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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Physical Activity Intervention to Treat the Frailty Syndrome in Older Persons-Results From the LIFE-P Study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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The frailty syndrome is as a well-established condition of risk for disability. Aim of the study is to explore whether a physical activity (PA) intervention can reduce prevalence and severity of frailty in a community-dwelling elders at risk of disability.
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A magnetic induction heating system with multi-cascaded coils and adjustable magnetic circuit for hyperthermia.
Electromagn Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Abstract Based on the characteristics of cancer cells that cannot survive in an environment with temperature over 42?°C, a magnetic induction heating system for cancer treatment is developed in this work. First, the methods and analyses for designing the multi-cascaded coils magnetic induction hyperthermia system are proposed, such as internal impedance measurement of power generator, impedance matching of coils, and analysis of the system. Besides, characteristics of the system are simulated by a full-wave package for engineering optimization. Furthermore, by considering the safety factor of patients, a two-sectional needle is designed for hyperthermia. Finally, this system is employed to test the liver of swine in ex-vivo experiments, and through Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and NADPH oxidase activity assay, the feasibility of this system is verified.
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Robust Image Restoration Via Adaptive Low-Rank Approximation and Joint Kernel Regression.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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In recent years, image priors based on nonlocal self-similarity and low-rank approximation have been proven as powerful tools for image restoration. Many restoration methods group similar patches as a matrix and recover the underlying lowrank structure from the corrupted matrix via rank minimization. However, both the nonlocally redundant and low-rank properties are highly content dependent, and whether they can faithfully characterize a wide range of natural images still remains unclear. In this paper, we analyze these two properties and provide quantifications of them in a data-driven and parametric way respectively, obtaining the new measures of "regional redundancy" and "nonlocal patch rank". Leveraging these priors leads to an adaptive image restoration method with content-awareness. In particular, our method iteratively removes outliers and recovers latent fine details. To handle outliers, we propose an adaptive lowrank and sparse matrix approximation algorithm to encourage the estimated nonlocal rank in the patch matrix. The guidance of regional redundancy further gives rise to the "denoise" quality. In the detail recovery step, we propose an adaptive joint kernel regression algorithm by using the redundancy measure to determine the confidence of each regression group. It also bridges the gap between our online and offline dictionary learning schemes. Experiments on synthetic and real-world images show the efficacy of our method in image deblurring and super-resolution tasks, especially when subject to practical outliers such as rain drops.
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Lexical tone and stuttering loci in Mandarin: Evidence from preschool children who stutter.
Clin Linguist Phon
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M?=?4:9; range?=?3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1) no significant differences in the stuttering frequencies between Tone 1 and Tone 2, or between Tone 3 and Tone 4, and (2) a higher incidence of stuttering on syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 embedded in conflicting (as opposed to compatible) tonal contexts. Results suggest that the higher incidence of stuttering on Mandarin syllables carrying either Tone 3 or 4 may be attributed to the increased level of speech motor demand underlying rapid F0 change both within and across syllables.
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Comparison of 8 Scores for predicting Symptomatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage after IV Thrombolysis.
Neurocrit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Intracerebral hemorrhage is a feared complication of IV thrombolytic (rt-PA) therapy. In recent years, at least 8 clinical scores have been proposed to predict either adverse outcome or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) in patients undergoing rt-PA therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of these 8 scores to predict sICH in an independent clinical dataset.
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Spatial patterns of methane oxidation and methanotrophic diversity in landfill cover soils of Southern China.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Aerobic CH4 oxidation is an important CH4 sink in landfill. To investigate distribution and community diversity of methanotrophs and link with soil characteristics and operational parameters (eg. Concentrations of O2?CH4), cover soil samples were collected at different locations and depths from Mengzi semi-aerobic landfill (SAL) in Yunnan province of southern China. Specific PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real time-PCR were used to examine methanotrophs in the landfill cover soils. The results showed that different locations did harbor distinct methanotroph communities. Methanotrophs were more abundant in areas near the venting pipes because of higher O2 concentration. At the depth of 20-25 cm, where the ratio of the CH4 to O2 within the range from 1.3 to 8.6, was more conductive to the growth of CH4-oxidizing bacteria. And Type II methanotrophs dominated in all samples compared with Type I methanotrophs, as evidenced by the high ratio of Type II to Type I methanotrophic copy numbers (from 1.76 to 11.60). While the total copy numbers of methanotrophs detected were similar to other ecosystems, although CH4 concentration was much higher in SAL landfill cover soil. Methylobacter and Methylocystis were the most abundant type I and type II methanotrophs genera respectively in Mengzi SAL landfill. The results suggested that SALs could provide a special environment with both high concentrations of CH4 and O2 for methanotrophs, especially around the vertical venting pipes.
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Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial.
Front Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction.
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Cross-sectional analysis of calcium intake for associations with vascular calcification and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes Heart Study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The use of calcium supplements to prevent declines in bone mineral density and fractures is widespread in the United States, and thus reports of elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in users of calcium supplements are a major public health concern. Any elevation in CVD risk with calcium supplement use would be of particular concern in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because of increased risks of CVD and fractures observed in this population.
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GENE-LEVEL PHARMACOGENETIC ANALYSIS ON SURVIVAL OUTCOMES USING GENE-TRAIT SIMILARITY REGRESSION.
Ann Appl Stat
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Gene/pathway-based methods are drawing significant attention due to their usefulness in detecting rare and common variants that affect disease susceptibility. The biological mechanism of drug responses indicates that a gene-based analysis has even greater potential in pharmacogenetics. Motivated by a study from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, we develop a gene-trait similarity regression for survival analysis to assess the effect of a gene or pathway on time-to-event outcomes. The similarity regression has a general framework that covers a range of survival models, such as the proportional hazards model and the proportional odds model. The inference procedure developed under the proportional hazards model is robust against model misspecification. We derive the equivalence between the similarity survival regression and a random effects model, which further unifies the current variance-component based methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method through simulation studies. In addition, we apply the method to the VISP trial data to identify the genes that exhibit an association with the risk of a recurrent stroke. TCN2 gene was found to be associated with the recurrent stroke risk in the low-dose arm. This gene may impact recurrent stroke risk in response to cofactor therapy.
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Contributors to mortality in high-risk diabetic patients in the Diabetes Heart Study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Not all individuals with type 2 diabetes and high coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) experience the same risk for adverse outcomes. This study examined a subset of high-risk individuals based on CAC >1,000 mg (using a total mass score) and evaluated whether differences in a range of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors provided further insights into risk for mortality.
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Anti-viral treatment and cancer control.
Recent Results Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contribute to about 10-15 % global burden of human cancers. Conventional chemotherapy or molecular target therapies have been used to treat virus-associated cancers. However, a more proactive approach would be the use of antiviral treatment to suppress or eliminate viral infections to prevent the occurrence of cancer in the first place. Antiviral treatments against chronic HBV and HCV infections have achieved this goal, with significant reduction in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in treated patients. Antiviral treatments for EBV, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) had limited success in treating refractory EBV-associated lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, KSHV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients, and HTLV-1-associated acute, chronic, and smoldering subtypes of adult T-cell lymphoma, respectively. Therapeutic HPV vaccine and RNA-interference-based therapies for treating HPV-associated cervical cancers also showed some encouraging results. Taken together, antiviral therapies have yielded promising results in cancer prevention and treatment. More large-scale studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of antiviral therapy. Further investigation for more effective and convenient antiviral regimens warrants more attention.
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Does benign paroxysmal positional vertigo explain age and gender variation in patients with vertigo by mechanical assistance maneuvers?
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common peripheral vestibular diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of BPPV in vertigo patients and the characteristics of BPPV in diagnosis and repositioning using mechanical assistance maneuvers and to analyze and summarize the reasons showing these characteristics. Seven hundred and twenty-six patients with vertigo were enrolled in this study. All patients were inspected by TRV armchair (SYNAPSYS, model TRV, France). BPPV patients were identified by the examination results. The characteristics and results using TRV armchair in diagnosis and treatment of BPPV were compared and analyzed. Of 726 vertigo patients, 209 BPPV patients were diagnosed, including 58 men and 151 women, aged from 16 to 87 (mean 52.90 ± 11.93) years. There were significant differences in the proportion of BPPV in male and female vertigo patients (P = 0.0233), but no differences among all age groups (P = 0.3201). Of 209 BPPV patients, 208 cases were repositioned by TRV armchair and no one appeared to have otolithic debris relocated into another canal in the repositioning procedures. 202 cases (97.12 %) were successful and six cases (2.87 %) were effective. None of them failed. This study suggests that BPPV is one of the most common diseases in the young vertigo patients, just like that in the old ones. Female of the species has predilection for BPPV and the site of predilection is the right posterior semicircular canals (PC-BPPV). The results of repositioning are perfect using mechanical assistance maneuvers.
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The mediating effect of psychological distress on functional dependence in stroke patients.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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To explore varied forms of psychological distress and to determine the mediating influence of psychological distress on functional outcomes in stroke patients.
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Three-dimensional reconstruction of the peripancreatic vascular system based on computed tomographic angiography images and its clinical application in the surgical management of pancreatic tumors.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of peripancreatic vessels for patients with suspected pancreatic cancer (PC).
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A retrospective study to assess the epidemiological and economic burden of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 50 years and older in Taiwan.
J Med Econ
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal pneumonia cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the disease burden from pneumococcal disease in older adults in Taiwan from a health insurer's perspective.
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Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in Zebrafish.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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To assess the benefits of medical image three-dimensional visualization system assisted pancreaticoduodenctomy for patients with hepatic artery variance.
Int J Med Robot
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Our main aim was to evaluate the value of medical image three-dimensional visualization system (MI-3DVS) in pancreaticoduodenctomy patients with hepatic artery variance.
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Atoh1 expression levels define the fate of rat cochlear nonsensory epithelial cells in vitro.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is a basic helix?loop?helix transcription factor that is essential for inner ear hair cell differentiation. Previous studies have reported that Atoh1 gene transfer induces the production of ectopic hair cell?like cells (EHCLCs). In the present study, the effect of different Atoh1 expression levels and the duration of EHCLC formation on the lesser epithelial ridge (LER) of cochleae was examined using a human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector encoding atoh1 and the reporter gene EGFP. Different Ad5?EGFP?atoh1/Ad5?EGFP virus titers were added to cultured cochlear explants and EHCLCs were detected in the LER at various time points. The results demonstrated that GFP alone did not induce EHCLCs. By contrast, Atoh1 expression induced EHCLCs as early as 2.5?5 days following EGFP?atoh1 infection in the LER and depending upon the viral titer, the number of EHCLCs increased with time. Higher Ad5?EGFP?atoh1 titers induced enhanced Atoh1 expression, resulting in an increase in EHCLCs. Lower Ad5?EGFP?atoh1 titers required more time for EHCLC formation and very low titers of Ad5?EGFP?atoh1 induced only weak Atoh1 expression and did not trigger EHCLC formation. In conclusion, the present study utilized an appropriate Ad5?EGFP?atoh1 titer range to induce Atoh1 expression and the subsequent production of EHCLCs. The results revealed that the Atoh1 expression level defined the fate of LER cells as either EHCLCs or nonsensory epithelial cells. This evidence may provide an important guideline for future studies into gene therapy strategies for the treatment of deafness.
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Genome-wide meta-analysis of homocysteine and methionine metabolism identifies five one carbon metabolism loci and a novel association of ALDH1L1 with ischemic stroke.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Circulating homocysteine levels (tHcy), a product of the folate one carbon metabolism pathway (FOCM) through the demethylation of methionine, are heritable and are associated with an increased risk of common diseases such as stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and dementia. The FOCM is the sole source of de novo methyl group synthesis, impacting many biological and epigenetic pathways. However, the genetic determinants of elevated tHcy (hyperhomocysteinemia), dysregulation of methionine metabolism and the underlying biological processes remain unclear. We conducted independent genome-wide association studies and a meta-analysis of methionine metabolism, characterized by post-methionine load test tHcy, in 2,710 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and 2,100 participants from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) clinical trial, and then examined the association of the identified loci with incident stroke in FHS. Five genes in the FOCM pathway (GNMT [p = 1.60 × 10(-63)], CBS [p = 3.15 × 10(-26)], CPS1 [p = 9.10 × 10(-13)], ALDH1L1 [p = 7.3 × 10(-13)] and PSPH [p = 1.17 × 10(-16)]) were strongly associated with the difference between pre- and post-methionine load test tHcy levels (?POST). Of these, one variant in the ALDH1L1 locus, rs2364368, was associated with incident ischemic stroke. Promoter analyses reveal genetic and epigenetic differences that may explain a direct effect on GNMT transcription and a downstream affect on methionine metabolism. Additionally, a genetic-score consisting of the five significant loci explains 13% of the variance of ?POST in FHS and 6% of the variance in VISP. Association between variants in FOCM genes with ?POST suggest novel mechanisms that lead to differences in methionine metabolism, and possibly the epigenome, impacting disease risk. These data emphasize the importance of a concerted effort to understand regulators of one carbon metabolism as potential therapeutic targets.
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Genome-wide association study for circulating tissue plasminogen activator levels and functional follow-up implicates endothelial STXBP5 and STX2.
Jie Huang, Jennifer E Huffman, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Munekazu Yamkauchi, Stella Trompet, Folkert W Asselbergs, Maria Sabater-Lleal, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Wei-Min Chen, Nicholas L Smith, Marcus E Kleber, So-Youn Shin, Diane M Becker, Weihong Tang, Abbas Dehghan, Andrew D Johnson, Vinh Truong, Lasse Folkersen, Qiong Yang, Tiphaine Oudot-Mellkah, Brendan M Buckley, Jason H Moore, Frances M K Williams, Harry Campbell, Günther Silbernagel, Veronique Vitart, Igor Rudan, Geoffrey H Tofler, Gerjan J Navis, Anita DeStefano, Alan F Wright, Ming-Huei Chen, Anton J M de Craen, Bradford B Worrall, Alicja R Rudnicka, Ann Rumley, Ebony B Bookman, Bruce M Psaty, Fang Chen, Keith L Keene, Oscar H Franco, Bernhard O Böhm, André G Uitterlinden, Angela M Carter, J Wouter Jukema, Naveed Sattar, Joshua C Bis, Mohammad A Ikram, , Michèle M Sale, Barbara McKnight, Myriam Fornage, Ian Ford, Kent Taylor, P Eline Slagboom, Wendy L McArdle, Fang-Chi Hsu, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Alison H Goodall, Lisa R Yanek, Karen L Furie, Mary Cushman, Albert Hofman, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Aaron R Folsom, Saonli Basu, Nena Matijevic, Wiek H van Gilst, James F Wilson, Rudi G J Westendorp, Sekar Kathiresan, Muredach P Reilly, Russell P Tracy, Ozren Polašek, Bernhard R Winkelmann, Peter J Grant, Hans L Hillege, Francois Cambien, David J Stott, Gordon D Lowe, Timothy D Spector, James B Meigs, Winfried März, Per Eriksson, Lewis C Becker, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Nicole Soranzo, Scott M Williams, Caroline Hayward, Pim van der Harst, Anders Hamsten, Charles J Lowenstein, David P Strachan, Christopher J O'Donnell.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify novel correlates of circulating levels of tPA.
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Genetic risk score associations with cardiovascular disease and mortality in the Diabetes Heart Study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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OBJECTIVE Given the high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes, identifying and understanding predictors of CVD events and mortality could help inform clinical management in this high-risk group. Recent large-scale genetic studies may provide additional tools in this regard. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Genetic risk scores (GRSs) were constructed in 1,175 self-identified European American (EA) individuals comprising the family-based Diabetes Heart Study based on 1) 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2) 30 SNPs with previously documented associations with CVD in genome-wide association studies. Associations between each GRS and a self-reported history of CVD, coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) determined by noncontrast computed tomography scan, all-cause mortality, and CVD mortality were examined using marginal models with generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS The weighted 13-SNP GRS was associated with prior CVD (odds ratio [OR] 1.51 [95% CI 1.22-1.86]; P = 0.0002), CAC (?-coefficient [?] 0.22 [0.02-0.43]; P = 0.04) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.35 [1.10-1.81]; P = 0.04) when adjusting for the other known CVD risk factors: age, sex, type 2 diabetes affection status, BMI, current smoking status, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The weighted 30-SNP GRS was also associated with prior CVD (OR 1.33 [1.08-1.65]; P = 0.008), CAC (? 0.29 [0.08-0.50]; P = 0.006), all-cause mortality (HR 1.28 [1.05-1.56]; P = 0.01), and CVD mortality (HR 1.46 [1.08-1.96]; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS These findings support the utility of two simple GRSs in examining genetic associations for adverse outcomes in EAs with type 2 diabetes.
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Heritability and genetic association analysis of cognition in the Diabetes Heart Study.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Cognitive performance is an important component of healthy aging. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with negative outcomes for the brain and cognition, although causal mechanisms have not been definitely determined. Genetic risk factors warrant further consideration in this context. This study examined the heritability of cognitive function as assessed by (1) the Digit Symbol Substitution Task; (2) the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; (3) the Stroop Task; (4) the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Task; and (5) the Controlled Oral Word Association Task for Phonemic and Semantic Fluency, in the family-based, T2D-enriched, Diabetes Heart Study sample (n = 550 participants from 257 families). The genetic basis of these cognitive measures was further evaluated by association analysis with candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome-wide SNP data. Measures of cognitive function were significantly heritable (hˆ(2) = 0.28-0.62) following adjustment for age, gender, and education. A total of 31 SNPs (from 26 genes/regions) selected to form an a priori set of candidate SNPs showed limited evidence of association with cognitive function when applying conservative metrics of significance. Genome-wide assessment of both noncoding and coding variants revealed suggestive evidence of association for several coding variants including rs139509083 in CNST (p = 4.9 × 10(-9)), rs199968569 in PLAA (p = 4.9 × 10(-9)) and rs138487371 in PCDH8 (p = 3.7 × 10(-8)). The identification of a heritable component to cognitive performance in T2D suggests a role for genetic contributors to cognitive performance even in the presence of metabolic disease and other associated comorbidities and is supported by the identification of genetic association signals in functionally plausible candidates.
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Bian zheng lun zhi as a complementary and alternative treatment for menstrual cramps in women with dysmenorrhea: a prospective clinical observation.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Background. Limited scientific evidence supports the positive effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating dysmenorrhea. Thus, an observation period of 3 months could verify the ancient indication that TCM treatments effectively alleviate menstrual cramps in women with primary dysmenorrhea or endometriosis. Methods. A prospective, nonrandomized study (primary dysmenorrhea and endometriosis groups) was conducted in women with dysmenorrhea for more than three consecutive menstrual cycles. All patients received TCM prescriptions based on bian zheng lun zhi theory 14 days before menstruation for a period of 12 weeks. Pain intensity was evaluated using a 10-cm visual analogue scale and two validated questionnaires (the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire). Results. Of the initial 70 intent-to-treat participants, the women with dysmenorrhea reported significant alleviation of cramps during menstruation after the 12-week TCM treatment. Mixed model analysis revealed that TCM prescriptions were more effective in alleviating fatigue, hot flashes, dizziness, painful breasts, excitement, and irritability in the primary dysmenorrhea group (N = 36) than in the endometriosis group (N = 34). Conclusion. TCM prescriptions based on syndrome differentiation theory might be a potentially viable choice for treating painful menstruation and premenstrual symptoms after ruling out endometriosis.
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The Effect of Osteoarthritis on 1-Year Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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To evaluate the long-term risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), we conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. We evaluated 3599 primary TKA patients and 14,396 matched control patients. We further classified all patients into those with and without osteoarthritis (OA). The incidence rate of IHD was significantly higher among the TKA patients than among the matched control patients (1.13 vs 0.69 per 1000 person-months, P<.05). However, after controlling for OA, this difference was non-significant (HR=1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-2.20, P>.05). Our study results indicate that underlying OA conditions are predominantly responsible for increased long-term risk of IHD in TKA patients.
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Combined reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and peripheral artery disease in sedentary elders with functional limitations.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Because they are potentially modifiable and may coexist, we evaluated the combined occurrence of a reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), including its association with exertional symptoms, physical inactivity, and impaired mobility, in sedentary elders with functional limitations.
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Genetic influence on exercise-induced changes in physical function among mobility-limited older adults.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To date, physical exercise is the only intervention consistently demonstrated to attenuate age-related declines in physical function. However, variability exists in seniors' responsiveness to training. One potential source of variability is the insertion (I allele) or deletion (D allele) of a 287 bp fragment in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. This polymorphism is known to influence a variety of physiological adaptions to exercise. However, evidence is inconclusive regarding the influence of this polymorphism on older adults' functional responses to exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D genotypes with changes in physical function among Caucasian older adults (n = 283) following 12 mo of either structured, multimodal physical activity or health education. Measures of physical function included usual-paced gait speed and performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After checking Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used using linear regression to evaluate the genotype*treatment interaction for each outcome. Covariates included clinic site, body mass index, age, sex, baseline score, comorbidity, and use of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors. Genotype frequencies [II (19.4%), ID (42.4%), DD (38.2%)] were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The genotype*treatment interaction was statistically significant for both gait speed (P = 0.002) and SPPB (P = 0.020). Exercise improved gait speed by 0.06 ± 0.01 m/sec and SPPB score by 0.72 ± 0.16 points among those with at least one D allele (ID/DD carriers), but function was not improved among II carriers. Thus, ACE I/D genotype appears to play a role in modulating functional responses to exercise training in seniors.
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The peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist, fenofibrate, prevents fractionated whole-brain irradiation-induced cognitive impairment.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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We hypothesized that dietary administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist, fenofibrate, to young adult male rats would prevent the fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI)-induced reduction in cognitive function and neurogenesis and prevent the fWBI-induced increase in the total number of activated microglia. Eighty 12-14-week-old young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats received either: (1) sham irradiation, (2) 40 Gy of fWBI delivered as two 5 Gy fractions/week for 4 weeks, (3) sham irradiation + dietary fenofibrate (0.2% w/w) starting 7 days prior to irradiation, or (4) fWBI + fenofibrate. Cognitive function was measured 26-29 weeks after irradiation using: (1) the perirhinal cortex (PRh)-dependent novel object recognition task; (2) the hippocampal-dependent standard Morris water maze (MWM) task; (3) the hippocampal-dependent delayed match-to-place version of the MWM task; and (4) a cue strategy preference version of the MWM to distinguish hippocampal from striatal task performance. Neurogenesis was assessed 29 weeks after fWBI in the granular cell layer and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus using a doublecortin antibody. Microglial activation was assessed using an ED1 antibody in the dentate gyrus and hilus of the hippocampus. A significant impairment in perirhinal cortex-dependent cognitive function was measured after fWBI. In contrast, fWBI failed to alter hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, despite a significant reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis. Continuous administration of fenofibrate prevented the fWBI-induced reduction in perirhinal cortex-dependent cognitive function, but did not prevent the radiation-induced reduction in neurogenesis or the radiation-induced increase in activated microglia. These data suggest that fenofibrate may be a promising therapeutic for the prevention of some modalities of radiation-induced cognitive impairment in brain cancer patients.
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The traditional Chinese medicine prescription pattern of patients with primary dysmenorrhea in Taiwan: a large-scale cross sectional survey.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among women with primary dysmenorrhea (PD). The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of TCM among PD women in Taiwan.
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Glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease: an 8-year population-based follow-up study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. An association between POAG and the subsequent risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) was unclear.
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Risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan: a population-based case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although human toxoplasmosis is a notifiable disease in Taiwan since 2007, little is known about its risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan. We conducted a nationwide population-based case-control study. Cases of acute human toxoplasmosis notified to the Taiwan Centers for Diseases Control (Taipei, Taiwan) during 2008-2013 were compared with controls that were randomly selected from healthy T. gondii-seronegative blood donors who participated in a nationwide T. gondii seroepidemiologic study during 2009-2010. Cases and controls were matched according to age, gender and residency at an 1:8 ratio. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information regarding risk factors. A total of 30 laboratory-confirmed acute T. gondii disease cases and 224 controls were enrolled. The most common clinical manifestation of the cases was flu-like symptoms (n = 20), followed by central nervous system disease (n = 4), ocular diseases (n = 3), abortion (n = 2), and congenital infection (n = 1). Multivariate conditional logistic regression showed that raw clam consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?= 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]?= 1.4-9.9) and having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.1-7.9) were two independent risk factors for acute T. gondii disease. We conclude that raw shellfish consumption and domestic cat exposure were risk factors for acquiring acute T. gondii diseases in Taiwan. This finding may guide future research and control policies.
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Risk factors for healthcare-associated extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections: a case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The emergence of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) is a serious threat to hospitalized patients. From 2008 to 2010, surveillance detected 25 hospital-acquired infection (HAI) cases caused by XDRAB at a medical center in Taipei. The site of XDRAB infection was bloodstream (n?=?8), urinary tract (n?=?12), lower respiratory tract (n?=?3), surgical site (n?=?1), and cardiovascular (n?=?1). The isolates were resistant to all currently available antibiotics except for colistin. The XDRAB isolates are genetically diverse, shown by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but 23 of 25 harbored class 1 integron with a 2.3-kb gene cassette. Most of these isolates carry OXA-23 (n?=?21) and OXA-51-like carbapenemase genes (n?=?25). To identify the risk factors, a case-control study was conducted. The 25 cases were compared with 100 controls randomly selected from hospitalized patients without XDRAB-HAIs, matched by the onset date, ward, and age, at a ratio of 1?4. Prior use of imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam or fourth-generation cephalosporins (adjusted OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.03-10.2, P?=?0.04) and >30 days bed-ridden (adjusted OR: 6.0, 95% CI: 1.3-27.6, P?=?0.02) were found to be the independent risk factors for XDRAB-HAIs. These findings highlight that, even in the absence of clonal dissemination, XDRAB can emerge under the selective pressure of broad-spectrum antibiotics and causes subsequent HAIs in compromised hosts. An appropriate response to the XDRAB threat therefore should include a component of prudent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics active against gram-negative bacteria.
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Inhibitory Effects of the Areca Nut Extract on Expression of Complement Receptors and Fc Receptors in Human Neutrophils.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Background: Areca quid chewing increases the prevalence of periodontal diseases. Areca nut extract (ANE) inhibits the phagocytic activity of human neutrophils. This in vitro study investigated the effects of ANE on complement and antibody-opsonized phagocytosis by neutrophils. Expression of complement receptors, Fc receptors and F-actin in ANE-treated neutrophils was also analyzed. Methods: The viability of ANE-treated neutrophils was determined using the propidium iodide staining method. The possible effects of ANE on the expression of complement receptors and Fc receptors were examined using an immunofluorescence staining method followed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The phagocytic activity of neutrophils against complement or immunoglobulin (IgG)-opsonized fluorescent beads was analyzed using flow cytometry. Expression of F-actin was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results: ANE significantly inhibited the production of complement receptor (CR1, CR3 and CR4) and Fc receptors (Fc?RII and Fc?RIII) in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of neutrophils with ANE significantly impaired their ability to phagocytose fluorescent beads. ANE also inhibited phagocytosis of fluorescent beads that were opsonized by complement or IgG. Moreover, expression of F-actin was inhibited after ANE treatment. Conclusions: ANE inhibited the complement and IgG-mediated neutrophil phagocytosis which may result from reduction of the expression of complement receptors, Fc receptors and F-actin formation after ANE treatment. The findings suggest that areca nut chewing may jeopardize the defensive functions of neutrophils and affect the periodontal health.
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An efficient VLSI implementation of on-line recursive ICA processor for real-time multi-channel EEG signal separation.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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This paper presents an efficient VLSI implementation of on-line recursive ICA (ORICA) processor for real-time multi-channel EEG signal separation. The proposed design contains a system control unit, a whitening unit, a singular value decomposition unit, a floating matrix multiply unit and, and an ORICA weight training unit. Because the input sample rate of the ORICA processor is 128 Hz, the ORICA processor should produce independent components before the next sample is input in 1/128 s. Under the timing constraints of commutating multi-channel ORICA in real time, the design of the ORICA processor is a mixed architecture, which is designed as different hardware parallelism according to the complexity of processing units. The shared arithmetic processing unit and shared register can reduce hardware complexity and power consumption. The proposed design is implemented used TSMC 90nm CMOS technology with 8-channel EEG processing in 128 Hz sample rate of raw data and consumes 2.827 mW at 50 MHz clock rate. The performance of the proposed design is also shown to reach 0.0078125 s latency after each EEG sample time, and the average correlation coefficient between the original source signals and extracted ORICA signals for each 1s frame is 0.9763.
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A pipeline VLSI design of fast singular value decomposition processor for real-time EEG system based on on-line recursive independent component analysis.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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This paper presents a pipeline VLSI design of fast singular value decomposition (SVD) processor for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) system based on on-line recursive independent component analysis (ORICA). Since SVD is used frequently in computations of the real-time EEG system, a low-latency and high-accuracy SVD processor is essential. During the EEG system process, the proposed SVD processor aims to solve the diagonal, inverse and inverse square root matrices of the target matrices in real time. Generally, SVD requires a huge amount of computation in hardware implementation. Therefore, this work proposes a novel design concept for data flow updating to assist the pipeline VLSI implementation. The SVD processor can greatly improve the feasibility of real-time EEG system applications such as brain computer interfaces (BCIs). The proposed architecture is implemented using TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology. The sample rate of EEG raw data adopts 128 Hz. The core size of the SVD processor is 580×580 um(2), and the speed of operation frequency is 20MHz. It consumes 0.774mW of power during the 8-channel EEG system per execution time.
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Systemic lupus erythematosus presented as extensive longitudinal myelitis.
Acta Neurol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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longitudinal myelitis (LM) is defined by the continuous lesion of more than four spinal cord segments. LM is a rare variant of acute transverse myelitis and it frequently presented poor responses to immunomodulatory therapy, which resulted in severe and disabling sequelae. We reported a case of acute longitudinal myelitis involving extensive lesions from cervical spinal cord to conus medullaris caused by newly diagnosed SLE.
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Does framing of cancer survival affect perceived value of care? A willingness-to-pay survey of US residents.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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To investigate the relationship between the framing of survival gains and the perceived value of cancer care.
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MeCP2-mediated alterations of striatal features accompany psychomotor deficits in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Affected individuals develop motor deficits including stereotypic hand movements, impaired motor learning and difficulties with movement. To understand the neural mechanisms of motor deficits in RTT, we characterized the molecular and cellular phenotypes in the striatum, the major input nucleus of the basal ganglia that controls psychomotor function, in mice carrying a null allele of Mecp2. These mice showed significant hypoactivity associated with impaired motor coordination and motor skill learning. We found that dopamine content was significantly reduced in the striatum of Mecp2 null mice. Reduced dopamine was accompanied by down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase and up-regulation of dopamine D2 receptors, particularly in the rostral striatum. We also observed that loss of MeCP2 induced compartment-specific alterations in the striatum, including reduced expression of ?-opioid receptors in the striosomes and increased number of calbindin-positive neurons in the striatal matrix. The total number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons and their dendritic arborization were also significantly increased in the striatum of Mecp2 null mice. Together, our findings support that MeCP2 regulates a unique set of genes critical for modulating motor output of the striatum, and that aberrant structure and function of the striatum due to MeCP2 deficiency may underlie the motor deficits in RTT.
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Clinical characteristics of patients with labyrinthine fistulae caused by middle ear cholesteatoma.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Labyrinthine fistula (LF) is a very common clinical complication mainly caused by middle ear cholesteatoma. Whether the presence of different degree LF caused by middle ear cholesteatoma aggravates neurosensory hearing loss (NSHL) and what is the degree of the hearing loss caused by LF were still under controversial. This study aimed to investigate whether the LF degree is correlative with the age distribution, disease duration and hearing loss degree for cholesteatomatous patients.
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Copper-promoted Sandmeyer trifluoromethylation reaction.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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A copper-promoted trifluoromethylation reaction of aromatic amines is described. This transformation proceeds smoothly under mild conditions and exhibits good tolerance of many synthetically relevant functional groups. It provides an alternative approach for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes and heteroarenes. It also constitutes a new example of the Sandmeyer reaction.
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Mitigating CH? emissions in semi-aerobic landfills: impacts of operating conditions on abundance and community structure of methanotrophs in cover soils.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Methanotrophs are the most important sink of CH?, which is a more highly potent greenhouse gas than CO?. Methanotrophic abundance and community diversity in cover soils from two typical semi-aerobic landfills (SALs) in China were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time-PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) based on 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Real time-PCR showed that Type I methanotrophs ranged from 1.07 × 10? to 2.34 × 10? copies/g soil and that of Type II methanotrophs from 1.51 × 10? to 1.83 × 10? copies/g soil. The ratio of Type II to Type I methanotrophic copy numbers ranged from 5.61 to 21.89, indicating that Type II methanotrophs dominated in SAL. DGGE revealed that Type I methanotrophs responded more sensitively to the environment, changing as the community structure varied with different soil types and locations. Methylobacter, Methylosarcina, and Methylomicrobium for Type I, and Methylocystis for Type II were most prevalent in the SAL cover layer. Abundant interflow O? with high CH? concentration in SALs is the reason for the higher population density of methanotrophs and the higher enrichment of Type II methanotrophs compared with anaerobic landfills and other ecosystems, which proved a conclusion that increasing the oxygen supply in a landfill cover layer would greatly improve CH? mitigation.
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Impact of HDL genetic risk scores on coronary artery calcified plaque and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes Heart Study.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. Recent studies have assessed the impact of genetic variants affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations on CVD risk in the general population. This study examined the utility of HDL-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CVD risk prediction in European Americans with T2D enrolled in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS).
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Testin interacts with vangl2 genetically to regulate inner ear sensory cell orientation and the normal development of the female reproductive tract in mice.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Background: Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling regulates the coordinated polarization of cells and is required for the normal development and function of many tissues. Previous studies have identified conserved PCP genes, such as Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) and Prickle (Pk), in the regulation of coordinated orientation of inner ear hair cells and female reproductive tract development. Testin shares a PET-LIM homology with Pk. It is not clear whether Testin acts in PCP processes in mammals. Results: We identified Testin as a Vangl2-interacting protein through a 2-hybrid screen with a cochlea cDNA library. Testin is enriched to cell-cell boundaries in the presence of Vangl2 in cultured cells. Genetic inactivation of Testin leads to abnormal hair cell orientation in the vestibule and cellular patterning defects in the cochlea. In addition, Testin genetically interacts with Vangl2 to regulate hair cell orientation in the cochlea and the opening of the vaginal tract. Conclusions: Our findings suggested Testin as a gene involved in coordinated hair cell orientation in the inner ear and in female reproductive tract development. Furthermore, its genetic interaction with Vangl2 implicated it as a potential molecular link, responsible for mediating the role of Vangl2-containing membranous PCP complexes in directing morphologic polarization. Developmental Dynamics 242:1454-1465, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Association between cerebral lesions and emotional changes in acute ischemic stroke patients.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Controversies and interest are present in the associations between specific brain locations and depression or anxiety. This study investigated the association between stroke location and emotional changes in stroke patients. This prospective observational study analyzed the neuroimages and neuropsychiatric conditions of 26 patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction. Each patients neurological and psychiatric condition was evaluated 1 week as well as 1 month after the stroke. We found that the right superior and middle temporal gyrus was associated with anxiety at 1 month after stroke. Moreover, better mentality is associated with deterioration of anxiety within 1 month after stroke, and larger lesion volume is associated with deterioration of depression within 1 month after stroke.
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The influence of subclinical cardiovascular disease and related risk factors on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus: The DHS-Mind study.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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We hypothesized that measures of coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) collected at baseline from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) would explain associations between cognition and diabetes collected at follow-up approximately 7 years later. The DHS is a sibling study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (~80%). Associations between baseline CAC and cognitive performance were tested using generalized estimating equations and mixed effects models to adjust for familial relationships. Diabetes status was associated (p<0.05) with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory, processing speed, and semantic fluency adjusting for age, sex, education, and hypertension status. As hypothesized, including CAC in the statistical model attenuated this association. Additionally, CAC and fasting glucose predicted performance in tasks not associated with diabetes status in this study (Stroop Task, Phonemic Fluency). These results confirm work attributing the heterogeneity of cognitive outcomes in type 2 diabetes to subclinical risk factors that combine to affect different aspects of brain function. Importantly, these results imply that risk factor intervention should begin before comorbidities, particularly CVD, become clinically apparent.
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Multiscale entropy analysis of electroencephalography during sleep in patients with Parkinson disease.
Clin EEG Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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Sleep disorders are frequently seen in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), including rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder and periodic limb movement disorder. However, knowledge about changes in non-REM sleep in patients with PD is limited. This study explored the characteristics of electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep in patients with PD and non-PD controls. We further conducted multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis to evaluate and compare the complexity of sleep EEG for the 2 groups. There were 9 patients with PD (Hoehn-Yahr stage 1 or 2) and 11 non-PD controls. All participants underwent standard whole-night polysomnography (PSG), which included 23 channels, 6 of which were for EEG. The raw data of the EEG were extracted and subjected to MSE analysis. Patients with PD had a longer sleep onset time and a higher spontaneous EEG arousal index. Sleep stage-specific increased MSE was observed in patients with PD during non-REM sleep. The difference was more marked and significant at higher time scale factors (TSFs). In conclusion, increased biosignal complexity, as revealed by MSE analysis, was found in patients with PD during non-REM sleep at high TSFs. This finding might reflect a compensatory mechanism for early defects in neuronal network control machinery in PD.
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Association of SNPs in the UGT1A gene cluster with total bilirubin and mortality in the Diabetes Heart Study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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A negative relationship between total bilirubin concentration (TBili) and CVD risk has been documented in a series of epidemiological studies. In addition, TBili is thought to be under strong genetic regulation via the UGT1A gene family, suggesting it may be a heritable CVD risk factor. However, few studies directly relate TBili-associated UGT1A variants to CVD severity or outcome. This study replicated the genetic association for TBili in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS), and examined the relationships of TBili-associated SNPs with measures of subclinical CVD and mortality.
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The importance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.
Med. Mycol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) of non-AIDS immunocompromised patients remains unclear. We measured the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood in 36 non-AIDS immunocompromised patients with PcP diagnosed by BAL and explored their clinical importance. The severity of PcP was determined by arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (PaO2/FiO2) ratio, the need of mechanical ventilation and the death. Twenty-five subjects without evidence of lung abnormality were included as control group. Compared with control group, PcP patients had significantly higher BALF levels of IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 and significantly higher blood levels of IL-10, TGF-?1, IL-8, IL-6 and MCP-1. For PcP patients, BALF levels of IL-8, IL-8/IL-10 ratio and IL-8/TGF-?1 ratio and blood levels of IL-8 and IL-8/IL-10 ratio were significantly higher in the patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg than in those with PaO2/FiO2 > 200 mmHg. Similarly, significantly higher BALF levels of IL-8, IL-8/IL-10 ratio, IL-1?/IL-10, IL-1?/TGF-?1 ratio, MCP-1/TGF-?1 ratio and IL-8/TGF-?1 ratio were found in the patients requiring mechanical ventilation and in non-survivors. In summary, an imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in BALF was found in PcP of non-AIDS immunocompromised patients. BALF levels of IL-8, IL-8/IL-10 ratio, IL-1?/IL-10 ratio, IL-1?/TGF-?1 ratio, MCP-1/TGF-?1 ratio and IL-8/TGF-?1 ratio may be of value in assessing the severity of PcP and in predicting the outcome of the patients.
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Bacterial adhesion to antibiotic-loaded guided tissue regeneration membranes - A scanning electron microscopy study.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Bacterial contamination of sites undergoing guided tissue regeneration (GTR) therapy may reduce the efficiency of periodontal regeneration. This study compared bacterial adhesion onto various GTR membranes incorporated with antibiotics.
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The distribution of vestibular efferent neurons receiving innervation of secondary vestibular afferent nerves in rats.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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To explore the innervation areas of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) afferent neurons onto vestibular efferent neurons in the brain stem of rats.
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Glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria predict mortality independently from coronary artery calcified plaque in the Diabetes Heart Study.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Risk stratification in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains an important priority in the management of associated morbidity and mortality, including from cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current investigation examined whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) were independent predictors of CVD-mortality in European Americans (EAs) with T2D after accounting for subclinical CVD.
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Neutralization of five subgenotypes of Enterovirus 71 by Taiwanese human plasma and Taiwanese plasma derived intravenous immunoglobulin.
Biologicals
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) commonly occurs in children, causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in about 29% of patients. Studies have suggested that patients develop meningitis and encephalopathy with a mortality rate of 4-26%. EV71 subgenotypes including B4, B5, C2, C4 and C5 have caused HFMD epidemics in Taiwan. In terms of therapeutical strategy, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been shown to improve patient conditions. In this study, the EV71 neutralizing titer was evaluated in 75 human plasmas and 8 lots of Taiwanese plasma derived IVIG. Results showed that human plasmas and IVIG significantly neutralized B4 and C2 subgenotypes. Four percent of human plasma contained neutralizing antibody titer of 1:128 against B4 and C2. Most IVIG lots possessed a median effective dose of over 100 against B4 and C2. IVIG lots had an average neutralizing capacity of 5.60, 0.90, 4.30, 1.12 and 0.77 log10 CCID50/ml against B4, B5, C2, C4 and C5, respectively. In conclusion, effective neutralization of B4 and C2 could be due to their earlier appearance in the EV71 epidemiology timeline of Taiwan. IVIG derived from Taiwanese plasma may be desirable for treatment of patients infected with EV71 of specific subgenotypes.
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Transferable and flexible label-like macromolecular memory on arbitrary substrates with high performance and a facile methodology.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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A newly designed transferable and flexible label-like organic memory based on a graphene electrode behaves like a sticker, and can be readily placed on desired substrates or devices for diversified purposes. The memory label reveals excellent performance despite its physical presentation. This may greatly extend the memory applications in various advanced electronics and provide a simple scheme to integrate with other electronics.
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Changes in ADF/destrin expression in the development of hair cells following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/destrin and position changes of kinetosomes in the development of hair cells following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration in the basilar membrane of mice. We observed through immunofluorescence at various time-points the expression of ADF/destrin and the specific kinetosome marker, ?-tubulin, in hair cells following ectopic regeneration induced by adenovirus transfection, overexpression of Atoh1 and in vitro culture. Changes of ADF/destrin distribution and kinetosome position during in vitro culture of new hair cells [Myo7a(+)] following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration are consistent with the changes in ADF/destrin expression and the polar migration of kinetosomes in hair cells of the cochlear sensory epithelium in normal development. ADF/destrin is involved in the development of the auditory epithelium and the development and structural rearrangement of ectopically regenerated hair cells in mammals. The kinetosomes of hair cells following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration show positional changes in vitro at different time-points.
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The role of postintervention pullback pressure gradient in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for central vein stenosis in dialysis patients.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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The severity of residual stenosis (RS) sometimes cannot be accurately measured by angiography during central vein intervention. This study evaluated the role of pullback pressure measurement during central vein stenosis (CVS) intervention.
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Usefulness of biventricular volume as a predictor of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (from the Diabetes Heart Study).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Beyond traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures reflecting additional aspects of disease pathophysiology, such as biventricular volume (BiVV), may be useful for risk stratification. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between BiVV and risk for mortality in European Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS). BiVV was calculated from 771 noncontrast computed tomographic scans performed to image coronary artery calcified plaque. Relationships between BiVV and traditional CVD risk factors were examined. Cox proportional-hazards regression was performed to determine risk for mortality (all-cause and CVD mortality) associated with increasing BiVV. Area under the curve analysis was used to assess BiVV utility in risk prediction models. During 8.4 ± 2.4 years of follow-up, 23% of the patients died. In unadjusted analyses, BiVV was significantly associated with increasing body mass index, height, coronary artery calcified plaque, history of hypertension, and previous myocardial infarction (p <0.0001 to 0.012). BiVV was significantly associated with all-cause (hazard ratio 2.45, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 5.67, p = 0.036) and CVD (hazard ratio 4.36, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 14.03, p = 0.014) mortality in models adjusted for other known CVD risk factors. Area under the curve increased from 0.76 to 0.78 (p = 0.04) and from 0.74 to 0.77 (p = 0.02) for all-cause and CVD mortality with the inclusion of BiVV. In conclusion, in the absence of echocardiography or other noninvasive imaging modalities to assess ventricular volumes, or when such methods are contraindicated, BiVV from computed tomography may be considered a tool for the stratification of high-risk patients, such as those with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Surgical outcomes of 43 cases with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the external auditory canal.
Am J Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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To evaluate surgical outcomes for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the external auditory canal (EAC).
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Analysis of family- and population-based samples using multiple linkage disequilibrium mapping.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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We report two methods for linkage disequilibrium mapping that involve incorporation of covariates through parametric modeling to utilize combined case-parent trios and unrelated case and/or control data. The proposed two combined methods were used to map the disease locus of hypertension in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene with incorporation of ACE activity. The efficiencies in estimating the disease locus increased by 351- and 100-fold in the hybrid study with respect to the two proposed methods when compared to the estimates from the trios study; and they changed by 1.4- and 0.4-fold, respectively, when compared to the case-control study. Efficiency of disease locus estimates was greatly improved in both simulations and hypertension studies based on the hybrid data, compared to case-parent trio studies only. These newly developed methods preserve the advantages of the previous methods, including flexible modeling and assessment of gene-gene and gene-covariate effects, while providing more power by using all the data combined. The computing program for analysis using the separate and hybrid data sets is freely available on the authors website.
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Alzheimer disease and risk of stroke: a population-based cohort study.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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To investigate the risk of stroke in patients clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with non-AD patients with similar vascular risk factors.
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Outcomes of hepatectomy for hepatolithiasis based on 3-dimensional reconstruction technique.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The aim of our study was to evaluate the perioperative and long-term outcomes of hepatectomy based on 3-dimensional reconstruction technique for hepatolithiasis by comparing it with traditional hepatectomy.
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The PPAR? agonist GW0742 inhibits neuroinflammation, but does not restore neurogenesis or prevent early delayed hippocampal-dependent cognitive impairment after whole-brain irradiation.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Brain tumor patients often develop cognitive impairment months to years after partial or fractionated whole-brain irradiation (WBI). Studies suggest that neuroinflammation and decreased hippocampal neurogenesis contribute to the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury. In this study, we determined if the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist GW0742 can prevent radiation-induced brain injury in C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) and PPAR? knockout (KO) mice. Dietary GW0742 prevented the acute increase in IL-1? mRNA and ERK phosphorylation measured at 3h after a single 10-Gy dose of WBI; it also prevented the increase in the number of activated hippocampal microglia 1 week after WBI. In contrast, dietary GW074 failed to prevent the radiation-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis determined 2 months after WBI in WT mice or to mitigate their hippocampal-dependent spatial memory impairment measured 3 months after WBI using the Barnes maze task. PPAR? KO mice exhibited defects including decreased numbers of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus/hilus of the hippocampus and a failure to exhibit a radiation-induced increase in activated hippocampal microglia. Interestingly, the number of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus/hilus was reduced in WT mice, but not in PPAR? KO mice 2 months after WBI. These results demonstrate that, although dietary GW0742 prevents the increase in inflammatory markers and hippocampal microglial activation in WT mice after WBI, it does not restore hippocampal neurogenesis or prevent early delayed hippocampal-dependent cognitive impairment after WBI. Thus, the exact relationship between radiation-induced neuroinflammation, neurogenesis, and cognitive impairment remains elusive.
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A regulated delivery system for inner ear drug application.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We have recently developed a novel inner ear drug delivery system using chitosan glycerophosphate (CGP) hydrogel loaded with drugs commonly used for treatment of inner ear diseases, significantly improving the drugs sustained delivery. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosanase as a "switch off" mechanism for this drug delivery system when side effects and potential ototoxicities appear during treatment. To evaluate this effect, we tested gentamicin (GENT) in the inner ear following CGP delivery with/without regulation.
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A collaborative study to establish the first National Standard for HIV-1 RNA nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) in Taiwan.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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The World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA is only available in limited amounts. It is critical to use the most common HIV-1 genotype as source for secondary standards, e.g. a National Standard for Taiwan. The objective of this study was to establish the first National Standard for HIV-1 RNA NAT assays in Taiwan. A collaborative study, including eleven laboratories from five different countries, was carried out to establish the HIV-1 RNA National Standard by calibration, in International Units (IU), against the WHO HIV-1 RNA IS. The HIV-1 RNA content for the candidate was quantitated by each laboratory in three independent assays and the results were collected and analyzed statistically. Overall, a high level of agreement among results was achieved from different laboratories. In addition, the stability study indicated that the candidate was stable for 24 months at -80±5°C. In conclusion, the candidate standard was established as the first National Standard for HIV-1 RNA for use in NAT assays in Taiwan. The standard is intended to be used for the quality control of HIV-1 NAT assays and as a quantitative reference material for HIV-1 NAT assays.
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The effects of a long-term physical activity intervention on serum uric Acid in older adults at risk for physical disability.
J Aging Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Observational studies show a relationship between elevated serum uric acid (UA) and better physical performance and muscle function. The purpose of this paper was to determine whether regular participation in an exercise intervention, known to improve physical functioning, would result in increased serum UA. For this study, 424 older adults at risk for physical disability were randomized to participate in either a 12-mo moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) or a successful aging (SA) health education intervention. UA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 mo (n = 368, 341, and 332, respectively). Baseline UA levels were 6.03 ± 1.52 mg/dl and 5.94 ± 1.55 mg/dl in the PA and SA groups, respectively. The adjusted mean UA at month 12 was 4.8% (0.24 mg/dl) higher in the PA compared with the SA group (p = .028). Compared with a health education intervention, a 1-yr PA intervention results in a modest increase in systemic concentration of UA in older adults at risk for mobility disability.
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Alzheimers disease risk assessment using large-scale machine learning methods.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The goal of this work is to introduce new metrics to assess risk of Alzheimers disease (AD) which we call AD Pattern Similarity (AD-PS) scores. These metrics are the conditional probabilities modeled by large-scale regularized logistic regression. The AD-PS scores derived from structural MRI and cognitive test data were tested across different situations using data from the Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. The scores were computed across groups of participants stratified by cognitive status, age and functional status. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate associations with the distribution of conversion times from mild cognitive impairment to AD. The performances of classifiers developed using data from different types of brain tissue were systematically characterized across cognitive status groups. We also explored the performance of anatomical and cognitive-anatomical composite scores generated by combining the outputs of classifiers developed using different types of data. In addition, we provide the AD-PS scores performance relative to other metrics used in the field including the Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of Early AD (SPARE-AD) index and total hippocampal volume for the variables examined.
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Excess mortality and long-term disability from healthcare-associated staphylococcus aureus infections: a population-based matched cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), but the impact of S. aureus HAIs on the long-term survival and functional status of hospitalized patients remain unknown. This study aimed to examine whether S. aureus HAIs increase the risks for long-term mortality and disability.
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[Application of digitalized minimally invasive technique in treatment of hepatolithiasis based on MI-3DVS].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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To assess the clinical value of digitalized minimally invasive technique in the treatment of the hepatolithiasis.
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Effects of a 12-month physical activity intervention on prevalence of metabolic syndrome in elderly men and women.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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There is a lack of information on whether exercise training alone can reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in elderly men and women.
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Fitness costs of an insecticide resistance and their population dynamical consequences in the oriental fruit fly.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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Naled is a commonly used insecticide for controlling populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Taiwan and other countries. B. dorsalis has developed resistance to the insecticide, and the resistance management is an important issue. Ecological effects (e.g., fitness costs) of the resistance, when fully understood, can be used for the resistance management. This study examined the effects of the insecticide resistance on important life history traits (i.e., survival rates, stage durations, and fecundity) of the oriental fruit fly by comparing the traits of insecticide resistant individuals and susceptible individuals. Population dynamical properties were also examined using a stage-structured matrix model that was parameterized with the empirical data. The results revealed that susceptible individuals had shorter stage durations (e.g., grew faster) and reproduced more than resistant individuals. The average longevity of sexually mature susceptible adults was longer than that of sexually mature resistant adults. The matrix population model predicted that a population of the susceptible individuals would grow faster than a population of the resistant individuals in the absence of the insecticide. The sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that the sexually immature adult stage is a good candidate for controlling B. dorsalis populations.
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Expression of Numb and Numb-like in the development of mammalian auditory sensory epithelium.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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The Numb and Numb-like are evolutionarily conserved cell fate-determining factors in mammals. For the first time, we investigate the involvement of the Numb and Numb-like in the developing auditory sensory epithelium. We show that both of them are expressed in the rat auditory sensory epithelium, and the four isoforms of the Numb have dynamic expression patterns during cochlear development. At the early stage of the auditory epithelium development, they occur in all progenitor cells. At the late stage of cell differentiation, they are expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of apical cells and their locations are different. Furthermore, we find overexpression of the Numb or Numb-like, in cochlear whole mount cultures, can upregulate mRNA level of Rath1, which is important in the hair-cell development.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.