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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Non-traumatic Ocular and Periocular Hemorrhages in a Hypertensive Patient under Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis and Warfarin Therapy.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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We herein present the first reported case of severe proptosis caused by ocular and periocular hemorrhages in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dilaysis patient without previous history of trauma. The bleeding tendency caused by uremia and the use of warfarin during uncontrolled high blood pressure were most likely responsible for her ocular and periocular hemorrhages. Appropriate control of blood pressure and adequate self-care education are important for the prevention and treatment of any bleeding complications in uremic patients receiving both maintenance anticoagulation therapy and peritoneal dialysis.
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Promoting the Selection and Maintenance of Fetal Liver Stem/Progenitor Cell Colonies by Layer-by-Layer Polypeptide Tethered Supported Lipid Bilayer.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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In this study, we designed and constructed a series of layer-by-layer polypeptide adsorbed supported lipid bilayer (SLB) films as a novel and label-free platform for the isolation and maintenance of rare populated stem cells. In particular, four alternative layers of anionic poly-l-glutamic acid and cationic poly-l-lysine were sequentially deposited on an anionic SLB. We found that the fetal liver stem/progenitor cells from the primary culture were selected and formed colonies on all layer-by-layer polypeptide adsorbed SLB surfaces, regardless of the number of alternative layers and the net charges on those layers. Interestingly, these isolated stem/progenitor cells formed colonies which were maintained for an 8 day observation period. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation measurements showed that all SLB-polypeptide films were protein resistant with serum levels significantly lower than those on the polypeptide multilayer films without an underlying SLB. We suggest the fluidic SLB promotes selective binding while minimizing the cell-surface interaction due to its nonfouling nature, thus limiting stem cell colonies from spreading.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Fujian rod gugeon Microphysogobio fukienensis (Nichols) (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Fujian rod gugeon, Microphysogobio fukienensis (Nichols) (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Gobioninae) has been amplified. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,600?bp, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a noncoding control region (CR). CR of 930?bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of M. fukienensis is 31.0% for A, 26.0% for C, 26.6% for T and 16.4% for G, with higher AT content of 57.0%. The complete mitogenome may provide rather essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analysis for not only congeneric species but also higher different taxa of Cyprinid fishes.
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Squalene synthase induces tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 enrichment in lipid rafts to promote lung cancer metastasis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Metabolic alterations contribute to cancer development and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms relating metabolism to cancer metastasis remain largely unknown.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of altai osman Oreoleuciscus humilis Warpachowski (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of altai osman Oreoleuciscus humilis Warpachowski collected from Mongolia has been amplified and sequenced in this study. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,606 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of Oreoleuciscus humilis is 27.6% for A, 26.4% for T, 27.2% for C, 18.8% for G, with higher AT content 54.0%. This study will be rather beneficial for understanding the phylogenetic approach of Oreoleuciscus species and other related genera of cyprinid fishes.
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Cyclin D1 acts as a barrier to pluripotent reprogramming by promoting neural progenitor fate commitment.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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A short G1 phase is a characteristic feature of the cell cycle structure of pluripotent cells, and is reestablished during Yamanaka factor-mediated pluripotent reprogramming. How cell cycle control is adjusted to meet the requirements of pluripotent cell fate commitment during reprogramming is less well understood. Elevated levels of cyclin D1 were initially found to impair pluripotency maintenance. The current work further identified Cyclin D1 to be capable of transcriptionally upregulating Pax6, which promoted reprogramming cells to commit to a neural progenitor fate rather than a pluripotent cell fate. These findings explain the importance of reestablishment of G1-phase restriction in pluripotent reprogramming.
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Novel target genes responsive to apoptotic activity by Ocimum gratissimum in human osteosarcoma cells.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Osteosarcoma (OS) is a type of bone cancer. Eighty percent of this tumor will metastasize to the lungs or liver, and as a result, patients generally need chemotherapy to improve survival possibility. Recently, antitumor activity has been reported in Ocimum gratissimum aqueous extract (OGE), which has been the focus of recent extensive studies on therapeutic strategies due to its antioxidant properties. We performed pharmacogenomics analyses for the effect of OGE on human osteosarcoma U2-OS and HOS cell growth. Cell viability, Western blot and flow cytometry analysis were performed before performing pharmacogenomics analyses for the effect of OGE on human osteosarcoma U2-OS and HOS cell growth, including cDNA microarray and RT-PCR assays. Cell viability assays revealed that OGE significantly and dose-dependently decreased the viability of U2-OS and HOS cells. Increases in cell shrinkage, Sub-G1 fragments and the activation of caspase 3 indicated that OGE induced cell apoptosis in U2-OS and HOS cells. There was no change in human osteoblast hFOS cells. cDNA microarray assay demonstrated that the expression of cell cycle regulators, apoptosis-related factors and cell proliferation markers were all modified by OGE treatment. RT-PCR analysis also confirmed the down-regulation of SKA2 and BUB1B, and the up-regulation of PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4 by OGE treatment. The finding of anticancer activity in OGE and the identification of some potential target genes raise the expectation that OGE may become a useful therapeutic drug for human OS.
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Lipopolysaccharide-induced microRNA-146a targets CARD10 and regulates angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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This aim of this study was to explore the role of miRNA-146a (miR-146a) and its target genes in endothelial cells. We demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced the upregulation of miR-146a in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and that the induction was blocked by silencing toll-like receptors, the adaptor molecule MyD88, and the nonspecific NF-?B inhibitor BAY 11-7082. In addition, knockdown of miR-146a by transfection of the locked nucleic acid antimiR-146a significantly inhibited LPS-induced cell migration and tube formation. A combined analysis of bioinformatics miRanda algorithms and a whole genome expression microarray of immunoprecipitated Ago2 ribonucleoprotein complexes identified 14 potential target genes. Subsequent transfection with the miR-146a precursor pre-miR-146a into HUVECs validated that CARD10 was the target gene of the miR-146a, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Silencing CARD10 inhibited p65 nuclear translocation in the cells receiving LPS stimulation and increased angiogenesis. Therefore, miR-146a may play a role in regulating the angiogenesis in HUVECs by downregulating CARD10, which acts in a negative feedback regulation loop to inhibit the activation of NF-?B that normally impairs angiogenesis.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the small-scaled Wu's goby Wuhanlinigobius polylepis (Perciformes, Gobiidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the small-scaled Wu's goby Wuhanlinigobius polylepis (Wu & Ni, 1985) found in eastern and southern China has been amplified and sequenced. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,496 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of Wuhanlinigobius polylepis is 28.6% for A, 29.0% for T, 26.7% for C, 15.7% for G, with higher AT content 57.6%. This study will contribute for further understanding the molecular phylogenetic anaylsis in Hemigobius generic group of gobiid fishes.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean minnow Nipponocypris koreanus (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean minnow Nipponocypris koreanus (Kim et al., 2005) which is endemic to Korean Peninsula has been amplified and sequenced in this study. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,615 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of N. koreanus is 30.0% for A, 26.8% for T, 26.1% for C, 17.1% for G, with higher AT content 56.8%. This study will be rather beneficial for understanding the phylogenetic approach of Nipponocypris species and other related genera of cyprinid fishes.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Hoeven's mullet-goby Hemigobius hoevenii (Bleeker) (Teleostei, Gobiidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Hoeven's mullet-goby Hemigobius hoevenii (Bleeker, 1851) collected from Malay Peninsula has been amplified and sequenced. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,469 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of H. hoevenii is 27.1% for A, 26.6% for T, 29.0% for C, 17.3% for G, with higher AT content 53.7%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach of Hemigobius species as well as the related genera of gobiid fishes.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of small sliver gugeon Squalidus gracilis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of small silver gugeon Squalidus gracilis has been amplified. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,605 base pairs (bp), had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a non-coding control region (CR). CR of 928?bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of S. gracilis is 29.8% for A, 27.6% for C, 25.7% for T and 16.9% for G, with higher AT content of 55.5%. The complete mitogenome may provide rather essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analysis for not only congeneric species but also higher different taxa of Cyprinid fishes.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese rod gugeon Abbottina rivularis (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Chinese rod gugeon, Abbottina rivularis (Basilewsky, 1855) has been amplified. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,608 base pairs (bp), had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a noncoding control region (CR). CR of 929?bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of A. rivularis is 29.9% for A, 27.2% for C, 25.7% for T and 17.3% for G, with higher AT content of 55.6%. The complete mitogenome may provide rather essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analysis for not only congeneric species but also higher different taxa of Cyprinid fishes.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the redigoby Redigobius bikolanus (Perciformes, Gobiidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Biko's redigoby Redigobius bikolanus (Herre, 1927) has been amplified in this study. R. bikolanus contributes in Taiwan, as well as Southeast Asia. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,464 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of R. bikolanus is 28.9% for A, 26.7% for T, 28.5% for C, 15.9% for G, with higher AT content 55.6%. This study will contribute and be rather beneficial for understanding the phylogenetic approach of genus Redigobius.
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Reduction of TLR4 mRNA stability and protein expressions through inhibiting cytoplasmic translocation of HuR transcription factor by E? and/or ER? in LPS-treated H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Our previous results have indicated that Akt mediates 17?-estradiol (E?) and/or estrogen receptor ? (ER?) to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced JNK activity, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) protein expression, and exhibits cardioprotective effects. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNAs often contain AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTR) which have a high affinity for RNA-binding proteins. It is not known whether E? and ER? affect TLR4 mRNA stability and TLR4 protein expression through regulating the RNA-binding proteins, human antigen R (HuR), tristetraprolin (TTP) and AU-binding factor 1 (AUF-1) in myocardial cells. Therefore, we investigated if the LPS in- duces these RNA-binding proteins to regulate TLR4 mRNAs of cardiomyocytes, and whether the E?/ER? reduces the TLR4 mRNA stability induced by LPS through the inhibition of RNA-binding protein expression. Using a doxycycline (Dox)-induced Tet-On ER? H9c2 myocardic cell model, we also aimed to identify whether E? and/or ER? regulate LPS-induced TLR4 mRNA stability. The results of Western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR assays demonstrated that LPS significantly in- creased the level of cytoplasmic HuR protein and the stability of TLR4 mRNA, and farther induced TLR4 protein expression in H9c2 cells, an effect mediated through the JNK pathway. Interestingly, E? and/or ER? decreased the cytoplasmic HuR protein level and TLR4 mRNA stability, and farther decreased the level of TLR4 protein induced by LPS in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. Therefore, LPS triggered HuR expression which led to enhanced TLR4 mRNA and upregulated TLR4 expression through JNK1/2 in myocardial cells.
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Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway decreases innate resistance to lipopolysaccharide toxicity in TLR4 deficient mice.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, activation of both the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways serves to balance proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Although the antagonist to TLR4 represents an emerging promising target for the treatment of sepsis; however, the role of the PI3K pathway under TLR4-null conditions is not well understood. This goal of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of PI3K on innate resistance to LPS toxicity in a murine model.
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The characteristics of chitinase expression in Aeromonas schubertii.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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In this study, chitinase activity in an incubation broth of Aeromonas schubertii was measured using colloidal chitin azure as the substrate. More specifically, the induction of chitinases due to amendment with various carbon sources was examined. The highest chitinase activity was found following amendment with 0.5-1.0 % chitin powder, whereas the activity increased negligibly due to amendment with other carbon sources, such as glucose, GlcNAc, GlcN, sorbitol, sucrose, cellulose, or starch. The chitinase activity induced by the chitin powder was suppressed when the glucose, GlcNAc, GlcN, or starch was added simultaneously to the medium but was not suppressed by the addition of sorbitol, sucrose, or cellulose. The activity of chitinase in the crude extract was also not directly inhibited by glucose. Taken together, these findings suggest that the induction of chitinase activity depends on the acquisition of suitable carbon sources from the environment and that induction occurs at a regulatory level.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Plesiomyzon baotingensis Zheng & Chen (Cyprinifromes, Balitoridae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of balitorid loach Plesiomyzon baotingensis Zheng & Chen, 1980 which was collected from Hainan island, China, has been sequenced by the long polymerase chain reaction method. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,541 base pairs (bp), had typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a noncoding control region (CR). CR of 877?bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of Plesiomyzon baotingensis is 29.6% for A, 28.5% for C, 25.0% for T and 16.9% for G, with a slight AT bias of 54.6%. The complete mitochondrial genome may provide rather informative data for reconstructing and addressing new molecular perspectives for balitorid phylogenies.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of beautiful stone loach Traccatichthys pulcher (Nichols & Pope) (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of balitorid fish, beautiful stone loach Traccatichthys pulcher (Nichols & Pope, 1927), collected from Hainan island, China, has been sequenced by the long polymerase chain reaction method. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,580 base pairs (bp), had typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a noncoding control region (CR). CR of 928?bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of T. pulcher is 31.3% for A, 26.8% for C, 25.9% for T and 16.0% for G, with a slight AT bias of 57.3%. The complete mitochondrial genome may provide rather informative data for reconstructing and addressing new molecular perspectives for balitorid phylogenies.
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Clinical observations on enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry disease and the switch from agalsidase beta to agalsidase alfa.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Fabry disease is an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disease that can be treated with the enzymes of agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme) and agalsidase alfa (Replagal). Since June 2009, viral contamination of Genzyme's production facility has resulted in a worldwide shortage of agalsidase beta, leading to the switch to agalsidase alfa for patients with Fabry disease in Taiwan.
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Academic Performance Antecedent Scale: validation with native and recent immigrant children.
Psychol Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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This study aims to assess the measurement invariance of the three subscales of the newly developed Academic Performance Antecedent Scale (APAS)--School Factors, Mothers Parenting Style, and Individual Factors--across native and new immigrant children in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 527 Grade 4 students (M age = 10.4 yr., SD = 0.6), 263 boys and 264 girls. The three groups were urban and rural children of Taiwanese natives (n = 343, 65.1%), and 184 children with non-Taiwanese mothers (34.9%). The four-factor structure of the School Factors Subscale, the three-factor structure of the Mothers Parenting Style Subscale, and the five-factor structure of the Individual Factors Subscale all showed at least acceptable fit for the groups. In addition, metric invariance was confirmed for the School Factors and Individual Factors Subscales. Metric invariance was partially obtained for the Mothers Parenting Style Subscale. The findings provide validity evidences for cross-cultural generalizability of the APAS.
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Classification of schizophrenia using Genetic Algorithm-Support Vector Machine (GA-SVM).
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Recently, Event-Related Potential (ERP) has being the most popular method in evaluating brain waves of schizophrenia patients. ERP is one of the electroencephalography (EEG), which is measured the change of brain waves after giving patients certain stimulations instead of resting state. However, with traditional statistical analysis method, both P50 and MMN showed significant difference between controls and patients but not in Gamma band. Gamma band is a 30-50 Hz auditory stimulation which had been suggested may be abnormal in schizophrenia patients. Our data are recruited from 5 schizophrenia patients and 5 controls in National Taiwan University Hospital have been tested with this platform. The results showed that detection rate is 88.24% and we also analyzed the importance of features, including Standard Deviation (SD) and Total Variation (TotalVar) in different stage of wavelet transform. Therefore, this proposed methodology could serve as a valuable clinical decision support for physiologists in evaluating schizophrenia.
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Epilepsy analytic system with cloud computing.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Biomedical data analytic system has played an important role in doing the clinical diagnosis for several decades. Today, it is an emerging research area of analyzing these big data to make decision support for physicians. This paper presents a parallelized web-based tool with cloud computing service architecture to analyze the epilepsy. There are many modern analytic functions which are wavelet transform, genetic algorithm (GA), and support vector machine (SVM) cascaded in the system. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the system, it has been verified by two kinds of electroencephalography (EEG) data, which are short term EEG and long term EEG. The results reveal that our approach achieves the total classification accuracy higher than 90%. In addition, the entire training time accelerate about 4.66 times and prediction time is also meet requirements in real time.
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A High performance cloud computing platform for mRNA analysis.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Multiclass classification is an important technique to many complex bioinformatics problems. However, their performance is limited by the computation power. Based on the Apache Hadoop design framework, this study proposes a two layer architecture that exploits the inherent parallelism of GA-SVM classification to speed up the work. The performance evaluations on an mRNA benchmark cancer dataset have reduced 86.55% features and raised accuracy from 97.53% to 98.03%. With a user-friendly web interface, the system provides researchers an easy way to investigate the unrevealed secrets in the fast-growing repository of bioinformatics data.
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Electrical modulation of the local conduction at oxide tubular interfaces.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Heterointerfaces between complex oxides have sparked considerable interest due to their fascinating physical properties and their offering of new possibilities for next-generation electronic devices. The key to realize practical applications is the control through external stimuli. In this study, we take the self-assembled BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 tubular interface as a model system to demonstrate the nonvolatile electric control of the local conduction at the complex oxide tubular interface. The fundamental mechanism behind this modulation was explored based on static and dynamic conductive atomic force microscopies. We found the movement of oxygen vacancies in the BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 heterostructure is the key to drive this intriguing behavior. This study delivers a possibility in developing next-generation electronic devices.
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Analytical study of a microfludic DNA amplification chip using water cooling effect.
Biomed Microdevices
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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A novel continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip has been analyzed in our work. Two temperature zones are controlled by two external controllers and the other temperature zone at the chip center is controlled by the flow rate of the fluid inside a channel under the glass chip. By employing a water cooling channel at the chip center, the sequence of denaturation, annealing, and extension can be created due to the forced convection effect. The required annealing temperature of PCR less than 313 K can also be demonstrated in this chip. The Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cooling channel with the thin aluminum cover is utilized to enhance the temperature uniformity. The size of this chip is 76 mm × 26 mm × 3 mm. This device represents the first demonstration of water cooling thermocycling within continuous-flow PCR microfluidics. The commercial software CFD-ACE+(TM) is utilized to determine the distances between the heating assemblies within the chip. We investigate the influences of various chip materials, operational parameters of the cooling channel and geometric parameters of the chip on the temperature uniformity on the chip surface. Concerning the temperature uniformity of the working zones and the lowest temperature at the annealing zone, the air gap spacing of 1 mm and the cooling channel thicknesses of 1 mm of the PMMA channel with an aluminum cover are recommended in our design. The hydrophobic surface of the PDMS channel was modified by filling it with 20 % Tween 20 solution and then adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution to the PCR mixture. DNA fragments with different lengths (372 bp and 478 bp) are successfully amplified with the device.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Java fat-nose goby Pseudogobius javanicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the fat-nose goby Pseudogobius javanicus has been amplified. P. javanicus is widely contributed species in Southeast to East Asia. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,493 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of P. javanicus is 27.1% for A, 27.3% for T, 28.6% for C, 17.0% for G, with higher AT content of 54.4%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach in genus Pseudogobius.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Abes mangrove goby Mugilogobius abei (Teleostei, Gobiidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Abes mangrove goby Mugilogobius abei has been amplified. Mugilogobius abei is widely contributed species in Northeast to East Asia. The complete mitogenome is 16,483 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region (CR). The overall base composition of M. abei is 27.7% for A, 27.0% for T, 28.6% for C, 16.7% for G, with higher AT content of 54.7%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach in genus Mugilogobius and related gobiid genera.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of rainbow barbel Acrossocheilus barbodon (Nichols and Pope) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Barbinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of rainbow barbel Acrossocheilus barbodon has been amplified and sequenced by employing long polymerase chain reaction method. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,596 base pairs (bp), had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a noncoding control region (CR). CR of 934?bp length is located between tRNAPro and tRNAPhe. The overall base composition of A. hemispinus is 31.5% for A, 28.2% for C, 24.4% for T and 15.9 % for G, with a higher AC content of 55.9%. The complete mitogenome may provide very essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analysis for not only congeneric species but also higher different taxa of Cyprinid fishes.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of half-spined barbel Acrossocheilus hemispinus (Nichols) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Barbinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of half-spined barbel Acrossocheilus hemispinus has been amplified and sequenced by employing long polymerase chain reaction method. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,590 base pairs (bp), had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a noncoding control region (CR). CR of 940?bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of A. hemispinus is 31.2% for A, 28.2% for C, 24.4% for T and 15.9 % for G, with a slight AT bias of 55.6%. The complete mitogenome may provide rather essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analysis for not only congeneric species but also higher different taxa of Cyprinid fishes.
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Profiling circulating microRNA expression in a mouse model of nerve allotransplantation.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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The lack of noninvasive biomarkers of rejection remains a challenge in the accurate monitoring of deeply buried nerve allografts and precludes optimization of therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to establish the expression profile of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) during nerve allotransplantation with or without immunosuppression.
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Computational Study of the One- and Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectra of a Proton-Transfer Mode in a Hydrogen-Bonded Complex Dissolved in a Polar Nanocluster.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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The signatures of nanosolvation on the one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) IR spectra of a proton-transfer mode in a hydrogen-bonded complex dissolved in polar solvent molecule nanoclusters of varying size are elucidated by using mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations. For this particular system, increasing the number of solvent molecules successively from N=7 to N=9 initiates the transition of the system from a cluster state to a bulk-like state. Both the 1D and 2D IR spectra reflect this transition through pronounced changes in their peak intensities and numbers, but the time-resolved 2D IR spectra also manifest spectral features that uniquely identify the onset of the cluster-to-bulk transition. In particular, it is observed that in the 1D IR spectra, the relative intensities of the peaks change such that the number of peaks decreases from three to two as the size of the cluster increases from N=7 to N=9. In the 2D IR spectra, off-diagonal peaks are observed in the N=7 and N=8 cases at zero waiting time, but not in the N=9 case. It is known that there are no off-diagonal peaks in the 2D IR spectrum of the bulk version of this system at zero waiting time, so the disappearance of these peaks is a unique signature of the onset of bulk-like behavior. Through an examination of the trajectories of various properties of the complex and solvent, it is possible to relate the emergence of these off-diagonal peaks to an interplay between the vibrations of the complex and the solvent polarization dynamics.
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Use of anteromedial thigh flaps as an alternative to anterolateral thigh flaps for reconstruction of head and neck defects in cancer patients.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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To determine whether anteromedial thigh (AMT) flaps are a good choice for reconstruction in cases in which no sizable skin perforator is found in anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap dissection or ALT flaps have been previously harvested.
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High-Performance Seizure Detection System Using a Wavelet-Approximate Entropy-fSVM Cascade With Clinical Validation.
Clin EEG Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The classification of electroencephalography (EEG) signals is one of the most important methods for seizure detection. However, verification of an atypical epileptic seizure often can only be done through long-term EEG monitoring for 24 hours or longer. Hence, automatic EEG signal analysis for clinical screening is necessary for the diagnosis of epilepsy. We propose an EEG analysis system of seizure detection, based on a cascade of wavelet-approximate entropy for feature selection, Fisher scores for adaptive feature selection, and support vector machine for feature classification. Performance of the system was tested on open source data, and the overall accuracy reached 99.97%. We further tested the performance of the system on clinical EEG obtained from a clinical EEG laboratory and bedside EEG recordings. The results showed an overall accuracy of 98.73% for routine EEG, and 94.32% for bedside EEG, which verified the high performance and usefulness of such a cascade system for seizure detection. Also, the prediction model, trained by routine EEG, can be successfully generalized to bedside EEG of independent patients.
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Protoporphyrin IX accumulation disrupts mitochondrial dynamics and function in ABCG2-deficient hepatocytes.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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Targeted inhibition of multidrug ABCG2 transporter is believed to improve cancer therapeutics. However, the consequences of ABCG2 inhibition have not been systematically evaluated since ABCG2 is expressed in several organs including the liver. Here, we demonstrate that ABCG2-deficient hepatocytes have increased amounts of fragmental mitochondria accompanied by disruption of mitochondrial dynamics and functions. This disruption was due to ABCG2 knockout elevating intracellular protoporphyrin IX, which led to upregulation of DRP-1-mediated mitochondrial fission. The finding that ABCG2 deficiency can generate dysfunctional mitochondria in hepatocytes raises concerns regarding the systematic use of ABCG2 inhibitor in cancer patients.
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The role of meperidine in reduction of postanesthetic shivering and its possible impact on flap outcomes.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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Postoperative vascular compromise is a common but critical complication requiring emergent re-exploration, and remains a chief cause of free flap failure. This study investigated the relationship between postanesthetic shivering (PAS) and the development of postoperative complications associated with free flap reconstruction. One hundred thirty-six patients who underwent head and neck cancer resection and free flap reconstruction were retrospectively enrolled. Fifteen patients were assigned to the PAS group, while the others were assigned to the non-PAS (NPAS) group. The odds ratios of acute re-exploration or total failure of the free flap in the PAS group was 3.5 and 14.9, respectively. The dose of meperidine was positively correlated with PAS prevention in our statistical ROC curve analysis. The minimum effective dose of meperidine for PAS prevention was 0.35?mg/kg with 75% sensitivity and 60% specificity. These findings indicate that an optimal dose of meperidine could prevent PAS, which is shown to be associated with a decrease in the incidence of the early post-surgical re-exploration rate of these free flaps related to circulatory compromise. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2013.
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The identification and characterization of chitotriosidase activity in pancreatin from porcine pancreas.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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The versatile oligosaccharide biopolymers, chitin and chitosan, are typically produced using enzymatic processes. However, these processes are usually costly because chitinases and chitosanases are available in limited quantities. Fortunately, a number of commercial enzymes can hydrolyze chitin and chitosan to produce long chain chitin or chitosan oligosaccharides. Here, a platform to screen for enzymes with chitinase and chitosanase activities using a single gel with glycol chitin or glycol chitosan as a substrate was applied. SDS-resistant chitinase and chitosanase activities were observed for pancreatin. Its chitotriosidase had an optimal hydrolysis pH of 4 in the substrate specificity assay. This activity was thermally unstable, but independent of 2-mercaptoethanol. This is the first time a chitotriosidase has been identified in the hog. This finding suggests that oligochitosaccharides can be mass-produced inexpensively using pancreatin.
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Cyclohexylmethyl Flavonoids Suppress Propagation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells via Downregulation of NANOG.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are highly tumorigenic and possess the capacity to self-renew. Recent studies indicated that pluripotent gene NANOG involves in regulating self-renewal of breast CSCs, and expression of NANOG is correlated with aggressiveness of poorly differentiated breast cancer. We initially confirmed that breast cancer MCF-7 cells expressed NANOG, and overexpression of NANOG enhanced the tumorigenicity of MCF-7 cells and promoted the self-renewal expansion of CD24(-/low)CD44(+) CSC subpopulation. In contrast, knockdown of NANOG significantly affected the growth of breast CSCs. Utilizing flow cytometry, we identified five cyclohexylmethyl flavonoids that can inhibit propagation of NANOG-positive cells in both breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells. Among these flavonoids, ugonins J and K were found to be able to induce apoptosis in non-CSC populations and to reduce self-renewal growth of CD24(-/low)CD44(+) CSC population. Treatment with ugonin J significantly reduced the tumorigenicity of MCF-7 cells and efficiently suppressed formation of mammospheres. This suppression was possibly due to p53 activation and NANOG reduction as either addition of p53 inhibitor or overexpression of NANOG can counteract the suppressive effect of ugonin J. We therefore conclude that cyclohexylmethyl flavonoids can possibly be utilized to suppress the propagation of breast CSCs via reduction of NANOG.
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Human foreskin fibroblast-like stromal cells can differentiate into functional hepatocytic cells.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Foreskin fibroblast-like stromal cells (FDSCs) are progenitors isolated from human tissue that can differentiate into diverse cell types. Many types of stem cells can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, which could be used for drug testing or in liver regeneration therapy, but whether FDSCs can be converted into functional hepatocytes is unknown. FDSCs show divergent properties when cultured in distinct media, forming spheres in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM) containing F12, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), but have fibroblast-like morphology when cultured in DMEM-based growth medium. Both cell populations express the typical mesenchymal stem cell markers CD90, CD105, and CD73, but the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) was detected only in FDSC spheres. Both types of FDSCs can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, which express typical liver markers, including albumin and hepatocyte paraffin 1 (Hep Par1), along with liver-specific biological activities. When plasmids containing the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome were transfected transiently into FDSCs, differentiated hepatocyte-like cells secrete large amounts of HBe and HBs antigens. FDSCs could be used for clinical hepatic therapy and/or serve as a model of HBV.
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Noninvasive and targeted gene delivery into the brain using microbubble-facilitated focused ultrasound.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors are potentially powerful tools for gene therapy of CNS diseases, but their penetration into brain parenchyma is severely limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and current delivery relies on invasive stereotactic injection. Here we evaluate the local, targeted delivery of rAAV vectors into the brains of mice by noninvasive, reversible, microbubble-facilitated focused ultrasound (FUS), resulting in BBB opening that can be monitored and controlled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using this method, we found that IV-administered AAV2-GFP (green fluorescence protein) with a low viral vector titer (1×10(9) vg/g) can successfully penetrate the BBB-opened brain regions to express GFP. We show that MRI monitoring of BBB-opening could serve as an indicator of the scale and distribution of AAV transduction. Transduction peaked at 3 weeks and neurons and astrocytes were affected. This novel, noninvasive delivery approach could significantly broaden the application of AAV-viral-vector-based genes for treatment of CNS diseases.
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A modular approach to computer-aided auscultation: analysis and parametric characterization of murmur acoustic qualities.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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In the present work, a modularized approach to computer-aided auscultation based on the traditional cardiac auscultation of murmur is proposed. Under such an approach, the present paper concerns the task of evaluating murmur acoustic quality character. The murmurs were analyzed in their time-series representation, frequency representation as well as time-frequency representation, allowing extraction of interpretable features based on their signal structural and spectral characters. The features were evaluated using scatter plots, receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), and numerical experiments using a KNN classifier. The possible physiological and hemodynamical associations with the feature set are made. The implication and advantage of the modular approach are discussed.
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Circulating microRNA signatures in mice exposed to lipoteichoic acid.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Previously, we had identified a specific whole blood-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) signature in mice following in vivo injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) originated from Gram-negative bacteria. This study was designed to profile the circulating miRNAs expression in mice exposed to lipoteichoic acid (LTA) which is a major component of the wall of Gram-positive bacteria.
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The role of the anterolateral thigh flap in complex defects of the scalp and cranium.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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In this study, we introduced scalp reconstruction using free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps and evaluated postoperative outcomes in nine patients between March 2000 and April 2012. Five patients had problems of exposed prosthesis, three required reconstruction after resection of scalp tumor and one patient presented with third degree flame burns of the scalp. All flaps survived without re-exploration, except three flaps with tip necrosis requiring secondary procedures of debridement and small Z-plasty reconstructions. The superficial temporal artery and its concomitant vein were used as recipient vessels, apart from two cases where previous surgery and flame burns excluded these choices, for which facial arteries and veins were used instead. Primary closure of the donor-site was possible in six cases; with skin grafting performed for the other three patients. All donor sites healed without complications. The ALT flap offers the advantage of customizable size, option of fascia lata as vascularized dural replacement, and minimal flap atrophy typical of muscle flaps. Indications include very large defects, defects with exposed prosthesis, or defects with bone or dural loss. Our experience lends credible support to the use of customized free ALT flaps to achieve functional and cosmetically superior result for the reconstruction of large scalp defects, especially with bone exposure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:14-19, 2014.
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Profiling Circulating MicroRNA Expression in Experimental Sepsis Using Cecal Ligation and Puncture.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The levels of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in mice with experimental sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) were determined using whole blood samples obtained from C57BL/6 mice at 4, 8, and 24 h after CLP; miRNA expression analysis was performed in these samples using an miRNA array. Microarray analysis revealed upregulation of 10 miRNA targets (miR-16, miR-17, miR-20a, miR-20b, miR-26a, miR-26b, miR-106a, miR-106b, miR-195, and miR-451). The expression of these miRNA targets in the whole blood, serum, and white blood cells (WBCs) of CLP mice was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR; these values were compared to those in sham-operated C57BL/6 mice, and the results indicated that these miRNA targets were significantly up-regulated in the whole blood and serum but not in the WBCs. In addition, the levels of these 10 miRNA targets in the serum of Tlr2-/-, Tlr4-/-, and NF-?B-/- mice at 8 h after CLP did not decrease significantly., which indicated that the transcription of these miRNAs was not directly mediated by the TLR2/NF-?B or TLR4/NF-?B pathway, and pathways induced by exposure to the gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Immunoprecipitation with the Argonaute 2 ribonucleoprotein complex revealed significantly increased expression of the 10 miRNA targets in the serum of mice after CLP, and the levels of 6 (miR-16, miR-17, miR-20a, miR-20b, miR-26a, and miR-26b) of these 10 miRNA targets increased significantly in exosomes isolated using ExoQuick precipitation solution. In this study, we identified circulating miRNAs that were up-regulated after CLP and determined the increase in the levels of these miRNAs, and our results suggest that circulating Ago2 complexes and exosomes may be responsible for the stability of miRNAs in the serum.
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The interactions in the carboxyl terminus of human 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase are critical to mediate the conformation of the final helix and the tail to shield the active site for catalysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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4-Hydroxylphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD) is an important enzyme for tyrosine catabolism, which catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxylphenylpyruvate (4-HPP) to homogentisate. In the present study, human 4-HPPD was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The kinetic parameters for 4-HPP conversion were: k cat=2.2 ± 0.1 s(-1); and K m=0.08 ± 0.02 mM. Sequence alignments show that human 4-HPPD possesses an extended C-terminus compared to other 4-HPPD enzymes. Successive truncation of the disordered tail which follows the final ?-helix resulted in no changes in the K m value for 4-HPP substrate but the k cat values were significantly reduced. The results suggest that this disordered C-terminal tail plays an important role in catalysis. For inspection the effect of terminal truncation on protein structure, mutant models were built. These models suggest that the different conformation of E254, R378 and Q375 in the final helix might be the cause of the activity loss. In the structure E254 interacts with R378, the end residue in the final helix; mutation of either one of these residues causes a ca. 95% reductions in k cat values. Q375 provides bifurcate interactions to fix the tail and the final helix in position. The model of the Q375N mutant shows that a solvent accessible channel opens to the putative substrate binding site, suggesting this is responsible for the complete loss of activity. These results highlight the critical role of Q375 in orientating the tail and ensuring the conformation of the terminal ?-helix to maintain the integrity of the active site for catalysis.
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Effects of enzyme replacement therapy for cardiac-type Fabry patients with a Chinese hotspot late-onset Fabry mutation (IVS4+919G>A).
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Current studies of newborn screening for Fabry disease in Taiwan have revealed a remarkably high prevalence of cardiac-type Fabry disease with a Chinese hotspot late-onset Fabry mutation (IVS4+919G>A).
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Study in vivo intraocular biocompatibility of in situ gelation hydrogels: poly(2-ethyl oxazoline)-block-poly(?-caprolactone)-block-poly(2-ethyl oxazoline) copolymer, matrigel and pluronic F127.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The long term in vivo biocompatibility is an essential feature for the design and development of sustained drug release carriers. In the recent intraocular drug delivery studies, hydrogels were suggested as sustained release carriers. The biocompatibility test for these hydrogels, however, was commonly performed only through in vitro cell culture examination, which is insufficient before the clinical applications. We compared three thermosensitive hydrogels that have been suggested as the carriers for drugs by their gel-solution phase-change properties. A new block terpolymer (PEOz-PCL-PEOz, ECE) and two commercial products (Matrigel® and Pluronic F127) were studied. The results demonstrated that the ocular media remained translucent for ECE and Pluronic F127 in the first 2 weeks, but cataract formation for Matrigel occurred in 2 weeks and for Pluronic F127 in 1 month, while turbid media was observed for both Matrigel and Pluronic F127 in 2 months. The electrophysiology examinations showed significant neuroretinal toxicity of Matrigel and Pluronic F127 but good biocompatibility of ECE. The neuroretinal toxicity of Matrigel and Pluronic F127 and superior biocompatibility of ECE hydrogel suggests ECE as more appropriate biomaterial for use in research and potentially in intraocular application.
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A physiology-based seizure detection system for multichannel EEG.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable.
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Magnetic resonance imaging of mouse islet grafts labeled with novel chitosan-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To better understand the fate of islet isografts and allografts, we utilized a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique to monitor mouse islets labeled with a novel MR contrast agent, chitosan-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (CSPIO) nanoparticles.
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Extended release of bevacizumab by thermosensitive biodegradable and biocompatible hydrogel.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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The antibody bevacizumab (Avastin) has been used clinically to treat intraocular neovascular diseases based on its antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) character. The anti-VEGF strategy for retinal neovascular diseases is limited by the short half-life of bevacizumab and thus requires frequent injections. This Article reports the sustained release of bevacizumab from a biocompatible material that is composed of a triblock copolymer of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-b-poly(?-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz-PCL-PEOz). The amphiphilic PEOz-PCL-PEOz triblock copolymer was synthesized in three steps. First, the PEOz was polymerized by methyl p-toluenesulfonate and 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EOz), and the living end was terminated by potassium hydroxide methanolic solution. Subsequently, the hydroxyl-PEOz was used as a macroinitiator for the ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone using a Tin(II) octoate catalyst to synthesize the telechelic hydroxylated PEOz-PCL. Finally, the PEOz-PCL-PEOz triblock copolymer was obtained using the 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanateas a coupling reagent. The PEOz-PCL-PEOz was chemically and molecularly characterized by GPC, (1)H NMR, and FTIR, and its aqueous solution (ECE hydrogel) showed a reversible sol (room temperature)-gel (physiological temperature) phase transition, which serves as an easy antibody-packing system with extended release. The biodegradability of ECE hydrogel was assessed by the porosity formation at different periods by scanning electron microscopy. The ECE hydrogel had no in vitro cytotoxicity on the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line by flow cytometry. The histomorphology and electrophysiology of the rabbit neuroretina were preserved after 2 months of intravitreal injection. In conclusion, the ECE hydrogel has a temperature-sensitive sol-gel phase transition and is effective in vitro. Its intraocular biocompatibility demonstrated its great potential to be widely used in biomedical applications for extended drug release.
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Self-aligned wet-cell for hydrated microbiology observation in TEM.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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This paper describes a Self-Aligned Wet (SAW) cell suitable for direct-cell or bacteria incubation and observation in a wet environment inside a transmission electron microscope. This SAW cell is fabricated by a bulk-micromachining process and composed of two structurally complementary counterparts (an out-frame and an in-frame), where each contain a silicon nitride film based observation window. The in- and out-frames can be self-aligned via a mechanism of surface tension from a bio-sample droplet without the aid of positioning stages. The liquid chamber is enclosed between two silicon nitride membranes that are thin enough to allow high energy electrons to penetrate while also sustaining the pressure difference between the TEM vacuum and the vapor pressure within the liquid chamber. A large field of view (150 ?m × 150 ?m) in a SAW cell is favored and formed from a larger sized observation window in the out-frame, which is fabricated using a unique circular membrane formation process. In this paper, we introduce a novel design to circumvent the challenges of charging/heating problems in silicon nitride that arise from interactions with an electron beam. This paper also demonstrates TEM observations of D. Radiodurans growth in a liquid environment within a thicker chamber (20 ?m) within a SAW cell.
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Chitosan, the marine functional food, is a potent adsorbent of humic acid.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Chitosan is prepared by the deacetylation of chitin, the second-most abundant biopolymer in nature, and has applicability in the removal of dyes, heavy metals and radioactive waste for pollution control. In weight-reduction remedies, chitosan is used to form hydrogels with lipids and to depress the intestinal absorption of lipids. In this study, an experimental method was implemented to simulate the effect of chitosan on the adsorption of humic acid in the gastrointestinal tract. The adsorption capacity of chitosan was measured by its adsorption isotherm and analyzed using the Langmuir equation. The results showed that 3.3 grams of humic acid was absorbed by 1 gram of chitosan. The adsorption capacity of chitosan was much greater than that of chitin, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose or activated charcoal. Cellulose and carboxymethyl-cellulose, a cellulose derivative with a negative charge, could not adsorb humic acid in the gastrointestinal tract. This result suggests that chitosan entraps humic acid because of its positive charge.
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Changes in glycosphingolipid composition during differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to ectodermal or endodermal lineages.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are ubiquitous components of cell membranes that can act as mediators of cell adhesion and signal transduction and can possibly be used as cell type-specific markers. Our previous study indicated that there was a striking switch in the core structures of GSLs during differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into embryoid body (EB), suggesting a close association of GSLs with cell differentiation. In this study, to further clarify if alterations in GSL patterns are correlated with lineage-specific differentiation of hESCs, we analyzed changes in GSLs as hESCs were differentiated into neural progenitors or endodermal cells by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. During hESC differentiation into neural progenitor cells, we found that the core structures of GSLs switched from globo- and lacto- to mostly ganglio-series dominated by GD3. On the other hand, when hESCs were differentiated into endodermal cells, patterns of GSLs totally differed from those observed in EB outgrowth and neural progenitors. The most prominent GSL identified by the MALDI-MS and MS/MS analysis was Gb(4) Ceramide, with no appreciable amount of stage-specific embryonic antigens 3 or 4, or GD3, in endodermal cells. These changes in GSL profiling were accompanied by alterations in the biosynthetic pathways of expressions of key glycosyltransferases. Our findings suggest that changes in GSLs are closely associated with lineage specificity and differentiation of hESCs.
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Matrix decomposition based feature extraction for murmur classification.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Heart murmurs often indicate heart valvular disorders. However, not all heart murmurs are organic. For example, musical murmurs detected in children are mostly innocent. Because of the challenges of mastering auscultation skills and reducing healthcare expenses, this study aims to discover new features for distinguishing innocent murmurs from organic murmurs, with the ultimate objective of designing an intelligent diagnostic system that could be used at home. Phonocardiographic signals that were recorded in an auscultation training CD were used for analysis. Instead of the discrete wavelet transform that has been used often in previous work, a continuous wavelet transform was applied on the heart sound data. The matrix that was derived from the continuous wavelet transform was then processed via singular value decomposition and QR decomposition, for feature extraction. Shannon entropy and the Gini index were adopted to generate features. To reduce the number of features that were extracted, the feature selection algorithm of sequential forward floating selection (SFFS) was utilized to select the most significant features, with the selection criterion being the maximization of the average accuracy from a 10-fold cross-validation of a classification algorithm called classification and regression trees (CART). An average sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 83%, and a classification accuracy of 90% were achieved. These favorable results substantiate the effectiveness of the feature extraction methods based on the proposed matrix decomposition method.
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Establishment of a transgenic zebrafish line for superficial skin ablation and functional validation of apoptosis modulators in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Zebrafish skin is composed of enveloping and basal layers which form a first-line defense system against pathogens. Zebrafish epidermis contains ionocytes and mucous cells that aid secretion of acid/ions or mucous through skin. Previous studies demonstrated that fish skin is extremely sensitive to external stimuli. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that modulate skin cell apoptosis in zebrafish.
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Single free anterolateral thigh flap for simultaneous reconstruction of composite hypopharyngeal and external neck skin defect after head and neck cancer ablation.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Single flap for complex hypopharyngoesophageal and anterior neck skin defect reconstruction is still a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Herein, we present five patients, with advanced hypopharyngeal cancer and anterior neck skin invasion, which received a single anterolateral thigh (ALT) fasciocutaneous flap for composite inner pharyngeal and outer skin defect reconstruction after wide composite resection. Two ALT flaps were divided into two distinct paddles supplied by two or more separate perforators, one part for reconstructing the inner pharyngeal defect and another for neck skin coverage. Three ALT flaps only supplied by one sizable perforator could not be divided and de-epithelization of mid-part had to be done to reconstruct both defects with the single flap. The results revealed survival of all flaps. There were no flap loss, fistulas, or bleeding complications. All patients recovered uneventfully and could eat a soft diet to regular diet postoperatively. In conclusion, one-staged reconstruction of complex pharyngoesophageal and external skin defects after extensive oncological resection is feasible using a single ALT fasciocutaneous free flap.
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Predictive indications of operation and mortality following renal trauma.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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This study is a review of our experiences related to managing patients with renal injuries and identifying the predictive indicators of surgery and mortality.
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The ocular biometric and corneal topographic characteristics of high-anisometropic adults in Taiwan.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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To investigate the difference of ocular biometric and corneal topographic characteristics between the two eyes in high anisometropes with difference of 4 D or more in spherical component.
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N-Acetyl Glucosamine Obtained from Chitin by Chitin Degrading Factors in Chitinbacter tainanesis.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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A novel chitin-degrading aerobe, Chitinibacter tainanensis, was isolated from a soil sample from southern Taiwan, and was proved to produce N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG). Chitin degrading factors (CDFs) were proposed to be the critical factors to degrade chitin in this work. When C. tainanensis was incubated with chitin, CDFs were induced and chitin was converted to NAG. CDFs were found to be located on the surface of C. tainanensis. N-Acetylglucosaminidase (NAGase) and endochitinase activities were found in the debris, and the activity of NAGase was much higher than that of endochitinase. The optimum pH of the enzymatic activity was about 7.0, while that of NAG production by the debris was 5.3. These results suggested that some factors in the debris, in addition to NAGase and endochitinase, were crucial for chitin degradation.
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A data-mining framework for transnational healthcare system.
J Med Syst
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Medical resources are important and necessary in health care. Recently, the development of methods for improving the efficiency of medical resource utilization is an emerging problem. Despite evidence supporting the use of order sets in hospitals, only a small number of health information systems have successfully equipped physicians with analysis of complex order sequences from clinical pathway and clinical guideline. This paper presents a data-mining framework for transnational healthcare system to find alternative practices, including transfusion, pre-admission tests, and evaluation of liver diseases. However, individual countries vary with respect to geographical location, living habits, and culture, so disease risks and treatment methods also vary across countries. To realize the difference, a service-oriented architecture and cloud-computing technology are applied to analyze these medical data. The validity of the proposed system is demonstrated in including Taiwan and Mongolia, to ensure the feasibility of our approach.
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Application of flexible micro temperature sensor in oxidative steam reforming by a methanol micro reformer.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well.
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Far-infrared radiation promotes angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.
Photochem. Photobiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2010
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This study was designed to determine the in vitro angiogenic ability of far-infrared (FIR) radiation in the skin-derived cultured human microvascular endothelial cells and to elucidate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in this process. The results revealed that FIR radiation from a WS(TM) TY301 FIR emitter activated p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but not Akt or c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNK), and significantly promoted angiogenesis by increasing tube formation in Matrigel and the migration of cells across an eight micron polyester filter. The addition of 50 ?M PD98059, a MEK inhibitor, significantly inhibited the activation of ERK and the enhanced angiogenesis; in contrast, the inhibition of p38 phosphorylation did not inhibit the enhanced angiogenesis. After FIR radiation, there was no increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms (VEGF-A, -B, -C and -D) mRNA and VEGF protein, no increase phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) detected using Western blotting, and no increase in NO production detected using flow cytometry in cells pre-incubated with the cell-permeable NO-binding dye diluted 4-amino-5-methylamino-2, 7-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA). This study revealed that FIR radiation possesses in vitro angiogenic activity via the activation of the MEK/ERK but not the VEGF/Akt/eNOS-dependent signaling pathways.
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Upper extremity rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy using accelerometer feedback on a multitouch display.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive neurological disorder caused by disturbances to the developing brain. Physical and occupational therapy, if started at a young age, can help minimizing complications such as joint contractures, and can improve limb range of motion and coordination. While current forms of therapy for children with cerebral palsy are effective in minimizing symptoms, many children find them boring or repetitive. We have designed a system for use in upper-extremity rehabilitation sessions, making use of a multitouch display. The system allows children to be engaged in interactive gaming scenarios, while intensively performing desired exercises. It supports games which require completion of specific stretching or coordination exercises using one or both hands, as well as games which use physical, or "tangible" input mechanisms. To encourage correct posture during therapeutic exercises, we use a wireless kinematic sensor, worn on the patients trunk, as a feedback channel for the games. The system went through several phases of design, incorporating input from observations of therapy and clinical sessions, as well as feedback from medical professionals. This paper describes the hardware platform, presents the design objectives derived from our iterative design phases and meetings with clinical personnel, discusses our current game designs and identifies areas of future work.
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Bio-signal analysis system design with support vector machines based on cloud computing service architecture.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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Today, many bio-signals such as Electroencephalography (EEG) are recorded in digital format. It is an emerging research area of analyzing these digital bio-signals to extract useful health information in biomedical engineering. In this paper, a bio-signal analyzing cloud computing architecture, called BACCA, is proposed. The system has been designed with the purpose of seamless integration into the National Taiwan University Health Information System. Based on the concept of. NET Service Oriented Architecture, the system integrates heterogeneous platforms, protocols, as well as applications. In this system, we add modern analytic functions such as approximated entropy and adaptive support vector machine (SVM). It is shown that the overall accuracy of EEG bio-signal analysis has increased to nearly 98% for different data sets, including open-source and clinical data sets.
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Characterization of tolerance induction through prenatal marrow transplantation: the requirement for a threshold level of chimerism to establish rather than maintain postnatal skin tolerance.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Hematopoietic chimerism resulting from prenatal marrow transplantation does not consistently result in allotolerance for unidentified causes. In a C57BL/6-into-FVB/N murine model, we transplanted T-cell-depleted adult marrow on gestational day 14 to elucidate the immunological significance of chimerism towards postnatal tolerance. Postnatally, chimerism was examined by flow cytometry, and tolerance by skin transplantation and mixed lymphocyte reaction. Regulatory T cells were quantified by FoxP3 expression. Peripheral chimerism linearly related to thymic chimerism, and predicted the degree of graft acceptance with levels >3% at skin placement, yielding consistent skin tolerance. Low- and high-level chimeras had lower intrathymic CD3(high) expression than microchimeras or untransplanted mice. Regardless of the skin tolerance status in mixed chimeras, donor-specific alloreactivity by lymphocytes was suppressed but could be partially restored by exogenous interleukin-2. Recipients that lost peripheral chimerism did not accept donor skin unless prior donor skin had engrafted at sufficient chimerism levels, suggesting that complete tolerance can develop as a consequence of chimerism-related immunosuppression of host lymphocytes and the tolerogenic effects of donor skin. Thus, hematopoietic chimerism exerted immunomodulatory effects on the induction phase of allograft tolerance. Once established, skin tolerance did not fade away along with spontaneous regression of peripheral and tissue chimerism, as well as removal of engrafted donor skin. Neither did it break following in vivo depletion of increased regulatory T cells, and subcutaneous interleukin-2 injection beneath the engrafted donor skin. Those observations indicate that the maintenance of skin tolerance is multifaceted, neither solely dependent upon hematopoietic chimerism and engrafted donor skin nor on the effects of regulatory T cells or clonal anergy. We conclude that hematopoietic chimerism generated by in utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is critical to establish rather than maintain postnatal skin tolerance. Therefore, the diminution of hematopoietic chimerism below a threshold level does not nullify an existing tolerance state, but lessens the chance of enabling complete tolerance.
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Transdifferentiation of pancreatic cells to hepatocytes.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Hepatocytes maintained in culture provide an attractive model system for the study of liver function. Furthermore, hepatocyte transplantation offers an alternative cellular therapy to orthotopic liver transplantation for the treatment of hepatic failure and hereditary liver disease. To overcome the problem of organ shortage, additional source of hepatocytes must be found. Here, we present a strategy and protocol to transdifferentiate (or convert) developmentally related pancreatic cells into hepatocytes based on the addition of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone.
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Increased expression of IL-21 reduces tumor growth by modulating the status of tumor-infiltrated lymphocytes.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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The role of interleukin (IL)-21 in influencing tumor growth or enhancing anti-tumor immunity is somewhat controversial. To further understand the potential regulatory effects of IL-21, we utilized an IL-21-secreting EG7 tumor model to demonstrate the direct effects of IL-21 on host tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) profiles. Vector control EG7 cells (EG7-Vec) produced very low amounts of IL-21 and were highly tumorigenic. In contrast, IL-21-expressing EG7 cells, EG7-IL-21L and EG7-IL-21H, secreted relatively and extremely high levels of IL-21, respectively. Most importantly, both IL-21-expressing EG7 cells control of tumor growth was not due to increased proliferative ability of tumor cells, but resulted from the induction of cytotoxic cellular responses in immunocompetent mice. To identify the effects of cancer immunoediting, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte profiles were analyzed. NK cell populations appeared to be increased in EG7-IL-21H tumor sites at days 6-8 (progression stage), though this phenomenon did not persist at days 10-12 (regression stage). However, at both days 6-8 and 10-12, a higher frequency of CD8(+) T cells was observed at the tumor site in EG7-IL-21H-inoculated mice than in EG7-Vec-inoculated mice. These findings suggest that NK cell-mediated tumor rejection may efficiently drive the development of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cell responses with the help of elevated IL-21 expression. These results also suggest the therapeutic potential of IL-21.
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Selection, enrichment, and maintenance of self-renewal liver stem/progenitor cells utilizing polypeptide polyelectrolyte multilayer films.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
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Recent progress has led to the identification of liver stem/progenitor cells as suitable sources for generating transplantable liver cells. However, the great variability in methods utilized to isolate liver stem/progenitor cells is a considerable challenge for clinical applications. The polyelectrolyte-multilayer technique can constitute a useful method for selective cell adhesion. Whether enrichment of liver stem/progenitor cells can be achieved utilizing polypeptide polyelectrolyte-multilayer films was investigated in current work. Fetal liver cells isolated from E13.5 mouse embryos were seeded on the poly-l-glutamic acid/poly-l-lysine alternating films, and we revealed that fetal liver stem/progenitor cells were selected and formed colonies. These undifferentiated colonies were maintained on the films composed of four alternating layers, with the topmost poly-l-glutamic acid layer judged by the constitutive expression of stem-cell markers such as Dlk-1, CD49f, and CD133 and self-renew marker-beta-catenin. Our work has demonstrated that highly tunable polyelectrolyte-multilayer films were suitable for selective enrichment of liver stem/progenitor cells in vitro.
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Dexamethasone treatment induces the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells to hepatocytes and ductal cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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The pancreatic exocrine cell line AR42J-B13 can be reprogrammed to hepatocytes following treatment with dexamethasone. The question arises whether dexamethasone also has the capacity to induce ductal cells as well as hepatocytes.
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