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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Analysis of differential miRNA expression in primary tumor and stroma of colorectal cancer patients.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Microarray technology was used to profile miRNA expression in primary tumor and stromal tissue from paraffin embedded material of 51 patients with colorectal cancer. 26 miRNAs resulted differentially expressed with at least 2-fold change in tumor tissue with respect to stroma (16 more expressed in the tumor and 10 more expressed in the stroma). 10/26 were confirmed as differentially expressed at qRTPCR: miR-200c-3p, miR-141-3p, miR-200b-3p, miR-200a-3p, miR-1246, miR-92a-3p, miR-194-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-3651-5p, and miR-574-3p. No significant association was found between miRNA expressions and stage at diagnosis, site of primary tumor, first site of metastasis, progression-free, or overall survival.
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timeClip: pathway analysis for time course data without replicates.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Time-course gene expression experiments are useful tools for exploring biological processes. In this type of experiments, gene expression changes are monitored along time. Unfortunately, replication of time series is still costly and usually long time course do not have replicates. Many approaches have been proposed to deal with this data structure, but none of them in the field of pathway analysis. Pathway analyses have acquired great relevance for helping the interpretation of gene expression data. Several methods have been proposed to this aim: from the classical enrichment to the more complex topological analysis that gains power from the topology of the pathway. None of them were devised to identify temporal variations in time course data.
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Wiring miRNAs to pathways: a topological approach to integrate miRNA and mRNA expression profiles.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The production rate of gene expression data is nothing less than astounding. However, with the benefit of hindsight we can assert that, since we completely ignored the non-coding part of the transcriptome, we spent the last decade to study cell mechanisms having few data in our hands. In this scenario, microRNAs, which are key post-trascriptional regulators, deserve special attention. Given the state of knowledge about their biogenesis, mechanisms of action and the numerous experimentally validated target genes, miRNAs are also gradually appearing in the formal pathway representations such as KEGG and Reactome maps. However, the number of miRNAs annotated in pathway maps are very few and pathway analyses exploiting this new regulatory layer are still lacking. To fill these gaps, we present 'micrographite' a new pipeline to perform topological pathway analysis integrating gene and miRNA expression profiles. Here, micrographite is used to study and dissect the epithelial ovarian cancer gene and miRNA transcriptome defining and validating a new regulatory circuit related to ovarian cancer histotype specificity.
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Liver transcriptome analysis in gilthead sea bream upon exposure to low temperature.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Water temperature greatly influences the physiology and behaviour of teleost fish as other aquatic organisms. While fish are able to cope with seasonal temperature variations, thermal excursions outside their normal thermal range might exceed their ability to respond leading to severe diseases and death.Profound differences exist in thermal tolerance across fish species living in the same geographical areas, promoting for investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in susceptibility and resistance to low and high temperatures toward a better understanding of adaptation to environmental challenges. The gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, is particularly sensitive to cold and the prolonged exposure to low temperatures may lead to the "winter disease", a metabolic disorder that significantly affects the aquaculture productions along the Northern Mediterranean coasts during winter-spring season. While sea bream susceptibility to low temperatures has been extensively investigated, the cascade of molecular events under such stressful condition is not fully elucidated.
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microRNA-181a has a critical role in ovarian cancer progression through the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Effective targets to treat advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and biomarkers to predict treatment response are still lacking because of the complexity of pathways involved in ovarian cancer progression. Here we show that miR-181a promotes TGF-?-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via repression of its functional target, Smad7. miR-181a and phosphorylated Smad2 are enriched in recurrent compared with matched-primary ovarian tumours and their expression is associated with shorter time to recurrence and poor outcome in patients with EOC. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-181a results in increased cellular survival, migration, invasion, drug resistance and in vivo tumour burden and dissemination. In contrast, miR-181a inhibition via decoy vector suppression and Smad7 re-expression results in significant reversion of these phenotypes. Combined, our findings highlight an unappreciated role for miR-181a, Smad7, and the TGF-? signalling pathway in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
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Prognostic relevance of aberrant DNA methylation in g1 and g2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Neuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The occurrence and clinical relevance of DNA hypermethylation and global hypomethylation in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs) are still unknown. We evaluated the frequency of both epigenetic alterations in PanNETs to assess the relationship between methylation profiles and chromosomal instability, tumour phenotypes and prognosis.
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Tissue-specific expression and regulatory networks of pig microRNAome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite the economic and medical importance of the pig, knowledge about its genome organization, gene expression regulation, and molecular mechanisms involved in physiological processes is far from that achieved for mouse and rat, the two most used model organisms in biomedical research. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a wide class of molecules that exert a recognized role in gene expression modulation, but only 280 miRNAs in pig have been characterized to date.
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Systems Biology Approach to the Dissection of the Complexity of Regulatory Networks in the S. scrofa Cardiocirculatory System.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Genome-wide experiments are routinely used to increase the understanding of the biological processes involved in the development and maintenance of a variety of pathologies. Although the technical feasibility of this type of experiment has improved in recent years, data analysis remains challenging. In this context, gene set analysis has emerged as a fundamental tool for the interpretation of the results. Here, we review strategies used in the gene set approach, and using datasets for the pig cardiocirculatory system as a case study, we demonstrate how the use of a combination of these strategies can enhance the interpretation of results. Gene set analyses are able to distinguish vessels from the heart and arteries from veins in a manner that is consistent with the different cellular composition of smooth muscle cells. By integrating microRNA elements in the regulatory circuits identified, we find that vessel specificity is maintained through specific miRNAs, such as miR-133a and miR-143, which show anti-correlated expression with their mRNA targets.
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MiRNA landscape in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer defines the histotype specificities.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most lethal gynecologic diseases, with survival rate virtually unchanged for the past 30 years. EOC comprises different histotypes with molecular and clinical heterogeneity, but up till now the present gold standard platinum-based treatment has been conducted without any patient stratification. The aim of the present study is to generate microRNA (miRNA) profiles characteristic of each stage I EOC histotype, to identify subtype-specific biomarkers to improve our understanding underlying the tumor mechanisms.
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Graphite Web: Web tool for gene set analysis exploiting pathway topology.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Graphite web is a novel web tool for pathway analyses and network visualization for gene expression data of both microarray and RNA-seq experiments. Several pathway analyses have been proposed either in the univariate or in the global and multivariate context to tackle the complexity and the interpretation of expression results. These methods can be further divided into topological and non-topological methods according to their ability to gain power from pathway topology. Biological pathways are, in fact, not only gene lists but can be represented through a network where genes and connections are, respectively, nodes and edges. To this day, the most used approaches are non-topological and univariate although they miss the relationship among genes. On the contrary, topological and multivariate approaches are more powerful, but difficult to be used by researchers without bioinformatic skills. Here we present Graphite web, the first public web server for pathway analysis on gene expression data that combines topological and multivariate pathway analyses with an efficient system of interactive network visualizations for easy results interpretation. Specifically, Graphite web implements five different gene set analyses on three model organisms and two pathway databases. Graphite Web is freely available at http://graphiteweb.bio.unipd.it/.
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The changing clinical course of multiple sclerosis: a matter of gray matter.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Clinical and neuroimaging parameters predictive of the changing clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) from relapsing-remitting to secondary progressive have not been clarified yet. We specifically designed a prospective 5-year longitudinal study aimed at assessing demographic, clinical, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters that could predict the changing clinical course of MS.
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Synthesis of mitochondrial DNA precursors during myogenesis, an analysis in purified C2C12 myotubes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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During myogenesis, myoblasts fuse into multinucleated myotubes that acquire the contractile fibrils and accessory structures typical of striated skeletal muscle fibers. To support the high energy requirements of muscle contraction, myogenesis entails an increase in mitochondrial (mt) mass with stimulation of mtDNA synthesis and consumption of DNA precursors (dNTPs). Myotubes are quiescent cells and as such down-regulate dNTP production despite a high demand for dNTPs. Although myogenesis has been studied extensively, changes in dNTP metabolism have not been examined specifically. In differentiating cultures of C2C12 myoblasts and purified myotubes, we analyzed expression and activities of enzymes of dNTP biosynthesis, dNTP pools, and the expansion of mtDNA. Myotubes exibited pronounced post-mitotic modifications of dNTP synthesis with a particularly marked down-regulation of de novo thymidylate synthesis. Expression profiling revealed the same pattern of enzyme down-regulation in adult murine muscles. The mtDNA increased steadily after myoblast fusion, turning over rapidly, as revealed after treatment with ethidium bromide. We individually down-regulated p53R2 ribonucleotide reductase, thymidine kinase 2, and deoxyguanosine kinase by siRNA transfection to examine how a further reduction of these synthetic enzymes impacted myotube development. Silencing of p53R2 had little effect, but silencing of either mt kinase caused 50% mtDNA depletion and an unexpected decrease of all four dNTP pools independently of the kinase specificity. We suggest that during development of myotubes the shortage of even a single dNTP may affect all four pools through dysregulation of ribonucleotide reduction and/or dissipation of the non-limiting dNTPs during unproductive elongation of new DNA chains.
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Revertant fibers in the mdx murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an age- and muscle-related reappraisal.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Muscles in Duchenne dystrophy patients are characterized by the absence of dystrophin, yet transverse sections show a small percentage of fibers (termed "revertant fibers") positive for dystrophin expression. This phenomenon, whose biological bases have not been fully elucidated, is present also in the murine and canine models of DMD and can confound the evaluation of therapeutic approaches. We analyzed 11 different muscles in a cohort of 40 mdx mice, the most commonly model used in pre-clinical studies, belonging to four age groups; such number of animals allowed us to perform solid ANOVA statistical analysis. We assessed the average number of dystrophin-positive fibers, both absolute and normalized for muscle size, and the correlation between their formation and the ageing process. Our results indicate that various muscles develop different numbers of revertant fibers, with different time trends; besides, they suggest that the biological mechanism(s) behind dystrophin re-expression might not be limited to the early development phases but could actually continue during adulthood. Importantly, such finding was seen also in cardiac muscle, a fact that does not fit into the current hypothesis of the clonal origin of "revertant" myonuclei from satellite cells. This work represents the largest, statistically significant analysis of revertant fibers in mdx mice so far, which can now be used as a reference point for improving the evaluation of therapeutic approaches for DMD. At the same time, it provides new clues about the formation of revertant fibers/cardiomyocytes in dystrophic skeletal and cardiac muscle.
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High IGFBP2 expression correlates with tumor severity in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common childhood sarcoma and is identified as either the embryonal or alveolar (ARMS) subtype. In approximately 75% of cases, ARMSs are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations that involve PAX and FKHR genes. ARMS gene expression signatures vary, depending on the presence or absence of the translocations. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) is strongly overexpressed in translocation-negative RMS. Because IGFBP2 is associated with tumorigenesis, we investigated its functional role in RMS. An analysis of IGFBP2 distribution in RMS cell lines revealed a strong accumulation in the Golgi complex, in which morphological characteristics appeared peculiarly modified. After silencing IGFBP2 expression, our microarray analysis revealed mostly cell cycle and actin cytoskeleton gene modulations. In parallel, IGFBP2-silenced cells showed reduced cell cycle and rates of invasion and decreased seeding in the lungs after tail vein injections in immunodeficient mice. An analysis of IGFBP2 mRNA and protein localization in human tumors showed abnormal protein accumulation in the Golgi complex, mostly in PAX/FKHR-negative RMS. Moreover, an analysis of patients with RMS revealed the presence of conspicuous circulating levels of IGFBP2 proteins in children with highly aggressive RMS tumors. Taken together, our data provide evidence that IGFBP2 contributes to tumor progression and that it could be used as a marker to better classify clinical and biological risks in RMS.
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Global analysis of gene expression in mineralizing fish vertebra-derived cell lines: new insights into anti-mineralogenic effect of vanadate.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Fish has been deemed suitable to study the complex mechanisms of vertebrate skeletogenesis and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a marine teleost with acellular bone, has been successfully used in recent years to study the function and regulation of bone and cartilage related genes during development and in adult animals. Tools recently developed for gilthead seabream, e.g. mineralogenic cell lines and a 4 × 44K Agilent oligo-array, were used to identify molecular determinants of in vitro mineralization and genes involved in anti-mineralogenic action of vanadate.
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The Biological Connection Markup Language: a SBGN-compliant format for visualization, filtering and analysis of biological pathways.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Many models and analysis of signaling pathways have been proposed. However, neither of them takes into account that a biological pathway is not a fixed system, but instead it depends on the organism, tissue and cell type as well as on physiological, pathological and experimental conditions.
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Impact of host genes and strand selection on miRNA and miRNA* expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Dysregulation of miRNAs expression plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of genetic, multifactorial disorders and in human cancers. We exploited sequence, genomic and expression information to investigate two main aspects of post-transcriptional regulation in miRNA biogenesis, namely strand selection regulation and expression relationships between intragenic miRNAs and host genes. We considered miRNAs expression profiles, measured in five sizeable microarray datasets, including samples from different normal cell types and tissues, as well as different tumours and disease states. First, the study of expression profiles of "sister" miRNA pairs (miRNA/miRNA*, 5 and 3 strands of the same hairpin precursor) showed that the strand selection is highly regulated since it shows tissue-/cell-/condition-specific modulation. We used information about the direction and the strength of the strand selection bias to perform an unsupervised cluster analysis for the sample classification evidencing that is able to distinguish among different tissues, and sometimes between normal and malignant cells. Then, considering a minimum expression threshold, in few miRNA pairs only one mature miRNA is always present in all considered cell types, whereas the majority of pairs were concurrently expressed in some cell types and alternatively in others. In a significant fraction of concurrently expressed pairs, the major and the minor forms found at comparable levels may contribute to post-transcriptional gene silencing, possibly in a coordinate way. In the second part of the study, the behaved tendency to co-expression of intragenic miRNAs and their "host" mRNA genes was confuted by expression profiles examination, suggesting that the expression profile of a given host gene can hardly be a good estimator of co-transcribed miRNA(s) for post-transcriptional regulatory networks inference. Our results point out the regulatory importance of post-transcriptional phases of miRNAs biogenesis, reinforcing the role of such layer of miRNA biogenesis in miRNA-based regulation of cell activities.
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parmigene--a parallel R package for mutual information estimation and gene network reconstruction.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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Inferring large transcriptional networks using mutual information has been shown to be effective in several experimental setup. Unfortunately, this approach has two main drawbacks: (i) several mutual information estimators are prone to biases and (ii) available software still has large computational costs when processing thousand of genes.
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Statistical Test of Expression Pattern (STEPath): a new strategy to integrate gene expression data with genomic information in individual and meta-analysis studies.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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In the last decades, microarray technology has spread, leading to a dramatic increase of publicly available datasets. The first statistical tools developed were focused on the identification of significant differentially expressed genes. Later, researchers moved toward the systematic integration of gene expression profiles with additional biological information, such as chromosomal location, ontological annotations or sequence features. The analysis of gene expression linked to physical location of genes on chromosomes allows the identification of transcriptionally imbalanced regions, while, Gene Set Analysis focuses on the detection of coordinated changes in transcriptional levels among sets of biologically related genes. In this field, meta-analysis offers the possibility to compare different studies, addressing the same biological question to fully exploit public gene expression datasets.
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Association between miR-200c and the survival of patients with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: a retrospective study of two independent tumour tissue collections.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a significantly better prognosis than stage III/IV EOC, with about 80% of patients surviving at 5 years (compared with about 20% of those with stage III/IV EOC). However, 20% of patients with stage I EOC relapse within 5 years. It is therefore crucial that the biological properties of stage I EOCs are further elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have shown diagnostic and prognostic potential in stage III and IV EOCs, but the small number of patients diagnosed with stage I EOC has so far prevented an investigation of its molecular features. We profiled miRNA expression in stage I EOC tumours to assess whether there is a miRNA signature associated with overall and progression-free survival (PFS) in stage I EOC.
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MAGIA, a web-based tool for miRNA and Genes Integrated Analysis.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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MAGIA (miRNA and genes integrated analysis) is a novel web tool for the integrative analysis of target predictions, miRNA and gene expression data. MAGIA is divided into two parts: the query section allows the user to retrieve and browse updated miRNA target predictions computed with a number of different algorithms (PITA, miRanda and Target Scan) and Boolean combinations thereof. The analysis section comprises a multistep procedure for (i) direct integration through different functional measures (parametric and non-parametric correlation indexes, a variational Bayesian model, mutual information and a meta-analysis approach based on P-value combination) of mRNA and miRNA expression data, (ii) construction of bipartite regulatory network of the best miRNA and mRNA putative interactions and (iii) retrieval of information available in several public databases of genes, miRNAs and diseases and via scientific literature text-mining. MAGIA is freely available for Academic users at http://gencomp.bio.unipd.it/magia.
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Pericentriolar material analyses in normal esophageal mucosa, Barretts metaplasia and adenocarcinoma.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Barretts esophagus metaplasia is a pre-cancerous condition caused by chronic esophagitis. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is common in Barretts cells: therefore, we investigated the possible presence of centrosomal aberrations (a main cause of CIN) by centrosomal protein immunostaining in paraffined esophageal samples of patients who developed a Barretts adenocarcinoma. In most (55%) patients, alterations of the pericentriolar material (PCM) signals were evident and consistently marked the transition between normal epithelium to metaplasia. The alterations could even be found in adjacent native squamous epithelium, Barretts mucosa and submucosal gland cells, as well as in the basal/epibasal layers of the mucosa and submucosal gland duct, which are the regions hosting esophageal stem and progenitor cells. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that the three esophageal histotypes (one being pathological) can have a common progenitor. Surprisingly, PCM defective signal eventually decreased with neoplastic progression, possibly to enhance the genome stability of advanced cancer cells. Importantly, PCM altered signals in Barretts mucosa and their apparent evolution in successive histopathological steps were correlated to adenocarcinoma aggressiveness, suggesting PCM as a possible prognostic marker for tumor relapse. Extending our observations in a prospective study might help in the development of new prevention protocols for adenocarcinoma patients.
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Gene set analysis exploiting the topology of a pathway.
BMC Syst Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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Recently, a great effort in microarray data analysis is directed towards the study of the so-called gene sets. A gene set is defined by genes that are, somehow, functionally related. For example, genes appearing in a known biological pathway naturally define a gene set. The gene sets are usually identified from a priori biological knowledge. Nowadays, many bioinformatics resources store such kind of knowledge (see, for example, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, among others). Although pathways maps carry important information about the structure of correlation among genes that should not be neglected, the currently available multivariate methods for gene set analysis do not fully exploit it.
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Microsatellite (GT)(n) is part of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) promoter region that influences the glucocorticoid-induced increase in VWF in Cushings syndrome.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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The cortisol-induced increase in von Willebrand factor (VWF) in Cushings syndrome (CS) seems to depend on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VWF promoter, haplotype 1 (-3268G/-2709C/-2661A/-2527G) being the susceptible pattern.
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Impact of probe annotation on the integration of miRNA-mRNA expression profiles for miRNA target detection.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that mediate gene expression at the post-transcriptional and translational levels by an imperfect binding to target mRNA 3UTR regions. While the ab-initio computational prediction of miRNA-mRNA interactions still poses significant challenges, it is possible to overcome some of its limitations by carefully integrating into the analysis the paired expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs. In this work, we show how the choice of a proper probe annotation for microarray platforms is an essential requirement to achieve good sensitivity in the identification of miRNA-mRNA interactions. We compare the results obtained from the analysis of the same expression profiles using both gene and transcript based custom CDFs that we have developed for a number of different annotations (ENSEMBL, RefSeq, AceView). In all cases, transcript-based annotations clearly improve the effectiveness of data integration and thus provide a more reliable confirmation of computationally predicted miRNA-mRNA interactions.
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Magnetic resonance evidence of cerebellar cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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Although neuropathological observations suggest that cerebellar cortex is a major site of demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), only a few MRI studies on cerebellar cortical pathology in MS are available.
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Filling gaps in PPAR-alpha signaling through comparative nutrigenomics analysis.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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The application of high-throughput genomic tools in nutrition research is a widespread practice. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the outcome of individual expression studies is insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of such a complex field. Currently, the availability of the large amounts of expression data in public repositories has opened up new challenges on microarray data analyses. We have focused on PPARalpha, a ligand-activated transcription factor functioning as fatty acid sensor controlling the gene expression regulation of a large set of genes in various metabolic organs such as liver, small intestine or heart. The function of PPARalpha is strictly connected to the function of its target genes and, although many of these have already been identified, major elements of its physiological function remain to be uncovered. To further investigate the function of PPARalpha, we have applied a cross-species meta-analysis approach to integrate sixteen microarray datasets studying high fat diet and PPARalpha signal perturbations in different organisms.
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A modified LOESS normalization applied to microRNA arrays: a comparative evaluation.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Microarray normalization is a fundamental step in removing systematic bias and noise variability caused by technical and experimental artefacts. Several approaches, suitable for large-scale genome arrays, have been proposed and shown to be effective in the reduction of systematic errors. Most of these methodologies are based on specific assumptions that are reasonable for whole-genome arrays, but possibly unsuitable for small microRNA (miRNA) platforms. In this work, we propose a novel normalization (loessM), and we investigate, through simulated and real datasets, the influence that normalizations for two-colour miRNA arrays have on the identification of differentially expressed genes.
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Correlation between gene expression and clinical data through linear and nonlinear principal components analyses: muscular dystrophies as case studies.
OMICS
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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The large dimension of microarray data and the complex dependence structure among genes make data analysis extremely challenging. In the last decade several statistical techniques have been proposed to tackle genome-wide expression data; however, clinical and molecular data associated to pathologies have often been considered as separate dimensions of the same phenomenon, especially when clinical variables lie on a multidimensional space. A better comprehension of the relationships between clinical and molecular data can be obtained if both data types are combined and integrated. In this work we adopt a multidimensional correlation strategy together with linear and nonlinear principal component, to integrate genetic and clinical information obtained from two sets of dystrophic patients. With this approach we decompose different aspects of clinical manifestations and correlate these features with the correspondent patterns of differential gene expression.
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A-MADMAN: annotation-based microarray data meta-analysis tool.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Publicly available datasets of microarray gene expression signals represent an unprecedented opportunity for extracting genomic relevant information and validating biological hypotheses. However, the exploitation of this exceptionally rich mine of information is still hampered by the lack of appropriate computational tools, able to overcome the critical issues raised by meta-analysis.
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A comparison on effects of normalisations in the detection of differentially expressed genes.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Various normalisation techniques have been developed in the context of microarray analysis to try to correct expression measurements for experimental bias and random fluctuations. Major techniques include: total intensity normalisation; intensity dependent normalisation; and variance stabilising normalisation. The aim of this paper is to discuss the impact of normalisation techniques for two-channel array technology on the process of identification of differentially expressed genes.
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Selection of multipotent cells and enhanced muscle reconstruction by myogenic macrophage-secreted factors.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Skeletal muscle regeneration relies on satellite cells, a population of myogenic precursors. Inflammation also plays a determinant role in the process, as upon injury, macrophages are attracted by the damaged myofibers and the activated satellite cells and act as key elements of dynamic muscle supportive stroma. Yet, it is not known how macrophages interact with the more profound stem cells of the satellite cell niche. Here we show that in the presence of a murine macrophage conditioned medium (mMCM) a subpopulation of multipotent cells could be selected and expanded from adult rat muscle. These cells were small, round, poorly adhesive, slow-growing and showed mesenchymal differentiation plasticity. At the same time, mMCM showed clear myogenic capabilities, as experiments with satellite cells mechanically isolated from suspensions of single myofibers showed that the macrophagic factors inhibited their tendency to shift towards adipogenesis. In vivo, intramuscular administrations of concentrated mMCM in a rat model of extensive surgical ablation dramatically improved muscle regeneration. Altogether, these findings suggest that macrophagic factors could be of great help in developing therapeutic protocols with myogenic stem cells.
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miR148b is a major coordinator of breast cancer progression in a relapse-associated microRNA signature by targeting ITGA5, ROCK1, PIK3CA, NRAS, and CSF1.
FASEB J.
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Breast cancer is often fatal during its metastatic dissemination. To unravel the role of microRNAs (miRs) during malignancy, we analyzed miR expression in 77 primary breast carcinomas and identified 16 relapse-associated miRs that correlate with survival and/or distinguish tumor subtypes in different datasets. Among them, miR-148b, down-regulated in aggressive breast tumors, was found to be a major coordinator of malignancy. In fact, it is able to oppose various steps of tumor progression when overexpressed in cell lines by influencing invasion, survival to anoikis, extravasation, lung metastasis formation, and chemotherapy response. miR-148b controls malignancy by coordinating a novel pathway involving over 130 genes and, in particular, it directly targets players of the integrin signaling, such as ITGA5, ROCK1, PIK3CA/p110?, and NRAS, as well as CSF1, a growth factor for stroma cells. Our findings reveal the importance of the identified 16 miRs for disease outcome predictions and suggest a critical role for miR-148b in the control of breast cancer progression.
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Low degree of cortical pathology is associated with benign course of multiple sclerosis.
Mult. Scler.
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Although a more favorable course of multiple sclerosis is associated with a low degree of cortical pathology, only longitudinal studies could definitely confirm this association.
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Cortical lesion load associates with progression of disability in multiple sclerosis.
Brain
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Cortical inflammatory lesions have been correlated with disability and cortical atrophy in multiple sclerosis. The extent to which cortical lesion load is associated with longer-term physical and cognitive disability in different multiple sclerosis phenotypes has not yet been investigated. Thus, a 5-year prospective longitudinal study was carried on in a large group of patients with multiple sclerosis. Three hundred and twelve consecutive patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (157 relapsing remitting, 35 paediatric, 45 benign, 44 primary progressive and 31 secondary progressive) were enrolled in a 5-year prospective clinical and neuroimaging study. Several magnetic resonance parameters (including cortical lesion number and volume, contrast-enhancing cortical lesions and grey matter atrophy) were analysed to find associations with clinical and cognitive outcomes. Patients with high cortical lesion load had higher Expanded Disability Status Scale increase (median = 1.5; range = 0-3) during the study than both patients with low cortical lesion load (median = 1.0; range = 1-3, P < 0.001) and without cortical lesions (median = 0.5; range = -1 to 2, P < 0.001). Compared with clinically stable patients, 101 (32.4%) patients showing clinical progression at 5 years had the highest rate of cortical lesion accumulation (P < 0.001). Stepwise regression analysis revealed significant and independent contributions from age (? = 0.55), cortical lesion volume (? = 0.58), T(2) white matter lesion volume (? = 0.34) and grey matter fraction (? = 0.42) as predictors (final model with r(2 )= 0.657, P < 0.001) of Expanded Disability Status Scale change. Disease duration (? = 0.52, P < 0.001), cortical lesion volume (? = 0.67, P < 0.001), grey matter fraction (? = 0.56, P < 0.001) and T(2) white matter lesion volume (? = 0.31, P = 0.040) at baseline were found to be independent predictors of cognitive status at the end of the study. While confirming the relevance of cortical pathology in all multiple sclerosis phenotypes, but benign, our study suggests that grey matter and white matter changes in multiple sclerosis occur, at least, partly independently, and that grey matter, more than white matter, damage is associated with physical and cognitive disability progression. Thus, the combination of grey and white matter parameters gives a more comprehensive view of multiple sclerosis pathology and allows a better understanding of the progressive phase of the disease, which, however, seems more related to cortical damage than to subcortical white matter changes.
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Genotype-specific mutations in the polymerase gene of hepatitis B virus potentially associated with resistance to oral antiviral therapy.
Antiviral Res.
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The evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the role of different variants during antiviral therapy may be influenced by HBV genotype. We have therefore analysed substitutions potentially related to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) resistance at 42 positions within RT-region in a cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis B in relation to HBV-genotype. RT mutations analysis was performed by direct sequencing in 200 NAs-naïve patients and in 64 LAM or LAM+ADV experienced patients with NAs resistance, infected mainly by HBV-genotypes D and A. 27 polymorphic-sites were identified among the 42 positions analysed and 64 novel mutations were detected in 23 positions. Genotype-D displayed the highest mutation frequency (6.4%) among all HBV-genotypes analysed. Single or multiple mutations were detected in 80% of naïve patients. Overall, the most frequent single mutations were at residues rt54, rt53 and rt91 which may associate with significantly lower HBV-DNA levels (p=0.001). Comparison with sequencing data of patients failing LMV or LAM+ADV therapy revealed an higher frequency of novel genotype-specific mutations if compared with naïve patients: 3 mutations under LAM monotherapy in HBV-D (rtS85F; rtL91I; rtC256G) and 3 mutations under ADV therapy in HBV-A (rtI53V; rtW153R; rtF221Y). In HBV-D treated patients the dominant resistance mutation was rtL80V (31.4%) and rtM204I (60%) in LAM+ADV group while LAM-treated patients showed a preference of rtM204V (51.9%). Interestingly, none of HBV-A patients had mutation rtM204I under ADV add-on treatment but all of them had the "V" AA substitution. These results suggested that in patients with CHB, HBV-genotype might be relevant in the evolution and development of drug resistance showing also different mutation patterns in the YMDD motif between HBV genotype D and A.
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Along signal paths: an empirical gene set approach exploiting pathway topology.
Nucleic Acids Res.
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Gene set analysis using biological pathways has become a widely used statistical approach for gene expression analysis. A biological pathway can be represented through a graph where genes and their interactions are, respectively, nodes and edges of the graph. From a biological point of view only some portions of a pathway are expected to be altered; however, few methods using pathway topology have been proposed and none of them tries to identify the signal paths, within a pathway, mostly involved in the biological problem. Here, we present a novel algorithm for pathway analysis clipper, that tries to fill in this gap. clipper implements a two-step empirical approach based on the exploitation of graph decomposition into a junction tree to reconstruct the most relevant signal path. In the first step clipper selects significant pathways according to statistical tests on the means and the concentration matrices of the graphs derived from pathway topologies. Then, it identifies within these pathways the signal paths having the greatest association with a specific phenotype. We test our approach on simulated and two real expression datasets. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of clipper in the identification of signal transduction paths totally coherent with the biological problem.
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MAGIA²: from miRNA and genes expression data integrative analysis to microRNA-transcription factor mixed regulatory circuits (2012 update).
Nucleic Acids Res.
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MAGIA(2) (http://gencomp.bio.unipd.it/magia2) is an update, extension and evolution of the MAGIA web tool. It is dedicated to the integrated analysis of in silico target prediction, microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression data for the reconstruction of post-transcriptional regulatory networks. miRNAs are fundamental post-transcriptional regulators of several key biological and pathological processes. As miRNAs act prevalently through target degradation, their expression profiles are expected to be inversely correlated to those of the target genes. Low specificity of target prediction algorithms makes integration approaches an interesting solution for target prediction refinement. MAGIA(2) performs this integrative approach supporting different association measures, multiple organisms and almost all target predictions algorithms. Nevertheless, miRNAs activity should be viewed as part of a more complex scenario where regulatory elements and their interactors generate a highly connected network and where gene expression profiles are the result of different levels of regulation. The updated MAGIA(2) tries to dissect this complexity by reconstructing mixed regulatory circuits involving either miRNA or transcription factor (TF) as regulators. Two types of circuits are identified: (i) a TF that regulates both a miRNA and its target and (ii) a miRNA that regulates both a TF and its target.
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A systems biology approach to characterize the regulatory networks leading to trabectedin resistance in an in vitro model of myxoid liposarcoma.
PLoS ONE
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Trabectedin, a new antitumor compound originally derived from a marine tunicate, is clinically effective in soft tissue sarcoma. The drug has shown a high selectivity for myxoid liposarcoma, characterized by the translocation t(12;16)(q13; p11) leading to the expression of FUS-CHOP fusion gene. Trabectedin appears to act interfering with mechanisms of transcription regulation. In particular, the transactivating activity of FUS-CHOP was found to be impaired by trabectedin treatment. Even after prolonged response resistance occurs and thus it is important to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to trabectedin. To this end we developed and characterized a myxoid liposarcoma cell line resistant to trabectedin (402-91/ET), obtained by exposing the parental 402-91 cell line to stepwise increases in drug concentration. The aim of this study was to compare mRNAs, miRNAs and proteins profiles of 402-91 and 402-91/ET cells through a systems biology approach. We identified 3,083 genes, 47 miRNAs and 336 proteins differentially expressed between 402-91 and 402-91/ET cell lines. Interestingly three miRNAs among those differentially expressed, miR-130a, miR-21 and miR-7, harbored CHOP binding sites in their promoter region. We used computational approaches to integrate the three regulatory layers and to generate a molecular map describing the altered circuits in sensitive and resistant cell lines. By combining transcriptomic and proteomic data, we reconstructed two different networks, i.e. apoptosis and cell cycle regulation, that could play a key role in modulating trabectedin resistance. This approach highlights the central role of genes such as CCDN1, RB1, E2F4, TNF, CDKN1C and ABL1 in both pre- and post-transcriptional regulatory network. The validation of these results in in vivo models might be clinically relevant to stratify myxoid liposarcoma patients with different sensitivity to trabectedin treatment.
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graphite - a Bioconductor package to convert pathway topology to gene network.
BMC Bioinformatics
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Gene set analysis is moving towards considering pathway topology as a crucial feature. Pathway elements are complex entities such as protein complexes, gene family members and chemical compounds. The conversion of pathway topology to a gene/protein networks (where nodes are a simple element like a gene/protein) is a critical and challenging task that enables topology-based gene set analyses.Unfortunately, currently available R/Bioconductor packages provide pathway networks only from single databases. They do not propagate signals through chemical compounds and do not differentiate between complexes and gene families.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.