and pH values in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using the Dx-pH oropharyngeal probe.
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Risk factors of recipient site infection in head and neck cancer patients undergoing pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with infection at the recipient site of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) of head and neck cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed head and neck cancer patients who underwent PMMF reconstruction and identified those with recipient site infection. Variables of patients with and without infection were compared and associated factors were investigated by logistic regression model. A total of 478 patients were included in the final analysis and 183 patients (38.3 %) developed recipient site infection. Lower margin of skin island, concurrent tracheotomy, diabetes mellitus, mandibular plate reconstruction, prior radiation, and peri-operative blood transfusion were independent factors associated with recipient site infection of PMMF. Skin island of PMMF beyond the eighth intercostal space markedly increased the risk of recipient site infection after major head and neck cancer surgery. Recognition of relevant factors associated with infection may help surgeons to identify those at risk.
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Predictive factors of silent reflux in subjects with erosive esophagitis.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Asymptomatic erosive esophagitis by definition is a condition lacking any reflux symptom.
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The validation of 2010 AASLD guideline for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in an endemic area.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis could be made with one typical imaging study in a cirrhotic liver by the guideline of American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) in 2010. Patients with hepatitis B who may not have fully developed cirrhosis could be applied. We aim to retrospectively analyze and validate the diagnostic power of 2010 guideline in a HCC endemic area (Taiwan).
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Afatinib and its encapsulated polymeric micelles inhibits HER2-overexpressed colorectal tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is known as a common malignant neoplasm worldwide. The role of EGFR/HER2 in CRC is unclear. Afatinib is an irreversible EGFR/HER2 inhibitor. There were few studies of afatinib on CRC. Here, we investigated the protein levels/expressions of HER2 in sera and tumors from CRC patients and the therapeutic effect of afatinib on HER2-overexpressed CRC in vitro and in vivo. The increased HER2 levels were detected in the collected sera and tumors of patients with CRC. The serological HER2 levels were correlated with the tumor HER2 expressions in patients. Afatinib also inhibited the HER2-positive tumor cell growth and caused apoptosis in HER2-overexpressed human colorectal cancer HCT-15 cells but not in low HER2 expressed human gastric cancer MKN45 cells. In vivo study showed that afatinib reduced tumor growth in HER2-overexpressed xenografts. Moreover, afatinib-encapsulated micelles displayed higher cytotoxic activity in HCT-15 cells and were more effective for tumor growth suppression in HCT-15-induced tumor xenografts than afatinib performance alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that higher serum HER2 levels reflect the higher HER2 contents in tumors of CRC patients, and the improved afatinib-encapsulated micelles possess high therapeutic efficacy in HER2-overexpressed CRC in vitro and in vivo.
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How to improve the outcome in patients with AJCC stage I hepatocellular carcinoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Survival of patients with stage I hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is higher than in patients with more advanced disease, however many of them will ultimately die of tumor recurrence and liver failure. Our objective focuses on identifying the pathological and clinical factors that could affect disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In addition we reviewed the treatment offered for recurrence and its impact on OS.
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Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Metabolic Syndrome: Fact or Fiction?
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Although hepatitis C virus infection is known to be linked with insulin resistance, dys lipidemia and hepatic steatosis, the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and metabolic factors remains unclear. HBV infection is a heath problem worldwide, especially in endemic regions such as Asia and Africa . It induces liver decompensation, cirrhosis, hepatocellualr carcinoma (HCC) and premature mortality. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome continues to increase in parallel with the epidemic of obesity, which is closely associated with the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease or even cancer. The systemic review shows that chronic HBV infection protects against instead of promotes fatty liver. The mechanism is possibly due to a lower frequency of dyslipidemia profile in patients with chronic HBV infection. The association of HBV with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and the risk of arteriosclerosis is still inconclusive. In addition, obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome may accelerate the progression of liver disease in patients with chronic HBV infection and synergistically induce cirrhosis or even HCC development.
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Section 18. Professional framework for liver transplantation for overseas patients: traveling for living donor liver transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Liver transplantation (LT) in overseas patients is a sensitive issue because of the possibility of organ trafficking and transplant tourism. In the Istanbul Summit, there was a call to develop standardized professional frameworks to prevent these practices.
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Section 14. Combination of entecavir plus low-dose on-demand hepatitis B immunoglobulin is effective with very low hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Antiviral prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) plus lamivudine reduces the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after HBV-related liver transplant (LT). However, HBIg is expensive, and lamivudine therapy is limited by drug resistance. This study assessed a pilot study of entecavir plus low-dose, on-demand HBIg in preventing HBV recurrence after LT.
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Section 13. Short-course pretransplant antiviral therapy is a feasible and effective strategy to prevent hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation in genotype 2 patients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in recipients who are viremic at time of liver transplantation (LT) is universal and carries poor prognosis. Pretransplant antiviral therapy to eradicate HCV reduces recurrence, but withdrawal rate is high. We conducted a short-course (4 weeks) of pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-?2a) plus ribavirin (RBV) to prevent of HCV recurrence.
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Section 9. Technical details of microsurgical biliary reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Small size and multiple ducts, particularly in right lobe liver grafts, are major factors that contribute to biliary complications in living donor liver transplantation. To improve the outcome of biliary reconstruction, further investigation and refinement of reconstruction techniques and management strategies are necessary. From March 2006 to June 2012, routine MBR was performed in 584 grafts in 581 consecutive LDLT (including 3 dual graft transplants). All biliary reconstructions were performed using microsurgical technique by a single microsurgeon. The classification of biliary reconstruction was based according to the number of ducts in the graft, the manner in which these ducts were reconstructed (with or without ductoplasty), and the conduit used (recipient duct or jejunum) to reconstruct the biliary tree. In duct-to-duct reconstruction, posterior wall first technique by using interrupted suture and continuous running and interrupted tie technique (combined method) for the anterior wall were performed. Recipient reduction ductoplasty was done, if necessary. In duct-to-jejunum reconstruction, enterotomy was performed first under microscope; then, the serosal and mucosal layers were sutured together using 8-0 prolene to facilitate the anastomosis. Posterior wall first by using interrupted suture technique and combined method for the anterior wall were also performed. Overall, there were 397 right and 184 left lobe grafts. Single duct opening was noted in 440 (75.34%), two duct openings in 135(23.12%), and three duct openings in 9 (1.54%) grafts. Duct-to-duct anastomosis was performed in 473 (81%) and duct-to-jejunum Roux limb in 111 (19%) biliary reconstructions. Size discrepancy in the graft and recipient ducts was noted in 394 (83.3%) reconstructions. The overall biliary complication was 7.9%. These included 19 (3.3%) bile leaks and 27 (4.6%) biliary strictures. The routine use of MBR capably surmounts the difficulties brought about by the anatomic variations and the size discrepancies between the graft and recipient hepatic ducts with excellent outcome.
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Section 8. Management of portal venous complications in pediatric living donor liver transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Portal vein (PV) complications after living donor liver transplant (LDLT) have been a major concern in pediatric liver transplantation. The incidence of PV complications is more in pediatric (0%-33%) than in adult recipients. Early diagnosis and treatment of PV complications may ensure optimal graft function and good recipient survival. Small preoperation PV size (<4 mm) and slow portal flow (<10 cm/s) combined with lower hepatic artery resistance index (<0.65) are strong warning signs that may predict the development of post LDLT PV complications. Portal vein angioplasty/stenting is conventionally performed through the percutaneous transhepatic approach; however, this can also be performed through transjugular, trans-splenic, and intraoperative approaches. Depending on the situation, using optimal method is the key point to minimize complication (5%) and gain high success rate (80%). PV occlusion of greater than 1 year with cavernous transformation seems to be a factor causing technical failure. Good patency rate (100%) with self-expandable metallic stents was noted in long-term follow-up. In conclusion, PV stent placement is an effective, long-term treatment modality to manage PV complications after pediatric LDLT. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to maximize the use of stent placement and achieve good success rates.
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Section 1. Image evaluation of fatty liver in living donor liver transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Preoperative evaluation of donors for living-donor liver transplantation aims to select a suitable donor with optimal graft quality and to ensure donor safety. Hepatic steatosis, a common finding in living liver donors, not only influences the outcome of liver transplantation for the recipient but also affects the recovery of the living donor after partial hepatectomy. Histopathologic analysis is the reference standard to detect and quantify fat in the liver, but it is invasive, and results are vulnerable to sampling error. Imaging can be repeated regularly and allows assessment of the entire liver, thus avoiding sampling error. Selection of appropriate imaging methods demands understanding of their advantages and limitations and the suitable clinical setting. This article describes potential clinical applications for liver fat quantification of imaging methods for fat detection and quantification, with an emphasis on the advantages and limitations of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for quantifying liver fat.
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Impact of adding the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib to endocrine therapy in metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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? Background: Targeting growth factor and survival pathways may delay endocrine-resistance in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Materials & methods: A pilot Phase II study adding sorafenib to endocrine therapy in 11 patients with metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer was conducted. Primary end point was response by RECIST after 3 months of sorafenib. Secondary end points included safety, time to progression and biomarker modulation. The study closed early owing to slow accrual. Results: Eight out of 11 patients had progressive disease on study entry and three had stable disease. Of the ten evaluable patients, seven experienced stable disease (70%) and three experienced progressive diseas (30%), with a median time to progression of 6.1 months (8.4 months in the seven patients on tamoxifen). The serum samples demonstrated a significant reduction in VEGF receptor 2 and PDGF receptor-?. Microarray analysis identified 32 suppressed genes, no induced genes and 29 enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Conclusion: The strategy of adding a targeted agent to endocrine therapy upon resistance may be worthwhile testing in larger studies.
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Autophagy inhibition by sustained overproduction of IL6 contributes to arsenic carcinogenesis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Chronic inflammation has been implicated as an etiologic factor in cancer, whereas autophagy may help preserve cancer cell survival but exert anti-inflammatory effects. How these phenomenas interact during carcinogenesis remains unclear. We explored this question in a human bronchial epithelial cell-based model of lung carcinogenesis that is mediated by subchronic exposure to arsenic. We found that sustained overexpression of the pro-inflammatory IL6 promoted arsenic-induced cell transformation by inhibiting autophagy. Conversely, strategies to enhance autophagy counteracted the effect of IL6 in the model. These findings were confirmed and extended in a mouse model of arsenic-induced lung cancer. Mechanistic investigations suggested that mTOR inhibition contributed to the activation of autophagy, whereas IL6 overexpression was sufficient to block autophagy by supporting Beclin-1/Mcl-1 interaction. Overall, our findings argued that chronic inflammatory states driven by IL6 could antagonize autophagic states that may help preserve cancer cell survival and promote malignant progression, suggesting a need to uncouple inflammation and autophagy controls to enable tumor progression.
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An in silico toxicogenomics approach for inferring potential diseases associated with maleic acid.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Maleic acid is a multi-functional chemical widely applied in the manufacturing of polymer products including food packaging. However, the contamination of maleic acid in modified starch has raised the concerns about the effects of chronic exposure to maleic acid on human health. This study proposed a novel toxicogenomics approach for inferring functions, pathways and diseases potentially affected by maleic acid on humans by using known interactions between maleic acid and proteins. Neuronal signal transmission and cell metabolism were identified to be most influenced by maleic acid in this study. The top disease categories inferred to be associated with maleic acid were mental disorder, nervous system diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The results from the in silico analysis showed that maleic acid could penetrate the blood-brain barrier to affect the nervous system. Several functions and pathways were further analyzed and identified to give insights into the mechanisms of maleic acid-associated diseases. The toxicogenomics approach may offer both a better understanding of the potential risks of maleic-acid exposure to humans and a direction for future toxicological investigation.
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Higher proportion of viral basal core promoter mutant increases the risk of liver cirrhosis in hepatitis B carriers.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Precore (PC) variant (G1896A) and basal core promoter (BCP) variant (A1762T/G1764A) of HBV are associated with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV carriers. However, little is known about their impact on the adverse outcomes of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.
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Factors affecting the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in assessing the severity of hepatic steatosis.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Ultrasonography has long been recognized as a useful tool for detecting hepatic steatosis in clinical practice. However, whether it can assess the severity of hepatic steatosis and which factors affect its diagnostic accuracy remain unclear.
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Intra-arterial chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cisplatin is effective for advanced hepatocellular cell carcinoma.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a fatal disease even in the era of targeted therapies. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IACT) can provide therapeutic benefits for patients with locally advanced HCC who are not eligible for local therapies or are refractory to targeted therapies. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the effect of IACT with cisplatin and doxorubicin on advanced HCC.
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A pilot study of add-on oral hypoglycemic agents in treatment-naïve genotype-1 chronic hepatitis C patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Insulin resistance (IR) affects sustained virological response (SVR) to peginterferon alfa plus ribavirin (PR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Whether add-on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) to PR improve SVR remains unclear; therefore, we conducted a prospective, randomized pilot trial on 23 consecutive patients with genotype 1 CHC and IR in Taiwan.
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One-time ray-tracing optimization method and its application to the design of an illuminator for a tube photo-bioreactor.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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This study details a one-time ray-tracing optimization method for the optimization of LED illumination systems [S.-C. Chu and H.-L. Yang, "One-time ray-tracing method for the optimization of illumination system," in Proceedings of International Conference on Optics in Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (icOPEN, 2013), 87692M]. This method optimizes the performance of illumination systems by modifying the light source's radiant intensity distribution with a freeform lens, instead of modifying the illumination system structure. Because illumination system structures are unchanged in the design process, a designer can avoid the common problems faced when designing illumination systems, i.e., the repeated and time-consuming ray-tracing process when optimizing the illumination system parameters. The easy approaches of the proposed optimization method to sample the target illumination areas and to divide the light source radiant intensity distribution make the proposed method can be applied to both direct-lit and non-direct-lit illumination systems. To demonstrate the proposed method, this study designs an illuminator for a tube photo-bioreactor using the proposed one-time ray-tracing method. A comparison shows that in the designing of the photo-bioreactor, tracing all rays one time requires about 13 hours, while optimizing the light source's radiant intensity distribution requires only about twenty minutes. The considerable reduction in the ray-tracing time shows that the proposed method is a fast and effective way to design illumination systems.
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Multi-TGDR, a multi-class regularization method, identifies the metabolic profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Over the last decade, metabolomics has evolved into a mainstream enterprise utilized by many laboratories globally. Like other "omics" data, metabolomics data has the characteristics of a smaller sample size compared to the number of features evaluated. Thus the selection of an optimal subset of features with a supervised classifier is imperative. We extended an existing feature selection algorithm, threshold gradient descent regularization (TGDR), to handle multi-class classification of "omics" data, and proposed two such extensions referred to as multi-TGDR. Both multi-TGDR frameworks were used to analyze a metabolomics dataset that compares the metabolic profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) infected with hepatitis B (HBV) or C virus (HCV) with that of cirrhosis induced by HBV/HCV infection; the goal was to improve early-stage diagnosis of HCC.
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Membrane protein stability can be compromised by detergent interactions with the extramembranous soluble domains.
Protein Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Detergent interaction with extramembranous soluble domains (ESDs) is not commonly considered an important determinant of integral membrane protein (IMP) behavior during purification and crystallization, even though ESDs contribute to the stability of many IMPs. Here we demonstrate that some generally nondenaturing detergents critically destabilize a model ESD, the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) from the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a model IMP. Notably, the detergents show equivalent trends in their influence on the stability of isolated NBD1 and full-length CFTR. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to monitor changes in NBD1 stability and secondary structure, respectively, during titration with a series of detergents. Their effective harshness in these assays mirrors that widely accepted for their interaction with IMPs, i.e., anionic?>?zwitterionic?>?nonionic. It is noteworthy that including lipids or nonionic detergents is shown to mitigate detergent harshness, as will limiting contact time. We infer three thermodynamic mechanisms from the observed thermal destabilization by monomer or micelle: (i) binding to the unfolded state with no change in the native structure (all detergent classes); (ii) native state binding that alters thermodynamic properties and perhaps conformation (nonionic detergents); and (iii) detergent binding that directly leads to denaturation of the native state (anionic and zwitterionic). These results demonstrate that the accepted model for the harshness of detergents applies to their interaction with an ESD. It is concluded that destabilization of extramembranous soluble domains by specific detergents will influence the stability of some IMPs during purification.
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Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT.
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Active and stable liquid water innovatively prepared using resonantly illuminated gold nanoparticles.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The properties of confined liquid water, or liquid water in contact with hydrophobic surfaces, are significantly different from those of bulk liquid water. However, all of water's commonly described properties are related to inert "bulk liquid water" which comprises a tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded network. In this work, we report an innovative and facile method for preparing small water clusters (SWCs) with reduced affinity hydrogen bonds by letting bulk water flow through supported Au nanoparticles (NPs) under resonant illumination to give NP-treated (AuNT) water at constant temperature. Utilizing localized surface plasmon resonance on illuminated Au NPs, the strong hydrogen bonds of bulk water can be disordered when water is located at the illuminated Au/water interface. The prepared SWCs are free of Au NPs. The energy efficiency for creating SWCs is ?17%. The resulting stable AuNT water exhibits distinct properties at room temperature, which are significantly different from the properties of untreated bulk water, examples being their ability to scavenge free hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and to effectively reduce NO release from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cells.
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Thymine DNA glycosylase is a positive regulator of Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Wnt signaling plays an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Although the mechanisms of ?-catenin degradation have been well studied, the mechanism by which ?-catenin activates transcription is still not fully understood. While screening a panel of DNA demethylases, we found that thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) up-regulated Wnt signaling. TDG interacts with the transcription factor TCF4 and coactivator CREB-binding protein/p300 in the Wnt pathway. Knocking down TDG by shRNAs inhibited the proliferation of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. In CRC patients, TDG levels were significantly higher in tumor tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues. These results suggest that TDG warrants consideration as a potential biomarker for CRC and as a target for CRC treatment.
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Electroacupuncture at PC6 or ST36 Influences the Effect of Tacrine on the Motility of Esophagus.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Aim. To investigate the mechanisms of gastrointestinal side effects of tacrine, and find treatment methods with electroacupuncture (EA). Methods. Twenty-five healthy cats were randomly divided into 5 groups: gastric-distention group (model group), tacrine group (cholinesterase inhibitor), tacrine + sham acupoint group (control group), tacrine + PC6 (neiguan) group, and tacrine + ST36 (zusanli) group, with 5 cats in each group. Saline 2?mL i.p. was given 30?min before gastric distention in model group. Tacrine 5.6?mg/kg i.p. was given 30 minutes before gastric distention in the other groups. Tacrine + sham acupoint group (control group), tacrine + PC6 group, and tacrine + ST36 group received EA at corresponding acupoints during gastric distention. The frequency of TLESRs and LESP were recorded by using a perfused sleeve assembly. Results. Compared with the model group, tacrine significantly increased the frequency of gastric distention-induced TLESR (P < 0.05) but did not influence the rate of common cavity during TLESR. Tacrine significantly increased the LESP, which could not remain during gastric distention. EA at PC6 could decrease the frequency of TLESR and maintain the increase of LESP, but EA at ST36 did not have these effects. Conclusion. Tacrine can significantly increase the gastric distention-induced transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs). Electroacupuncture (EA) at PC6 may reverse the above side effect.
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Predicting regression of Barrett's esophagus: results from a retrospective cohort of 1342 patients.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the most predictive risk factor for development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a malignancy with the fastest increasing incidence in the US. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in exposures, demographics, and comorbidities between regressing and non-regressing patients.
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Disrupting the interaction of BRD4 with diacetylated Twist suppresses tumorigenesis in basal-like breast cancer.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Twist is a key transcription activator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). It remains unclear how Twist induces gene expression. Here we report a mechanism by which Twist recruits BRD4 to direct WNT5A expression in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Twist contains a "histone H4-mimic" GK-X-GK motif that is diacetylated by Tip60. The diacetylated Twist binds the second bromodomain of BRD4, whose first bromodomain interacts with acetylated H4, thereby constructing an activated Twist/BRD4/P-TEFb/RNA-Pol II complex at the WNT5A promoter and enhancer. Pharmacologic inhibition of the Twist-BRD4 association reduced WNT5A expression and suppressed invasion, cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties, and tumorigenicity of BLBC cells. Our study indicates that the interaction with BRD4 is critical for the oncogenic function of Twist in BLBC.
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PHLPP is a negative regulator of RAF1, which reduces colorectal cancer cell motility and prevents tumor progression in mice.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Hyperactivation of the RAS-RAF signaling pathway in colorectal tumors is associated with metastasis and poor outcomes of patients. Little is known about how RAS-RAF signaling is turned off once activated. We investigated how the pH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases (PHLPPs) control RAS-RAF signaling and colorectal cancer (CRC) development.
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Cotargeting the PI3K and RAS pathways for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The precise involvement of the PI3K/mTOR and RAS/MEK pathways in carcinoid tumors is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the role these pathways play in carcinoid cell proliferation, apoptosis, and secretion and to determine the effects of combined treatment on carcinoid tumor inhibition.
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EttA regulates translation by binding the ribosomal E site and restricting ribosome-tRNA dynamics.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Cells express many ribosome-interacting factors whose functions and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of a newly characterized regulatory translation factor, energy-dependent translational throttle A (EttA), which is an Escherichia coli representative of the ATP-binding cassette F (ABC-F) protein family. Using cryo-EM, we demonstrate that the ATP-bound form of EttA binds to the ribosomal tRNA-exit site, where it forms bridging interactions between the ribosomal L1 stalk and the tRNA bound in the peptidyl-tRNA-binding site. Using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we show that the ATP-bound form of EttA restricts ribosome and tRNA dynamics required for protein synthesis. This work represents the first example, to our knowledge, in which the detailed molecular mechanism of any ABC-F family protein has been determined and establishes a framework for elucidating the mechanisms of other regulatory translation factors.
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The sorption of heavy metals on thermally treated sediments with high organic matter content.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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A sediment sample with organic matter higher than 60% was thermally treated and the sorption of Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) was investigated and compared to evaluate the potential use of sediments with high organic matter content to produce biochar. Cu(II) and Cd(II) sorption generally decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature, concurred with decreased oxygen-containing functional groups of the adsorbents. Sediment particles pyrolyzed at 400 and 500 °C showed higher sorption to Pb(II) than other temperatures. The small hydrated ionic radius of Pb(II) may enable its close contact with solid particles and thus facilitated the diffusion of Pb(II) into the pores and the formation of cation-? bond with aromatic structures generated by pyrolysis. The sorption of heavy metals in thermally treated sediment showed comparable sorption to or higher sorption than natural adsorbents and biochars from biomass, suggesting their possible significant impact on the transport and risk of heavy metals.
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Sorption and solubility of ofloxacin and norfloxacin in water-methanol cosolvent.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Prediction of the properties and behavior of antibiotics is important for their risk assessment and pollution control. Theoretical calculation was incorporated in our experimental study to investigate the sorption of ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin (NOR) on carbon nanotubes and their solubilities in water, methanol, and their mixture. Sorption for OFL and NOR decreased as methanol volume fractions (fc) increased. But the log-linear cosolvency model could not be applied as a general model to describe the cosolvent effect on OFL and NOR sorption. We computed the bond lengths of possible hydrogen bonds between solute and solvent and the corresponding interaction energies using Density Functional Theory. The decreased OFL solubility with increased fc could be attributed to the generally stronger hydrogen bond between OFL and H2O than that between OFL and CH3OH. Solubility of NOR varied nonmonotonically with increasing fc, which may be understood from the stronger hydrogen bond of NOR-CH3OH than NOR-H2O at two important sites (-O18 and -O21). The interaction energies were also calculated for the solute surrounded by solvent molecules at all the possible hydrogen bond sites, but it did not match the solubility variations with fc for both chemicals. The difference between the simulated and real systems was discussed. Similar sorption but different solubility of NOR and OFL from water-methanol cosolvent suggested that sorbate-solvent interaction seems not control their sorption.
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Visualization-aided classification ensembles discriminate lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma samples using their gene expression profiles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The widespread application of microarray experiments to cancer research is astounding including lung cancer, one of the most common fatal human tumors. Among non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), there are two major histological types of NSCLC, adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
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TIPdb-3D: the three-dimensional structure database of phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants.
Database (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The rich indigenous and endemic plants in Taiwan serve as a resourceful bank for biologically active phytochemicals. Based on our TIPdb database curating bioactive phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants, this study presents a three-dimensional (3D) chemical structure database named TIPdb-3D to support the discovery of novel pharmacologically active compounds. The Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF94) was used to generate 3D structures of phytochemicals in TIPdb. The 3D structures could facilitate the analysis of 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship, the exploration of chemical space and the identification of potential pharmacologically active compounds using protein-ligand docking. Database URL: http://cwtung.kmu.edu.tw/tipdb.
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Novel pharmacologic targeting of tight junctions and focal adhesions in prostate cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cancer cell resistance to anoikis driven by aberrant signaling sustained by the tumor microenvironment confers high invasive potential and therapeutic resistance. We recently generated a novel lead quinazoline-based Doxazosin® derivative, DZ-50, which impairs tumor growth and metastasis via anoikis. Genome-wide analysis in the human prostate cancer cell line DU-145 identified primary downregulated targets of DZ-50, including genes involved in focal adhesion integrity (fibronectin, integrin-?6 and talin), tight junction formation (claudin-11) as well as insulin growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and the angiogenesis modulator thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1). Confocal microscopy demonstrated structural disruption of both focal adhesions and tight junctions by the downregulation of these gene targets, resulting in decreased cell survival, migration and adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components in two androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145. Stabilization of cell-ECM interactions by overexpression of talin-1 and/or exposing cells to a fibronectin-rich environment mitigated the effect of DZ-50. Loss of expression of the intracellular focal adhesion signaling effectors talin-1 and integrin linked kinase (ILK) sensitized human prostate cancer to anoikis. Our findings suggest that DZ-50 exerts its antitumor effect by targeting the key functional intercellular interactions, focal adhesions and tight junctions, supporting the therapeutic significance of this agent for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
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Reconstructing single hepatic artery with two arterial stumps: biliary complications in pediatric living donor liver transplantation.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Liver grafts can at times have two hepatic arterial stumps. This can result in a dilemma whether to reconstruct single or both the arteries. Hepatic artery (HA) thrombosis is the most dreaded complication in pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) as it can result in biliary complications and subsequent graft loss. We herein report the feasibility of reconstructing single hepatic artery in pediatric living donor liver transplantation having two arterial stumps in the liver graft.
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Impairment of thymocyte function via induction of apoptosis by areca nut extract.
J Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Abstract Areca quid (AQ) chewing is a popular oral habit, especially in Southeast Asia cultures, in which children may be engaged in the addictive habit early in their lives. Extracts of areca nuts, the main component of AQ, have been shown to affect the functionality of T-cells. However, the potential influence of ANE on the development of T-cells is unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the impact of areca nut extracts (ANE) on thymocytes and the potential mechanisms of action. Mice administered intraperitoneally with ANE at 1, 5, or 25?mg/kg daily for 5 days showed significant dose-dependent reductions in thymocyte viability. A marked decrease in the total number of thymocytes and the proportion of thymic CD4(+)CD8(+) cells was observed in the 25?mg ANE/kg-treated mice, whereas the proportion of CD4 and CD8 single positive and CD4(-)CD8(-) cells was significantly increased. Further examination on the functionality of thymocytes showed that ANE suppress IL-2 production both ex vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that ANE may attenuate the development and functionality of thymic T-cells. ANE also directly induced apoptosis in thymic T-cells through activation of casapase-3 and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). Collectively, the data suggested that the thymus is a sensitive target to ANE. Early exposure to ANE may interfere with the development and functionality of thymic T-cells.
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Invasive adenocarcinoma arising from a mixed hyperplastic/adenomatous polyp and synchronous transverse colon cancer.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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An admixture of hyperplastic and adenomatous components within the same polyp is unusual. Adenocarcinoma arising from a mixed hyperplastic/adenomatous polyp (MHAP) occurs even more rarely. We report the first case of a 59-year-old male who presented with invasive adenocarcinoma originating from a MHAP at a sigmoid colon and synchronous transverse colon cancer.
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Inhibition by local bupivacaine-releasing microspheres of acute postoperative pain from hairy skin incision.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Acute postoperative pain causes physiological deficits and slows recovery. Reduction of such pain by local anesthetics that are delivered for several days postoperatively is a desirable clinical objective, which is approached by a new formulation and applied in animal studies reported here.
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Early and long-term results of routine microsurgical biliary reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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We describe our early and long-term experience with routine biliary reconstruction via a microsurgical technique in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). One hundred seventy-seven grafts (including 3 dual grafts) were primarily transplanted into 174 recipients. The minimum follow-up was 44 months. Biliary reconstructions were based on biliary anatomical variations in graft and recipient ducts. The recipient demographics, graft characteristics, types of biliary reconstruction, biliary complications (BCs), and outcomes were evaluated. There were 130 right lobe grafts and 47 left lobe grafts. There were single ducts in 71.8%, 2 ducts in 26.0%, and 3 ducts in 2.3% of the grafts. The complications were not significantly related to the size and number of ducts, the discrepancy between recipient and donor ducts, the recipient age, the ischemia time, or the type of graft. The overall BC rate was 9.6%. The majority of the complications occurred within the first year, and only 1 patient developed a stricture at 20 months. No new complications were noted after 2 years. When the learning-curve phase of the first 15 cases was excluded, the overall BC rate was 6.79%, and the rate of complications requiring interventions was 2.5%. In conclusion, the routine use of microsurgical biliary reconstruction decreases the number of early and long-term anastomotic BCs in LDLT.
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Phototoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in HaCaT keratinocytes-generation of oxidative DNA damage during UVA and visible light irradiation.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) are one of the most commonly used nanomaterials in industrial products including paints, cosmetics, and medical materials. Since ZnO is a well-known photocatalyst, it is important to further study if nano-ZnO cause phototoxic effect on skin cells under UVA-irradiation and visible light illumination. Human-derived keratinocytes (HaCaT) were treated with 1-20 microg/mL of nano-ZnO (< 50 nm) and then exposed to UVA (0.5-2 J/cm2). Twenty four hours later, cell viability, membrane integrity, and oxidative DNA damage were determined by MTS assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) adduct, respectively. High concentration of nano-ZnO (10-20 microg/mL) significantly induced cytotoxicity, whereas 0.5-2 J/cm2 of UVA irradiation dose-dependently aggravated nano-ZnO-induced cell death via induction of LDH release and DNA damage. The level of photocytotoxicity is mainly dependent on the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. UVA irradiation of nano-ZnO in methanol induced lipid peroxidation in a light dose and substrate dose response manner. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping studies confirmed that both hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical were formed during photoirradiation, while nano-ZnO-induced hydroxyl radical formation is not evolved from superoxide. In addition, nano-ZnO dose-dependently induced single strand DNA break in supercoiled phi x 174 plasmid DNA. Under visible light illumination, nano-ZnO induced the LDH leakage, hydroxyl radical generation, and 8-OHdG formation in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest the photocytotoxic and photogenotoxic effects of nano-ZnO on human skin keratinocytes.
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Carotid blowout in head and neck cancer patients - associated factors and treatment outcomes.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Background: We investigate factors associated with carotid blowout in the cervical portion of head and neck patients in a large cohort. Methods: We reviewed head and neck cancer patients and identified those with carotid blowout. Variables of patients with and without carotid blowout were compared and associated factors were investigated by logistic regression model. Results: A total of 2590 patients were included in the final analysis and 102 patients (3.9%) developed carotid blowout in the cervical region. Body mass index < 22.5 kg/M(2) , primary site of hypopharynx or oropharynx, open wound in the neck requiring wet dressing, radical neck dissection, and total radiation dose to the neck >= 70 Gy were independent factors associated with carotid blowout. Conclusions: After completion of treatment in head and neck cancer patients, carotid blowout was an uncommon complication with catastrophic results. Recognition of associated factors helps physician to identify those in risk. Head Neck, 2013.
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HBV-DNA level at 6 months of entecavir treatment predicts HBeAg loss in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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To evaluate whether on-treatment HBV-DNA level could predict the treatment response to entecavir in hepatitis B e antigen (HBe)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.
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Baseline hepatitis B surface antigen quantitation can predict virologic response in entecavir-treated chronic hepatitis B patients.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Several anti-viral drugs are approved for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, whether quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) can predict the therapeutic response during long-term entecavir treatment remains unclear.
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Validation of the 7th edition TNM staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma: an analysis of 8,828 patients in a single medical center.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Major modification of the 7th tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was divided into 6th stage IIIA to 7th IIIA (multiple tumors, any>5 cm) and IIIB (tumors involving a major vessel). This study aimed to validate 6th and 7th TNM systems in prognostic prediction, then analyze the impact of time, Child-Pugh classification and treatment modalities in survival.
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Risk stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus e antigen-negative carriers by combining viral biomarkers.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) level can predict hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative patients with an HBV DNA level of <2000 IU/mL. However, little is known regarding how well the combination of both viral biomarkers stratifies HCC risk.
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Iron oxide nanoparticles suppress the production of IL-1beta via the secretory lysosomal pathway in murine microglial cells.
Part Fibre Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been used as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for various research and diagnostic purposes, such as the detection of neuroinflammation and blood-brain-barrier integrity. As the central resident macrophage-like cells, microglia are responsible for managing foreign agents invading the CNS. The present study investigated the direct effect of IONPs on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by murine microglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
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Outcome of routine use of microsurgical biliary reconstruction in pediatric living donor liver transplantation.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Microsurgical techniques, initially used for hepatic artery reconstruction, have been extended to biliary reconstruction to decrease biliary complications. The routine use of microsurgical biliary reconstruction in pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has not been elucidated.
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Partition separation and characterization of the polyhydroxyalkanoates synthase produced from recombinant Escherichia coli using an aqueous two-phase system.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are renewable and biodegradable polyesters which can be synthesized either by numerous of microorganisms in vivo or synthase in vitro. The synthesis of PHAs in vitro requires an efficient separation for high yield of purified enzyme. The recombinant Escherichia coli harboring phaC gene derived from Ralstonia eutropha H16 was cultivated in the chemically defined medium for overexpression of synthase in the present work. The purification and characteristics of PHA synthase from clarified feedstock by using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) was investigated. The optimized concentration of ATPS for partitioning PHA synthase contained polyethylene glycol 6000 (30%, w/w) and potassium phosphate (8%, w/w) with 3.25 volume ratio in the absence of NaCl at pH 8.7 and 4°C. The results showed that the partition coefficient of enzyme activity and protein content are 6.07 and 0.22, respectively. The specific activity, selectivity, purification fold and recovery of phaC(Re) achieved 1.76 U mg?¹, 29.05, 16.23 and 95.32%, respectively. Several metal ions demonstrated a significant effect on activity of purified enzyme. The purified enzyme displayed maximum relative activity as operating condition at pH value of 7.5 and 37°C. As compared to conventional purification processes, ATPS can be a promising technique applied for rapid recovery of PHA synthase and preparation of large quantity of PHA synthase on synthesis of P(3HB) in vitro.
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Composite pH predicts esomeprazole response in laryngopharyngeal reflux without typical reflux syndrome.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Factors predicting the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) are unclear. PPI treatment in patients without concomitant esophageal syndrome remains controversial. We investigated whether composite pH can predict PPI treatment response for LPR with or without concomitant typical reflux syndrome (CTRS).
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"Intensity-response" effects of electroacupuncture on gastric motility and its underlying peripheral neural mechanism.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The aim of this study was to explore the "intensity-response" relationship between EAS and the effect of gastric motility of rats and its underlying peripheral neural mechanism by employing ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3-/-), TRPV1 knockout (TRPV1-/-), and C57BL/6 mice. For adult male Sprague-Dawley (n = 18) rats, the intensities of EAS were 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9?mA, respectively. For mice (n = 8 in each group), only 1?mA was used, by which C fiber of the mice can be activated. Gastric antrum motility was measured by intrapyloric balloon. Gastric motility was facilitated by EAS at ST36 and inhibited by EAS at CV12. The half maximal facilitation intensity of EAS at ST36 was 2.1-2.3?mA, and the half maximal inhibitory intensity of EAS at CV12 was 2.8?mA. In comparison with C57BL/6 mice, the facilitatory effect of ST36 and inhibitive effect of CV12 in ASIC3-/- mice decreased, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, these effects in TRPV1-/- mice decreased significantly (P < 0.001). The results indicated that there existed an "intensity-response" relationship between EAS and the effect of gastric motility. TRPV1 receptor was involved in the regulation of gastric motility of EAS.
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Survival analysis of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with simultaneous second primary tumors.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of simultaneous second primary tumor (SPT) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The survival of patients with simultaneous SPT was also compared with patients without.
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Ephedrine shows synergistic motor blockade when combined with bupivacaine or lidocaine for spinal anesthesia in a rat model.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Ephedrine is a direct/indirect vasoactive drug. In addition, it also possesses intrinsic local anesthetic properties, mainly due to its sodium-channel blockage. We investigated whether ephedrine demonstrates a synergistic effect with bupivacaine and lidocaine when injected via a spinal catheter into the spinal space of rats.
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Laryngeal electromyography findings of vocal fold immobility in patients after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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The clinical features of vocal fold immobility (VFI) after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have seldom been reported.
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Assessing acute toxicity potential of persulfate ISCO treated water.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Persulfate anion (S2O8(2-)), a widely used in situ chemical oxidation agent, is increasingly applied for environmental remediation. However, limited information on environmental and toxicological effects is available for the evaluation of the environmental risk of exposure to S2O8(2-), particularly after its application. In this study, the acute toxic effects on the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were employed as a model to investigate S2O8(2-), sulfate ion (decomposition product of S2O8(2-)), hydrogen/hydroxide ions and also the mixtures of these ion species. Acute toxicity test results showed 96h median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 540±23mgL(-1) for S2O8(2-) and 4100±110mgL(-1) for SO4(2-). S2O8(2-) was considerably more toxic than its decomposition product SO4(2-). Additionally, solution pH was also an important factor influencing toxicity, and S2O8(2-) posed reduced acute toxicity when pH was in the range of 6-10. Water conductivity up to approximately 8000?Scm(-1) did not appear to significantly increase fish mortality. In the mixture toxicity test (i.e., S2O8(2-)/OH(-)), LC50 values of 130±10mgL(-1) for S2O8(2-) and 23±2mgL(-1) for OH(-) were lower than those obtained from the individual toxicity tests and therefore exhibited higher toxicity to fish. However, upon complete decomposition of S2O8(2-) in the mixture, a reduction in acute toxicity may be expected. The results of this study revealed that it may be necessary and/or desirable to control the residual S2O8(2-)and pH after S2O8(2-) addition when potential exposure to an aquatic system is a concern.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.