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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rectangular Ion Funnel (RIF): A New Ion Funnel Interface for Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM).
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) have recently demonstrated the ability for near lossless ion focusing, transfer, and trapping in sub-atmospheric pressure regions. While lossless ion manipulations are advantageously applied to the applications of ion mobility separations and gas phase reactions, ion introduction through ring electrode ion funnels or more conventional ion optics to SLIM can involve discontinuities in electric fields or other perturbations that result in ion losses. In this work, we developed and investigated a new funnel design that aims to seamlessly couple to SLIM at the funnel exit. This rectangular ion funnel (RIF) was initially evaluated by ion simulations, fabricated utilizing printed circuit board technology and tested experimentally. The RIF was integrated to a SLIM-TOF MS system, and the operating parameters, including RF, DC bias of the RIF electrodes, and electric fields for effectively interfacing with a SLIM were characterized. The RIF provided a 2-fold sensitivity increase without significant discrimination over a wide m/z range along with greatly improved SLIM operational stability.
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Treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in Canada: A survey of genitourinary medical oncologists and urologists.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Uptake of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) for muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has been low despite evidence of a survival benefit. The primary aim of this study was to better understand why the rates are low and determine what factors specifically influence the decision to recommend NC for MIBC.
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PSMA-targeting iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles enhance MRI of preclinical prostate cancer.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Aim: To evaluate the potential of newly-developed, biocompatible iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with J591, an antibody to an extracellular epitope of PSMA, to enhance MRI of prostate cancer. Materials & methods: Specific binding to PSMA by J591-MNP was investigated in vitro. MRI studies were performed on orthotopic tumor-bearing NOD.SCID mice 2 h and 24 h after intravenous injection of J591-MNPs, or non-targeting MNPs. Results & conclusion: In vitro, MNPs did not affect prostate cancer cell viability, and conjugation to J591 did not compromise antibody specificity and enhanced cellular iron uptake. Magnetic resonance contrast of tumors was increased in vivo using PSMA-targeting MNPs, but not by non-targeting MNPs. This provides proof-of-concept that PSMA-targeting MNPs have potential to enhance magnetic resonance detection/localization of prostate cancer.
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Long-term thiol monitoring in living cells using bioorthogonal chemistry.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Intracellular thiols play vital roles in living systems, and their in situ monitoring is of great importance. Here, we report on a bioorthogonal chemistry based fluorescent probe, which is capable of monitoring intracellular thiols in living cells for up to 36 hours with an obvious blue-to-green fluorescence change.
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Formation of polyphenyl chains through hierarchical reactions: Ullmann coupling followed by cross-dehydrogenative coupling.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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From an interplay of UHV-STM imaging and DFT calculations, we have illustrated on-surface formation of polyphenyl chains through a hierarchical reaction pathway involving two different kinds of reactions (Ullmann coupling and cross-dehydrogenative coupling), which will provide a deeper understanding of on-surface chemical reactions and an alternative and efficient strategy to fabricate desired surface molecular nanostructures.
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[Effect of hypothermia on TLR2/MyD88 signal pathway in lung tissue in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To investigate the effect of hypothermia on the expression Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor-?Bp65 (NF-?Bp65), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the TLR2/MyD88 pathway in rats with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation.
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On-surface synthesis of organometallic complex via metal-alkene interactions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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From the interplay of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging/manipulation and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have shown that the spontaneous formation of an organometallic complex by copper-alkene interactions can be successfully achieved, where the specific molecular adsorption geometry is revealed to be the key for facilitating such interaction.
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Natural Gradient Learning Algorithms for RBF Networks.
Neural Comput
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Radial basis function (RBF) networks are one of the most widely used models for function approximation and classification. There are many strange behaviors in the learning process of RBF networks, such as slow learning speed and the existence of the plateaus. The natural gradient learning method can overcome these disadvantages effectively. It can accelerate the dynamics of learning and avoid plateaus. In this letter, we assume that the probability density function (pdf) of the input and the activation function are gaussian. First, we introduce natural gradient learning to the RBF networks and give the explicit forms of the Fisher information matrix and its inverse. Second, since it is difficult to calculate the Fisher information matrix and its inverse when the numbers of the hidden units and the dimensions of the input are large, we introduce the adaptive method to the natural gradient learning algorithms. Finally, we give an explicit form of the adaptive natural gradient learning algorithm and compare it to the conventional gradient descent method. Simulations show that the proposed adaptive natural gradient method, which can avoid the plateaus effectively, has a good performance when RBF networks are used for nonlinear functions approximation.
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Determination of the Enthalpy of Vaporization and Prediction of Surface Tension for Ionic Liquid 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium Propionate [Cnmim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6).
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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With the use of isothermogravimetrical analysis, the enthalpies of vaporization, ?(g)lH(o)m(Tav), at the average temperature, Tav = 445.65 K, for the ionic liquids (ILs) 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium propionate [Cnmim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6) were determined. Using Verevkin's method, the difference of heat capacities between the vapor phase and the liquid phase, ?(g)lCp(o)m, for [Cnmim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), were calculated based on the statistical thermodynamics. Therefore, with the use of ?(g)lCp(o)m, the values of ?(g)lH(o)m(Tav) were transformed into ?(g)lH(o)m(298), 126.8, 130.3, and 136.5 for [Cnmim][Pro](n = 4, 5, 6), respectively. In terms of the new scale of polarity for ILs, the order of the polarity of [Cnmim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) was predicted, that is, the polarity decreases with increasing methylene. A new model of the relationship between the surface tension and the enthalpy of vaporization for aprotic ILs was put forward and used to predict the surface tension for [Cnmim][Pro](n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and others. The predicted surface tension for the ILs is in good agreement with the experimental one.
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Broadband fiber-optical parametric amplification for ultrafast time-stretch imaging at 1.0???m.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We demonstrate a broadband all-fiber-optical parametric amplifier for ultrafast time-stretch imaging at 1.0 ?m, featured by its compact design, alignment-free, high efficiency, and flexible gain spectrum through fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-engineering: specifically on a dispersion-stabilized photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) to achieve a net gain over 20 THz (75 nm) and a highest gain of ?6000 (37.5 dB). Another unique feature of the parametric amplifier, over other optical amplifiers, is the coherent generation of a synchronized signal replica (called idler) that can be exploited to offer an extra 3-dB gain by optically superposing the signal and idler. It further enhances signal contrast and temporal stability. For proof-of-concept purpose, ultrahigh speed and diffraction-limited time-stretch microscopy is demonstrated with a single-shot line-scan rate of 13 MHz based on the dual-band (signal and idler) detection. Our scheme can be extended to other established bioimaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, near infrared fluorescence, and photoacoustic imaging, where weak signal detection at high speed is required.
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Formation of a G-Quartet-Fe Complex and Modulation of Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Fe Center.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Although the G-quartet structure has been extensively investigated due to its biological importance, the formation mechanism, in particular, the necessity of metal centers, of an isolated G-quartet on solid surfaces remains ambiguous. Here, by using scanning tunneling microscopy under well-controlled ultra-high-vacuum conditions and density functional theory calculations we have been able to clarify that besides the intraquartet hydrogen bonding a metal center is mandatory for the formation of an isolated G-quartet. Furthermore, by subtly perturbing the local coordination bonding schemes within the formed G-quartet complex via local nanoscale scanning tunneling microscopy manipulations, we succeed in modulating the d orbitals and the accompanying magnetic properties of the metal center. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of forming an isolated G-quartet complex on a solid surface and that the strategy of modulating electronic and magnetic properties of the metal center can be extended to other related systems such as molecular spintronics.
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[Influencing factors of sludge liquor treatment in UASBB].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The effect of ammonia nitrogen concentration, temperature, pH, HRT and C/N ratio on ANAMMOX was studied. The reactor was fed with sludge liquor. The efficiency of nitrogen removal for the UASBB was researched under different ammonia nitrogen concentration, HRT, temperature, pH and C/N ratio when the influent rho(NH4(+) -N)/rho(NO2(-) -N) was controlled at 1:1.32. The results showed that the nitrogen removal rate for the ANANMMOX reactors was optimal when the influent NH4(+) -N and NO2(-) -N concentrations were 200 mg x L(-1) and 264 mg x L(-1), HRT was 24 h, temperature was in the range of 30-35 degrees C, pH was at 7.5-8.5 and the C/N ratio was 0.5. The average removal rates of NH4(+) -N, NO2(-) -N and TN were 75.72%, 76.36% and 70.19%, respectivley, the average TN was 0.464 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) and the removal rate of COD was 30%. The efficiency of nitrogen removal for the ANAMMOX reactors could be enhanced by controlling ammonia nitrogen concentration and HRT. The efficiency of ANAMMOX bacteria was optimal when temperature and pH were suitable. The denitrification occurred in the ANAMMOX reactors when the influent contained organics. The inhibition of denitrification bacteria on the ANAMMOX increased with rising concentration of organics.
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Creating SERS Hot Spots on MoS2 Nanosheets with in Situ Grown Gold Nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Herein, a reliable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrate has been prepared by synthesizing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-decorated MoS2 nanocomposite. The AuNPs grew in situ on the surface of MoS2 nanosheet to form efficient SERS hot spots by a spontaneous redox reaction with tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) without any reducing agent. The morphologies of MoS2 and AuNPs-decorated MoS2 nanosheet were characterized by TEM, HRTEM, and AFM. The formation of hot spots greatly depended on the ratio of MoS2 and HAuCl4. When the concentration of HAuCl4 was 2.4 mM, the as-prepared AuNPs@MoS2-3 nanocomposite exhibited a high-quality SERS activity toward probe molecule due to the generated hot spots. The spot-to-spot SERS signals showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) in the intensity of the main Raman vibration modes (1362, 1511, and 1652 cm(-1)) of Rhodamine 6G were about 20%, which displayed good uniformity and reproducibility. The AuNPs@MoS2-based substrate was reliable, sensitive, and reproducible, which showed great potential to be an excellent SERS substrate for biological and chemical detection.
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Damping of Confined Modes in a Ferromagnetic Thin Insulating Film: Angular Momentum Transfer across a Nanoscale Field-Defined Interface.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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We observe a dependence of the damping of a confined mode of precessing ferromagnetic magnetization on the size of the mode. The micron-scale mode is created within an extended, unpatterned yttrium iron garnet film by means of the intense local dipolar field of a micromagnetic tip. We find that the damping of the confined mode scales like the surface-to-volume ratio of the mode, indicating an interfacial damping effect (similar to spin pumping) due to the transfer of angular momentum from the confined mode to the spin sink of ferromagnetic material in the surrounding film. Though unexpected for insulating systems, the measured intralayer spin-mixing conductance g_{??}=5.3×10^{19}??m^{-2} demonstrates efficient intralayer angular momentum transfer.
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Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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The temperature-dependent property of the Grueneisen parameter has been employed in photoacoustic imaging mainly to measure tissue temperature. Here we explore this property using a different approach and develop Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM), a technique that images nonradiative absorption with confocal optical resolution. GR-PAM sequentially delivers two identical laser pulses with a microsecond-scale time delay. The first laser pulse generates a photoacoustic signal and thermally tags the in-focus absorbers. When the second laser pulse excites the tagged absorbers within the thermal relaxation time, a photoacoustic signal stronger than the first one is produced, owing to the temperature dependence of the Grueneisen parameter. GR-PAM detects the amplitude difference between the two colocated photoacoustic signals, confocally imaging the nonradiative absorption. We greatly improved axial resolution from 45???m to 2.3???m and, at the same time, slightly improved lateral resolution from 0.63???m to 0.41???m. In addition, the optical sectioning capability facilitates the measurement of the absolute absorption coefficient without fluence calibration.
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Performance of megahertz amplified optical time-stretch optical coherence tomography (AOT-OCT).
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Enabled by the ultrahigh-speed all-optical wavelength-swept mechanism and broadband optical amplification, amplified optical time-stretch optical coherence tomography (AOT-OCT) has recently been demonstrated as a practical alternative to achieve ultrafast A-scan rate of multi-MHz in OCT. With the aim of identifying the optimal scenarios for MHz operation in AOT-OCT, we here present a theoretical framework to evaluate its performance metric. In particular, the analysis discusses the unique features of AOT-OCT, such as its superior coherence length, and the relationship between the optical gain and the A-scan rate. More importantly, we evaluate the sensitivity of AOT-OCT in the MHz regime under the influence of the amplifier noise. Notably, the model shows that AOT-OCT is particularly promising when operated at the A-scan rate well beyond multi-MHz - not trivially achievable by any existing swept-source OCT platform. A sensitivity beyond 90 dB, close to the shot-noise limit, can be maintained in the range of 2 - 10 MHz with an optical net gain of ~10dB. Experimental measurement also shows excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. While distributed fiber Raman amplification is mainly considered in this paper, the theoretical model is generally applicable to any type of amplification schemes. As a result, our analysis serves as a useful tool for further optimization of AOT-OCT system - as a practical alternative to enable MHz OCT operation.
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Molecular Behavior at Buried Epoxy/Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Interface.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Epoxies are widely used as main components in packaging underfills for microelectronics. Their strong adhesion to different substrate materials is an important factor for the functioning of electronic devices. Amines are commonly used cross-linking agents for epoxides. However, the molecular mechanisms of epoxide-amine mixture adhesion to substrate materials remain unclear. In this research we investigated the adhesion mechanism of epoxide-amine mixtures at poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) interfaces using attenuated total-internal reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Results show that both epoxide and amine could diffuse into the PET film. They could also dissolve or modify the PET film at the interphase region. In the process of epoxy curing on PET, epoxide molecules could cross-link with the modified PET film, providing strong adhesion. This hypothesis was further confirmed by adding reactive and nonreactive silanes to the epoxies and measuring the adhesion strengths of such mixtures to PET. The reactive silanes could cross-link with the system, showing good adhesion, while the nonreactive silane prevented sufficient cross-linking, showing poor adhesion. This research developed an in-depth insight for molecular behaviors at the epoxy/PET interface which helped clarify the related adhesion mechanism.
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Regulation of YAP by mTOR and autophagy reveals a therapeutic target of tuberous sclerosis complex.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Genetic studies have shown that the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1-TSC2-mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and the Hippo-Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) pathways are master regulators of organ size, which are often involved in tumorigenesis. The crosstalk between these signal transduction pathways in coordinating environmental cues, such as nutritional status and mechanical constraints, is crucial for tissue growth. Whether and how mTOR regulates YAP remains elusive. Here we describe a novel mouse model of TSC which develops renal mesenchymal lesions recapitulating human perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) from patients with TSC. We identify that YAP is up-regulated by mTOR in mouse and human PEComas. YAP inhibition blunts abnormal proliferation and induces apoptosis of TSC1-TSC2-deficient cells, both in culture and in mosaic Tsc1 mutant mice. We further delineate that YAP accumulation in TSC1/TSC2-deficient cells is due to impaired degradation of the protein by the autophagosome/lysosome system. Thus, the regulation of YAP by mTOR and autophagy is a novel mechanism of growth control, matching YAP activity with nutrient availability under growth-permissive conditions. YAP may serve as a potential therapeutic target for TSC and other diseases with dysregulated mTOR activity.
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Single-Junction Polymer Solar Cells Exceeding 10% Power Conversion Efficiency.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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A single-junction polymer solar cell with an efficiency of 10.1% is demonstrated by using deterministic aperiodic nanostructures for broadband light harvesting with optimum charge extraction. The performance enhancement is ascribed to the self-enhanced absorption due to collective effects, including the pattern-induced anti-reflection, light scattering as well as surface plasmonic resonance, together with a minimized recombination probability.
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Hyperspectral imaging and characterization of live cells by broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy with singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis.
Appl Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy can be used as a powerful imaging technique to identify chemical compositions of complex samples in biology, biophysics, medicine, and materials science. In this work we developed a CARS microscopic system capable of hyperspectral imaging. By employing an ultrafast laser source, a photonic crystal fiber, and a scanning laser microscope together with spectral detection by a highly sensitive back-illuminated cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, we were able to rapidly acquire and process hyperspectral images of live cells with chemical selectivity. We discuss various aspects of hyperspectral CARS image analysis and demonstrate the use of singular value decomposition methods to characterize the cellular lipid content.
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Percutaneous drainage of Morel-Lavallée lesions when the diagnosis is delayed.
Can J Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Morel-Lavallée lesions are a closed internal degloving, and open débridement can damage the only remaining blood supply to the skin. We performed percutaneous draining and débridement to treat 8 patients in whom the diagnosis of Morel-Lavallée lesions was delayed more than 1 week. Here we discuss our treatment procedures and the outcomes in these 8 patients. We consider percutaneous drainage to be an effective treatment for patients with delayed diagnosis of Morel-Lavallée lesions.
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Mobility-resolved ion selection in uniform drift field ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry: dynamic switching in structures for lossless ion manipulations.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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A Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) module that allows ion mobility separations and the switching of ions between alternative drift paths is described. The SLIM switch component has a "Tee" configuration and allows the efficient switching of ions between a linear path and a 90-degree bend. By controlling switching times, ions can be efficiently directed to an alternative channel as a function of their mobilities. In the initial evaluation the switch is used in a static mode and shown compatible with high performance ion mobility separations at 4 Torr. In the dynamic mode, we show that mobility-selected ions can be switched into the alternative channel, and that various ion species can be independently selected based on their mobilities for time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS) IMS detection and mass analysis. This development also provides the basis of, for example, the selection of specific mobilities for storage and accumulation, and the key component of modules for the assembly of SLIM devices enabling much more complex sequences of ion manipulations.
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Adeno-Associated Virus-RNAi of GlyR?1 and Characterization of Its Synapse-specific Inhibition in OFF alpha Transient Retinal Ganglion Cells.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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In the central nervous system, inhibition shapes neuronal excitation. In spinal cord glycinergic inhibition predominates, whereas GABAergic inhibition predominates in the brain. The retina uses GABA and glycine in approximately equal proportions. Glycinergic crossover inhibition, initiated in the On retinal pathway, controls glutamate release from presynaptic OFF cone bipolar cells (CBCs) and directly shapes temporal response properties of OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the retina, four glycine receptor (GlyR) ? subunit isoforms are expressed in different sublaminae and their synaptic currents differ in decay kinetics. GlyR?1, expressed in both On and Off sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer, could be the glycinergic isoform that mediates On-to-Off crossover inhibition. However, subunit selective glycine contributions remain unknown because we lack selective antagonists or cell class specific subunit knockouts. To examine the role of GlyR?1 in direct inhibition in mature RGCs, we used retrogradely transported adeno-associated virus (AAV) that performed RNAi and eliminated almost all glycinergic spontaneous and visually evoked responses in PV5 (OFF?Transient) RGCs. Comparisons of responses in PV5 RGCs infected with AAV-scrambled-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or AAV-Glra1-shRNA confirm a role for GlyR?1 in crossover inhibition in cone driven circuits. Our results also define a role for direct GlyR?1 inhibition in setting resting membrane potential of PV5 RGCs. The absence of GlyR?1 input unmasked a serial and a direct feedforward GABAAergic modulation in PV5 RGCs, reflecting a complex interaction between glycinergic and GABAAergic inhibition.
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Clostridium huakuii sp. nov., a novel anaerobic acetogenic bacterium isolated from methanogenic consortia.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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A Gram-staining-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic acetogenic bacterium, designated LAM1030 (T), was isolated from methanogenic consortia enriched from biogas slurry collected from the large-scale anaerobic digester of Modern Farming Corporation in Hebei Province, China. Cells of strain LAM1030(T) were motile, straight or spiral-rod-shaped. Strain LAM1030(T) could utilize glucose, fructose, maltose, galacatose, lactose, sucrose, cellobiose?mannitol, pyruvate, succinic acid, tryptophan as sole carbon source. Acetic acid, isovaleric acid and butanoic acid were the main productions of glucose fermentation. Sodium sulfite was used as electron acceptor. Growth of strain LAM1030(T) was completely inhibited by the addition of 20 ?g/ml of ampicillin, tetracycline, gentamicin and erythromycin. The main polar lipids of strain LAM1030(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and eleven unknown glycolipids and two unknown phospholipids. No respiratory quinone was detected. The major fatty acids of strain LAM1030(T) were C16:0 (21.1%), C14:0 (10.3%) and iso-C15:0 (6.6%). The analysis on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain LAM1030(T) belonged to the genus Clostridium and was most closely related to C. subterminale DSM 6970(T), C. thiosulfatireducens DSM 13105(T) and C. sulfidigenes DSM 18982(T), with 97.0%, 96.9% and 96.8% similarity, respectively. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain LAM1030(T) was 31.2±0.3 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characterization, strain LAM1030(T) was suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Clostridium , for which the name Clostridium huakuii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM1030(T) (=ACCC 00698(T) = JCM 19186(T)).
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The effect of anatomic variations of circle of Willis on cerebral blood distribution during posture change from supination to standing: a model study.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The anatomic variation of Circle of Willis (CoW) has great impact on its compensatory capacity during stroke and cerebral ischemia. In the present study, a series of lumped parameter models were developed and used to simulate the effect of postural changes on the cerebral blood flow in ICA stenosis patients with different anatomic variants of the CoW. The results showed that the asymmetric distribution of cerebral blood flow caused by stenosis was attenuated in standing position in complete and half-complete CoW. However, in incomplete CoW, the decrease in blood flow in the ipsilateral cerebral arteries caused by unilateral ICA stenosis was dramatic in both supine and standing positions, a likely result of inadequate collateral circulation within the CoW. In conclusion, the anatomic variation of CoW plays a significant role in maintaining the balance of cerebral blood supply in patients with ICA stenosis, especially during postural change.
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Population-based impact on overall survival after the introduction of docetaxel as standard therapy for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Utilization of docetaxel in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains low despite its demonstrated survival benefit. In a population-based cohort, we sought to determine whether the introduction of docetaxel has improved overall survival (OS).
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PTK7 regulates Id1 expression in CD44-high glioma cells.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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CD44 is a molecular marker associated with molecular subtype and treatment resistance in glioma. More effective therapies will result from approaches aimed at targeting the CD44-high gliomas.
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Experimental evaluation and optimization of structures for lossless ion manipulations for ion mobility spectrometry with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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We report on the performance of structures for lossless ion manipulation (SLIM) as a means for transmitting ions and performing ion mobility separations (IMS). Ions were successfully transferred from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source to the TOF MS analyzer by means of a linear SLIM, demonstrating lossless ion transmission and an alternative arrangement including a 90° turn. First, the linear geometry was optimized for radial confinement by tuning RF on the central "rung" electrodes and potentials on the DC-only guard electrodes. Selecting an appropriate DC guard bias (2-6 V) and RF amplitude (?160 V(p-p) at 750 kHz) resulted in the greatest ion intensities. Close to ideal IMS resolving power was maintained over a significant range of applied voltages. Second, the 90° turn was optimized for radial confinement by tuning RF on the rung electrodes and DC on the guard electrodes. However, both resolving power and ion transmission showed a dependence on these voltages, and the best conditions for both were >300 V(p-p) RF (685 kHz) and 7-11 V guard DC bias. Both geometries provide IMS resolving powers at the theoretical limit (R ~ 58), showing that degraded resolution from a "racetrack" effect from turning around a corner can be successfully avoided, and the capability also was maintained for essentially lossless ion transmission.
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Progress and perspectives of biomarker discovery in Chinese medicine research.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Biomarker discovery in Chinese medicine (CM) has recently attracted a great deal of attention, owing to the promise of high-throughput technologies development and the potential of Chinese herbal medicine. Furthermore, it seems that pattern classification in CM might be serving as inspirational analogy and a practical guide, which might contribute to biomarkers discovery rather than just being used as diagnostic method. Although much work is still needed to identify markers, efforts are now being directed towards discovering biomarkers or biomarkers based network that could target herbal formulae. In this article, we review progress in biomarker discovery development, discuss current biomarker discovery in CM highlighting challenges and opportunities of pattern classification and presenting a perspective of the future integrative modeling approaches as an emerging trend in biomarker discovery.
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Oxygen-induced self-assembly of quaterphenyl molecules on metal surfaces.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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From high-resolution UHV-STM imaging and DFT calculations we have demonstrated a novel method to construct well-ordered molecular nanostructures of an unfunctionalized aromatic molecule (4Ph) on both Ag(110) and Cu(110) by introducing oxygen molecules.
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Fenofibrate increases radiosensitivity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma via inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Radiation therapy is an important treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, how to promote radiation sensitivity in HNSCC remains a challenge. This study aimed to investigate the radiosensitizing effects of fenofibrate on HNSCC and explore the underlying mechanisms. HNSCC cell lines CNE-2 and KB were subjected to ionizing radiation (IR), in the presence or absence of fenofibrate treatment. Cell growth and survival, apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated. In addition, CNE-2 cells were xenografted into nude mice and subjected to IR and/ or fenofibrate treatment. The expression of cyclinB and CDK1 was detected by Western blotting. Our results showed that fenofibrate efficiently radiosensitized HNSCC cells and xenografts in mice, and induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest via reducing the activity of the CDK1/cyclinB1 kinase complex. These data suggest that fenofibrate could be a promising radiosensitizer for HNSCC radiotherapy.
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Up-regulation of 14-3-3? expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and its clinical implications.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved molecules that are involved in many vital biologic processes and are associated with the progression of cancer. The role of 14-3-3?, a dimeric isoform of 14-3-3, in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) was investigated in this study. The expression of 14-3-3? in tumour samples from patients with ICC was examined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, and the correlation between its expression and various clinicopathological features was determined. Then, the capacity for invasion, migration and proliferation as well as the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers in ICC cells were assessed after 14-3-3? depletion. Finally, the prognostic significance of 14-3-3? in patients with ICC was further evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The expression of 14-3-3? was significantly higher in ICC tissues compared to peritumoural tissues. High expression of 14-3-3? positively correlated with lymphatic metastasis and tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. The inhibition of 14-3-3? expression was able to impair the invasion, migration and proliferation of ICC cells in vitro. The expression of 14-3-3? was significantly correlated with the expression of the EMT-related markers snail and E-cadherin in ICC samples. Moreover, the down-regulation of 14-3-3? also decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in ICC cells. Clinically, patients with ICC with high 14-3-3? expression demonstrated a poor prognosis in terms of a short overall survival and a high recurrence rate of the disease. A multivariate analysis revealed that 14-3-3? overexpression was an independent prognostic indicator for patients with ICC. 14-3-3? may enhance the invasive and proliferative capacity of tumour cells and thus prompt the progression of ICC via the activation of ERK signalling and the induction of EMT. The overexpression of 14-3-3? may be used as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in patients with ICC.
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A retrospective, Canadian multi-center study examining the impact of prior response to abiraterone acetate on efficacy of docetaxel in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Questions about optimal sequencing of systemic therapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and whether cross-resistance occurs between different drugs remain largely unanswered. Previous studies have produced conflicting data on the activity of docetaxel in patients who did not attain a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to abiraterone acetate (abiraterone). We investigated whether the biochemical response to abiraterone is associated with efficacy of subsequent docetaxel therapy.
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Improved assemblies using a source-agnostic pipeline for MetaGenomic Assembly by Merging (MeGAMerge) of contigs.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Assembly of metagenomic samples is a very complex process, with algorithms designed to address sequencing platform-specific issues, (read length, data volume, and/or community complexity), while also faced with genomes that differ greatly in nucleotide compositional biases and in abundance. To address these issues, we have developed a post-assembly process: MetaGenomic Assembly by Merging (MeGAMerge). We compare this process to the performance of several assemblers, using both real, and in-silico generated samples of different community composition and complexity. MeGAMerge consistently outperforms individual assembly methods, producing larger contigs with an increased number of predicted genes, without replication of data. MeGAMerge contigs are supported by read mapping and contig alignment data, when using synthetically-derived and real metagenomic data, as well as by gene prediction analyses and similarity searches. MeGAMerge is a flexible method that generates improved metagenome assemblies, with the ability to accommodate upcoming sequencing platforms, as well as present and future assembly algorithms.
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AT-406, an IAP inhibitor, activates apoptosis and induces radiosensitization of normoxic and hypoxic cervical cancer cells.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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IAP antagonists increased the antitumor efficacy of X-irradiation in some types of cancers, but their effects on hypoxic cancer cells remain unclarified. We aims to investigate the radiosensitizing effect of an IAP inhibitor AT-406 on cervical cancer cell lines under both normoxia and hypoxia conditions. Hela and Siha cells were treated to investigate the effects of drug administration on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity. Western blot analysis was used to determine the role of AT-406 in inhibition of IAPs. The pathway of apoptosis was characterized by caspases activity assay. AT-406 potently sensitized Hela cells but not Siha cells to radiation under normoxia. Notably, the radiosensitizing effect of AT-406 on hypoxic cells was more evident than on normoxic cells in both cell lines. Further mechanism studies by western blot showed that under normoxia AT-406 decreased the level of cIAP1 in Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner; while additional downregulation of XIAP expression was induced by AT-406 treatment under hypoxia in both cell lines. Finally, AT-406 works on both extrinsic death receptor and intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathways to activate apoptosis. Totally, AT-406 acts as a strong radiosensitizer in human cervical cancer cells, especially in hypoxic condition.
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On-surface aryl-aryl coupling via selective C-H activation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Through the interplay of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging/manipulation and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have demonstrated that an unprecedented selective aryl-aryl coupling via direct C-H bond activation can be successfully achieved on Cu(110). These findings present a simple and generalized route for preparing low dimensional carbon nanomaterials.
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Design of Portable Mass Spectrometers with Handheld Probes: Aspects of the Sampling and Miniature Pumping Systems.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Miniature mass spectrometry analytical systems of backpack configuration fitted with sampling probes could potentially be of significant interest for in-field, real-time chemical analysis. In this study, various configurations were explored in which a long narrow tube was used to connect the turbo and backing pumps used to create and maintain vacuum. Also, for the first time we introduced two new types of pumps for miniature mass spectrometers, the Creare 130 g drag pump and Creare 350 g scroll backing pump. These pumps, along with another Creare 550 turbo pump and the commercially available Pfeiffer HiPace 10 turbo and KnF diaphragm backing pumps, were tested with the backpack configurations. The system performance, especially the scan time, was characterized when used with a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) for ion introduction. The pumping performance in the pressure region above 1 mtorr is critical for DAPI operation. The 550 g turbo pump was shown to have a relatively higher pumping speed above 1 mtorr and gave a scan time of 300 ms, almost half the value obtained with the larger, heavier HiPace 10 often used with miniature mass spectrometers. The 350 g scroll pump was also found to be an improvement over the diaphragm pumps generally used as backing pumps. With a coaxial low temperature plasma ion source, direct analysis of low volatility compounds glass slides was demonstrated, including 1 ng DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) and 10 ng TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) with Creare 550 g turbo pump as well as 10 ng cocaine and 20 ng DNP with Creare 130 g drag pump.
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Adsorption-geometry induced transformation of self-assembled nanostructures of an aldehyde molecule on Cu(110).
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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From an interplay of high-resolution STM imaging/manipulation and DFT calculations, we have revealed that different self-assembled nanostructures of BA molecules on Cu(110) are attributable to specific molecular adsorption geometries, and thus the corresponding intermolecular hydrogen bonding patterns. The STM manipulations demonstrate the feasibility of switching such weak-hydrogen-bonding patterns.
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Reaction-based fluorescent probe for detection of endogenous cyanide in real biological samples.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Herein, two compounds (1?a and 1?b) were rationally constructed as novel reaction-based fluorescent probes for CN(-) by making use of the electron-withdrawing ability of the cyano group that was formed from the sensing reaction. Notably, this design strategy was first employed for the development of fluorescent CN(-) probes. The experimental details showed that probe 1?a exhibited a fluorescence turn-on response to CN(-) , whereas other anions, biological thiols, and hydrogen sulfide gave almost no interference. The detection limit of probe 1?a for CN(-) was found to be 0.12??M. The sensing reaction product of 1?a with CN(-) was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. TD-DFT calculations demonstrated that the formed cyano group drives the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process from coumarin dye to the cyano group and thus the original strong ICT from the coumarin dye to the 3-position pyridyl vinyl ketone substituent is weakened, which results in recovery of coumarin fluorescence. The practical utility of 1?a was also examined. By fabricating paper strips, probe 1?a can be used as a simple tool to detect CN(-) in field measurements. Moreover, probe 1?a has been successfully applied for quantitative detection of endogenous CN(-) from cassava root.
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Broadband focusing and collimation of water waves by zero refractive index.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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It is always a challenge to realize extreme and unusual values of refractive index for a broad range of frequencies. We show that when water is covered by a thick, rigid and unmovable plate, it behaves like a medium with zero refractive index for water waves at any frequency. Hence, by covering water with a plate of a concave or rectangular shape, water waves can be focused or collimated in a broad range of frequencies. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate these effects and results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.
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Cancer risks and long-term community-level exposure to pentachlorophenol in contaminated areas, China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Widespread use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in schistosomiasis endemic areas had led to ubiquitous exposure to PCP and its residues. Numerous studies had revealed that occupational PCP exposure probably increased risk of cancers, but whether long-term community-level exposure to PCP generates the similarly carcinogenic effect, seldom studies focused on it. This study was to explore the cancer risks of long-term community-level PCP exposure from drinking water in a Chinese general population. Incident (2009-2012) cancer records were identified by local government national registry. And PCP concentration of raw drinking water samples in each district was measured by GC-MS/MS analysis for further division of three PCP exposure categories by interquartile range (high vs. medium vs. low). Internal comparisons were performed, and standard rate ratio was calculated to describe the relationship between PCP exposure and cancer risks by using low-exposure group as the reference group. PCP was detected in all 27 raw drinking water samples ranging from 11.21 to 684.00 ng/L. A total of 6,750 cases (4,409 male and 2,341 female cases) were identified, and age-standardized rate (world) was 154.95 per 100,000 person-years. The cancer incidence for the high-exposure group was remarkably high. Internal comparisons indicated that high PCP exposure might be positively associated with high cancer risks in the community population, particularly for leukemia (SRR?=?5.93, 95 % CI?=?5.24-6.71), maligant lymphoma (SRR?=?2.27, 95 % CI?=?2.10-2.54), and esophageal cancer (SRR?=?2.42, 95 % CI?=?2.35-2.50). Long-term community-level exposure to PCP was probably associated with hemolymph neoplasm, neurologic tumors, and digestive system neoplasm.
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Changes of serum parameters of TiO? nanoparticle-induced atherosclerosis in mice.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The evaluation of toxicological effects of nanoparticulate matter is increasingly important due to their growing occupational use and presence as compounds in consumer products. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to nanosized particles lead to systemic inflammation in experimental animals, but whether long-term exposure to nanosized particles induces atherogenesis is rarely evaluated. In the current study, mice were continuously exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) at 1.25, 2.5, or 5mg/kg body weight, administered by nasal instillation for nine consecutive months, and the association between serum parameter changes and atherosclerosis in mice were investigated. The present findings suggested that chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs resulted in atherogenesis coupling with pulmonary inflammation, increased levels of serum triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species, NAD(P)H oxidases 4, C-reaction protein, E-selectin, endothelin-1, tissue factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and reduced levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, nitric oxide and tissue plasminogen activator. Our study suggests an association of long-term exposure to TiO2 NPs with atherosclerosis and pulmonary inflammation. This finding demonstrates the hypothesized role of TiO2 NPs as a risk factor for atherogenesis.
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H2S, a novel therapeutic target in renal-associated diseases?
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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For more than a century, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been regarded as a toxic gas. Recently, the understanding of the biological effects of H2S has been changed. This review surveys the growing recognition of H2S as an endogenous signaling molecule in mammals, with emphasis on its physiological and pathological pathways in the urinary system. This article reviews recent progress of basic and pharmacological researches related to endogenous H2S in urinary system, including the regulatory effects of H2S in the process of antioxidant, inflammation, cellular matrix remodeling and ion channels, and the role of endogenous H2S pathway in the pathogenesis of renal and urogenital disorders.
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Comparison of five chromogenic media for recovery of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from fecal samples.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Five chromogenic agars, evaluated using 400 stool specimens, were found to be superior in sensitivity (range, 89.9 to 93.9%) to bile esculin azide agar with vancomycin (BEAV) agar (84.8%) for detecting vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and the results were available 24 to 48 h sooner. The time to detection, need for supplemental testing, color distinction, and breakthrough of non-VRE organisms vary among the chromogenic media tested and may factor into the decision to use a particular medium.
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Mipu1 Overexpression Protects Macrophages from oxLDL-Induced Foam Cell Formation and Cell Apoptosis.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Mipu1 (myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1) is a novel N-terminal Kruppel-associated box (KRAB)/C2H2 zinc finger superfamily protein, that displays a powerful effect in protecting H9c2 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of Mipu1 overexpression on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced foam cell formation, cell apoptosis, and its possible mechanisms. New Zealand healthy rabbits were used to establish atherosclerosis model, and serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were detected by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Sudan IV staining was used to detect atherosclerotic lesions. The RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was selected as the experimental material. Oil red O staining, high-performance liquid chromatography, and Dil-labeled lipoprotein were used to detect cholesterol accumulation qualitatively and quantitatively, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell apoptosis. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of the main proteins that are associated with the transport of cholesterol, such as ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI, and CD36. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of Mipu1. There were atherosclerotic lesions in the high-fat diet group with Sudan IV staining. High-fat diet decreased Mipu1 expression and increased CD36 expression significantly at the 10th week compared with standard-diet rabbits. Mipu1 overexpression decreased oxLDL-induced cholesterol accumulation, oxLDL uptake, cell apoptosis, and cleaved caspase-3. Mipu1 overexpression inhibited the oxLDL-induced CD36 mRNA and protein expression, but it did not significantly inhibit the mRNA expression of ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI. Mipu1 overexpression inhibits oxLDL-induced foam cell formation and cell apoptosis. Mipu1 overexpression reduces the lipid intake of macrophages and might be associated with the downregulation of CD36 expression in the presence of oxLDL.
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Small-molecule survivin inhibitor YM155 enhances radiosensitization in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by the abrogation of G2 checkpoint and suppression of homologous recombination repair.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Survivin is overexpressed in cancer cells and plays a crucial role in apoptosis evasion. YM155, a small-molecule inhibitor of survivin, could enhance the cytotoxicity of various DNA-damaging agents. Here, we evaluated the radiosensitizaion potential of YM155 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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Preventive effect of non-mitogenic acidic fibroblast growth factor on diabetes-induced testicular cell death.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 was found to protect the heart from oxidative damage, but clinically its long-term use was restricted for its undesirable proliferating activity on cells. Thus a cluster of amino acids responsible for the proliferation were deleted in the native FGF-1 to create a non-mitogenic FGF-1 (nmFGF-1). Whether the nmFGF-1 protects male germ cells from diabetes-induced apoptotic death was examined in diabetic mice induced with multiple low-doses of streptozotocin, followed by nmFGF-1 treatment for 6 months. Diabetic mice showed a decrease in testicular weight and an increase in apoptotic cell death. Treatment with nmFGF-1 alleviated the diabetic effects on testicular weight and apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, nmFGF-1 may alleviate diabetes-induced germ cell death by decreasing the BAX/Bcl-2 ratio and endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as associated cell death, which is associated with Nrf-2 activation.
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Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Sleep apnea (SA) is characterized by apnea during sleep and is associated with cardiovascular diseases and an increase in all-cause mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem that has placed a substantial burden on healthcare resources. However, the relationship between SA and the incidence of CKD is not clear. This study aimed to determine whether SA is an independent risk factor for the development of CKD.
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Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase confers tolerance to stress conditions in cancer cells.
Cell Stress Chaperones
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is a member of the GTP-binding translation elongation factor family that is essential for protein synthesis. eEF2 kinase (eEF2K) is a structurally and functionally unique protein kinase in the calmodulin-mediated signaling pathway. eEF2K phosphorylates eEF2, thereby inhibiting eEF2 function under stressful conditions. eEF2K regulates numerous processes, such as protein synthesis, cell cycle progression, and induction of autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. This review will demonstrate the mechanisms underlying eEF2K activity in cancer cells under different stresses, such as nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, and DNA damage via eEF2 regulation. In vivo, in vitro, and clinical studies indicated that eEF2K may be a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for cancer.
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A novel human interleukin-24 peptide created by computer-guided design contributes to suppression of proliferation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Eca-109 cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Based on the three-dimensional modeling structure of human interleukin-24 (hIL-24) and its most likely active position predicted by solvent accessibility and apparent electrostatic properties, a novel hIL-24 peptide M1 was created by computer-guided molecular design. The cytotoxicity and cell selectivity of M1 were examined in three human carcinoma cell lines and one normal human embryo lung fibroblast cell line (HEL). MTT assay showed that M1 induced growth arrest in two IL-20 receptor complex-positive cancer cell lines (the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca-109 and the melanoma cell line A375), and antibodies against IL-24 or IL-20 receptor complexes significantly neutralized the inhibitory activity. Moreover, M1 had almost no cytotoxicity on the lung cancer A549 cell line, which lacks a full complement of the IL-20 receptor complexes, or on HEL cells that express the IL-20 receptor complexes. These findings demonstrate that M1 could act as an excellent candidate for the induction of growth arrest on receptor complex-positive cancer cells. In summary, the M1 peptide may represent a novel anticancer agent for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy due to its cancer cell selectivity and its relatively low cytotoxicity to normal cells.
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Rapid evaluation and quality control of next generation sequencing data with FaQCs.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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BackgroundNext generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that parallelize the sequencing process and produce thousands to millions, or even hundreds of millions of sequences in a single sequencing run, have revolutionized genomic and genetic research. Because of the vagaries of any platform¿s sequencing chemistry, the experimental processing, machine failure, and so on, the quality of sequencing reads is never perfect, and often declines as the read is extended. These errors invariably affect downstream analysis/application and should therefore be identified early on to mitigate any unforeseen effects.ResultsHere we present a novel FastQ Quality Control Software (FaQCs) that can rapidly process large volumes of data, and which improves upon previous solutions to monitor the quality and remove poor quality data from sequencing runs. Both the speed of processing and the required memory footprint of storing all required information have been optimized via algorithmic and parallel processing solutions. The trimmed output compared side-by-side with the original data is part of the automated PDF output. We show how this tool can help data analysis by providing a few examples, including an increased percentage of reads recruited to references, improved single nucleotide polymorphism identification as well as de novo sequence assembly metrics.ConclusionFaQCs combines several features of currently available applications into a single, user-friendly process, and includes additional unique capabilities such as filtering the PhiX control sequences, conversion of FASTQ formats, and multi-threading. The original data and trimmed summaries are reported within a variety of graphics and reports, providing a simple way to do data quality control and assurance.
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Comparison of transverse and modified subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy in total hip arthroplasty for developmental dysplasia of hip: a meta-analysis.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy is a crucial procedure to prevent nerve injury in total hip arthroplasty for severe developmental dysplasia of the hip. Transverse osteotomy was first applied, and other modified methods have also been reported. Each has its own advantages and limitations, but no definitive conclusions regarding differences in outcomes have been reached to date.
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From bench to bedside: immunotherapy for prostate cancer.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The mainstay therapeutic strategy for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to be androgen deprivation therapy usually in combination with chemotherapy or androgen receptor targeting therapy in either sequence, or recently approved novel agents such as Radium 223. However, immunotherapy has also emerged as an option for the treatment of this disease following the approval of sipuleucel-T by the FDA in 2010. Immunotherapy is a rational approach for prostate cancer based on a body of evidence suggesting these cancers are inherently immunogenic and, most importantly, that immunological interventions can induce protective antitumour responses. Various forms of immunotherapy are currently being explored clinically, with the most common being cancer vaccines (dendritic-cell, viral, and whole tumour cell-based) and immune checkpoint inhibition. This review will discuss recent clinical developments of immune-based therapies for prostate cancer that have reached the phase III clinical trial stage. A perspective of how immunotherapy could be best employed within current treatment regimes to achieve most clinical benefits is also provided.
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The draft genome of the large yellow croaker reveals well-developed innate immunity.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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The large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, is one of the most economically important marine fish species endemic to China. Its wild stocks have severely suffered from overfishing, and the aquacultured species are vulnerable to various marine pathogens. Here we report the creation of a draft genome of a wild large yellow croaker using a whole-genome sequencing strategy. We estimate the genome size to be 728?Mb with 19,362 protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the stickleback is most closely related to the large yellow croaker. Rapidly evolving genes under positive selection are significantly enriched in pathways related to innate immunity. We also confirm the existence of several genes and identify the expansion of gene families that are important for innate immunity. Our results may reflect a well-developed innate immune system in the large yellow croaker, which could aid in the development of wild resource preservation and mariculture strategies.
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Associations between thyroid autoantibody status and abnormal pregnancy outcomes in euthyroid women.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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We investigated whether thyroid autoantibody status influences pregnancy outcomes in euthyroid women, by comparing abnormal pregnancy outcome rates between those who tested positive for thyroid autoantibodies (Ab(+)) and those who tested autoantibody-negative (Ab(-)). Euthyroid pregnant women (n = 7,641) underwent tests for serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb). The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to thyroid antibody status: TPOAb(-)/TgAb(-) (92.9 %); TPOAb(+)/TgAb(-) (3.2 %); TPOAb(-)/TgAb(+) (2.0 %); and TPOAb(+)/TgAb(+) (1.9 %). The incidence rates of the following abnormal pregnancy outcomes were compared among the 4 groups and analyzed by Fisher's exact test: gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of fetal membrane (PROM), intrauterine growth restriction, fetal distress, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birth weight. Among the 4 groups, there were no significant differences in age, gestational age, or in the incidence rates of abnormal pregnancy outcomes, except for PROM and low birth weight. The highest incidence rates for PROM and low birth weight were in the TPOAb(-)/TgAb(+) and TPOAb(+)/TgAb(+) subjects, respectively. TgAb positivity and TPOAb positivity were associated with PROM and low birth weight, respectively. Underlying factors that govern the association between thyroid autoantibodies and PROM and low birth weight require further investigation.
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Increased risk of hip fractures in patients with dementia: a nationwide population-based study.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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BackgroundDementia has been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. However, little research has been conducted on the impact of dementia on wrist or vertebral fracture development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dementia is a risk factor for different types of fracture in Taiwan.MethodsThe study sample was drawn from Taiwan¿s National Health Insurance Research Database of reimbursement claims, and comprised 1408 patients who visited ambulatory care centers or were hospitalized with a diagnosis of dementia. The comparison group consisted of 7040 randomly selected individuals. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to examine associations between dementia and the risk of different types of fracture.ResultsDuring a 3-year follow-up period, 264 patients with dementia (18.75%) and 1098 patients without dementia (15.60%) developed fractures. Dementia was independently associated with increased risk of hip fracture [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.92, 95% CI 1.48¿2.49]. Patients with dementia and osteoporosis had the highest risk of developing hip fracture (adjusted HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.28¿4.01). Dementia did not increase wrist fracture or vertebral fracture risk when compared to the control group, even in patients with osteoporosis.ConclusionsIndividuals with dementia are at greater risk of developing hip fracture, particularly if they also have osteoporosis. Early mental screening programs and health education should be initiated to decrease disability and dependence in patients with dementia.
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[Clinical application of unilateral axis translaminar screws in upper cervical instability with vertebral artery variations].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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To investigate the clinical outcomes of the posterior C1,2 screw-rod combined with C2 unilateral translaminar screw and contralateral pedicle screw fixation and autogenous bicortical iliac crest graft fusion in treating upper cervical instability with vertebral artery variations.
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Efficacy of Enzalutamide Following Abiraterone Acetate in Chemotherapy-naive Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Patients.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The activity of enzalutamide after prior treatment with both abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) and docetaxel has been examined in several retrospective studies. However, limited data are available on the efficacy of enzalutamide following abiraterone in chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).
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Tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Studies that investigated the association between tea consumption and the risk of major cardiovascular events have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies in order to summarize the evidence regarding the association between tea consumption and major cardiovascular outcomes or total mortality. In July 2014, we performed electronic searches in PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library, followed by manual searches of reference lists from the resulting articles to identify other relevant studies. Prospective observational studies that reported effect estimates, with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cardiac death, stroke death, or total mortality for more than two dosages of tea consumption were included. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to determine the risk of major cardiovascular outcomes associated with an increase in tea consumption by 3 cups per day. Of the 736 citations identified from database searches, we included 22 prospective studies from 24 articles reporting data on 856,206 individuals, and including 8,459 cases of CHD, 10,572 of stroke, 5,798 cardiac deaths, 2,350 stroke deaths, and 13,722 total deaths. Overall, an increase in tea consumption by 3 cups per day was associated with a reduced risk of CHD (relative risk [RR], 0.73; 95 % CI: 0.53-0.99; P = 0.045), cardiac death (RR, 0.74; 95 % CI: 0.63-0.86; P < 0.001), stroke (RR, 0.82; 95 % CI: 0.73-0.92; P = 0.001), total mortality (RR, 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.63-0.91; P = 0.003), cerebral infarction (RR, 0.84; 95 % CI: 0.72-0.98; P = 0.023), and intracerebral hemorrhage (RR, 0.79; 95 % CI: 0.72-0.87; P < 0.001), but had little or no effect on stroke mortality (RR, 0.93; 95 % CI: 0.83-1.05; P = 0.260). The findings from this meta-analysis indicate that increased tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CHD, cardiac death, stroke, cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage, as well as total mortality.
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Role of surgery in the treatment of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma who have a poor response to induction chemotherapy.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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In instances of high-risk neuroblastoma that do not show a clinical response to induction therapy, whether it is worth performing surgical resection or not and whether gross total resection (GTR) is more important than subtotal resection (STR) remain controversial.
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A Phase II Study of GW786034 (Pazopanib) With or Without Bicalutamide in Patients With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Clin Genitourin Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Pazopanib is an oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In this randomized, open label phase II study, pazopanib alone or in combination with bicalutamide was evaluated in patients with chemotherapy-naive castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
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The complex jujube genome provides insights into fruit tree biology.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans 437.65?Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45?Mb anchored to the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit trees.
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A randomized phase II study of cediranib alone versus cediranib in combination with dasatinib in docetaxel resistant, castration resistant prostate cancer patients.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the oncogenic Src pathway has been implicated in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in preclinical models. Cediranib and dasatinib are multi-kinase inhibitors targeting VEGFR and Src respectively. Phase II studies of cediranib and dasatinib in CRPC have shown single agent activity.
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Promoting positive psychology using social networking sites: a study of new college entrants on Facebook.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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This study explores the potential of promoting college students' positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students' Internet time and has the potential to assist students' positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1) relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2) using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3) promoting student's positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents' future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence.
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Autonomous in situ analysis and real-time chemical detection using a backpack miniature mass spectrometer: concept, instrumentation development, and performance.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A major design objective of portable mass spectrometers is the ability to perform in situ chemical analysis on target samples in their native states in the undisturbed environment. The miniature instrument described here is fully contained in a wearable backpack (10 kg) with a geometry-independent low-temperature plasma (LTP) ion source integrated into a hand-held head unit (2 kg) to allow direct surface sampling and analysis. Detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants, illicit drugs, and explosives is demonstrated at nanogram levels directly from surfaces in near real time including those that have complex geometries, those that are heat-sensitive, and those bearing complex sample matrices. The instrument consumes an average of 65 W of power and can be operated autonomously under battery power for ca. 1.5 h, including the initial pump-down of the manifold. The maximum mass-to-charge ratio is 925 Th with mass resolution of 1-2 amu full width at half-maximun (fwhm) across the mass range. Multiple stages of tandem analysis can be performed to identify individual compounds in complex mixtures. Both positive and negative ion modes are available. A graphical user interface (GUI) is available for novice users to facilitate data acquisition and real-time spectral matching.
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Mini 12, miniature mass spectrometer for clinical and other applications--introduction and characterization.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A benchtop miniature mass spectrometer system, Mini 12, with ambient ionization source and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities has been developed and characterized. This instrument was developed as a self-contained system to produce quantitative results for unprocessed samples of small volumes including nonvolatile analytes. The ion processing system, vacuum system, and control system are detailed. An integrated sample loading system facilitates automated operation. A user interface has been developed to acquire and to interpret analytical results for personnel who have limited mass spectrometry knowledge. Peak widths of ?m/z 0.6 Th (full width at half-maximum) and a mass range of up to m/z 900 are demonstrated with the rectilinear ion trap mass analyzer. Multistage experiments up to MS(5) are accomplished. Consumable cartridges have been designed for use in ambient paper spray ionization, and the recently developed extraction spray ionization method has been employed to improve the quantitative performance. Monitoring of trace-levels of chemicals in therapeutic drugs, as well as in food safety and environmental protection operations is demonstrated. Dual MS/MS scans are implemented to obtain the intensities of the fragment ions from the analyte and its internal standard, and the ratio is used in quantitative analysis of complex samples. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) of 7.5 ng/mL, with relative standard deviations below 10%, have been obtained for selected therapeutic drugs in whole blood throughout their individual therapeutic ranges.
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A randomized phase II efficacy and safety study of vandetanib (ZD6474) in combination with bicalutamide versus bicalutamide alone in patients with chemotherapy naïve castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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To investigate the efficacy and safety of combining vandetanib, an orally available multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with bicalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).
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Identification of a long non-coding RNA as a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target for metastatic prostate cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is still an incurable disease. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may be an overlooked source of cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We therefore performed RNA sequencing on paired metastatic/non-metastatic PCa xenografts derived from clinical specimens. The most highly up-regulated transcript was LOC728606, a lncRNA now designated PCAT18. PCAT18 is specifically expressed in the prostate compared to 11 other normal tissues (p<0.05) and up-regulated in PCa compared to 15 other neoplasms (p<0.001). Cancer-specific up-regulation of PCAT18 was confirmed on an independent dataset of PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia samples (p<0.001). PCAT18 was detectable in plasma samples and increased incrementally from healthy individuals to those with localized and metastatic PCa (p<0.01). We identified a PCAT18-associated expression signature (PES), which is highly PCa-specific and activated in metastatic vs. primary PCa samples (p<1E-4, odds ratio>2). The PES was significantly associated with androgen receptor (AR) signalling. Accordingly, AR activation dramatically up-regulated PCAT18 expression in vitro and in vivo. PCAT18 silencing significantly (p<0.001) inhibited PCa cell proliferation and triggered caspase 3/7 activation, with no effect on non-neoplastic cells. PCAT18 silencing also inhibited PCa cell migration (p<0.01) and invasion (p<0.01). These results position PCAT18 as a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for metastatic PCa.
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Effect of Mild Hypothermia on the Expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 in Lung Tissues with Experimental Acute Lung Injury.
Heart Lung Circ
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Our study aimed to determine the effect of mild hypothermia (MHT) on the expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in lung tissue with acute lung injury. The animals were randomly divided into control, model and mild hypothermia groups.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.