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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Arsenic and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review.
Curr Environ Health Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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In epidemiologic studies, high arsenic exposure has been associated with adverse kidney disease outcomes. We performed a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence of the association between arsenic and various kidney disease outcomes. The search period was January 1966 through January 2014. Twenty-five papers (comprising 24 studies) meeting the search criteria were identified and included in this review. In most studies, arsenic exposure was assessed by measurement of urine concentrations or with an ecological indicator. There was a generally positive association between arsenic and albuminuria and proteinuria outcomes. There was mixed evidence of an association between arsenic exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD), ?-2 microglobulin (?2MG), and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) outcomes. There was evidence of a positive association between arsenic exposure and kidney disease mortality. Assessment of a small number of studies with three or more categories showed a clear dose-response association between arsenic and prevalent albuminuria and proteinuria, but not with CKD outcomes. Eight studies lacked adjustment for possible confounders, and two had small study populations. The evaluation of the causality of the association between arsenic exposure and kidney disease outcomes is limited by the small number of studies, lack of study quality, and limited prospective evidence. Because of the high prevalence of arsenic exposure worldwide, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiologic and mechanistic studies of arsenic and kidney disease outcomes.
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Novel real-time temperature diagnosis of conventional hot-embossing process using an ultrasonic transducer.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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This paper presents an integrated high temperature ultrasonic transducer (HTUT) on a sensor insert and its application for real-time diagnostics of the conventional hot embossing process to fabricate V-cut patterns. The sensor was directly deposited onto the sensor insert of the hot embossing mold by using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperatures higher than 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The ultrasonic velocity could indicate the three statuses of the hot embossing process and also evaluate the replication of V-cut patterns on a plastic plate under various processing conditions. The progression of the process, including mold closure, plastic plate softening, cooling and plate detachment inside the mold, was clearly observed using ultrasound. For an ultrasonic velocity range from 2197.4 to 2435.9 m/s, the height of the V-cut pattern decreased from 23.0 to 3.2 µm linearly, with a ratio of -0.078 µm/(m/s). The incompleteness of the replication of the V-cut patterns could be indirectly observed by the ultrasonic signals. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensors and technology for diagnosing the replicating condition of microstructures during the conventional hot embossing process.
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The value of losartan suppression test in the confirmatory diagnosis of primary aldosteronism in patients over 50 years old.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) among the older-aged population has posed a crucial challenge. Among patients over 50 years old, this trial assessed comparability of the performance of two PA diagnostic tests: losartan and captopril suppression tests.
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Yin Yang 1 is a target of microRNA-34 family and contributes to gastric carcinogenesis.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Herein, we investigated the role of transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1), a multi-functional protein, in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer cells. Results showed that YY1 contributed to gastric carcinogenesis of SC-M1 cells including growth, viability, and abilities of colony formation, migration, invasion, and tumorsphere formation. Levels of pluripotency genes CD44, Oct4, SOX-2, and Nanog were also up-regulated by YY1 in SC-M1 cells. Additionally, the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of YY1 mRNA was the target of microRNA-34 (miR-34) family consisting of miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c. Overexpression of miR-34 family suppressed carcinogenesis through down-regulation of YY1 in NUGC-3 gastric cancer cells scarcely expressing miR-34 family. Alternatively, knockdown of miR-34 family promoted tumorigenesis via up-regulation of YY1 in SC-M1 and AZ521 gastric cancer cells with higher levels of miR-34 family. The miR-34 family also affected tumorsphere ultra-structure and inhibited the xenografted tumor growth as well as lung metastasis of SC-M1 cells through YY1. Expressions of miR-34a and miR-34c in gastric cancer tissues of patients were lower than those in normal tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-34 family-YY1 axis plays an important role in the control of gastric carcinogenesis.
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Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin D on cholangiocarcinoma in a Chemical-Induced animal model.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive cancer. Vitamin D, a pro-hormone, is getting popular due to its hormone-like functions after converted to its active form, 1?,25(OH)2D3. Here, we show that dietary supplementation with 6 IU/g of vitamin D greatly suppressed ICC initiation and progression without apparent toxicity in a chemically induced rat model. Microarray analysis of rat ICC tissues showed vitamin D supplementation modulated the expressions of several unique genes, including lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), confirmed by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Further, 53 of 80 human ICC specimens (66%) exhibited high LCN2 expression and LCN2 knockdown in SNU308 cells decreased cell growth and migration, suggesting LCN2 be an oncogene in human ICC. As human ICC SNU1079 cells were treated by 1?,25(OH)2D3, LCN2 expression and cell proliferation were attenuated. The downregulation of LCN2 expression was blunted when vitamin D receptor (VDR) was knocked down, implicating that the in vivo Lcn2 downregulation is a direct consequence of vitamin D supplementation Our results support the prevailing concept that vitamin D status is negatively associated with cancer incidence and mortality and suggest LCN2 may be a potential target against ICC. Further studies of application of vitamin D or its analog against ICC are warranted.
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Ag-ZnO nanoreactor grown on FTO substrate exhibiting high heterogeneous photocatalytic efficiency.
ACS Comb Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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This Research Article reports an unusually high efficiency heterogeneous photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) in the presence of Ag nanoparticle-loaded ZnO quasi-nanotube or nanoreactor (A-ZNRs) nanocatalyst grown on FTO substrate. In typical process, photodegradation efficiency of as high as 21.6% per ?g per Watts of used catalyst and UV power can be normally obtained within only a 60-min reaction time from this system, which is 10(3) order higher than the reported results. This is equivalent to the turnover frequency of 360 mol mol(-1) h(-1). High-density hexagonal A-ZNRs catalysts were grown directly on FTO substrate via a seed-mediated microwave-assisted hydrolysis growth process utilizing Ag nanoparticle of approximately 3 nm in size as nanoseed and mixture aqueous solution of Zn(NO3)·6H2O, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), and AgNO3 as the growth solution. A-ZNRs adopts hexagonal cross-section morphology with the inner surface of the reactor characterized by a rough and rugged structure. Transmission electron microscopy imaging shows the Ag nanoparticle grows interstitially in the ZnO nanoreactor structure. The high photocatalytic property of the A-ZNRs is associated with the highly active of inner side's surface of A-ZNRs and the oxidizing effect of Ag nanoparticle. The growth mechanism as well as the mechanism of the enhanced-photocatalytic performance of the A-ZNRs will be discussed.
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Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.
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Solution-processed Ga-doped ZnO nanorod arrays as electron acceptors in organic solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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This paper reports the utilization of ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) doped with various concentrations of Ga (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 at %) as electron acceptors in organic solar cells. The donor, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), was spin coated onto Ga-doped ZnO NRAs that were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates, followed by the deposition of a Ag electrode by a magnetron sputtering method. Adjusting the Ga precursor concentration allowed for the control of the structural and optical properties of ZnO NRAs. The short circuit current density increased with increasing Ga concentration from 0 to 1 at %, mainly because of improved exciton dissociation and increased charge extraction. Meanwhile, the reduced charge recombination and lower hole leakage current led to an increase in the open circuit voltage with Ga concentrations up to 1 at %. The device with the optimum Ga concentration of 1 at % exhibited power conversion efficiency nearly three times higher compared to the device without Ga doping. This finding suggests that the incorporation of Ga can be a simple and effective approach to improve the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells.
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Somatic alterations in mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial dysfunction in gastric cancer progression.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Energy metabolism reprogramming was recently identified as one of the cancer hallmarks. One of the underlying mechanisms of energy metabolism reprogramming is mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mutations in nuclear genes or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In the past decades, several types of somatic mtDNA alterations have been identified in gastric cancer. However, the role of these mtDNA alterations in gastric cancer progression remains unclear. In this review, we summarize recently identified somatic mtDNA alterations in gastric cancers as well as the relationship between these alterations and the clinicopathological features of gastric cancer. The causative factors and potential roles of the somatic mtDNA alterations in cancer progression are also discussed. We suggest that point mutations and mtDNA copy number decreases are the two most common mtDNA alterations that result in mitochondrial dysfunction in gastric cancers. The two primary mutation types (transition mutations and mononucleotide or dinucleotide repeat instability) imply potential causative factors. Mitochondrial dysfunction-generated reactive oxygen species may be involved in the malignant changes of gastric cancer. The search for strategies to prevent mtDNA alterations and inhibit the mitochondrial retrograde signaling will benefit the development of novel treatments for gastric cancer and other malignancies.
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Opaque bubble layer: incidence, risk factors, and clinical relevance.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To assess the incidence, risk factors, and impact on visual outcomes of an opaque bubble layer (OBL) produced by an Intralase femtosecond laser (60 kHz) during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).
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CAL1 is the Drosophila CENP-A assembly factor.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Centromeres are specified epigenetically by the incorporation of the histone H3 variant CENP-A. In humans, amphibians, and fungi, CENP-A is deposited at centromeres by the HJURP/Scm3 family of assembly factors, but homologues of these chaperones are absent from a number of major eukaryotic lineages such as insects, fish, nematodes, and plants. In Drosophila, centromeric deposition of CENP-A requires the fly-specific protein CAL1. Here, we show that targeting CAL1 to noncentromeric DNA in Drosophila cells is sufficient to heritably recruit CENP-A, kinetochore proteins, and microtubule attachments. CAL1 selectively interacts with CENP-A and is sufficient to assemble CENP-A nucleosomes that display properties consistent with left-handed octamers. The CENP-A assembly activity of CAL1 resides within an N-terminal domain, whereas the C terminus mediates centromere recognition through an interaction with CENP-C. Collectively, this work identifies the "missing" CENP-A chaperone in flies, revealing fundamental conservation between insect and vertebrate centromere-specification mechanisms.
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Six-month follow-up study of health markers of nanomaterials among workers handling engineered nanomaterials.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the health hazards and possible exposure surveillance markers of workers exposed to nanoparticles during manufacturing and application in comparison to a group of unexposed workers. For this longitudinal study, we recruited 158 nanomaterial-handling workers and 104 non-exposed workers from 14 manufacturing plants in Taiwan (baseline). Among them, 124 nanomaterial-handling workers and 77 unexposed workers were monitored 6 months later. We investigated pulmonary and cardiovascular disease markers, inflammation and oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes and genotoxicity markers. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and cardiovascular markers (vascular cell adhesion molecule, paraoxonase) were significantly associated with nanomaterial-handling during the 6-month follow-up period. In addition, the small airway damage marker (Clara cell protein 16) and lung function test parameters were also significantly associated with handling nanomaterials. The study markers and lung function tests are possible markers that could be useful for surveillance of nanomaterial-handling workers.
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Therapeutic efficacy for hepatocellular carcinoma by boric acid-mediated boron neutron capture therapy in a rat model.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with poor prognosis. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide an alternative therapy for HCC. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of boric acid (BA)-mediated BNCT for HCC in a rat model.
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Gauze versus solid skin barrier for tracheostomy care: a crossover randomized clinical trial.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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The aim of this study was to compare gauze and a solid pectin-based skin barrier to evaluate clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of care for tracheostomy wounds.
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Environmental chemicals and type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence.
Curr. Diab. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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The burden of diabetes is increasing globally. Identifying novel preventable risk factors is an urgent need. In 2011, the U.S. National Toxicological Program (NTP) conducted a workshop to evaluate the epidemiologic and experimental evidence on the relationship of environmental chemicals with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Although the evidence was insufficient to establish causality, the NTP workshop review identified an overall positive association between some environmental chemicals and diabetes. In the present systematic review, our objective was to summarize the epidemiological research published since the NTP workshop. We identified a total of 29 articles (7 on arsenic, 3 on cadmium, 2 on mercury, 11 on persistent organic pollutants, 3 on phthalates, and 4 on bisphenol A), including 7 prospective studies. Considering consistency, temporality, strength, dose-response relationship, and biological plausibility (confounding), we concluded that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient for a relationship between arsenic and persistent organic pollutants and is insufficient for mercury, phthalates, and bisphenol A. For cadmium, the epidemiologic evidence does not seem to suggest an association with diabetes. Important research questions include the need for additional prospective studies and the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, the role of joint exposures, and effect modification with other comorbidities and genetic variants.
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Zoledronic acid-induced cytotoxicity through endoplasmic reticulum stress triggered REDD1-mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Zoledronic acid (ZOL) used for the prevention/treatment of osteopathic complications has been reported to have antitumor effects in breast cancer treatment. However, little is known about the exact molecular mechanisms for antitumor actions of ZOL. In this study, two breast cancer cell lines were used to investigate the antitumor efficacy of ZOL and the underlying molecular mechanisms.
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Downregulation of tumor suppressor MBP-1 by microRNA-363 in gastric carcinogenesis.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies and the second most lethal cancer worldwide. The mechanisms underlying aggressiveness of gastric cancer still remain obscure. c-Myc promoter binding protein 1 (MBP-1) is a negative regulator of c-myc expression and ubiquitously expressed in normal human tissues. It is produced by alternative translation initiation of ?-enolase gene. Both MBP-1 and ?-enolase are involved in the control of tumorigenesis including gastric cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis and could have diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential. In this study, whether miRNAs modulate tumorigenesis of gastric cancer cells through targeting MBP-1 was evaluated. We found that miR-363 targets 3-untranslated region of human MBP-1/?-enolase messenger RNA. The exogenous miR-363 promotes growth, viability, progression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumorsphere formation of SC-M1 gastric cancer cells through downregulation of MBP-1, whereas the knockdown of endogenous miR-363 suppresses tumorigenesis and progression of SC-M1 cells via upregulation of MBP-1. The miR-363/MBP-1 axis is also involved in the control of carcinogenesis in KATO III and SNU-16 gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, miR-363 induces the xenografted tumor growth and lung metastasis of SC-M1 cells through MBP-1 in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-363 plays an important role in the increment of gastric carcinogenesis via targeting MBP-1.
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Andrographolide downregulates the v-Src and Bcr-Abl oncoproteins and induces Hsp90 cleavage in the ROS-dependent suppression of cancer malignancy.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Andrographolide is a diterpenoid compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata that exhibits anticancer activity. We previously reported that andrographolide suppressed v-Src-mediated cellular transformation by promoting the degradation of Src. In the present study, we demonstrated the involvement of Hsp90 in the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of Src oncogenic activity. Using a proteomics approach, a cleavage fragment of Hsp90? was identified in andrographolide-treated cells. The concentration- and time-dependent induction of Hsp90 cleavage that accompanied the reduction in Src was validated in RK3E cells transformed with either v-Src or a human truncated c-Src variant and treated with andrographolide. In cancer cells, the induction of Hsp90 cleavage by andrographolide and its structural derivatives correlated well with decreased Src levels, the suppression of transformation, and the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the andrographolide-induced Hsp90 cleavage, Src degradation, inhibition of transformation, and induction of apoptosis were abolished by a ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-cysteine. Notably, Hsp90 cleavage, decreased levels of Bcr-Abl (another known Hsp90 client protein), and the induction of apoptosis were also observed in human K562 leukemia cells treated with andrographolide or its active derivatives. Together, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which andrographolide suppressed cancer malignancy that involved inhibiting Hsp90 function and reducing the levels of Hsp90 client proteins. Our results broaden the molecular basis of andrographolide-mediated anticancer activity.
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Lactobacillus plantarum MYL26 induces endotoxin tolerance phenotype in Caco-2 cells.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis are the major types of chronic inflammatory bowel disease occurring in the colon and small intestine. A growing body of research has proposed that probiotics are able to attenuate the inflammatory symptoms of these diseases in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of probiotic actions remains unclear.
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Dry eye after LASIK with a femtosecond laser or a mechanical microkeratome.
Optom Vis Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Dry eye is the most common complication after LASIK procedure and is associated with corneal denervation. We conducted the study to compare dry eye parameters and corneal sensitivity (CS) after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with a femtosecond laser (FS) or microkeratome (MK).
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MART-10, a novel vitamin D analog, inhibits head and neck squamous carcinoma cells growth through cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 with upregulation of p21 and p27 and downregulation of telomerase.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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For the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), surgery in combination with radiation therapy is the current standard treatment. However, the complex anatomy and important functions over the head and neck region often make HNSCC patients with severe comorbidities. Even after aggressive treatment, the 5year survival for HNSCC patients is only around 61%. Thus, new therapeutic regimens against HNSCC are urgently needed. 1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1?,25(OH)2D3] is a potent anti-tumor agent in a variety of pre-clinical studies, but its clinical application is impeded by hypercalcemic side effect. A new class of less-calcemic 1?,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10 (19-nor-2?-(3-hydroxypropyl)- 1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3), has been shown to be much more potent than 1?,25(OH)2D3 in inhibiting cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo without inducing hypercalcemia. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative activity of MART-10 with 1?,25(OH)2D3 and the mechanism responsible for the inhibition in FaDu and SCC-25 squamous carcinoma cells. Our results demonstrate that MART-10 is more potent than 1?,25(OH)2D3 in suppressing FaDu and SCC-25 cell growth through greater cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, accompanied by a greater downregulation of ki-67 expression and upregulation of p21 and p27. We also showed that telomerase expression in SCC-25 was suppressed to a greater extent by MART-10 than by 1?,25(OH)2D3. Thus, given the previously-proven in vivo antitumor effect and safety of MART-10 and bleak background of HNSCC, based on our current result, we concluded that MART-10 has a potential as a chemo-preventive and - therapeutic agent to treat HNSCC.
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The stability of Taq DNA polymerase results from a reduced entropic folding penalty; identification of other thermophilic proteins with similar folding thermodynamics.
Proteins
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The thermal stability of Taq DNA polymerase is well known, and is the basis for its use in PCR. A comparative thermodynamic characterization of the large fragment domains of Taq (Klentaq) and E. coli (Klenow) DNA polymerases has been performed by obtaining full Gibbs-Helmholtz stability curves of the free energy of folding (?G) versus temperature. This analysis provides the temperature dependencies of the folding enthalpy and entropy (?H and ?S), and the heat capacity (?Cp ) of folding. If increased or enhanced non-covalent bonding in the native state is responsible for enhanced thermal stabilization of a protein, as is often proposed, then an enhanced favourable folding enthalpy should, in general, be observed for thermophilic proteins. However, for the Klenow-Klentaq homologous pair, the folding enthalpy (?Hfold ) of Klentaq is considerably less favorable than that of Klenow at all temperatures. In contrast, it is found that Klentaqs extreme free energy of folding (?Gfold ) originates from a significantly reduced entropic penalty of folding (?Sfold ). Furthermore, the heat capacity changes upon folding are similar for Klenow and Klentaq. Along with this new data, comparable extended analysis of available thermodynamic data for 17 other mesophilic-thermophilic protein pairs (where enough applicable thermodynamic data exists) shows a similar pattern in seven of the 18 total systems. When analyzed with this approach, the more familiar "reduced ?Cp mechanism" for protein thermal stabilization (observed in a different six of the 18 systems) frequently manifests as a temperature dependent shift from enthalpy driven stabilization to a reduced-entropic-penalty model. Proteins 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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MART-10, a less calcemic vitamin D analog, is more potent than 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in inhibiting the metastatic potential of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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With the recent advance in breast cancer therapy, the survival rate of breast cancer patients has improved greatly. In spite of the progress, 25-50% of breast cancer patients eventually will develop metastasis. Due to limited early detection methods, metastasis is usually diagnosed at the late stages beyond recovery likely due to resistance to currently available breast cancer therapies. Thus, a new strategy to prevent cancer cell growth and repress tumor metastasis is desirable. The active form of vitamin D3, 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1?,25(OH)2D3], has anti-invasion and anti-migration properties in pre-clinical studies, yet its clinical application has been hampered by its hypercalcemic side effect. Previously, we have demonstrated that a new class of less-calcemic vitamin D analog, 19-nor-2?-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (MART-10), is 1000-fold more active than 1?,25(OH)2D3 in suppressing MCF-7 cells growth through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. In the current study, we show for the first time that MART-10 is more active than 1?,25(OH)2D3 in preventing MCF-7 cell invasion and migration likely mediated through the upregulation of E-cadherin, and the downregulation of Snail, Slug, and Twist, the transcription factors implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as MMP-13. Based on the current in vitro and the highly anti-tumor characteristics of MART-10 in a pancreatic xenograft model, MART-10 is deemed as a promising candidate for breast cancer treatment. Further in vivo animal study comparing MART-10 with 1?,25(OH)2D3 and other potent and less calcemic analogs of vitamin D is warranted.
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[Being a mother: encounters between mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and nurses in Taiwan].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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The role of "mother" is understood and represented differently by people from different cultures. In traditional Taiwanese society, mothers demonstrate their existence value by giving birth to and raising sons able to continue her husbands familial line. Sons bear the patriarchal name and care for their parents in old age. However, a son stricken, paralyzed and eventually killed by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can destroy a mothers perceived value in this traditional social context. Mothers are thus soundless sufferers. Nurses have a critical role to play in giving encouragement and hope to mothers of children with DMD. Through their own difficult situation, these mothers can also highlight the value and importance of Taiwans nurses, who work in conditions marked by overloading, high stress, and under-appreciation. Caring for women in critical need of empathy and support help nurses realize their own positive capacity to empower sufferers.
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Diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism: an updated review.
Ann. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common secondary form of arterial hypertension, with a particularly high prevalence among patients with resistant hypertension. Aldosterone has been found to be associated with cardiovascular toxicity. Prolonged aldosteronism leads to higher incidence of cardiac events, glomerular hyperfiltration, and potentially bone/metabolic sequels. The wider application of aldosterone/renin ratio as screening test has substantially contributed to increasing diagnosis of PA. Diagnosis of PA consists of two phases: screening and confirmatory testing. Adrenal imaging is often inaccurate for differentiation between an adenoma and hyperplasia, and adrenal venous sampling is essential for selecting the appropriate treatment modality. The etiologies of PA have two main subtypes: unilateral (aldosterone-producing adenoma) and bilateral (micro- or macronodular hyperplasia). Aldosterone-producing adenoma is typically managed with unilateral adrenalectomy, while bilateral adrenal hyperplasia is amenable to pharmacological approaches using mineralocorticoid antagonists. Short-term treatment outcome following surgery is determined by factors such as preoperative blood pressure level and hypertension duration, but evidence regarding long-term treatment outcome is still lacking. However, directed treatments comprising of unilateral adrenalectomy or mineralocorticoid antagonists still potentially reduce the toxicities of aldosterone. Utilizing a physician-centered approach, we intend to provide up-dated information on the etiology, diagnosis, and the management of PA.
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ZnO nanocubes with (101) basal plane photocatalyst prepared via a low-frequency ultrasonic assisted hydrolysis process.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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The crystallographic plane of the ZnO nanocrystals photocatalyst is considered as a key parameter for an effective photocatalysis, photoelectrochemical reaction and photosensitivity. In this paper, we report a simple method for the synthesis of a new (101) high-energy plane bounded ZnO nanocubes photocatalyst directly on the FTO surface, using a seed-mediated ultrasonic assisted hydrolysis process. In the typical procedure, high-density nanocubes and quasi-nanocubes can be grown on the substrate surface from a solution containing equimolar (0.04M) zinc nitrate hydrate and hexamine. ZnO nanocubes, with average edge-length of ca. 50nm, can be obtained on the surface in as quickly as 10min. The heterogeneous photocatalytic property of the sample has been examined in the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) by UV light irradiation. It was found that the ZnO nanocubes exhibit excellent catalytic and photocatalytic properties and demonstrate the photodegradation efficiency as high as 5.7percent/?gmW. This is 200 times higher than those reported results using a relatively low-powered polychromatic UV light source (4mW). The mechanism of ZnO nanocube formation using the present approach is discussed. The new-synthesized ZnO nanocubes with a unique (101) basal plane also find potential application in photoelectrochemical devices and sensing.
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Estimated HIV Incidence in California, 2006-2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Accurate estimates of HIV incidence are crucial for prioritizing, targeting, and evaluating HIV prevention efforts. Using the methodology the CDC used to estimate national HIV incidence, we estimated HIV incidence in Los Angeles County (LAC), San Francisco (SF), and Californias remaining counties.
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Correlation between myopic ametropia and stereoacuity in school-aged children in Taiwan.
Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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To investigate the correlation between stereoacuity, as analyzed by the Titmus stereotest, and the severity of myopia, astigmatism and anisometropia in a school-aged population in Taiwan.
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The impact of an interprofessional problem-based learning curriculum of clinical ethics on medical and nursing students attitudes and ability of interprofessional collaboration: a pilot study.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Clinical ethic situations in modern multiprofessional healthcare systems may involve different healthcare professions who work together for patient care. The undergraduate interprofessional education of clinical ethics would help to incubate healthcare students ability of interprofessional collaboration in solving ethical problems. However, the impact from an interprofessional educational model on students attitudes and confidence of interprofessional collaboration should be carefully evaluated during the process of curricular development. This study aimed to conduct a pilot interprofessional PBL curriculum of clinical ethics and evaluate the curricular impact on interprofessional students attitude and confidence of collaborative teamwork. Thirty-six medical and nursing students volunteered to participate in this study and were divided into three groups (medical group, nursing group, and mixed group). Tutors were recruited from the Medical School and the College of Nursing. The pilot curriculum included one lecture of clinical ethics, one PBL case study with two tutorial sessions, and one session of group discussion and feedback. A narrative story with multiple story lines and a multiperspective problem analysis tool were used in the PBL tutorials. The students self-evaluation of learning questionnaire was used to evaluate students learning of clinical ethics and interprofessional collaborative skills and attitude. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was measured by Cronbach ?, and the criterion-related validity of the questionnaire was evaluated through associations between the dimension scores with the student group by one-way analysis of variance test (ANOVA) test and Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference (HSD) comparison. There was significant difference among different groups in students ability and attitudes about "interprofessional communication and collaboration" (p = 0.0184). The scores in the mixed group (37.58 ± 3.26) were higher than the medical group (32.10 ± 4.98). In conclusion, our model for the interprofessional PBL curriculum of clinical ethics is practicable and will produce positive impacts on students attitudes and confidence of interprofessional collaboration.
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Molecular and survival differences between familial and sporadic gastric cancers.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Mismatch repair (MMR) and germline E-cadherin (CDH1) mutations are two of the major pathways of carcinogenesis in familial gastric cancer (GC). A total of 260 sporadic and 66 familial GC patients were enrolled and molecular and survival differences were compared. Familial GC patients had earlier onset and were diagnosed at an earlier stage and had both a better 5-year overall survival rate and 3-year disease-free survival rate compared with sporadic GC patients. Only in diffuse type GC, the MSI-H phenotype and abnormal MMR protein expression were significantly higher in familial GC than in sporadic GC. In MSI-H GC, MLH1 promoter methylation was slightly higher in sporadic GC than familial GC (50% versus 23.1%), while the frequency of MMR gene mutation was slightly higher in familial GC than in sporadic GC (15.4% versus 3.1%). All of the patients with MMR gene mutation had diffuse type GC. Among familial GC patients with CDH1 mutation, most patients (72.3%) had diffuse type GC. In summary, for familial GC patients, we recommend screening of MSI status and CDH1 mutation especially for diffuse type GC. Because of the low incidence, mutation analysis of MMR gene might be considered in MSI-H familial GC with diffuse type only.
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Mitochondrial dysfunction represses HIF-1? protein synthesis through AMPK activation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is an important transcription factor that modulates cellular responses to hypoxia and also plays critical roles in cancer progression. Recently, somatic mutations and decreased copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were detected in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These mutations were shown to have the potential to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the effects and mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction on HIF-1? function are not fully understood. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanism by which mitochondrial dysfunction regulates HIF-1? expression.
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Areca nut procyanidins ameliorate streptozocin-induced hyperglycemia by regulating gluconeogenesis.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major contributor to blood glucose in diabetes mellitus. Our previous study indicated that areca nut extract enriched with catechin-based procyanidins from oligomers to polymers gave rise to anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Here we have surveyed the molecular features of areca nut procyanidins (ANPs) using quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (Q-TOF LC/MS) and the resulting mass spectrum accurately described ANP from monomer to hexadecamer. Furthermore, the potential of ANP in terms of blood glucose homeostasis was explored using cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/dexamethasone stimulated primary mouse hepatocytes and multiple low dose streptozocin (MLD-STZ) treated mice. With the primary hepatocytes, ANP dose-dependently inhibited gluconeogenesis and reduced the mRNA expression of two gluconeogenic key enzymes, phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Intragastrically feeding of 10mg/kg ANP for 4weeks reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose, PEPCK and G6Pase in MLD-STZ mice. In additional, the level of 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression showed a trend towards being restored in the ANP treated MLD-STZ-mice. This study indicated that ANP has the potential to improve hyperglycemia by regulating gluconeogenic related kinases in MLD-STZ-mice.
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Anti-Cancer Activity of an Osthole Derivative, NBM-T-BMX-OS01: Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Signaling and Angiogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Angiogenesis occurs during tissue growth, development and wound healing. It is also required for tumor progression and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. NBM-T-BMX-OS01 (BMX), derived from the semisynthesis of osthole, an active ingredient isolated from Chinese herb Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss., was recently shown to enhance learning and memory in rats. In this study, we characterized the anti-angiogenic activities of NBM-T-BMX-OS01 (BMX) in an effort to develop novel inhibitors to suppress angiogenesis and tumor growth. BMX inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration and endothelial tube formation in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). BMX also attenuated VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo and reduced HCT116 colorectal cancer cells-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, BMX inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, FAK, Akt and ERK in HUVECs exposed to VEGF. BMX was also shown to inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation and to suppress the growth of subcutaneous xenografts of HCT116 cells in vivo. Taken together, this study provides evidence that BMX modulates vascular endothelial cell remodeling and leads to the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. These results also support the role of BMX as a potential drug candidate and warrant the clinical development in the treatment of cancer.
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Cyclosporine a eye drop-induced elongated eyelashes: a case report.
Case Rep Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2011
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The most common ocular adverse event following the use of cyclosporine A (CsA) 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion is ocular burning (17%). Other adverse effects that have been reported include conjunctival hyperemia (1-5%), discharge, epiphora, eye pain, foreign body sensation, pruritus, stinging and blurred vision. Here, we report a specific side effect of CsA, namely eye drop-induced eyelash elongation in a patient with refractory giant papillary conjunctivitis.
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Forgetting the unforgotten affective autobiographical memories in nonclinical dissociators.
Emotion
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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Inefficient memory inhibition has been observed in nonclinical and clinical dissociators. Paradoxically, dissociators also report unusual forgetfulness. Investigating how forgetting emerges in dissociators may uncover the antecedents for their self-report memory problems. We postulated that set switch can link inefficient memory inhibition to forgetting. Recollection detour, which involves an affect switch, may elicit forgetting of previously uninhibited memories in nonclinical dissociators. This hypothesis was verified in participants with high- and low-dissociation proneness via a retrieval practice paradigm using positive and negative autobiographical memories. After the study and retrieval-practice phases, memories of the practiced affect category were tested without and with intervening recall of the unpracticed affect category in the control and detour condition, respectively. Nondissociators showed reduced recall in the control condition, replicating the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect and recollection detour did not alter the RIF effect. By contrast, nonclinical dissociators showed the RIF effect in the detour condition but not in the control condition. Detour to recollecting memories of another affect category rendered an aftereffect of forgetting of previously uninhibited memories in nonclinical dissociators.
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Rab5A is associated with axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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The expression of Rab proteins has been associated with cancer. However, few data are available on Rab5A expression in human breast cancer or its impact on disease progression. First, we examined the functional role of Rab5A in breast cancer cells. The expression of Rab5A in MDA-MB-231 cells can be stimulated by epidermal growth factor in a dose-dependent manner. The epidermal growth factor-induced increase of Rab5A expression correlated well with enhanced migration in wound healing migration assays in these cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the expression of Rab5A in breast cancer specimens using immunohistochemical staining, then analyzed the relationship between the expression of Rab5A and clinicopathological parameters. The increased expression of Rab5A protein in 123 breast cancer samples was associated with higher histological grade (P = 0.004), more lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.027), more axillary lymph node (LN) metastasis (P = 0.008), and a higher number of axillary LN metastases (P = 0.043). Among 218 axillary LNs of more than 10 breast cancer patients with node metastases, 167 metastatic LNs were found to have increased Rab5A expression. Rab5A is associated with axillary LN metastasis in breast cancer patients.
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Bacteremia due to extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Aeromonas spp. at a medical center in Southern Taiwan.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Although extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing aeromonads have been increasingly reported in recent years, most of them were isolates from case reports or environmental isolates. To investigate the prevalence of ESBL producers among Aeromonas blood isolates and the genes encoding ESBLs, consecutive nonduplicate Aeromonas blood isolates collected at a medical center in southern Taiwan from March 2004 to December 2008 were studied. The ESBL phenotypes were examined by clavulanate combination disk test and the cefepime-clavulanate ESBL Etest. The presence of ESBL-encoding genes, including bla(TEM), bla(PER), bla(CTX-M), and bla(SHV) genes, was evaluated by PCR and sequence analysis. The results showed that 4 (2.6%) of 156 Aeromonas blood isolates, 1 Aeromonas hydrophila isolate and 3 Aeromonas caviae isolates, expressed an ESBL-producing phenotype. The ESBL gene in two A. caviae isolates was bla(PER-3), which was located in both chromosomes and plasmids, as demonstrated by Southern hybridization. Of four patients with ESBL-producing Aeromonas bacteremia, two presented with catheter-related phlebitis and the other two with primary bacteremia. Three patients had been treated with initial noncarbapenem ?-lactams for 5 to 10 days, and all survived. In conclusion, ESBL producers exist among Aeromonas blood isolates, and clinical suspicion of ESBL production should be raised in treating infections due to cefotaxime-resistant Aeromonas isolates.
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Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate obtained mydriasis and prevalence of small pupil in long-term type 2 diabetic patients.
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Role of p21 as a determinant of 1,6-Bis[4-(4-amino-3-hydroxyphenoxy)phenyl] diamantane response in human HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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1,6-Bis[4-(4-amino-3-hydroxyphenoxy)phenyl]diamantane (DPD) induces growth inhibition in human cancer cells. In our previous study, we discovered that DPD irreversibly inhibits the growth of Colo 205 colon cancer cells at the G0/G1 phase and induces cell differentiation. However, the detailed mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we examined the functional importance of p21 and p53 in DPD-induced anticancer effects. We used three isogenic cell lines, HCT-116, HCT-116 p53-/- and HCT-116 p21-/-, to evaluate the roles of p21 and p53 in the in vitro anticancer effects of DPD. The in vivo anti-proliferative effect of DPD was demonstrated by HCT-116 and HCT-116 p21-/- xenograft models. DPD significantly inhibited the growth as well as increased the number of HCT-116 cells in the G0/G1 phase, but not in HCT-116 p53-/- and HCT-116 p21-/- cells examined by flow cytometry. Additionally, western blot analysis showed that DPD treatment induced p21, but not p53 protein expression in HCT-116 cells. The p21-associated cell cycle regulated proteins, such as cyclin D, CDK4 and pRb were decreased after DPD treatment in HCT-116 cells. The DPD-increased G0/G1 phase and induced cell cycle regulated protein expression were not observed in HCT-116 p21-/- and HCT-116 p53-/- cells. DPD decreased cell migration in HCT-116 and HCT-116 p53-/- but not in HCT-116 p21-/- cells. p21 was required for the DPD-induced in vitro anti-colon cancer effect. The in vivo study also showed that DPD significantly inhibited tumor growth through p21 signaling. Our results clearly demonstrate that DPD-induced in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects through the activation of p21 in HCT-116 cells.
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Tumor size as a prognostic factor in resected small hepatocellular carcinoma: a controversy revisited.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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The widespread use of screening programs has resulted in an increase in detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Surgical resection generally leads to favorable outcomes in this group of patients; however, the prognostic significance of tumor size and the optimal cutoff point in resected specimens of small HCC have not been well defined. The aim of current study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor size in small resected HCC. Methods: Patients who underwent surgical resection for small HCC at the Changhua Christian Hospital during January 2001 to June 2007 were enrolled. Small HCC was defined as a single HCC nodule with maximum diameter ? 5 cm. Cox regression hazard ratios for cancer-specific death were calculated to survey the prognostic significance of tumor size. We then determined the optimal cut-point for tumor size that could be used to stratify patients into 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) groups. Results: A total of 140 patients who underwent resection of small HCC were enrolled. The mean tumor size was 2.9 cm (range 0.9-5.0) and the mean follow-up period was 43.4 months. The 5-year DFS and CSS rates were 46.6% and 81.6%, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that tumor size (hazard ratio = 2.973, 95% confidence interval: 1.073-8.239, P = 0.036) was an independent prognostic factor. Our analysis showed that a tumor size of 3 cm was the cut-point that could dichotomize patients into statistically different 5-year DFS and CSS risk groups. Conclusions: Tumor size is an independent prognostic factor in resected small HCC and the prognostic significance of tumor size may vary according to different cut-off points.
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PGC-1? mediates differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to brown adipose cells.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent cell type that can differentiate into non-hematopoietic cells, such as adipocytes. Adipocyte tissue is central to the regulation of energy balance. Two functionally different types of fat are present in mammals. White adipose tissue is the primary site for triglyceride storage, while brown adipose tissue is specialized in energy expenditure. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?) controls several aspects of mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we hypothesized that PGC-1? plays a role in brown fat differentiation of MSCs.
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Endothelial progenitor cells in primary aldosteronism: a biomarker of severity for aldosterone vasculopathy and prognosis.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events, probably through mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent endothelial cell dysfunction, in comparison with essential hypertension (EH).
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Do people who develop AIDS within 12 months of HIV diagnosis delay HIV testing?
Public Health Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Individuals diagnosed with AIDS within 12 months of HIV diagnosis have been considered "late testers." Prevalence estimates of late testers have been made using HIV/AIDS surveillance data, and high rates of late testing have been reported. However, studies evaluating this definition have not been conducted. We measured the degree of misclassification of delayed testing based on this surveillance definition of late testing.
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Evaluation of lentiviral-mediated expression of sodium iodide symporter in anaplastic thyroid cancer and the efficacy of in vivo imaging and therapy.
J Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most deadly cancers. With intensive multimodalities of treatment, the survival remains low. ATC is not sensitive to (131)I therapy due to loss of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene expression. We have previously generated a stable human NIS-expressing ATC cell line, ARO, and the ability of iodide accumulation was restored. To make NIS-mediated gene therapy more applicable, this study aimed to establish a lentiviral system for transferring hNIS gene to cells and to evaluate the efficacy of in vitro and in vivo radioiodide accumulation for imaging and therapy. Lentivirus containing hNIS cDNA were produced to transduce ARO cells which do not concentrate iodide. Gene expression, cell function, radioiodide imaging and treatment were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that the transduced cells were restored to express hNIS and accumulated higher amount of radioiodide than parental cells. Therapeutic dose of (131)I effectively inhibited the tumor growth derived from transduced cells as compared to saline-treated mice. Our results suggest that the lentiviral system efficiently transferred and expressed hNIS gene in ATC cells. The transduced cells showed a promising result of tumor imaging and therapy.
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Leptin enhances migration of human papillary thyroid cancer cells through the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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The incidence of thyroid cancer has remarkably increased in recent years. Epidemiologic data suggest that obesity is associated with an increased incidence of several types of malignancies, including thyroid cancer. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has been shown to be involved in cancer development and progression. We previously demonstrated that papillary thyroid cancer expressing leptin receptor and/or leptin has a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effects of leptin on cell migration in K1 and B-CPAP papillary thyroid cancer cells. Expression of leptin receptor was observed in both cell lines. Leptin enhanced the migratory activity significantly in a dose-dependent manner. We showed that leptin induced AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and ERK activation using pharmacological inhibitors effectively blocked leptin-induced migration of K1 and B-CPAP cells. Taken together, this study provides new mechanistic evidence for a role of leptin in the regulation of papillary thyroid cancer progression by stimulating tumor cell migration.
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Notch2-induced COX-2 expression enhancing gastric cancer progression.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common and mortal types of malignancy worldwide. To date, the mechanisms controlling its aggressiveness are not yet fully understood. Notch signal pathway can function as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in tumorigenesis. Four members (Notch1-4) of Notch receptors were found in mammals and each exhibits distinct roles in tumor progression. Previous study showed that the activated Notch1 receptor promoted gastric cancer progression through cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). This study addressed whether Notch2 signal pathway is also involved in gastric cancer progression. Constitutive expression of Notch2 intracellular domain (N2IC), the activated form of Notch2 receptor, promoted both cell proliferation and xenografted tumor growth of human stomach adenocarcinoma SC-M1 cells. The colony formation, migration, invasion, and wound-healing abilities of SC-M1 cells were enhanced by N2IC expression, whereas these abilities were suppressed by Notch2 knockdown. Similarly, Notch2 knockdown inhibited cancer progressions of AGS and AZ521 gastric cancer cells. Expression of N2IC also caused epithelial-mesenchymal transition in SC-M1 cells. Furthermore, N2IC bound to COX-2 promoter and induced COX-2 expression through a CBF1-dependent manner in SC-M1 cells. The ability of N2IC to enhance tumor progression in SC-M1 cells was suppressed by knockdown of COX-2 or treatment with NS-398, a COX-2 inhibitor. Moreover, the suppression of tumor progression by Notch2 knockdown in SC-M1 cells was reversed by exogenous COX-2 or its major enzymatic product PGE(2) . Taken together, this study is the first to demonstrate that the Notch2-COX-2 signaling axis plays an important role in controlling gastric cancer progression.
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Combining body mass index and serum potassium to urine potassium clearance ratio is an alternative method to predict primary aldosteronism.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Though aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) is the current routine screening method for suspicious primary aldosteronism, we hypothesized that the simple formula combining body mass index (BMI) and serum potassium to urine potassium clearance (PUKC) ratio was comparable to ARR.
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Somatic mutations of the mitochondrial genome in human breast cancers.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2011
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Somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been identified in various tumors, including breast cancer. However, their clinicopathological impact on breast cancer still remains unclear. In this study, we re-sequenced the entire mtDNA from breast cancer samples together with paired non-tumorous breast tissues from 58 Taiwanese patients. We identified 19 somatic mutations in the mtDNA coding region of 16 breast cancers. Out of these mutations, 12 of the 19 mutations (63%) are missense or frame-shift mutations that have the potential to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. In combination with our previously study on the D-loop region of mtDNA, we found that 47% (27/58) of the breast cancers harbored somatic mtDNA mutations. Among a total of 40 somatic mutations, 53% (21/40) were located in the D-loop region of the mtDNA, 5% (2/40) were in the ribosomal RNA genes, 5% (2/40) were in the tRNA genes, and 38% (15/40) occurred in mRNA genes. The occurrence of these somatic mtDNA mutations is associated with an older onset age (? 50-year old, P = 0.039), a higher TNM stage (P = 0.027), and a higher histological grade (P = 0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that an older onset age (P = 0.029) and a higher histological grade (P = 0.006) are significantly correlated with patients having somatic mutations in the mtDNA in their breast cancer sample. In conclusion, our results suggest that somatic mtDNA mutations may play a critical role in the progression of breast cancer.
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Acute rhinosinusitis-related orbital infection in pediatric patients: a retrospective analysis.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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Periorbital infection frequently originates from acute rhinosinusitis in children. We tried to find the characteristics of pediatric patients who are likely to develop subperiosteal orbital abscesses and to need emergency surgery for acute orbital swelling.
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Associations of renal vascular resistance with albuminuria in adolescents and young adults.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Renal vascular resistance [resistive index (RI)] has been associated with albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied the correlations between renal artery RI and urinary albumin excretion in adolescents and young adults.
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Relative kidney hyperfiltration in primary aldosteronism: a meta-analysis.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Since the phenomenon of hyperfiltration in primary aldosteronism (PA) was first noted in 1996, subsequent clinical studies have produced conflicting results. To determine the development of relative hyperfiltration in PA, we performed a meta-analysis.
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Identifying barriers to HIV testing: personal and contextual factors associated with late HIV testing.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Late diagnosis of HIV is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Despite the availability of HIV testing, persons continue to test late in the course of HIV infection. We used the HIV/AIDS case registry of San Francisco Department of Public Health to identify and recruit 41 persons who developed AIDS within 12 months of their HIV diagnosis to participate in a qualitative and quantitative interview regarding late diagnosis of HIV. Thirty-one of the participants were diagnosed with HIV because of symptomatic disease and 50% of the participants were diagnosed with HIV and AIDS concurrently. Half of the subjects had not been tested for HIV prior to diagnosis. Fear was the most frequently cited barrier to testing. Other barriers included being unaware of improved HIV treatment, free/low cost care, and risk for HIV. Recommendations for health care providers to increase early diagnosis of HIV include routine ascertainment of HIV risk behaviors and testing histories, stronger recommendations for patients to be tested, and incorporating testing into routine medical care. Public health messages to increase testing include publicizing that (1) effective, tolerable, and low cost/free care for HIV is readily available, (2) early diagnosis of HIV improves health outcomes, (3) HIV can be transmitted to persons who engage in unprotected oral and insertive anal sex and unprotected receptive anal intercourse without ejaculation and from HIV-infected persons whose infection is well-controlled with antiretroviral therapy, (4) persons who may be infected based upon these behaviors should be tested following exposure, (5) HIV testing information will be kept private, and (6) encouraging friends and family to get HIV tested is beneficial.
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Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A6 by chalepensin in recombinant systems, in human liver microsomes and in mice in vivo.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Chalepensin is a pharmacologically active furanocoumarin compound found in rue, a medicinal herb. Here we have investigated the inhibitory effects of chalepensin on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 in vitro and in vivo.
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The Potential Utility of Curcumin in the Treatment of HER-2-Overexpressed Breast Cancer: An In Vitro and In Vivo Comparison Study with Herceptin.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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HER-2 is an important oncoprotein overexpressed in about 15-25% of breast cancers. We hypothesized that the ability of curcumin to downregulate HER-2 oncoprotein and inhibit the signal transduction pathway of PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-?B activation may be important in the treatment of HER-2-overexpressed breast cancer. To examine the effect of curcumin on breast cancer cells, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MCF-10A, BT-474, and SK-BR-3-hr (a herceptin resistant strain from SK-BR-3) cells were used for in vitro analysis. The in vivo effect of curcumin on HER-2-overexpressed breast cancer was investigated with the HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 xenograft model. Cell growth, cell cycle change, the antimobility effect, signal transduction, and xenograft volume analysis between groups treated with herceptin and/or curcumin were tested. Curcumin decreased the cell growth of various breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MCF-10A, BT-474, and SK-BR-3-hr). In Western blot analysis, the phosphorylation of Akt, MAPK, and expression of NF-?B were reduced in BT-474 cells, but not in SK-BR-3-hr cells, after treatment with herceptin. When treated with curcumin, the HER-2 oncoprotein, phosphorylation of Akt, MAPK and expression of NF-?B were decreased in both BT-474 and SK-BR-3-hr cells. In the BT-474 xenograft model, though not as much as herceptin, curcumin did effectively decrease the tumor size. The combination of curcumin with herceptin was not better than herceptin alone; however, the combination of taxol and curcumin had an antitumor effect comparable with taxol and herceptin. The results suggested that curcumin has potential as a treatment for HER-2-overexpressed breast cancer.
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Verification and evaluation of aldosteronism demographics in the Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation Group (TAIPAI Group).
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Current data on primary aldosteronism (PA) from Asian populations are scarce. This cohort study clarifies the attributes of patients with PA in a typical Chinese population.
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Predictability of visual function and nerve fiber layer thickness by cross-sectional areas of extraocular muscles in graves ophthalmopathy.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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To evaluate the predictability of visual function and peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness by cross-sectional areas of extraocular muscles in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy.
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Investigation of a potential scintigraphic tracer for imaging apoptosis: radioiodinated annexin V-Kunitz protease inhibitor fusion protein.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Radiolabeled annexin V (ANV) has been widely used for imaging cell apoptosis. Recently, a novel ANV-Kunitz-type protease inhibitor fusion protein, ANV-6L15, was found to be a promising probe for improved apoptosis detection based on its higher affinity to phosphatidylserine (PS) compared to native ANV. The present paper investigates the feasibility of apoptosis detection using radioiodinated ANV-6L15. Native ANV and ANV-6L15 were labeled with iodine-123 and iodine-125 using Iodogen method. The binding between the radioiodinated proteins and erythrocyte ghosts or chemical-induced apoptotic cells was examined. ANV-6L15 can be radioiodinated with high yield (40%-60%) and excellent radiochemical purity (>95%). (123)I-ANV-6L15 exhibited a higher binding ratio to erythrocyte ghosts and apoptotic cells compared to (123)I-ANV. The biodistribution of (123)I-ANV-6L15 in mice was also characterized. (123)I-ANV-6L15 was rapidly cleared from the blood. High uptake in the liver and the kidneys may limit the evaluation of apoptosis in abdominal regions. Our data suggest that radiolabeled ANV-6L15 may be a better scintigraphic tracer than native ANV for apoptosis detection.
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Reversal of myocardial fibrosis in patients with unilateral hyperaldosteronism receiving adrenalectomy.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Primary aldosteronism is the most frequent cause of secondary hypertension and is associated with more prominent left ventricular hypertrophy and increased myocardial fibrosis. Unilateral hyperaldosteronism can be cured by adrenalectomy. However, the reversibility of cardiac fibrosis is still unclear.
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Competitive edge of laparoscopic appendectomy versus open appendectomy: a subgroup comparison analysis.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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With the advances in laparoscopic instruments and surgical techniques, the use of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) has been increasing rapidly in recent years. In this retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine the competitive edge of LA versus open appendectomy (OA) in different settings of disease complexity, gender, and age difference.
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Use of proteomic differential displays to assess functional discrepancies and adjustments of human bone marrow- and Wharton jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow are suitable for the reconstruction of connective tissues and even brain tissue but have limitations in terms of cell expansion and fully specific differentiation. In our current study, we have attempted to adjust and improve the cell expansion and differentiation properties of human MSCs from different tissues. MSCs from normal bone marrow and Wharton jelly were subjected to proteomic differential displays, followed by functional adjustments based on these displays. Bone marrow MSCs expressed more transgelin-2 and differentiated more rapidly into bone nodules but showed a slower growth rate. A knockdown of transgelin-2 expression by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased the growth rate of these cells, the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, and the interaction of cyclin D1 with cdk2. Wharton jelly MSCs expressed the chaperone protein HSP90? at higher levels and differentiated slowly toward an osteogenic lineage. However, the knockdown of HSP90? expression significantly increased bone nodule formation, inhibited cell growth, decreased the number of cells in the G1/S phase of the cell cycle, and decreased the interaction of cyclin D1 with cdk2 and of cyclin E with cdk2. These results were validated by the in vivo repair of segmental bone defects in a mouse model with severe combined immunodeficiency. We thus demonstrate an improvement in the cell expansion and tissue regeneration properties of human MSCs through specific adjustments.
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Development and validation of the paediatric cancer coping scale.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the paediatric cancer coping scale in children with cancer.
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Synergistic Apoptosis-Inducing Antileukemic Effects of Arsenic Trioxide and Mucuna macrocarpa Stem Extract in Human Leukemic Cells via a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Mechanism.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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The objective of this study was to examine the potential of enhancing the antileukemic activity of arsenic trioxide (ATO) by combining it with a folk remedy, crude methanolic extract of Mucuna macrocarpa (CMEMM). Human leukemia cells HL-60, Jurkat, and Molt-3 were treated with various doses of ATO, CMEMM, and combinations thereof for 24 and 48?h. Results indicated that the combination of 2.5??M ATO and 50??g/mL CMEMM synergistically inhibited cell proliferation in HL-60 and Jurkat cell lines. Apoptosis triggered by ATO/CMEMM treatment was confirmed by accumulation of cells in the sub-G(1) phase in cell cycle analyses, characteristic apoptotic nuclear fragmentation, and increased percentage of annexin V-positive apoptotic cells. Such combination treatments also led to elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), butylated hydroxytoluene, and ?-tocopherol prevented cells from ATO/CMEMM-induced apoptosis. The ATO/CMEMM-induced activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 can be blocked by NAC. In summary, these results suggest that ATO/CMEMM combination treatment exerts synergistic apoptosis-inducing effects in human leukemic cells through a ROS-dependent mechanism and may provide a promising antileukemic approach in the future.
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The association of serum potassium level with left ventricular mass in patients with primary aldosteronism.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated a worse cardiovascular outcome than essential hypertension. Hypokalemia, which is one major characteristic of PA, can affect both cardiac structure and function. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of serum potassium level on left ventricular (LV) mass and function in PA patients.
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Analysis of free energy versus temperature curves in protein folding and macromolecular interactions.
Meth. Enzymol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Plots of free energy versus temperature are commonly called stability curves or Gibbs-Helmholtz curves, and they have proven to be extremely useful in protein folding and ligand-binding studies. Curvature in a Gibbs-Helmholtz or stability plot is indicative of a heat capacity change, and some of their primary uses in biochemistry over the past few decades have included determining ?Cp values and comparing ?Cp values between two related processes. This chapter describes basic approaches for analyzing curved Gibbs-Helmholtz plots, along with two specific extensions of standard Gibbs-Helmholtz plot analysis: (1) translating ?G of folding versus temperature into ?H and ?S versus temperature for comparing mesophilic-thermophilic protein pairs, and (2) fitting Gibbs-Helmholtz plots to determine if ?Cp changes with temperature or not. Neither of these extensions is new, but they are infrequently used, and their use is particularly germane to certain molecular interpretations of thermodynamic information from ?G versus temperature curves. It is shown that translating ?G of folding into ?H and ?S of folding versus temperature for a mesophilic-thermophilic protein pair can immediately influence possible structural hypotheses for thermal stabilization of thermophilic proteins. It is also shown that very small temperature-dependent heat capacity changes (??Cp values) can be obtained from extended fits to ?G versus temperature plots, and that these very small ??Cp values can have serious consequences for any attempt to correlate ?Cp with ?ASA for some reactions.
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Biomarkers and perceived emotional stress in early-stage pregnant taiwanese women with nausea and vomiting.
Biol Res Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2010
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The purpose of this study was to compare physiological and psychological reactions among Taiwanese women with different degrees of severity of nausea and vomiting (NV) during pregnancy. Based on their scores on the Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR), 59 pregnant women ? 18 years of age, with single gestations and without diagnosed pregnancy complications or hospitalizations were divided into two groups: mild or less (scores 0-8, n = 33) and moderate or severe (scores 9-32, n = 26). A single blood sample was obtained early in pregnancy during a prenatal visit to examine the biochemical data related to NV and stress. The INVR and Perceived Stress Scale were also administered at this time. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and leptin levels were significantly different between the two groups, whereas IFN-?, IL-2, TNF-?, adiponectin, perceived stress, and cortisol showed no significant differences. The cutoff point between high and low levels of NV severity was consistent between INVR scores (psychological reactions) and hCG level (physiological reactions). Logistic regression analysis indicated that leptin levels accounted for 24.4% of the variance for NV in early pregnancy. A further multiple linear regression analysis showed that NV, first trimester pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and age explained 72.4% of the variance in leptin levels. The findings of this study add new information to the understanding of the biomarkers and perceived emotional stress in early-stage pregnant women with high and low severities of NV.
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Diabetes Empowerment Process Scale: development and psychometric testing of the Chinese version.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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This paper is a report of the development and psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the Diabetes Empowerment Process Scale.
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Monitoring of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose uptake in tumor-bearing mice using high-sensitivity projection imaging: compared with PET imaging.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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To investigate the feasibility of using high-sensitivity projection [F]fluoro-deoxyglucose imaging to monitor chemotherapeutic efficacy in BALB/c mice bearing CT-26 tumor implants.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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