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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phototherapy: Designing Multi-Branched Gold Nanoechinus for NIR Light Activated Dual Modal Photodynamic and Photothermal Therapy in the Second Biological Window (Adv. Mater. 39/2014).
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Gold nanoechinus can act as dual modal nanomaterial-mediated photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy reagents for complete destruction of solid tumors upon NIR light irradiation, as discussed by K. C. Hwang and co-workers on page 6689.
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[Improving care for transitional-stage clients in the emergency department: a family-centered approach].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The focus of emergency departments on resolving immediate threats to patient survival and wellbeing distinguishes their services from those provided by all other hospital departments. The high-pressure environment in the emergency department is a source of significant stress for patients and their families, with some experiencing serious physical and mental impacts that result in high tension, acute stress, anxiety, and other mental and physical reactions. The concepts of family-centered care and transition theory have been shown to help promote a sense of wellbeing and adjustment to unfamiliar experiences. Therefore, these concepts may be applied to help facilitate the successful transition of patients and their families to the emergency department and thus help maintain normal family functions during the transition from the emergency department to other departments.
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Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of lung adenocarcinomas with discrepant EGFR mutation testing results derived from PCR-direct sequencing and real-time PCR-based assays.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation has become the most critical molecular test in managing patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Whether patients with discrepant EGFR mutation results determined by low- and high-sensitivity methods have different clinical outcomes with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment needs to be further evaluated.
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[A new vision of nursing: the evolution and development of evidence-based nursing].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The concept and principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM), first introduced in 1996 in the UK and Canada, have greatly impacted healthcare worldwide. Evidence-based care is a new approach to healthcare that works to reduce the gap between evidence and practice in order to further the scientific credentials and practices of the nursing profession. The revolution in healthcare has perhaps most noticeably impacted the nursing sciences. Today, new methodologies are increasingly synthesizing knowledge, while expanded access to publication resources is creating a new era in evidence-based nursing. Therefore, we expect to see in Taiwan the increased sharing of innovative implementations of evidence-based nursing practice and promotion campaigns and the exploration of a new evidence-based nursing paradigm for incorporating evidence-based concepts into the policymaking process, nursing practice, and nursing education. All scientists in clinical care, education, and research are responsible to establish scientific nursing knowledge in support of the evidence-based nursing practice.
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Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause G1 phase arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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In daily life, humans are exposed to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) generated by electric appliances, and public concern is increasing regarding the biological effects of such exposure. Numerous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMF exposure. Here we show that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, inhibiting cell proliferation. To present well-founded results, we comprehensively evaluated the biological effects of ELF-EMFs at the transcriptional, protein, and cellular levels. Human HaCaT cells from an immortalized epidermal keratinocyte cell line were exposed to a 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMF for 144 h. The ELF-EMF could cause G1 arrest and decrease colony formation. Protein expression experiments revealed that ELF-EMFs induced the activation of the ATM/Chk2 signaling cascades. In addition, the p21 protein, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 and G2/M, exhibited a higher level of expression in exposed HaCaT cells compared with the expression of sham-exposed cells. The ELF-EMF-induced G1 arrest was diminished when the CHK2 gene expression (which encodes checkpoint kinase 2; Chk2) was suppressed by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). These findings indicate that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Based on the precise control of the ELF-EMF exposure and rigorous sham-exposure experiments, all transcriptional, protein, and cellular level experiments consistently supported the conclusion. This is the first study to confirm that a specific pathway is triggered by ELF-EMF exposure.
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Moderate physical activity level as a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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To investigate whether physical activity is a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women.
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Spillover of cytokines and reactive oxygen species in ventilator-induced lung injury associated with inflammation and apoptosis in distal organs.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The mechanism between ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and multiple organ injury is unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanisms of VILI-induced distal organ injury.
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Randomized Phase II Study of the X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) Antisense AEG35156 in Combination With Sorafenib in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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This multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of AEG35156 in addition to sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as compared with sorafenib alone.
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Concentration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the pelvic floor muscles: an experimental comparative rat model.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The aim of this study is to explore non-steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDs) potency for pelvic floor muscle pain by measuring local concentration in a rat model.
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Effects of pre-irradiation and SDF-1 suppression on the progression of murine astrocytoma cells grown in different stromal beds.
Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Purpose: To examine whether brain tumors grown in pre-irradiated (PreIR) thigh have a similar tumor bed effect (TBE) as in PreIR brain tissue. Material and methods: Tumor growth delay and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for CD31, an endothelial surface marker, and PIMO, a hypoxia marker, were used to study the TBE of a murine astrocytoma, ALTS1C1, or a stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) gene-silenced astrocytoma, ALTS1C1-SDFkd, growing in different PreIR stroma beds. Results: ALTS1C1 tumors growing in both PreIR brain and PreIR thigh had reduced microvascular density (MVD) and more chronic hypoxia, but tumor growth delay was only seen in PreIR brain tissue. In contrast, ALTS1C1-SDFkd tumors showed tumor growth delay in PreIR thigh, with little effect in PreIR brain tissue. Conclusions: This study cautions that both the tumor and the nature of the PreIR stromal bed are important when using pre-irradiation as a model of recurrent brain tumors after radiation therapy.
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A general strategy to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiency using lipid-nanoparticle composites.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Gene therapy provides a new hope for previously "incurable" diseases. Low gene transfection efficiency, however, is the bottle-neck to the success of gene therapy. It is very challenging to develop non-viral nanocarriers to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design of "tight binding-but-detachable" lipid-nanoparticle composite to achieve ultrahigh gene transfection efficiencies of 60?82%, approaching the best value (?90%) obtained using viral vectors. We show that Fe@CNPs nanoparticles coated with LP-2000 lipid molecules can be used as gene carriers to achieve ultra-high (60-80%) gene transfection efficiencies in HeLa, U-87MG, and TRAMP-C1 cells. In contrast, Fe@CNPs having surface-covalently bound N,N,N-trimethyl-N-2-methacryloxyethyl ammonium chloride (TMAEA) oligomers can only achieve low (23-28%) gene transfection efficiencies. Similarly ultrahigh gene transfection/expression was also observed in zebrafish model using lipid-coated Fe@CNPs as gene carriers. Evidences for tight binding and detachability of DNA from lipid-nanoparticle nanocarriers will be presented.
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Complementary Usage of Rhodiola crenulata (L.) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: The Effects on Cytokines and T Cells.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease predominantly involving T cells, no study of Rhodiola as an immunomodulator in COPD patients has been reported. In this study, COPD patients took Rhodiola crenulata 500?mg (n?=?38) or placebo (starch/phosphate buffered saline) (n?=?19) daily for 12?weeks and were compared with untreated, age-matched, and sex-matched non-COPD control subjects. Our results showed that serum levels of IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-? in COPD patients before treatment are significantly higher than levels in non-COPD controls (p??0.05). The results suggested that Rhodiola treatment had beneficial antiinflammation effects, lower COPD assessment test score and decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, on COPD patients (p?
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Flexible polyimide films hybrid with functionalized boron nitride and graphene oxide simultaneously to improve thermal conduction and dimensional stability.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Coupling agent-functionalized boron nitride (f-BN) and glycidyl methacrylate-grafted graphene (g-TrG) are simultaneously blended with polyimide (PI) to fabricate a flexible, electrically insulating and thermally conductive PI composite film. The silk-like g-TrG successfully fills in the gap between PI and f-BN to complete the thermal conduction network. In addition, the strong interaction between surface functional groups on f-BN and g-TrG contributes to the effective phonon transfer in the PI matrix. The thermal conductivity (TC) of the PI/f-BN composite films containing additional 1 wt % of g-TrG is at least doubled to the value of PI/f-BN and as high as 16 times to that of the pure PI. The hybrid film PI/f-BN-50/g-TrG-1 exhibits excellent flexibility, sufficient insulating property, the highest TC of 2.11 W/mK, and ultralow coefficient of thermal expansion of 11 ppm/K, which are perfect conditions for future flexible substrate materials requiring efficient heat dissipation.
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Real-space imaging of molecular structure and chemical bonding by single-molecule inelastic tunneling probe.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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The arrangement of atoms and bonds in a molecule influences its physical and chemical properties. The scanning tunneling microscope can provide electronic and vibrational signatures of single molecules. However, these signatures do not relate simply to the molecular structure and bonding. We constructed an inelastic tunneling probe based on the scanning tunneling microscope to sense the local potential energy landscape of an adsorbed molecule with a carbon monoxide (CO)-terminated tip. The skeletal structure and bonding of the molecule are revealed from imaging the spatial variations of a CO vibration as the CO-terminated tip probes the core of the interactions between adjacent atoms. An application of the inelastic tunneling probe reveals the sharing of hydrogen atoms among multiple centers in intramolecular and extramolecular bonding.
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Development of online diary and self-management system on e-Healthcare for asthmatic children in Taiwan.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Many regional programs of the countries educate asthmatic children and their families to manage healthcare data. This study aims to establish a Web-based self-management system, eAsthmaCare, to promote the electronic healthcare (e-Healthcare) services for the asthmatic children in Taiwan. The platform can perform real time online functionality based upon a five-tier infrastructure with mutually supportive components to acquire asthma diaries, quality of life assessments and health educations.
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Should EGFR mutations be tested in advanced lung squamous cell carcinomas to guide frontline treatment?
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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There is no argument over using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status to guide the frontline treatment for advanced lung adenocarcinoma (LADC); however, the role of the testing in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSQC) remains controversial. Currently, the guidelines/consensus statements regarding EGFR mutation testing in LSQC are not consistent among different oncology societies. American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends performing EGFR mutation testing in all patients; European Society for Medical Oncology, College of American Pathologists/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/Association for Molecular Pathology, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network suggest for some selected group. EGFR mutation is rarely found in LSQC; however, more importantly, it is not a valid predictive biomarker for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) in LSQC as it has been shown in LADC. Available data showed that the response rate and progression-free survival in EGFR mutant LSQC patients treated with EGFR-TKI are not better than that observed in patients treated with platinum-doublet chemotherapy in the first-line setting. Therefore, in contrast to advanced LADC, EGFR mutation testing may not be necessarily performed upfront in advanced LSQC because not only the mutation rate is low, but also the predictive value is insufficient. For LSQC patients with known sensitizing-EGFR mutations, both conventional chemotherapy and EGFR-TKI are acceptable frontline treatment options.
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Extracellular matrix-regulated neural differentiation of human multipotent marrow progenitor cells enhances functional recovery after spinal cord injury.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Recent advanced studies have demonstrated that cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) could trigger various types of neural differentiation. However, the efficacy of differentiation and in vivo transplantation has not yet thoroughly been investigated.
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Selective apoptotic cell death effects of oral cancer cells treated with destruxin B.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Recent studies have revealed that destruxins (Dtx) have potent cytotoxic activities on individual cancer cells, however, data on oral cancer cells especial human are absent.
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Geospatial disparities and the underlying causes of major cancers for women in Taiwan.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Some specific types of cancer still pose a severe threat to the health of Taiwanese women. This study focuses on determining the geographical locations of hot spots and causal factors related to the major categories of cancers in Taiwanese women. Cancer mortality data from 1972 to 2001 of 346 townships in Taiwan were obtained from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality. Principal component analysis was conducted to determine the primary categories of female cancers. The spatial patterns of hot spots and cold spots for each major cancer category were identified using the local indicator of spatial association. Finally, the regional differences between the hot spots and cold spots were compared to confirm the possible factors causing cancer throughout Taiwan. A total of 21 cancer types in women were divided into seven major categories, which accounted for 68.0% of the total variance. The results from the spatial autocorrelation analysis showed significant spatial clusters of the cancer categories. Based on the overall consistency of results between this study and those of previous research, this study further identified the high-risk locations and some specific risk factors for major cancer types among Taiwanese women.
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Inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B, SN50, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in an isolated and perfused rat lung model.
Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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NF-?B cell permeable inhibitory peptide (SN50) inhibits translocation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and production of inflammatory cytokines that are implicated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury (LPSLI). However, the protective effect of SN50 in LPSLI is unclear. We explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms of SN50 treatment in LPSLI. LPSLI was induced by intratracheal instillation of 10 mg/kg LPS using an isolated and perfused rat lung model. SN50 was administered in the perfusate 15 minutes before LPS was administered. Hemodynamics, lung histologic change, inflammatory responses, and activation of apoptotic pathways were evaluated. After LPSLI, increased pulmonary vascular permeability and lung weight gain was observed. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, myeloperoxidase, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Lung-tissue expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), caspase-3, p-AKT (serine-threonine kinase, also known as protein kinase B), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was greater in the LPS group compared with controls. Upregulation and activation of NF-?B was associated with increased lung injury in LPSLI. SN50 attenuated the inflammatory responses, including expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, myeloperoxidase, MAPKs, PAI-1, and NF-?B; downregulation of apoptosis indicated by caspase-3 and p-AKT expression was also observed. In addition, SN50 mitigated the increase in the lung weight, pulmonary vascular permeability, and lung injury. In conclusion, LPSLI is associated with inflammatory responses, apoptosis, and coagulation. NF-?B is an important therapeutic target in the treatment of LPSLI. SN50 inhibits translocation of NF-?B and attenuates LPSLI.
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Poor sleep quality measured by polysomnography in non-obese asthmatic children with or without moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The co-effect of asthma and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on sleep quality among children remained unclear.
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Comparing the selection and placement of best management practices in improving water quality using a multiobjective optimization and targeting method.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Suites of Best Management Practices (BMPs) are usually selected to be economically and environmentally efficient in reducing nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in a watershed. The objective of this research was to compare the selection and placement of BMPs in a pasture-dominated watershed using multiobjective optimization and targeting methods. Two objective functions were used in the optimization process, which minimize pollutant losses and the BMP placement areas. The optimization tool was an integration of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool-SWAT). For the targeting method, an optimum BMP option was implemented in critical areas in the watershed that contribute the greatest pollutant losses. A total of 171 BMP combinations, which consist of grazing management, vegetated filter strips (VFS), and poultry litter applications were considered. The results showed that the optimization is less effective when vegetated filter strips (VFS) are not considered, and it requires much longer computation times than the targeting method to search for optimum BMPs. Although the targeting method is effective in selecting and placing an optimum BMP, larger areas are needed for BMP implementation to achieve the same pollutant reductions as the optimization method.
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Gold nanoshells-mediated bimodal photodynamic and photothermal cancer treatment using ultra-low doses of near infra-red light.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Previously, gold nanoshells were shown to be able to effectively convert photon energy to heat, leading to hyperthermia and suppression of tumor growths in mice. Herein, we show that in addition to the nanomaterial-mediated photothermal effects (NmPTT), gold nanoshells (including, nanocages, nanorod-in-shell and nanoparticle-in-shell) not only are able to absorb NIR light, but can also emit fluorescence, sensitize formation of singlet oxygen and exert nanomaterial-mediated photodynamic therapeutic (NmPDT) complete destruction of solid tumors in mice. The modes of NmPDT and NmPTT can be controlled and switched from one to the other by changing the excitation wavelength. In the in vitro experiments, gold nanocages and nanorod-in-shell show larger percentage of cellular deaths originating from NmPDT along with the minor fraction of NmPTT effects. In contrast, nanoparticle-in-shell exhibits larger fraction of NmPTT-induced cellular deaths together with minor fraction of NmPDT-induced apoptosis. Fluorescence emission spectra and DPBF quenching studies confirm the generation of singlet O2 upon NIR photoirradiation. Both NmPDT and NmPTT effects were confirmed by measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent sodium azide quenching, heat shock protein expression (HSP 70), singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG) sensing, changes in mitochondria membrane potential and apoptosis in the cellular experiments. In vivo experiments further demonstrate that upon irradiation at 980 nm under ultra-low doses (?150 mW/cm(2)), gold nanocages mostly exert NmPDT effect to effectively suppress the B16F0 melanoma tumor growth. The combination of NmPDT and NmPTT effects on destruction of solid tumors is far better than pure NmPTT effect by 808 nm irradiation and also doxorubicin. Overall, our study demonstrates that gold nanoshells can serve as excellent multi-functional theranostic agents (fluorescence imaging + NmPDT + NmPTT) upon single photon NIR light excitation under ultra-low laser doses.
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Endomyocardial biopsies in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and a common Chinese later-onset Fabry mutation (IVS4?+?919G?>?A).
Orphanet J Rare Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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In Taiwan, DNA-based newborn screening showed a surprisingly high incidence of a cardiac Fabry mutation (IVS4?+?919G?>?A). The prevalence of this mutation is too high to be believed that it is a real pathogenic mutation. The purpose of this study is to identify the cardiac pathologic characteristics in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and this mutation
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Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management.
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Designing Multi-Branched Gold Nanoechinus for NIR Light Activated Dual Modal Photodynamic and Photothermal Therapy in the Second Biological Window.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Gold nanoechinus can sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen in the first and the second near-infra red (NIR) biological windows and exert in vivo dual modal photodynamic and photothermal therapeutic effects (PDT and PTT) to destruct the tumors completely. This is the first literature example of the destruction of tumors in NIR window II induced by dual modal nanomaterial-mediated photodynamic and photothermal therapy (NmPDT & NmPTT).
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Assessing and mapping spatial associations among oral cancer mortality rates, concentrations of heavy metals in soil, and land use types based on multiple scale data.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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In this study, a deconvolution procedure was used to create a variogram of oral cancer (OC) rates. Based on the variogram, area-to-point (ATP) Poisson kriging and p-field simulation were used to downscale and simulate, respectively, the OC rate data for Taiwan from the district scale to a 1 km × 1 km grid scale. Local cluster analysis (LCA) of OC mortality rates was then performed to identify OC mortality rate hot spots based on the downscaled and the p-field-simulated OC mortality maps. The relationship between OC mortality and land use was studied by overlapping the maps of the downscaled OC mortality, the LCA results, and the land uses. One thousand simulations were performed to quantify local and spatial uncertainties in the LCA to identify OC mortality hot spots. The scatter plots and Spearman's rank correlation yielded the relationship between OC mortality and concentrations of the seven metals in the 1 km cell grid. The correlation analysis results for the 1 km scale revealed a weak correlation between OC mortality rate and concentrations of the seven studied heavy metals in soil. Accordingly, the heavy metal concentrations in soil are not major determinants of OC mortality rates at the 1 km scale at which soils were sampled. The LCA statistical results for local indicator of spatial association (LISA) revealed that the sites with high probability of high-high (high value surrounded by high values) OC mortality at the 1 km grid scale were clustered in southern, eastern, and mid-western Taiwan. The number of such sites was also significantly higher on agricultural land and in urban regions than on land with other uses. The proposed approach can be used to downscale and evaluate uncertainty in mortality data from a coarse scale to a fine scale at which useful additional information can be obtained for assessing and managing land use and risk.
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Calcification of the aortic arch predicts cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.
Cardiorenal Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Cardiovascular calcification represents a marker of cardiovascular risk in chronic dialysis patients. In the general population, aortic arch calcification (AAC) can predict cardiovascular mortality. We conducted a prospective study to investigate factors associated with AAC in hemodialysis patients and examined its prognostic value in long-term outcome.
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Detecting multiple lysosomal storage diseases by tandem mass spectrometry--a national newborn screening program in Taiwan.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Interest in lysosomal storage diseases in newborn screening programs has increased in recent years. Two techniques, fluorescence (4-MU) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods are frequently used. We report a pilot study of large scale newborn screening for Fabry, Pompe, Gaucher, and MPS I diseases by using the MS/MS method in Taiwan and compared the performance of the MS/MS with 4-MU methods.
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Polymersomes conjugated with des-octanoyl ghrelin and folate as a BBB-penetrating cancer cell-targeting delivery system.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Chemotherapy for brain cancer tumors remains a big challenge for clinical medicine due to the inability to transport sufficient drug across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the poor penetration of drug into the tumors. To effectively treat brain tumors and reduce side effects on normal tissues, both des-octanoyl ghrelin and folate conjugated with polymersomal doxorubicin (GFP-D) was developed in this study to help transport across the BBB and target the tumor as well. The size measurements revealed that this BBB-penetrating cancer cell-targeting GFP-D was about 85 nm. In-vitro experiments with a BBB model and C6 glioma cells demonstrated that GFP-D owned a robust penetrating-targeting function for drug delivery. In C6 cell viability tests, GFP-D exhibited an inhibitory effect significantly different from the unmodified polymersomal doxorubicin (P-D). In-vivo antitumor experiments showed that GFP-D performed a much better anti-glioma effect and presented a significant improvement in the overall survival of the tumor-bearing mice as compared to the treatments with free doxorubicin (Dox), liposomal doxorubicin (L-D), P-D, or single ligand conjugated P-D. In addition, Cy 5.5 was used as a probe to investigate the delivery property of this penetrating-targeting delivery system. The overall experimental results indicate that this BBB-penetrating cancer cell-targeting GFP is a highly potential nanocarrier for the treatment of brain tumors.
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Clinical observations on enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry disease and the switch from agalsidase beta to agalsidase alfa.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Fabry disease is an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disease that can be treated with the enzymes of agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme) and agalsidase alfa (Replagal). Since June 2009, viral contamination of Genzyme's production facility has resulted in a worldwide shortage of agalsidase beta, leading to the switch to agalsidase alfa for patients with Fabry disease in Taiwan.
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Short-time focused ultrasound hyperthermia enhances liposomal doxorubicin delivery and antitumor efficacy for brain metastasis of breast cancer.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The blood-brain/tumor barrier inhibits the uptake and accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. Hyperthermia can enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agent into tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-time focused ultrasound (FUS) hyperthermia on the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for brain metastasis of breast cancer. Murine breast cancer 4T1-luc2 cells expressing firefly luciferase were injected into female BALB/c mice striatum tissues and used as a brain metastasis model. The mice were intravenously injected with PLD (5 mg/kg) with/without 10-minute transcranial FUS hyperthermia on day 6 after tumor implantation. The amounts of doxorubicin accumulated in the normal brain tissues and tumor tissues with/without FUS hyperthermia were measured using fluorometry. The tumor growth for the control, hyperthermia, PLD, and PLD + hyperthermia groups was measured using an IVIS spectrum system every other day from day 3 to day 11. Cell apoptosis and tumor characteristics were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Short-time FUS hyperthermia was able to significantly enhance the PLD delivery into brain tumors. The tumor growth was effectively inhibited by a single treatment of PLD + hyperthermia compared with both PLD alone and short-time FUS hyperthermia alone. Immunohistochemical examination further demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of PLD plus short-time FUS hyperthermia for brain metastasis of breast cancer. The application of short-time FUS hyperthermia after nanodrug injection may be an effective approach to enhance nanodrug delivery and improve the treatment of metastatic cancers.
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??mTc pyrene derivative complex causes double-strand breaks in dsDNA mainly through cluster-mediated indirect effect in aqueous solution.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Radiation therapy for cancer patients works by ionizing damage to nuclear DNA, primarily by creating double-strand breaks (DSB). A major shortcoming of traditional radiation therapy is the set of side effect associated with its long-range interaction with nearby tissues. Low-energy Auger electrons have the advantage of an extremely short effective range, minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Consequently, the isotope ??mTc, an Auger electron source, is currently being studied for its beneficial potential in cancer treatment. We examined the dose effect of a pyrene derivative ??mTc complex on plasmid DNA by using gel electrophoresis in both aqueous and methanol solutions. In aqueous solutions, the average yield per decay for double-strand breaks is 0.011±0.005 at low dose range, decreasing to 0.0005±0.0003 in the presence of 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The apparent yield per decay for single-strand breaks (SSB) is 0.04±0.02, decreasing to approximately a fifth with 1 M DMSO. In methanol, the average yield per decay of DSB is 0.54±0.06 and drops to undetectable levels in 2 M DMSO. The SSB yield per decay is 7.2±0.2, changing to 0.4±0.2 in the presence of 2 M DMSO. The 95% decrease in the yield of DSB in DMSO indicates that the main mechanism for DSB formation is through indirect effect, possibly by cooperative binding or clustering of intercalators. In the presence of non-radioactive ligands at a near saturation concentration, where radioactive Tc compounds do not form large clusters, the yield of SSB stays the same while the yield of DSB decreases to the value in DMSO. DSBs generated by ??mTc conjugated to intercalators are primarily caused by indirect effects through clustering.
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MiRNA-221 negatively regulated downstream p27Kip1 gene expression involvement in pterygium pathogenesis.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MiRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been implicated in tumor development. They regulate target gene expression either by mRNA degradation or by translation repression. Activation of ?-catenin has been linked to pterygium progression. Here, we hypothesize that ?-catenin-associated miRNA, miRNA-221, and downstream p27Kip1 gene expression are correlated with the pathogenesis of pterygium.
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Inhibition of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 sialylation suppresses CCL19-stimulated proliferation, invasion and anti-anoikis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7) is involved in lymph-node homing of naive and regulatory T cells and lymphatic metastasis of cancer cells. Sialic acids comprise a group of monosaccharide units that are added to the terminal position of the oligosaccharide chain of glycoproteins by sialyation. Recent studies suggest that aberrant sialylation of receptor proteins contributes to proliferation, motility, and drug resistance of cancer cells. In this study, we addressed whether CCR7 is a sialylated receptor protein and tried to elucidate the effect of sialylation in the regulation of signal transduction and biological function of CCR7. Our results demonstrated that ?-2, 3-sialyltransferase which catalyze sialylation reaction in vivo was overexpressed in breast tumor tissues and cell lines. Lectin blot analysis clearly demonstrated that CCR7 receptor was sialyated in breast cancer cells. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19), the cognate ligand for CCR7, induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT signaling and increased the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and proliferation of breast cancer cells. When cells were pre-treated with a sialyltransferase inhibitor AL10 or sialidase, CCL19-induced cell growth was significantly suppressed. CCL19 also increased invasion and prevented anoikis by up-regulating pro-survival proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Inhibition of sialylation by AL10 totally abolished these effects. Finally, we showed that AL10 inhibited tumorigenicity of breast cancer in experimental animals. Taken together, we demonstrate for the first time that CCR7 receptor is a sialylated protein and sialylation is important for the paracrine stimulation by its endogenous ligand CCL19. In addition, inhibition of aberrant sialylation of CCR7 suppresses proliferation and invasion and triggers anoikis in breast cancer cells. Targeting of sialylation enzymes may be a novel strategy for breast cancer treatment.
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[The family transition experience: family-centered hospitalization care of bipolar disorder patients].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Differences in cognition and attitudes between bipolar disorder patients and their families frequently result in differences between the two in terms of opinions and perceptions on appropriate medical treatments and prognoses. Transforming patient-centered-care psychotherapy into an intervention that provides family-focused nursing, promotes interaction among family members, and changes communication styles may assist families to adapt and focus on pursuing the soundest medical treatment.
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Systematic Approach to Determination of Maximum Achievable Capture Capacity via Leaching and Carbonation Processes for Alkaline Steelmaking Wastes in a Rotating Packed Bed.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was performed in a rotating packed bed (RPB) as a promising process for both CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment. The maximum achievable capture capacity (MACC) via leaching and carbonation processes for BOFS in an RPB was systematically determined throughout this study. The leaching behavior of various metal ions from the BOFS into the CRW was investigated by a kinetic model. In addition, quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) using the Rietveld method was carried out to determine the process chemistry of carbonation of BOFS with CRW in an RPB. According to the QXRD results, the major mineral phases reacting with CO2 in BOFS were Ca(OH)2, Ca2(HSiO4)(OH), CaSiO3, and Ca2Fe1.04Al0.986O5. Meanwhile, the carbonation product was identified as calcite according to the observations of SEM, XEDS, and mappings. Furthermore, the MACC of the lab-scale RPB process was determined by balancing the carbonation conversion and energy consumption. In that case, the overall energy consumption, including grinding, pumping, stirring, and rotating processes, was estimated to be 707 kWh/t-CO2. It was thus concluded that CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of BOFS could be effectively and efficiently performed by coutilizing with CRW in an RPB.
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Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphism and protein expression in the pathogenesis of pterygium.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression has been linked to cancer progression. Here we hypothesise that the polymorphism and protein expression of VEGF are correlated with the pathogenesis and therapy response of pterygium.
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[The new era of evidence-based nursing: comprehensive mobilization and development of the nursing sciences].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Science is subject to inevitable evolutionary change. Philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn defined a scientific revolution as a period in time during which a particular field of scientific knowledge is set to transition to a new paradigm that will propel it toward a new milestone. Because person-centered care embraces the universal values of trans-disciplinary healthcare teams, evidence-based healthcare represents a paradigm shift toward evidence-based nursing. The rapid development of evidence-based practice is an evolutionary process of revolutionary importance to science. The resulting era of evidence-based nursing will help fully realize the development potential of the nursing sciences. This article introduces the process of knowledge construction in evidence-based nursing, reviews the literature to identify the general model used to promote evidence-based nursing internationally, and proposes practical strategies to promote evidence-based nursing in Taiwan. We hope this article will help further promote the clinical application of evidence-based nursing and the development of nursing science.
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Modeling of cancer metastasis and drug resistance via biomimetic nano-cilia and microfluidics.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture platforms that are capable of mimicking in vivo microenvironments to replicate physiological conditions are vital tools in a wide range of cellular and clinical studies. Here, learning from the nature of cilia in lungs - clearing mucus and pathogens from the airway - we develop a 3D culture approach via flexible and kinetic copolymer-based chains (nano-cilia) for diminishing cell-to-substrate adhesion. Multicellular spheroids or colonies were tested for 3-7 days in a microenvironment consisting of generated cells with properties of putative cancer stem cells (CSCs). The dynamic and reversible regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was examined in spheroids passaged and cultured in copolymer-coated dishes. The expression of CSC markers, including CD44, CD133, and ABCG2, and hypoxia signature, HIF-1?, was significantly upregulated compared to that without the nano-cilia. In addition, these spheroids exhibited chemotherapeutic resistance in vitro and acquired enhanced metastatic propensity, as verified from microfluidic chemotaxis assay designed to replicate in vivo-like metastasis. The biomimetic nano-cilia approach and microfluidic device may offer new opportunities to establish a rapid and cost-effective platform for the study of anti-cancer therapeutics and CSCs.
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Bacteria-Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular bacterial lipases are particularly abundant at sites of infection. Herein it is shown how active or proactive compounds attached to polymeric surfaces using lipase-sensitive linkages, such as fatty acid esters or anhydrides, may be released in response to infection. Proof-of-concept of the responsive material is demonstrated by the bacteria-triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self-regulating system provides the basis for the development of device-relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics in dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device.
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Enhancement of 4-Acetylantroquinonol B Production by Supplementation of Its Precursor during Submerged Fermentation of Antrodia cinnamomea.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The antiproliferation activity of the ethanol extract of A. cinnamomea mycelium on hepatocellular cancer cells HepG2 was found to be associated with aroma intensity of the broth during fermentation. We hypothesized that some of the volatile compounds are the precursors of the key bioactive component 4-acetylantroquinonol B of this fungus. The major volatile compounds of A. cinnamomea were identified by GC/MS, and they are oct-1-en-3-ol, linalool, methyl phenylacetate, nerolidol, ?-cadinene and 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde (TMBA). TMBA and nerolidol were further selected and used as supplements during fermentation. It was found that both of them could increase the production of 4-acetylantroquinonol B and enhance the antiproliferation activity of the fungus. In addition, the TMBA was identified as the most promising supplement for increasing the bioactivity of A. cinnamomea during cultivation.
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Polymersomes conjugated with des-octanoyl ghrelin for the delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents into brain tissues.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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The effective protection of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from tight junctions and efflux transport systems ultimately results in the limited entry of 95% of drug/gene candidates, which are potentially beneficial for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In order to enhance the brain-specific delivery, in this study we developed a targeting carrier system, which consists of poly(carboxyl ethylene glycol-g-glutamate)-co-poly(distearin-g-glutamate) (CPEGGM-PDSGM) polymersomes with the conjugation of des-octanoyl ghrelin. Des-octanoyl ghrelin across the BBB was reported to be unidirectional (blood-to-brain direction). However, there is no report about the conjugation of des-octanoyl ghrelin to a drug carrier system to confer the BBB targeting property through des-octanoyl ghrelin binding sites mediated endocytosis. To qualitatively and quantitatively investigate this carriers properties, coumarin 6, Cy5.5 and met-enkephalin were individually encapsulated in these polymersomes. The experimental results showed that the cellular uptake was significantly higher for des-octanoyl ghrelin-conjugated polymersomes (GPs) than unconjugated polymersomes when co-incubated with the BBB cells. In addition, an enhanced accumulation in brain together with a reduced accumulation in liver and spleen was observed in animal study, indicating better brain selectivity for the GPs. In a hot-plate test, a significant inhibition of nociceptive response could be achieved for an intravenous injection of GPs encapsulated with met-enkephalin. The overall results demonstrated that GPs own a great potential for targeting delivery of drug across the BBB to treat CNS diseases.
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Photosensitization of singlet oxygen and in vivo photodynamic therapeutic effects mediated by PEGylated W(18)O(49) nanowires.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Upon excitation with near-infrared light (980?nm), PEGylated W18 O49 nanowires can sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen and thus reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resulting photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect can cause the destruction of tumors in the absence of organic photosensitizers. PEG=poly(ethylene glycol), PTT=photothermal therapy.
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First Demonstration of Gold Nanorods-Mediated Photodynamic Therapeutic Destruction of Tumors via Near Infra-Red Light Activation.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Previously, a large volume of papers reports that gold nanorods (Au NRs) are able to effectively kill cancer cells upon high laser doses (usually 808 nm, 1-48 W/cm(2) ) irradiation, leading to hyperthermia-induced destruction of cancer cells, i.e, photothermal therapy (PTT) effects. Combination of Au NRs-mediated PTT and organic photosensitizers-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) were also reported to achieve synergistic PTT and PDT effects on killing cancer cells. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that Au NRs alone can sensitize formation of singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ) and exert dramatic PDT effects on complete destrcution of tumors in mice under very low LED/laser doses of single photon NIR (915 nm, <130 mW/cm(2) ) light excitation. By changing the NIR light excitation wavelengths, Au NRs-mediated phototherapeutic effects can be switched from PDT to PTT or combination of both. Both PDT and PTT effects were confirmed by measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heat shock protein (HSP 70), singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG) sensing, and sodium azide quenching in cellular experiments. In vivo mice experiments further show that the PDT effect via irradiation of Au NRs by 915 nm can destruct the B16F0 melanoma tumor in mice far more effectively than doxorubicin (a clinically used anti-cancer drug) as well as the PTT effect (via irradiation of Au NRs by 780 nm light). In addition, we show that Au NRs can emit single photon-induced fluorescence to illustrate their in vivo locations/distribution.
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[Spontaneous fracture: a potential clinical concern].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Spontaneous fracture is an issue of increasing concern in clinical care. However, this topic has received only limited attention in nursing research. Gaps in understanding related to spontaneous fractures may increase medical-legal risks faced by frontline care nurses, exacerbate nursing pressures, and serve as a disincentive to remain in the already understaffed nursing profession. This article reviews previous research on spontaneous fractures to determine the epidemiological causes of clinical spontaneous fracture and identify effective prevention strategies. We hope this paper may increase clinical practitioner and expert awareness of spontaneous fractures; help establish a screening mechanism to identify high risk spontaneous fracture patients; and help nurses develop and implement proactive prevention / treatment strategies to strengthen awareness of this topic among patients and their families.
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Plasma globotriaosylsphingosine (lysoGb3) could be a biomarker for Fabry disease with a Chinese hotspot late-onset mutation (IVS4+919G>A).
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Previous studies revealed a high incidence of late-onset Fabry disease mutation, IVS4+919G>A, in Taiwan. However, the natural course is largely unclear and suitable biomarkers for monitoring disease progress are unavailable.
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Enhancing the commitment of nurses to the organisation by means of trust and monetary reward.
J Nurs Manag
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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This study examines how trust and monetary reward influence nurses job satisfaction and strengthen organisational commitment.
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Transforming Growth Factor-?1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? are Associated with Clinical Severity and Airflow Limitation of COPD in an Additive Manner.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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The role of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships among polymorphisms, clinical phenotypes, and the serum levels of TNF-? and TGF-?1.
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Thermally conductive and electrically insulating epoxy nanocomposites with thermally reduced graphene oxide-silica hybrid nanosheets.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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We herein report on the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, which had enhanced thermal conductivities but were still electrical insulators, incorporating hybrid nanosheets (NSs) with sandwich structures composed of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) and silica. The silica layer covered the surface of the TRGO, hindering electrical conduction and effectively forming a 3D phonon transport channel that had a unique effect on the electrical and thermal properties of the epoxy matrix. A 1 wt% TRGO-silica NS epoxy nanocomposite maintained an electrical resistivity of 2.96 × 10(11)? cm, and its thermal conductivity was 0.322 W m(-1) K(-1), which is 61% higher than the conductivity of an epoxy nanocomposite without TRGO-silica NSs (0.2 W m(-1) K(-1)).
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Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa foreign-body biofilm infections through reduction of the cyclic Di-GMP level in the bacteria.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria can engage in biofilm-based infections that evade immune responses and develop into chronic conditions. Because conventional antimicrobials cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. It has recently been established that the secondary messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) functions as a positive regulator of biofilm formation in several different bacteria. In the present study we investigated whether manipulation of the c-di-GMP level in bacteria potentially can be used for biofilm control in vivo. We constructed a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in which a reduction in the c-di-GMP level can be achieved via induction of the Escherichia coli YhjH c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. Initial experiments showed that induction of yhjH expression led to dispersal of the majority of the bacteria in in vitro-grown P. aeruginosa biofilms. Subsequently, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa biofilms growing on silicone implants, located in the peritoneal cavity of mice, dispersed after induction of the YhjH protein. Bacteria accumulated temporarily in the spleen after induction of biofilm dispersal, but the mice tolerated the dispersed bacteria well. The present work provides proof of the concept that modulation of the c-di-GMP level in bacteria is a viable strategy for biofilm control.
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SOX9 directly regulates IGFBP-4 in the intestinal epithelium.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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SOX9 regulates cell lineage specification by directly regulating target genes in a discrete number of tissues, and previous reports have shown cell proliferative and suppressive roles for SOX9. Although SOX9 is expressed in colorectal cancer, only a few direct targets have been identified in intestinal epithelial cells. We previously demonstrated increased proliferation in Sox9-deficient crypts through loss-of-function studies, indicating that SOX9 suppresses cell proliferation. In this study, crypt epithelial cells isolated from Sox9-deficient mice were used to identify potential target genes of SOX9. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4), an inhibitor of the IGF/IGF receptor pathway, was significantly downregulated in Sox9-deficient intestinal epithelial cells and adenoma cells of Sox9-deficient ApcMin/+ mice. Immunolocalization experiments revealed that IGFBP-4 colocalized with SOX9 in mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells and in specimens from patients with primary colorectal cancer. Reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated direct binding of SOX9 to the IGFBP-4 promoter. Overexpression of SOX9 attenuated cell proliferation, which was restored following treatment with a neutralizing antibody against IGFBP-4. These results suggest that SOX9 regulates cell proliferation, at least in part via IGFBP-4. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effect of SOX9 was confirmed in vivo using Sox9-deficient mice, which showed increased tumor burden when bred with ApcMin/+ mice. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that SOX9 is a transcriptional regulator of IGFBP-4 and that SOX9-induced activation of IGFBP-4 may be one of the mechanisms by which SOX9 suppresses cell proliferation and progression of colon cancer.
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Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contaminations in seawater and sediments from a heavily industrialized harbor in Southern Taiwan.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Heavy metal pollution, including chromium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, copper, lead, and aluminum, in the largest industrial harbor in southern Taiwan was investigated. Increasing metal contamination was observed by monitoring heavy metal concentrations in seawater and sediments and estimating the enrichment factors, particularly those inside the harbor. Compared to other metal-polluted harbors worldwide, the presence of chromium in the sediments was relatively high. Excluding the background contribution, the harbor area was polluted by outflows from river mouths, wastewater discharging pipes, and point sources near industrial activities within the harbor. It is shown by principal component and cluster analyses that metal contamination was affected by a wide range of different and complex contamination mechanisms inside and outside the harbor, suggesting managing the pollution using straightforward strategies, i.e., solutions that only consider a single source or single pathway of metal emissions, is problematic.
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Effects of guideline-oriented pharmacotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed COPD: a prospective study.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Whether guideline-oriented pharmacotherapy prevents the decline in pulmonary function or reduces systemic inflammation associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is uncertain.
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A large-scale nationwide newborn screening program for pompe disease in Taiwan: Towards effective diagnosis and treatment.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The aim of this study was to: (a) analyze the results of a large-scale newborn screening program for Pompe disease, and (b) establish an effective diagnostic protocol to obtain immediate, valid diagnosis of infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) to promote earlier treatment and better outcomes. In this study, 402,281 newborns were screened for Pompe disease from January 1, 2008 to May 1, 2012. Infants with low acid ?-glucosidase (GAA) activity were referred to Taipei Veterans General Hospital for diagnostic confirmation. Physical examination, biochemical parameter (creatine kinase [CK], alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), and echocardiogram assessments were performed immediately to effectively differentiate IOPD from suspected late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) or false-positive cases with pseudodeficiency mutation. Six infants with IOPD all presented with hypotonia, extremely low GAA enzyme activity (?0.5?µmol/L/hr) in initial dried blood spot analysis, high CK (?250?U/L), and high left ventricular mass index (LVMI, ?80?g/m(2) ). By analyzing these parameters, IOPD was distinguished effectively and immediately from suspected LOPD and false-positive cases. Except for the first referred case, five of the infants with IOPD received first-time enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) within 4?hr of admission and exhibited marked improvement. Our findings indicate that certain clinical manifestations (hypotonia, high CK, enlarged LVMI, and extremely low GAA enzyme activity in initial dried blood spot analysis) can help in the rapid and effective differentiation of patients with IOPD from other patient with low GAA activity. Such differentiation allows for the early application of first-time ERT and leads to better outcomes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Ex Situ CO2 capture by carbonation of steelmaking slag coupled with metalworking wastewater in a rotating packed bed.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Both basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag and cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) exhibiting highly alkaline characteristics require stabilization and neutralization prior to utilization and/or final disposal. Using CO2 from flue gases as the stabilizing and neutralizing agents could also diminish CO2 emissions. In this investigation, ex situ hot stove gas containing 30 vol% CO2 in the steelmaking process was captured by accelerated carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in a rotating packed bed (RPB). The developed RPB process exhibits superior results, with significant CO2 removal efficiency (?) of 96-99% in flue gas achieved within a short reaction time of 1 min at 25 °C and 1 atm. Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as the main product according to XRD and SEM-XEDS observations. In addition, the elimination of lime and Ca(OH)2 in the BOF slag during carbonation is beneficial to its further use as construction material. Consequently, the developed RPB process could capture the CO2 from the flue gas, neutralize the CRW, and demonstrate the utilization potential for BOF slag. It was also concluded that carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in an RPB is a viable method for CO2 capture due to its higher mass transfer rate and CO2 removal efficiency in a short reaction time.
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Extracellular DNA shields against aminoglycosides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Within recent years, it has been established that extracellular DNA is a key constituent of the matrix of microbial biofilms. In addition, it has recently been demonstrated that DNA binds positively charged antimicrobials such as aminoglycosides and antimicrobial peptides. In the present study, we provide evidence that extracellular DNA shields against aminoglycosides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We show that exogenously supplemented DNA integrates into P. aeruginosa biofilms and increases their tolerance toward aminoglycosides. We provide evidence that biofilms formed by a DNA release-deficient P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing mutant are more susceptible to aminoglycoside treatment than wild-type biofilms but become rescued from the detrimental action of aminoglycosides upon supplementation with exogenous DNA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to lysed polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which are thought to be a source of extracellular DNA at sites of infections, increases the tolerance of P. aeruginosa biofilms toward aminoglycosides. Although biofilm-associated aminoglycoside tolerance recently has been linked to extracellular DNA-mediated activation of the pmr genes, we demonstrate that the aminoglycoside tolerance mediated by the presence of extracellular DNA is not caused by activation of the pmr genes in our P. aeruginosa biofilms but rather by a protective shield effect of the extracellular DNA.
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Genetic polymorphism of transforming growth factor ?1 and tumor necrosis factor ? is associated with asthma and modulates the severity of asthma.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The role of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) in asthma is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships among polymorphisms, clinical phenotypes, and the serum levels of TGF-?1 and TNF-?.
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Combination of vessel-targeting agents and fractionated radiation therapy: the role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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To investigate vascular responses during fractionated radiation therapy (F-RT) and the effects of targeting pericytes or bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) on the efficacy of F-RT.
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A preclinical study to explore vasculature differences between primary and recurrent tumors using ultrasound Doppler imaging.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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The purpose of this preclinical study was to perform a longitudinal investigation of the function and morphology of the vasculatures of primary and recurrent tumors, because recurrent tumors have lower curability. Thus, elucidating differences in the features of the vasculatures of primary and recurrent tumors could help to improve tumor therapies. The transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate tumors were transplanted in nonirradiated and with 25 Gy of preirradiation normal tissues to produce the primary and recurrent tumor models, respectively. The perfusion and branching index of tumor vasculatures were characterized to reveal the function and morphology information, respectively. The blood vessels were more dilated and continuous in recurrent tumors than in primary tumors. During tumor progression, the perfusion increased in primary tumors but did not change significantly in recurrent tumors. The tumor perfusion was lower in recurrent tumors than in primary tumors, whereas branching index in 2-D ultrasound images did not differ between the two tumor models. Furthermore, the introducing 3-D volumetric power Doppler image may have the potential for accurately revealing the morphologic features within tumors. The results of this study suggest that power Doppler imaging is an easily applied and rapid method for noninvasively assessing the vascular features of primary and recurrent tumors and for exploring differences between their vasculature pathways.
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Kinetic modeling on CO? capture using basic oxygen furnace slag coupled with cold-rolling wastewater in a rotating packed bed.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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In this study, direct and indirect carbonation of basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) coupled with cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was carried out via a rotating packed bed (RPB). The solid products were qualitatively characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and quantitatively analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The leachate was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The results indicate that the maximum achievable carbonation conversion (MACC) of BOFS was 90.7%, corresponding to a capture capacity of 0.277 g CO?/g of BOFS, by direct carbonation with CRW under a rotation speed of 750 rpm at 30 °C for 20 min. In addition, CO? mass balance among the gas, liquid, and solid phases within an RPB was well-developed, with an error less than 10%, to confirm the actual CO? capture capacity of BOFS with precision and accuracy. Furthermore, a reaction kinetic model based on mass balance was established to determine the reaction rate constant for various liquid agents (CRW and pure water). It was concluded that co-utilization of alkaline wastes including BOFS and CRW via the RPB is a novel approach for both enhancing CO? capture capacity and reducing the environmental impacts of alkaline wastes.
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The roles of macrophages and nitric oxide in interleukin-3-enhanced HSV-Sr39tk-mediated prodrug therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-sr39tk/GCV) system is a well-established prodrug system used in cancer gene therapy. However, this system is currently not effective enough to eradicate malignant tumors completely. This study aimed to evaluate whether co-expression of interleukin-3 (IL-3) could enhance the anti-tumor activity of HSV-sr39tk/GCV prodrug gene therapy using a murine TRAMP-C1 prostate tumor model. In vitro results demonstrated that HSV-sr39tk-transfected cells exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the GCV prodrug, which was not affected by co-expression of the mIL-3 gene. However, in vivo studies showed that co-expression of the mIL-3 gene significantly increased the HSV-sr39tk/GCV-induced tumor growth delay and even cured the tumor. The TRAMP-C1-specific immune response of spleen lymphocytes from mice bearing HSV-sr39tk- and IL-3-expressing TRAMP-C1 tumors was measured by ELISA. Results showed that IL-3-activated IL-4-dominant lymphocytes became IFN-?- dominant lymphocytes after combined HSV-sr39tk/GCV therapy. The efficacy of combined therapies on tumor regression was reduced when macrophages populations were depleted by carrageenan or NO production was inhibited by administration of the iNOS inhibitor, L-NAME. These results suggest that utilizing a bicistronic vector to express HSV-sr39tk and the IL-3 gene induced an enhanced macrophage- or NO-dependent anti-tumor effect.
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Up-regulation of miR-182 by ?-catenin in breast cancer increases tumorigenicity and invasiveness by targeting the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor RECK.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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MiR-182 is a member of the miR-183 cluster located at human chromosome 7q32 region and is up-regulated in human cancers. We study the regulation of miR-182 expression and its oncogenic role.
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Patients with Blepharitis Are at Elevated Risk of Anxiety and Depression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Population-based cohort study on the risk of anxiety and depression in patients with blepharitis is limited. This study evaluated whether blepharitis patients are at a higher risk of anxiety and depression.
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Comparative transcriptome profiling of an SV40-transformed human fibroblast (MRC5CVI) and its untransformed counterpart (MRC-5) in response to UVB irradiation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Simian virus 40 (SV40) transforms cells through the suppression of tumor-suppressive responses by large T and small t antigens; studies on the effects of these two oncoproteins have greatly improved our knowledge of tumorigenesis. Large T antigen promotes cellular transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins. Previous studies have shown that not all of the tumor-suppressive responses were inactivated in SV40-transformed cells; however, the underlying cause is not fully studied. In this study, we investigated the UVB-responsive transcriptome of an SV40-transformed fibroblast (MRC5CVI) and that of its untransformed counterpart (MRC-5). We found that, in response to UVB irradiation, MRC-5 and MRC5CVI commonly up-regulated the expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes. MRC-5 up-regulated the expressions of chromosome condensation, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic genes, but MRC5CVI did not. Further cell death assays indicated that MRC5CVI was more sensitive than MRC-5 to UVB-induced cell death with increased caspase-3 activation; combining with the transcriptomic results suggested that MRC5CVI may undergo UVB-induced cell death through mechanisms other than transcriptional regulation. Our study provides a further understanding of the effects of SV40 transformation on cellular stress responses, and emphasizes the value of SV40-transformed cells in the researches of sensitizing neoplastic cells to radiations.
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Radiation therapy-induced tumor invasiveness is associated with SDF-1-regulated macrophage mobilization and vasculogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Radiation therapy (RT) remains the front-line treatment for high-grade gliomas; however, tumor recurrence remains the main obstacle for the clinical success of RT. Using a murine astrocytoma tumor cell line, ALTS1C1, the present study demonstrates that whole brain irradiation prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, although the mice eventually died associated with increased tumor infiltration. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis indicated that RT decreased the microvascular density (MVD) of the primary tumor core, but increased the MVD of the tumor invasion front. RT also increased the number of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) at the tumor invasion front. SDF-1 expression suppressed by siRNA (SDFkd tumors) showed a decrease in RT-enhanced tumor invasiveness, leading to prolonged survival of mice bearing these tumors. The invasion front in SDFkd tumors showed a lower MVD and TAM density than that in the islands of the control or irradiated ALTS1C1 tumors. Our results indicate that tumor-secreted SDF-1 is one key factor in RT-induced tumor invasiveness, and that it exerts its effect likely through macrophage mobilization and tumor revascularization.
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Effects of enzyme replacement therapy for cardiac-type Fabry patients with a Chinese hotspot late-onset Fabry mutation (IVS4+919G>A).
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Current studies of newborn screening for Fabry disease in Taiwan have revealed a remarkably high prevalence of cardiac-type Fabry disease with a Chinese hotspot late-onset Fabry mutation (IVS4+919G>A).
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The role of barium swallow pharyngoesophagography in the management of the globus pharyngeus: our ten years local experience of asian population.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Patients with globus pharyngeus referred for barium swallow pharyngoesophagography in a local hospital from 1/7/1999 to 30/6/2009 were identified. Their fluoroscopic images were reviewed, and their outcomes were used as gold standard. A total of 908 patients with globus pharyngeus were referred for barium swallow in the period. There were 783 patients with normal barium swallow and 125 patients with abnormal barium swallow findings. All patients aged below 30 years had normal barium swallow result and unremarkable follow up. The sensitivity and specificity of barium swallow were 25.6 and 97.5% respectively; and the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 61.5 and 89.1% respectively. The overall accuracy was 87.6%. Barium swallow is of limited diagnostic value in patients with typical globus pharyngeus, and it is not recommended in these patients, especially with young age.
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Social capital and knowledge sharing: effects on patient safety.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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This article is a report on a study that empirically examines the influence of social capital on knowledge sharing and the impact of knowledge sharing on patient safety.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.