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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A patient with mosaic neurofibromatosis type 2 presenting with early onset meningioma.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A female patient was found to have meningioma when she was 3?years and 11?months old and subtotal excision was performed. The residual tumour recurred 3?months after the first excision, and again 11?months after the second one. She was also found to have subcutaneous neurofibroma. However, her clinical features did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and her family history was unremarkable. Considering that primary meningioma is extremely rare in the paediatric population, the diagnosis of NF2 was considered. It was thought that this might have an impact on her subsequent management. Genetic testing on blood DNA for NF2 was arranged, and the results confirmed that she had mosaic deletion of the promoter to exon 16 of NF2. With uncertainty of whether NF2 mutations are also present in other tissues, vigilant follow-up for other NF2-related complications would be required in the future.
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Efficacy of Synchronous Verbal Training During Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients With Chronic Aphasia.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Although multiple studies have suggested that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may facilitate recovery after stroke, the efficacy of synchronous speech therapy integrated with an rTMS protocol has yet to be determined. We investigated language responses to this strategy and determined the longevity of the resulting therapeutic outcomes.
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Smoking adversely affects treatment response, outcome and relapse in tuberculosis.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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The impact of smoking on tuberculosis outcome was evaluated in a territory-wide treatment programme. 16 345 consecutive patients undergoing chemotherapy for active tuberculosis in government chest clinics in Hong Kong from 2001 to 2003 were followed up prospectively for 2 years for treatment outcome and subsequently tracked through the territory-wide tuberculosis notification registry for relapse until the end of 2012. Smoking was associated with more extensive lung disease, lung cavitation and positive sputum smear and culture at the baseline. In both current smokers and ex-smokers, sputum smears and cultures were significantly more likely to remain positive after 2 months of treatment. Both categories of smokers were significantly less likely to achieve cure or treatment completion within 2 years. Overall, 16.7% of unsuccessful treatment outcomes were attributable to smoking, with the key contributor being default in current smokers and death in ex-smokers. Among successful treatment completers, there was a clear gradient (hazard ratios of 1.00, 1.33, and 1.63) of relapse risk from never-smokers to ex-smokers and current smokers, with an overall population attributable risk of 19.4% (current smokers: 12.2%; ex-smokers: 7.2%). Smoking adversely affects baseline disease severity, bacteriological response, treatment outcome and relapse in tuberculosis. Smoking cessation likely reduces relapse and secondary transmission.
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Development and validation of a clostridium difficile risk assessment tool.
AACN Adv Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has increased rapidly during the past decade, increasing lengths of stays in the hospital, costs, and mortality rates. To address this increased incidence, we performed a retrospective case-control study using known risk factors to develop a tool to determine which patients are at risk for infection. Multivariate analysis generated a combination of risk factors associated with development of infection including prior admission, endoscopy within 30 days, cephalosporin/fluoroquinolone use, length of stay 7 days or longer, age 65 years or older, body mass index less than 25, and albumin level less than 2.7 g/dL. A weighted scoring tool was created that predicted disease with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 44% in the derivation sample, and 92% sensitivity and a specificity of 39% when applied to the validation sample. Application of this 8-item tool by nurses in multiple settings could aid in the determination of patients who are at risk, allowing prophylactic treatment, prompt isolation of patients, restricted antibiotic use, and decreased testing of low-risk patients.
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In-fiber fluorospectroscopy based on a spectral decomposition method.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We report a simplified model for the computation of light-fluorescence interactions within photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). It involved the plotting of ray trajectories confined by total internal reflection within a geometrically simplified PCF core. This was followed by the calculation of absorption and fluorescence emission at each point of reflection, which were subsequently summed and averaged over all the launched rays. The computation of these components for two specified wavelengths (peak excitation and emission) produced a dimensionless ratiometric relationship for varying concentrations of fluorescence dye. This hence eliminated the need for optical filters and minimized the effects of intensity fluctuations. Modeled results were demonstrated to concur well with that obtained experimentally for two PCFs with different microstructured cores.
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Moderating effect of communication difficulty on the relationship between depression and pain: a study on community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Objectives: This study examined the relationship between depression and pain, and the moderating effect of communication difficulty on this relationship, among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Method: We used logistic regression to analyze secondary data regarding 12,402 Chinese older adults applying for long-term care service in Hong Kong in 2012. Results: Approximately 30% of participants were depressed and 37% experienced communication difficulty. Depression was associated with increased pain. Communication difficulty was found to moderate the relationship between depression and pain. Pain scores increased more when individuals who experienced communication difficulty reported being depressed, compared to those who did not experience communication difficulty. Conclusion: The moderating effect of communication difficulty may be explained by the interaction between depression and communication difficulty. Participants who were depressed and concurrently experienced communication difficulty may be more likely to catastrophize their pain and may tend to report or experience more pain. Health care professionals need to be aware of the different effects of communication difficulty on the pain experiences of older adults. Psychosocial intervention may be provided to minimize older adults' communication barriers to pain management.
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The influence of shoulder pain on functional limitation, perceived health, and depressive mood in patients with traumatic paraplegia.
J Spinal Cord Med
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Objective To assess whether functional activity, perceived health, and depressive symptoms differ between individuals with traumatic paraplegia with and without shoulder pain. Design Cross sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Setting Neural Regeneration and Repair Division unit of Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan. Participants Seventy-six patients with paraplegia (23 with and 53 without shoulder pain) who had experienced spinal cord injury at American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale T2 to T12 neurologic level (at least 6 months previously). Outcome measures Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM), a single item from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression scale. Results Shoulder pain was prevalent in 30% patients. Patients with shoulder pain had significantly worse perceived health and greater depressive symptoms than those without. No significant difference was found in functional ability between groups. Greater shoulder pain intensity was related to higher depressive scores (r = 0.278, P = 0.017) and lower self-perceived health scores (r = -0.433, P < 0.001) but not SCIM scores (P = 0.342). Conclusion Although shoulder pain was unrelated to functional limitation, it was associated with lower perceived health and higher depressive mood levels.
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Requirement of CRTC1 coactivator for hepatitis B virus transcription.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Transcription of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) template is essential for its replication. Suppressing the level and transcriptional activity of cccDNA might have anti-HBV effect. Although cellular transcription factors, such as CREB, which mediate HBV transcription, have been well described, transcriptional coactivators that facilitate this process are incompletely understood. In this study we showed that CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator 1 (CRTC1) is required for HBV transcription and replication. The steady-state levels of CRTC1 protein were elevated in HBV-positive hepatoma cells and liver tissues. Ectopic expression of CRTC1 or its homolog CRTC2 or CRTC3 in hepatoma cells stimulated the activity of the preS2/S promoter of HBV, whereas overexpression of a dominant inactive form of CRTC1 inhibited HBV transcription. CRTC1 interacts with CREB and they are mutually required for the recruitment to the preS2/S promoter on cccDNA and for the activation of HBV transcription. Accumulation of pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and cccDNA was observed when CRTC1 or its homologs were overexpressed, whereas the levels of pgRNA, cccDNA and secreted HBsAg were diminished when CRTC1 was compromised. In addition, HBV transactivator protein HBx stabilized CRTC1 and promoted its activity on HBV transcription. Our work reveals an essential role of CRTC1 coactivator in facilitating and supporting HBV transcription and replication.
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Can a brief educational intervention improve sleep and anxiety outcomes for emergency orthopaedic surgical patients?
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Abstract An educational intervention (EI) is useful in preparing patients for orthopaedic surgery. This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of a brief EI on pain level, anxiety, pain inference on sleep, and sleep satisfaction among Chinese patients undergoing emergency orthopaedic surgery. The intervention group received usual care plus 20-minute EI which comprised a combination of patient education and a breathing relaxation exercise (BRE) whereas the control group received usual care only. The outcomes were evaluated before the EI and at days 2, 4 and 7 post-surgery. One hundred and fifty-two participants completed the study. The intervention group had significantly lower pain levels (Brief pain inventory), anxiety levels (The Chinese state Anxiety scale), and lower pain inference scores on mood and better sleep satisfaction. Therefore, a brief EI with a BRE is a feasible and useful intervention that can improve post-operative outcomes in emergency orthopaedic surgery.
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A virtual reality system integrated with robot-assisted haptics to simulate pinch-grip task: Motor ingredients for the assessment in chronic stroke.
NeuroRehabilitation
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Among numerous studies on virtual reality (VR) technology for motor rehabilitation, the majorities have only used it as a motor training system and did not use the kinematic or kinetic information obtained as the basis for therapeutic effect assessment.
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Subcutaneous Adipocytes Promote Melanoma Cell Growth by Activating the Akt Signaling Pathway: ROLE OF PALMITIC ACID.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt.
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Massage-Induced Brachial Plexus Injury.
Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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There are few reports in the literature of adverse effects resulting from massage therapy (MT) and no reports of brachial plexus injury (BPI) associated with MT. This case report describes an uncommon case of BPI that developed after a session of MT and reviews previously published reports of peripheral nerve injury following MT.
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Inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the contralesional premotor and primary motor cortices facilitate poststroke motor recovery.
Restor. Neurol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The premotor cortex plays a major role in motor planning and control, exhibiting hierarchical importance comparable to that of the primary motor cortex (M1). In this study, we compared the effects of cPMd modulation, which was achieved using inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), with those of contralesional M1 (cM1) modulation, to elucidate the roles of both regions on longitudinal motor recovery following a stroke.
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On the Laws of Virus Spread through Cell Populations.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The dynamics of viral infections have been investigated extensively, often with a combination of experimental and mathematical approaches. Mathematical descriptions of virus spread through cell populations are well established in the literature and have yielded important insights, yet the formulation of certain fundamental aspects of virus dynamics models remains uncertain and untested. Here, we investigate the process of infection and, in particular, the effect of varying the target cell population size on the number of productively infected cells generated. Using an in vitro single-round HIV-1 infection system, we find that the established modeling framework cannot accurately fit the data. If the model is fit to data with the lowest number of cells and is used to predict data generated with larger cell populations, the model significantly overestimates the number of productively infected cells generated. Interestingly, this deviation becomes stronger under experimental conditions that promote mixing of cells and viruses. The reason for the deviation is that the standard model makes certain oversimplifying assumptions about the fate of viruses that fail to find a cell in their immediate proximity. We derive from stochastic processes a different model that assumes simultaneous access of the virus to multiple target cells. In this scenario, if no cell is available to the virus at its location, it has a chance to interact with other cells, a process that can be promoted by mixing of the populations. This model can accurately fit the experimental data and suggests a new interpretation of mass action in virus dynamics models.
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Constitutive and LPS-induced expression of MCP-1 and IL-8 by human uveal melanocytes in vitro and relevant signal pathways.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Melanocytes are one of the major cellular components in the uvea. Interleukin-8/CXCL8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) are the two most important proinflammatory chemokines. We studied the constitutive and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 in cultured human uveal melanocytes (UM) and explored the relevant signal pathways.
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Perceptions of primiparas on a postnatal psychoeducation programme: The process evaluation.
Midwifery
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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to explore the perceptions of primiparas on the contents, delivery and personal impact of postnatal psychoeducation programme.
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Lutein inhibits the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells via cytosolic and mitochondrial Akt pathways (lutein inhibits RPE cells migration).
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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During the course of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells will de-differentiate, proliferate, and migrate onto the surfaces of the sensory retina. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can induce migration of RPE cells via an Akt-related pathway. In this study, the effect of lutein on PDGF-BB-induced RPE cells migration was examined using transwell migration assays and Western blot analyses. We found that both phosphorylation of Akt and mitochondrial translocation of Akt in RPE cells induced by PDGF-BB stimulation were suppressed by lutein. Furthermore, the increased migration observed in RPE cells with overexpressed mitochondrial Akt could also be suppressed by lutein. Our results demonstrate that lutein can inhibit PDGF-BB induced RPE cells migration through the inhibition of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Akt activation.
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Factor structure of the Chinese version of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire among Hong Kong Chinese caregivers.
Health Soc Work
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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This study examines the factor structure of the Chinese version of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (C-MLQ) in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese caregivers of patients with chronic illness (N = 223). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the factor structure. Findings confirm that, identical to the original version, C-MLQ showed the same two-factor structure: Presence and Search. Correlation between Presence and Search was found to be positive and moderate (r = .47). This study establishes empirically the same factor structure as the original version of MLQ among caregivers in Hong Kong. The relationship between Presence and Meaning is discussed in the contexts of Chinese culture and caregiving. Results suggest caregivers' continuing need for meaning in life. Medical social workers may help caregivers to integrate their caregiving experience with their sense of meaning in life and search for meaning in life to sustain their caregiving role.
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Impact of Phase II cardiac rehabilitation on abnormal heart rate recovery.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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A delayed decrease in heart rate recovery (HRR) following a maximal exercise test is a predictor of mortality in healthy adults and in those referred for diagnostic testing evaluation. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been proven to be beneficial in the treatment of numerous diseases. The purpose of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between CR and improvement of HRR and to determine which factors can be predictive for the improvement of abnormal HRR after Phase II CR.
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A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of an educational intervention on outcomes of parents and their children undergoing inpatient elective surgery: study protocol.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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To report a study protocol that tests the effectiveness of an educational intervention on outcomes of parents and their children who undergo inpatient elective surgery.
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Effectiveness of a patient education intervention in enhancing the self-efficacy of hospitalized patients to recognize and report acute deteriorating conditions.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To develop and pilot test the effectiveness of a patient education intervention in enhancing the self-efficacy of hospitalized patients to recognize and report symptoms of acute deteriorating conditions.
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A review on the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and formulae with hypolipidemic effect.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Hyperlipidemia, characterized by the abnormal blood lipid profiles, is one of the dominant factors of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For the low cost, effectiveness, and fewer side effects, the popularity of using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to handle hyperlipidemia is increasing and its role in health care has been recognized by the public at large. Despite the importance of TCM herbs and formulations, there is no comprehensive review summarizing their scientific findings on handling hyperlipidemia. This review summarizes the recent experimental and clinical results of nine representative single Chinese herbs and seven classic TCM formulae that could improve lipid profiles so as to help understand and compare their underlying mechanisms. Most of single herbs and formulae demonstrated the improvement of hyperlipidemic conditions with multiple and diverse mechanisms of actions similar to conventional Western drugs in spite of their mild side effects. Due to increasing popularity of TCM, more extensive, well-designed preclinical and clinical trials on the potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions as well as their mechanisms are warranted. Hyperlipidemic patients should be warned about the potential risks of herb-drug interactions, particularly those taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs.
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Pediatric Aquatic Therapy on Motor Function and Enjoyment in Children Diagnosed With Cerebral Palsy of Various Motor Severities.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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This study investigates the effects of pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function, enjoyment, activities of daily living, and health-related quality of life for children with spastic cerebral palsy of various motor severities. Children with spastic cerebral palsy were assigned to a pediatric aquatic therapy group (n = 11; mean age = 85.0 ± 33.1 months; male : female = 4 : 7) or a control group (n = 13; mean age = 87.6 ± 34.0 months; male : female = 9 : 4). The statistic results indicate that the pediatric aquatic therapy group had greater average 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure following intervention than the control group (?(2) = 0.308, P = .007), even for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System level IV (5.0 vs 1.3). The pediatric aquatic therapy group had higher Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale scores than the control group at post-treatment (P = .015). These findings demonstrate that pediatric aquatic therapy can be an effective and alternative therapy for children with cerebral palsy even with poor Gross Motor Function Classification System level.
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Predictors of Maternal Parental Self-Efficacy Among Primiparas in the Early Postnatal Period.
West J Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Maternal parental self-efficacy is a crucial factor for facilitating the smooth transition into motherhood, particularly for primiparas. The aims of this study were to examine the predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy and its relationship with social support, postnatal depression (PND), and socio-demographic variables of primiparas during the early postnatal period. A descriptive correlational study design was adopted. The instruments, Perceived Maternal Parental Self-Efficacy, Perinatal Infant Care Social Support, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, were used to collect data from a purposive sample of 122 primiparas on the day of discharge (1-3 days post delivery) in a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. There were significant correlations among maternal parental self-efficacy, social support, and postnatal depression. The main predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy were social support, ethnicity, maternal age, and family income. The maternal parental self-efficacy, social support, and PND should be routinely assessed to provide necessary support to needy mothers.
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A Latent Class Growth Analysis of School Bullying and Its Social Context: The Self-Determination Theory Perspective.
Sch Psychol Q
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%), victims (3.0%), bully-victims (9.4%), and typical students (77.8%). There was a significant association between academic tracking and group membership. Students from the school with the lowest academic performance had a greater chance of being victims and bully-victims. Longitudinal data showed that all 4 groups tended to report less victimization over the years. The victims and the typical students also had a tendency to report less bullying over the years, but this tendency was reversed for bullies and bully-victims. Perceived support from teachers for relatedness significantly predicted membership of the groups of bullies and victims. Students with higher perceived support for relatedness from their teachers had a significantly lower likelihood of being bullies or victims. The findings have implications for the theory and practice of preventive interventions in school bullying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Corticospinal Integrity and Motor Impairment Predict Outcomes after Excitatory Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation - a Preliminary Study.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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To identify the effective predictors for therapeutic outcomes based on intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS).
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A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of a postnatal psychoeducation programme on outcomes of primiparas: study protocol.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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To report a trial protocol that evaluates the effectiveness of postnatal psychoeducation programme in improving maternal parental self-efficacy and social support and in reducing postnatal depression among primiparas.
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Neuromuscular and biomechanical strategies of turning in ambulatory individuals post-stroke.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Given that the inter-limb asymmetry and additional balance control are required for turning, stroke subjects spend more time to turn than healthy subjects. Few studies have investigated specific turning-related neuromuscular and biomechanical strategies post-stroke to clarify factors favoring or hindering turning speed toward different directions. The purpose of this study was to compare the speed and lower-limb muscular and kinematic strategies of turning between individuals with stroke and matched controls. Fifteen ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke and 15 matched healthy controls participated in this study. Turning speed during turning along a 0.8-meter radius curved path toward both sides for 5 meters was recorded. Simultaneously, kinematics and muscle activation patterns of lower extremity were measured by the joint angle and electromyography during turning. The slower speed was noted for the turning task in stroke patients when compared to controls. Individuals with stroke have insufficient muscle activation in tibialis anterior and biceps femoris of the affected inner leg, accompanied by reduced standing knee flexion, which disturb turning toward the affected side. The augmented standing knee flexion of unaffected side in stroke patients hindered the function of the outer leg while turning toward the affected side, but assisted the role of the inner leg while turning toward the unaffected side. However, the absence of difference in turning speeds toward the affected and unaffected sides may attribute to the diminished swing phase knee flexion of the affected outer leg. Our findings suggest that there are direction-related strategies in turning for stroke subjects since the inner and outer legs, respectively, have specific roles for standing support and leg swing during turning. Therefore, in addition to turning speed, kinematics and muscular components during turning toward either direction should be considered to improve turning performance as well as to prevent falls in stroke rehabilitation.
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Red ear syndrome precipitated by a dietary trigger: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Red ear syndrome is a rare condition characterized by episodic attacks of erythema of the ear accompanied by burning ear pain. Symptoms are brought on by touch, exertion, heat or cold, stress, neck movements and washing or brushing of hair. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition are challenging. The case we report here involves a woman whose symptoms were brought on by a dietary trigger: orange juice as well as stress, causing significant physical and psychological morbidity. Avoidance of triggers resulted in symptomatic improvement.
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Detection of surface mobility of poly (2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorostyrene) films by in situ variable-temperature ToF-SIMS and contact angle measurements.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Poly (2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorostyrene) (5FPS) was prepared by bulk radical polymerization. The spin-cast films of this polymer were analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) at various temperatures ranging from room temperature to 120°C. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the ToF-SIMS data revealed a transition temperature (T(T)) at which the surface structure of 5FPS was rearranged. A comparison between the results of the PCA of ToF-SIMS spectra obtained on 5FPS and polystyrene (PS) indicate that the pendant groups of 5FPS and PS moved in exactly opposite directions as the temperature increased. More pendant groups of 5FPS and PS migrated from the bulk to the surface and verse versa, respectively, as the temperature increased. These results clearly support the view that the abrupt changes in the normalized principal component 1 value was caused by the surface reorientation of the polymers and not by a change in the ion fragmentation mechanism at temperatures above the T(T). Contact angle measurement, which is another extremely surface sensitive technique, was used to monitor the change in the surface tension as a function of temperature. A clear T(T) was determined by the contact angle measurements. The T(T) values determined by contact angle measurements and ToF-SIMS were very similar.
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Profiling nurses' job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, stress, cultural values and coping abilities: A cluster analysis.
Int J Nurs Pract
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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This study aimed to determine whether definable profiles existed in a cohort of nursing staff with regard to demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, stress, cultural values and coping abilities. A survey was conducted in one hospital in Singapore from June to July 2012, and 814 full-time staff nurses completed a self-report questionnaire (89% response rate). Demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, perceived stress, cultural values, ways of coping and intention to leave current workplace were assessed as outcomes. The two-step cluster analysis revealed three clusters. Nurses in cluster 1 (n?=?222) had lower acculturation scores than nurses in cluster 3. Cluster 2 (n?=?362) was a group of younger nurses who reported higher intention to leave (22.4%), stress level and job dissatisfaction than the other two clusters. Nurses in cluster 3 (n?=?230) were mostly Singaporean and reported the lowest intention to leave (13.0%). Resources should be allocated to specifically address the needs of younger nurses and hopefully retain them in the profession. Management should focus their retention strategies on junior nurses and provide a work environment that helps to strengthen their intention to remain in nursing by increasing their job satisfaction.
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The impact of loneliness on the relationship between depression and pain of Hong Kong Chinese terminally ill patients.
J Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Depression and pain often coexist in terminally ill patients, but few studies have examined their relationship among larger samples. Other psychosocial factors experienced by patients may become barriers to pain management and affect the relationship between depression and pain.
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Prevalence of nurses' smoking habits in psychiatric and general hospitals in China.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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This study determined the prevalence of lifetime and current smoking and the correlates of current smoking in nurses working in psychiatric and general hospitals in China. Of 807 distributed questionnaires, 799 nurses who were working in two psychiatric hospitals (n=387, 48.4%), and one general hospital (n=412, 51.6%) had analyzable data. Socio-demographic, alcohol use and smoking data were collected with a self-reported questionnaire. Work-related stress was evaluated with the Nurse Stress Inventory. In the whole sample, the lifetime smoking prevalence was 7.6% (females=2.1% vs. males=48.9%, p<0.0001; psychiatric nurses=14.5% vs. non-psychiatric nurses=1.2%, p<0.0001). The prevalence of current smoking was 7.1% (females=2.1% vs. males=44.7%, p<0.0001; psychiatric nurses=13.4% vs. non-psychiatric nurses=1.2%, p<0.0001). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, age 30 years or older, male gender, having children, being a psychiatric nurse and alcohol consumption were positively associated with smoking, while being a nursing officer was negatively associated with smoking (r(2) = 0.513, p<0.0001). Considering the harmful effects of smoking as well as second-hand smoking in the presence of children, effective measures to promote smoking cessation for male, older and psychiatric nurses and those with children are warranted.
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Comparisons of the chemical profiles, cytotoxicities and anti-inflammatory effects of raw and rice wine-processed Herba Siegesbeckiae.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Although slightly toxic, the Chinese medicinal herb Herba Siegesbeckiae (HS) has long been used as a remedy for traditional Chinese medicine symptoms that resemble inflammatory joint disorders, because it can eliminate the wind-dampness and soothe painful joints. Proper processing can reduce the toxicity and/or enhance the efficacy of raw herbs. In this study, we aim to examine if processing with rice wine reduces the cytotoxicities and/or enhances the anti-inflammatory effects of HS, and to explore the chemical basis behind the potential changes of medicinal properties caused by the processing.
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Efficacy of Physical Exercise in Preventing Falls in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Numerous studies have reported the prevention of falls through exercise among cognitively healthy older people. This study aimed to determine whether the current evidence supports that physical exercise is also efficacious in preventing falls in older adults with cognitive impairment.
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Intrinsic fluctuations of cell migration under different cellular densities.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The motility of the Dictyostelium discoideum (DD) cell is studied by video microscopy when the cells are plated on top of an agar plate at different densities, n. It is found that the fluctuating kinetics of the cells can be divided into two normal directions: the cell's forward-moving direction and its normal direction. Along the forward-moving direction, the slope of the amplitude of fluctuation vs. velocity (R||(v)) increases with n, while along the normal direction the slope of R? is independent of n. Both R|| and R? are functions of the cell speed v. The observed linearity in R?(v) indicated that the amplitude of orientational fluctuation (?) of DD cells is a constant independent of v. The independence of the slope of R?(v) on n indicated that ? is also not affected by cellular interactions. The independence of ? on both v and n suggests that orientational fluctuation originates from the intrinsic property of motion fluctuations in DD.
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Double-pass Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer pH sensor.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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A biocompatible fiber-optic pH sensor based on a unique double-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed. pH responsive poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) hydrogel coating on the fiber swells/deswells in response to local pH, leading to refractive index changes that manifest as shifting of interference dips in the optical spectrum. The pH sensor is tested in spiked phosphate buffer saline and demonstrates high sensitivity of 1.71??nm/pH, pH 0.004 limit of detection with good responsiveness, repeatability, and stability. The proposed sensor has been successfully applied in monitoring the media pH in cell culture experiments to investigate the relationship between pH and cancer cell growth.
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Petroleum ether extractive of the hips of Rosa multiflora ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The hip of Rosa multiflora Thunb. (HRM) has been traditionally used as a dietary supplement and a herbal remedy for the treatment of various diseases, including inflammation, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic pain, in China. The current study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the petroleum ether extractive of HRM (PEE) on type II collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (CIA) in male Wistar rats. In addition, the anti-inflammatory mechanism(s) of PEE on type II CIA was explored.
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Central Nervous System Tumors in Chinese Children Under The Age of 3: A Population Study.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The management of central nervous system tumors in children below the age of 3 years represents special challenge to pediatric oncologists with distinctive epidemiology, treatment considerations, and prognosis. Population-based epidemiological data on this particular patient group is lacking in Chinese. We reviewed the population-based pediatric tumor registry in Hong Kong between 1999 and 2011. Eighty-one children with primary central nervous system tumors from 0 to 3 years of age were identified (annual incidence: 4.16 cases per 100,000). Forty-one (50.6%) were male and the mean duration of follow-up was 94 months (±8.1). Primary tumors were infratentorial in 43 (53.1%). The tumor types in decreasing frequency were astrocytoma (n=17), medulloblastoma (n=16), ependymoma (n=13), choroid plexus tumor (n=7), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n=7), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n=6), germ cell tumor (GCT, n=5), craniopharyngioma (n=4), and ganglioglioma (n=3). Three patients presented antenatally. Treatment included surgery in 82.7%, chemotherapy in 50.6%, and radiotherapy in 25.9%. There were 29 deaths (35.8%) and 19 relapses (23.5%) during the review period with the 1-year overall survival (OS), 5-year OS, 1-year event-free survival (EFS), and 5-year EFS being 79.4% (±4.6), 63.5% (±5.9), 68.9% (±5.3), and 52.5% (±5.9), respectively. Significantly better OS and EFS were observed in patients who received gross total resection but those with high-grade tumors, antenatal diagnosis, or atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor/primitive neuroectodermal tumor had worse outcome. Survival did not differ with age. Comparison with statistics from other studies revealed higher rates of embryonal tumor, GCT, and craniopharyngioma in Hong Kong Chinese. Disease outcome appeared to be better in our cohort comparing to previous reports probably due to the higher proportion of GCT locally.
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Intraoperative brain mapping to identify corticospinal projections during resective epilepsy surgery in children with congenital hemiparesis.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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The purpose of the study is to determine corticospinal organization using intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) during resective epilepsy surgery for patients with congenital hemiparesis and intractable epilepsy.
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A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of a self-help psychoeducation programme on outcomes of outpatients with coronary heart disease: study protocol.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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To develop and examine the effectiveness of a home-based self-help psychoeducation programme on health-related quality of life, stress level, anxiety and depression symptoms, self-efficacy, cardiac risk factors and health service use of outpatients with coronary heart disease.
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Oral lovastatin attenuates airway inflammation and mucus secretion in ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Lovastatin is an effective inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis. A previous study demonstrated that lovastatin can also suppress airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in murine model of asthma. We aimed to investigate the effect of lovastatin on mucus secretion and inflammation-associated gene expression in the lungs of murine model of asthma.
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Structured interviews examining the burden, coping, self-efficacy and quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore.
Dementia (London)
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Dementia is a global health issue and the effects on caregivers are substantial. The study aimed to examine the associations of burden, coping, self-efficacy with quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore. Structured interviews were conducted in a convenience sample of 84 family caregivers caring and seeking clinical care for the persons with dementia in an outpatient clinic of a public hospital in Singapore. The outcome measures included the Family Burden Interview Schedule, Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief Version. In general, significant correlations were observed between the quality of life scores with coping strategy and family burden scores, but not between the coping strategy and family burden scores. Compared to demographic factors such as caregiver age and household income, psychosocial factors including family burden, coping strategies, and self-efficacy demonstrated greater association with quality of life in the participants. However, the dynamics of these associations will change with an increasing population of persons with dementia, decreasing nuclear family size, and predicted changes in family living arrangements for the persons with dementia in future. As such, it necessitates continuous study examining the needs and concerns of family caregivers and the relevance of ongoing interventions specific to caregivers of persons with dementia.
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Comparison of virtual patient simulation with mannequin-based simulation for improving clinical performances in assessing and managing clinical deterioration: randomized controlled trial.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Virtual patient simulation has grown substantially in health care education. A virtual patient simulation was developed as a refresher training course to reinforce nursing clinical performance in assessing and managing deteriorating patients.
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Targeted Activation of Human V?9V?2-T Cells Controls Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced B Cell Lymphoproliferative Disease.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD) after transplantation remains a serious and life-threatening complication. Herein we showed that the aminobisphosphonate pamidronate-expanded human V?9V?2-T cells efficiently killed EBV-transformed autologous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (EBV-LCL) through ?/?-TCR and NKG2D receptor triggering and Fas and TRAIL engagement. By inoculation of EBV-LCL in Rag2(-/-)?c(-/-) mice and humanized mice, we established lethal EBV-LPD with characteristics close to those of the human disease. Adoptive transfer of pamidronate-expanded V?9V?2-T cells alone effectively prevented EBV-LPD in Rag2(-/-)?c(-/-) mice and induced EBV-LPD regression in EBV(+) tumor-bearing Rag2(-/-)?c(-/-) mice. Pamidronate treatment inhibited EBV-LPD development in humanized mice through selective activation and expansion of V?9V?2-T cells. This study provides proof-of-principle for a therapeutic approach using pamidronate to control EBV-LPD through V?9V?2-T cell targeting.
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Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus 4a protein is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein that suppresses PACT-induced activation of RIG-I and MDA5 in the innate antiviral response.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe disease in human. MERS-CoV is closely related to bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5. Evasion of the innate antiviral response might contribute significantly to MERS-CoV pathogenesis, but the mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized MERS-CoV 4a protein as a novel immunosuppressive factor that antagonizes type I interferon production. MERS-CoV 4a protein contains a double-stranded RNA-binding domain capable of interacting with poly(I · C). Expression of MERS-CoV 4a protein suppressed the interferon production induced by poly(I · C) or Sendai virus. RNA binding of MERS-CoV 4a protein was required for IFN antagonism, a property shared by 4a protein of bat coronavirus HKU5 but not by the counterpart in bat coronavirus HKU4. MERS-CoV 4a protein interacted with PACT in an RNA-dependent manner but not with RIG-I or MDA5. It inhibited PACT-induced activation of RIG-I and MDA5 but did not affect the activity of downstream effectors such as RIG-I, MDA5, MAVS, TBK1, and IRF3. Taken together, our findings suggest a new mechanism through which MERS-CoV employs a viral double-stranded RNA-binding protein to circumvent the innate antiviral response by perturbing the function of cellular double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT. PACT targeting might be a common strategy used by different viruses, including Ebola virus and herpes simplex virus 1, to counteract innate immunity.
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Suppression of innate antiviral response by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus M protein is mediated through the first transmembrane domain.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Coronaviruses have developed various measures to evade innate immunity. We have previously shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus M protein suppresses type I interferon (IFN) production by impeding the formation of functional TRAF3-containing complex. In this study, we demonstrate that the IFN-antagonizing activity is specific to SARS coronavirus M protein and is mediated through its first transmembrane domain (TM1) located at the N terminus. M protein from human coronavirus HKU1 does not inhibit IFN production. Whereas N-linked glycosylation of SARS coronavirus M protein has no influence on IFN antagonism, TM1 is indispensable for the suppression of IFN production. TM1 targets SARS coronavirus M protein and heterologous proteins to the Golgi apparatus, yet Golgi localization is required but not sufficient for IFN antagonism. Mechanistically, TM1 is capable of binding with RIG-I, TRAF3, TBK1 and IKK?, and preventing the interaction of TRAF3 with its downstream effectors. Our work defines the molecular architecture of SARS coronavirus M protein required for suppression of innate antiviral response.
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Can a brief educational intervention improve sleep and anxiety outcomes for emergency orthopaedic surgical patients?
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Abstract An educational intervention (EI) is useful in preparing patients for orthopaedic surgery. This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of a brief EI on pain level, anxiety, pain inference on sleep, and sleep satisfaction among Chinese patients undergoing emergency orthopaedic surgery. The intervention group received usual care plus 20-minute EI which comprised a combination of patient education and a breathing relaxation exercise (BRE) whereas the control group received usual care only. The outcomes were evaluated before the EI and at days 2, 4 and 7 post-surgery. One hundred and fifty two participants completed the study. The intervention group had significantly lower pain levels (Brief pain inventory), anxiety levels (The Chinese state Anxiety scale), and lower pain inference scores on mood and better sleep satisfaction. Therefore, a brief EI with a breathing relaxation exercise is a feasible and useful intervention that can improve post-operative outcomes in emergency orthopaedic surgery.
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The effectiveness of a self-efficacy-enhancing intervention for Chinese patients with colorectal cancer: a randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow up.
Int J Nurs Stud
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem. There is growing support for colorectal cancer survivors who are experiencing problems after cancer treatment to engage in self-management programs to reduce symptom distress. However, there is inconclusive evidence as to the effectiveness of such program especially in Asian region.
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Effects of an interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented postnatal programme for Chinese first-time mothers: A randomized controlled trial.
Int J Nurs Stud
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of an interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented postnatal psychoeducation programme on postpartum depressive symptoms, social support and maternal role competence in Chinese first-time mothers.
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Arresting rampant dental caries with silver diamine fluoride in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease post-bone marrow transplantation: a case report.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Rampant caries is an advanced and severe dental disease that affects multiple teeth. This case describes the management of rampant caries in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
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Iron Overload and Apoptosis of HL-1 Cardiomyocytes: Effects of Calcium Channel Blockade.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Iron overload cardiomyopathy that prevails in some forms of hemosiderosis is caused by excessive deposition of iron into the heart tissue and ensuing damage caused by a raise in labile cell iron. The underlying mechanisms of iron uptake into cardiomyocytes in iron overload condition are still under investigation. Both L-type calcium channels (LTCC) and T-type calcium channels (TTCC) have been proposed to be the main portals of non-transferrinic iron into heart cells, but controversies remain. Here, we investigated the roles of LTCC and TTCC as mediators of cardiac iron overload and cellular damage by using specific Calcium channel blockers as potential suppressors of labile Fe(II) and Fe(III) ingress in cultured cardiomyocytes and ensuing apoptosis.
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Suppression of Foxo1 Activity and Down-Modulation of CD62L (L-Selectin) in HIV-1 Infected Resting CD4 T Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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HIV-1 hijacks and disrupts many processes in the cells it infects in order to suppress antiviral immunity and to facilitate its replication. Resting CD4 T cells are important early targets of HIV-1 infection in which HIV-1 must overcome intrinsic barriers to viral replication. Although resting CD4 T cells are refractory to infection in vitro, local environmental factors within lymphoid and mucosal tissues such as cytokines facilitate viral replication while maintaining the resting state. These factors can be utilized in vitro to study HIV-1 replication in resting CD4 T cells. In vivo, the migration of resting naïve and central memory T cells into lymphoid tissues is dependent upon expression of CD62L (L-selectin), a receptor that is subsequently down-modulated following T cell activation. CD62L gene transcription is maintained in resting T cells by Foxo1 and KLF2, transcription factors that maintain T cell quiescence and which regulate additional cellular processes including survival, migration, and differentiation. Here we report that HIV-1 down-modulates CD62L in productively infected naïve and memory resting CD4 T cells while suppressing Foxo1 activity and the expression of KLF2 mRNA. Partial T cell activation was further evident as an increase in CD69 expression. Several other Foxo1- and KLF2-regulated mRNA were increased or decreased in productively infected CD4 T cells, including IL-7r?, Myc, CCR5, Fam65b, S1P1 (EDG1), CD52, Cyclin D2 and p21CIP1, indicating a profound reprogramming of these cells. The Foxo1 inhibitor AS1842856 accelerated de novo viral gene expression and the sequella of infection, supporting the notion that HIV-1 suppression of Foxo1 activity may be a strategy to promote replication in resting CD4 T cells. As Foxo1 is an investigative cancer therapy target, the development of Foxo1 interventions may assist the quest to specifically suppress or activate HIV-1 replication in vivo.
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Classical pathology of sympathetic ophthalmia presented in a unique case.
Open Ophthalmol J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The ocular pathology of sympathetic ophthalmia is demonstrated in a 10 year-old boy who sustained a penetrating left globe injury and subsequently developed sympathetic ophthalmia in the right eye two months later. Two and a half weeks following extensive surgical repair of the left ruptured globe, he developed endophthalmitis and was treated with oral and topical fortified antibiotics. One month after the initial injury, a progressive corneal ulcer of the left eye led to perforation and the need for emergent corneal transplantation. The surgical specimen revealed fungus, Scedosporium dehoogii. The boy received systemic and topical anti-fungal therapy. Two months following the penetrating globe injury of the left eye, a granulomatous uveitis developed in the right eye. Sympathetic ophthalmia was suspected and the patient began treatment with topical and oral corticosteroids. Given the concern of vision loss secondary to sympathetic ophthalmia in the right eye, as well as poor vision and hypotony in the injured eye, the left eye was enucleated. Microscopically, granulomatous inflammation with giant cells was noted within a cyclitic membrane which filled the anterior and posterior chamber of the left globe. Other classic features including Dalen-Fuchs nodules were identified. Small, choroidal, ill-defined granulomas and relative sparing of the choriocapillaris were present. Molecular analysis did not identify evidence of remaining fungal infection. The pathology findings were consistent with previously described features of sympathetic ophthalmia. The present case is unique in that co-existing fungal infection may have potentiated the risk for developing sympathetic ophthalmia in the fellow eye.
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Increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a 9-year follow-up nationwide population study in taiwan.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common form of vertigo and is characterized by episodic dizziness related to changes in head position relative to gravity. BPPV symptoms can be similar to those of central nervous system vascular diseases. The association between BPPV and ischemic stroke has not yet been investigated. The study cohort consisted of patients who were diagnosed with BPPV at least twice in the previous year as an outpatient or for whom BPPV was the primary diagnosis as an inpatient (n?=?4104). An age- and gender-matched sample that excluded patients with a diagnosis of any form of vertigo was selected as the comparison cohort (n?=?8397). All cases were followed up from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2008. The demographic characteristics, medical comorbidities, and use of medications in both groups were investigated using chi-square tests. A stratified analysis of stroke risk factors was performed to determine the hazard ratios of BPPV. During the 9-year follow-up period, 185 of the 4104 (4.5%) subjects with BPPV and 240 of the 8379 (2.9%) subjects without BPPV developed ischemic strokes. The crude hazard ratio of BPPV for developing ischemic strokes was 1.708. After adjusting for stroke risk factors, the risk of developing ischemic strokes in BPPV subjects was 1.415-fold higher than the risk among those without BPPV (confidence interval: 1.162-1.732, p?=?0.001). After a subgroup analysis stratified according to stroke risk factors, BPPV remained independently associated with a higher risk of developing future ischemic stroke. We conclude that BPPV is independently associated with a risk of subsequent ischemic stroke. More aggressive control of modifiable risk factors for ischemic strokes should be conducted in patients with BPPV.
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Vestibular rehabilitation ameliorates chronic dizziness through the SIRT1 axis.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dizziness is a common clinical symptom frequently referred to general neurologists and practitioners. Exercise intervention, in the form of vestibular rehabilitation, is known as an effective clinical management for dizziness. This intervention is reported to have a functional role in correcting dizziness, improving gaze stability, retraining balance and gait, and enhancing physical fitness. Dizziness is known to be highly related to inflammation and oxidative stress. SIRT1 is a major molecule for the regulation of inflammation and mitigation of oxidative stress in chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the bio-molecular roles of SIRT1 involved in the pathogenesis of dizziness are still largely unclear. In this study, a total of 30 subjects were recruited (15 patients with chronic dizziness, and 15 age/gender matched non-dizzy control subjects). The dizzy subjects group received 18 sessions of 30-min vestibular training. We found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of SIRT1 in the blood samples of chronic dizzy patients were repressed compared with those of healthy controls. After vestibular training, the dizzy patients had significant symptomatic improvements. The SIRT1 expression and its downstream genes (PPAR-? and PGC-1?) were upregulated after vestibular exercises in dizzy subjects. Notably, the catalytic activity of SIRT1, NADPH and antioxidant enzyme activities were also activated in dizzy patients after vestibular training. Furthermore, vestibular exercise training reduced oxidative events and p53 expression in patients with dizziness. This study demonstrated that vestibular exercise training improved dizziness symptoms, and mechanisms for alleviation of chronic dizziness may partly involve the activation of the SIRT1 axis and the repression of redox status.
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Testing the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the level of expressed emotion scale.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study tested the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the level of expressed emotion scale in Hong Kong Chinese patients with severe mental illness and their family caregivers. First, the semantic equivalence with the original English version and test-retest reliability at 2-week interval of the Chinese version was examined. After that, the reproducibility, construct validity, and internal consistency of the Chinese version were tested. The Chinese version indicated good semantic equivalence with the English version (kappa values = 0.76-0.95 and ICC = 0.81-0.92), test-retest reliability (r = 0.89-0.95, P < 0.01), and internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = 0.86-0.92). Among 262 patients with severe mental illness and their caregivers, the 50-item Chinese version had substantial loadings on one of the four factors identified (intrusiveness/hostility, attitude towards patient, tolerance, and emotional involvement), accounting for 71.8% of the total variance of expressed emotion. In confirmatory factor analysis, the identified four-factor model showed the best fit based on all fit indices (? (2)/df = 1.93, P = 0.75; AGFI = 0.96; TLI = 1.02; RMSEA = 0.031; WRMR = 0.78) to the collected data. The four-factor Chinese version also indicated a good concurrent validity with significant correlations with family functioning (r = -0.54) and family burden (r = 0.49) and a satisfactory reproducibility over six months (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90). The mean scores of the overall and subscale of the Chinese version in patients with unipolar disorder were higher than in other illness groups (schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and bipolar disorder; P < 0.01). The Chinese version demonstrates sound psychometric properties to measure families' expressed emotion in Chinese patients with severe mental illness, which are found varied across countries.
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Diagnostic Procedures in Vitreoretinal Lymphoma.
Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the type and number of diagnostic interventions needed to confirm the presence of vitreoretinal lymphoma. Method: Chart review of interventions performed for diagnosis of vitreoretinal lymphoma. Results: Of the 27 cases, diagnosis was made by pars plana vitrectomy in 13 (48.1%), vitreous tap in 2 (7.4%), anterior chamber tap in 1 (3.7%), chorioretinal biopsy in 2 (7.4%), brain biopsy in 5 (18.5%), and cerebrospinal fluid cytology via lumbar puncture in 4 (14.8%). Ten (37%) had definitive results on the first procedure, and 17 (63%) had at least one false negative. Vitrectomy was the most common procedure performed. Patients required a mean of 2.1 procedures. Average time from onset of symptoms to confirmed histopathologic diagnosis was 13.9 months. Conclusion: Vitreoretinal lymphoma is difficult to recognize and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. It often takes more than one invasive procedure to make the diagnosis.
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The immunomodulatory and anticancer properties of propolis.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Propolis, a waxy substance produced by the honeybee, has been adopted as a form of folk medicine since ancient times. It has a wide spectrum of alleged applications including potential anti-infection and anticancer effects. Many of the therapeutic effects can be attributed to its immunomodulatory functions. The composition of propolis can vary according to the geographic locations from where the bees obtained the ingredients. Two main immunopotent chemicals have been identified as caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and artepillin C. Propolis, CAPE, and artepillin C have been shown to exert summative immunosuppressive function on T lymphocyte subsets but paradoxically activate macrophage function. On the other hand, they also have potential antitumor properties by different postulated mechanisms such as suppressing cancer cells proliferation via its anti-inflammatory effects; decreasing the cancer stem cell populations; blocking specific oncogene signaling pathways; exerting antiangiogenic effects; and modulating the tumor microenvironment. The good bioavailability by the oral route and good historical safety profile makes propolis an ideal adjuvant agent for future immunomodulatory or anticancer regimens. However, standardized quality controls and good design clinical trials are essential before either propolis or its active ingredients can be adopted routinely in our future therapeutic armamentarium.
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Evidence of enhanced mobility at the free surface of supported polymer films by in situ variable-temperature time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) spectra of polystyrene (PS) films supported on silicon wafers were obtained at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 100 °C. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the TOF-SIMS data revealed a transition temperature (TT) at which the surface structure of PS was rearranged. The TT of a 120-nm thick PS (weight-average molecular weight of 3,000 g/mol) thin film was determined to be about 36 °C, which is approximately 30 °C lower than the bulk glass transition temperature (Tg) of that PS. Similar TTs were observed on PSs with different molecular weights. As the TT is strongly related to the Tg and dependent on the molecular weight, it is believed that the TT determined by TOF-SIMS is related to the surface glass transition temperature (Tg(S)) measured by other techniques. This suggests that TOF-SIMS combined with PCA can be used to determine the Tg(S) of polymer films. Furthermore, the detailed PCA analyses indicate that the phenyl groups of PS tended to move away from the surface at temperatures above TT. This conclusion was further confirmed by contact angle and XPS measurements.
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Distinct microRNA-155 expression in the vitreous of patients with primary vitreoretinal lymphoma and uveitis.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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To use micro- ribonucleic acid (microRNA) profiles in the vitreous for differential diagnosis of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma and uveitis. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study design METHODS: This prospective cross-section study included 17 diffuse large B-cell primary vitreoretinal lymphoma and 12 uveitic patients. The supernatant of ocular fluid was subjected to total RNA extraction, followed by complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) synthesis. Selected samples (primary vitreoretinal lymphoma n=3, uveitis n=3) were arrayed by a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based microRNA panel that detects 168 human mature microRNAs. The markers promising in distinct levels between uveitis and lymphoma were further tested for all other 23 samples by individual RT-PCR analysis.
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Suppression of PACT-Induced Type I Interferon Production by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Us11 Protein.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Us11 protein is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein that suppresses type I interferon production through the inhibition of the cytoplasmic RNA sensor RIG-I. Whether additional cellular mediators are involved in this suppression remains to be determined. In this study, we report on the requirement of cellular double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT for Us11-mediated perturbation of type I interferon production. Us11 associates with PACT tightly to prevent it from binding with and activating RIG-I. The Us11-deficient HSV-1 was indistinguishable from the Us11-proficient virus in the suppression of interferon production when PACT was compromised. More importantly, HSV-1-induced activation of interferon production was abrogated in PACT knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts. Our findings suggest a new mechanism for viral evasion of innate immunity through which a viral double-stranded RNA-binding protein interacts with PACT to circumvent type I interferon production. This mechanism might also be used by other PACT-binding viral interferon-antagonizing proteins such as Ebola virus VP35 and influenza A virus NS1.
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The career success scale in nursing: psychometric evidence to support the Chinese version.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 11-item Chinese version of the Career Success Scale.
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An HIV-1 replication pathway utilizing reverse transcription products that fail to integrate.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Integration is a central event in the replication of retroviruses, yet ? 90% of HIV-1 reverse transcripts fail to integrate, resulting in accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA in cells. However, understanding what role, if any, unintegrated viral DNA plays in the natural history of HIV-1 has remained elusive. Unintegrated HIV-1 DNA is reported to possess a limited capacity for gene expression restricted to early gene products and is considered a replicative dead end. Although the majority of peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells are refractory to infection, nonactivated CD4 T cells present in lymphoid and mucosal tissues are major targets for infection. Treatment with cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-7, or IL-15 renders CD4(+) T cells permissive to HIV-1 infection in the absence of cell activation and proliferation and provides a useful model for infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. We found that infection of cytokine-treated resting CD4(+) T cells in the presence of raltegravir or with integrase active-site mutant HIV-1 yielded de novo virus production following subsequent T cell activation. Infection with integration-competent HIV-1 naturally generated a population of cells generating virus from unintegrated DNA. Latent infection persisted for several weeks and could be activated to virus production by a combination of a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a protein kinase C activator or by T cell activation. HIV-1 Vpr was essential for unintegrated HIV-1 gene expression and de novo virus production in this system. Bypassing integration by this mechanism may allow the preservation of genetic information that otherwise would be lost.
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Maternal parental self-efficacy in newborn care and social support needs in Singapore: a correlational study.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To examine the correlation between maternal parental self-efficacy and social support as well as predictors of self-efficacy in the early postpartum period.
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Matrine attenuates allergic airway inflammation and eosinophil infiltration by suppressing eotaxin and Th2 cytokine production in asthmatic mice.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Matrine has been isolated from Sophora flavescens, and found to show anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and anti-cachectic effects in hepatomas. The present study investigated whether matrine suppressed eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mice, and decreased the inflammatory response of tracheal epithelial cells.
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Magnetic field sensor using tilted fiber grating interacting with magnetic fluid.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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A novel magnetic field sensor using tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) interacting with magnetic fluid is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The TFBG is surrounded by magnetic fluid whose complex refractive index changes with external magnetic field. The guiding properties of cladding modes excited by the TFBG are therefore modulated by the external magnetic field. As a result, the magnetic field strength measurement is successfully achieved within a range up to 196 Gauss by monitoring extinction ratio of cladding mode resonance. Furthermore, temperature variation can be obtained simultaneously from the wavelength shift of the TFBG transmission spectrum.
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Fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in extracts of Curculiginis Rhizoma by HPLC-diode array detector.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Curculiginis Rhizoma (Curculigo orchioides GAERTN.) is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine, as well as an important Rasayana drug in India. Current criteria of quality control on this herb are to quantitatively analyze single compound curculigoside, which fail to comprehensively evaluate quality of this herb. In this paper, a simple and reliable HPLC coupled with diode array detector (DAD) method was developed to evaluate the quality of Curculiginis Rhizoma through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneously quantitating four phenolic compounds, orcinol glucoside, orcinol, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid and curculigoside. The fingerprint displayed eleven common peaks, and the similarity index of different samples was in a range of 0.890-0.977. Validation of the method was acceptable, with 96.03-102.82% accuracy in recovery test and inter and intra-day precisions were less than 2%. This developed method by having a combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantitation analysis could be applied to the quality control of Curculiginis Rhizoma.
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Turning-based treadmill training improves turning performance and gait symmetry after stroke.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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. Turning is a challenging task for stroke patients. Programs that effectively target turning, however, have not been established.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.