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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The role of G-density in switch region repeats for immunoglobulin class switch recombination.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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The boundaries of R-loops are well-documented at immunoglobulin heavy chain loci in mammalian B cells. Within primary B cells or B cell lines, the upstream boundaries of R-loops typically begin early in the repetitive portion of the switch regions. Most R-loops terminate within the switch repetitive zone, but the remainder can extend a few hundred base pairs further, where G-density on the non-template DNA strand gradually drops to the genome average. Whether the G-density determines how far the R-loops extend is an important question. We previously studied the role of G-clusters in initiating R-loop formation, but we did not examine the role of G-density in permitting the elongation of the R-loop, after it had initiated. Here, we vary the G-density of different portions of the switch region in a murine B cell line. We find that both class switch recombination (CSR) and R-loop formation decrease significantly when the overall G-density is reduced from 46% to 29%. Short 50 bp insertions with low G-density within switch regions do not appear to affect either CSR or R-loop elongation, whereas a longer (150 bp) insertion impairs both. These results demonstrate that G-density is an important determinant of the length over which mammalian genomic R-loops extend.
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Spatial heterogeneity of gut microbiota reveals multiple bacterial communities with distinct characteristics.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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We analyzed bacterial communities of six distinct gut sites (the food bolus and mucus layer of the proximal small intestine, cecum and distal large intestine), using wild folivorous flying squirrels. We found significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity, and species abundance distributions (SADs) of gut microbiota, corresponding to physicochemical conditions. High diversity was detected in the mucus layer of small intestine and the food bolus of cecum, followed by the food bolus of large intestine and the mucus layer of cecum, and relatively low diversity in the food bolus of small intestine and the mucus layer of large intestine, likely due to disturbance and resource partitioning. The SADs showed succession-like patterns in the food bolus communities from the proximal to distal gut. Notably, each mucus layer community had a unique pattern different from the food bolus community of the same compartment, with distinct relative abundances of dominant species. In combination with data from other mammalian fecal samples, we concluded that gut microbiota were apparently dynamic in community structure, from low species richness with unequal abundances to high species richness with equal abundances; these findings were interpreted as strong habitat effects on bacterial communities.
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CHRNA9 polymorphisms and smoking exposure synergize to increase the risk of breast cancer in Taiwan.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Previous studies indicated that smoking exposure is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and ?9-nicotine acetylcholine receptors (?9-nAChRs) are involved in breast tumorigenesis. However, no studies have explored the joint effect of ?9-nAChRs (CHRNA9) genes and cigarette smoking exposure on breast cancer risk. A case-control study was conducted on 737 breast cancer patients and 719 age-matched healthy controls. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CHRNA9 located in the promoter region were genotyped and compared between cases and controls to identify those SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to analyze the promoter activities of these SNPs of the CHRNA9 gene. After a Bonferroni correction, the G allele of the CHRNA9 rs7329797 SNP was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer compared with A/A genotype carriers (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.6). A multiplicative interaction between passive smoking exposure and the CHRNA9 rs73229797 SNP on the risk of breast malignancy was observed. A functional assay further showed that rs73229797 was associated with increased promoter activity of the CHRNA9 gene. Our findings support a significant interaction effect existing between the CHRNA9 gene and smoking exposure on the risk of breast cancer development.
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Comparison of clinical outcomes for 40 necrotic immature permanent incisors treated with calcium hydroxide or mineral trioxide aggregate apexification/apexogenesis.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Traumatic injury often results in pulp necrosis of immature permanent incisors in children. This study compared clinical outcomes for 40 necrotic immature permanent incisors treated with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apexification/apexogenesis.
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The effect of keyboard key spacing on typing speed, error, usability, and biomechanics, Part 2: Vertical spacing.
Hum Factors
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The objective was to evaluate the effects of vertical key spacing on a conventional computer keyboard on typing speed, percentage error, usability, forearm muscle activity, and wrist posture for both females with small fingers and males with large fingers.
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Alterations of biochemical indicators in hepatopancreas of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, from paddy fields in Taiwan.
J Environ Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The freshwater golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is one of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snails' wide distribution, high abundance, and sensitivity to environmental pollution make them a potential bioindicator for environmental contamination. In this study, the biochemical status of golden apple snails collected from paddy fields throughout the island of Taiwan was examined. This study found that the biochemical status of apple snails collected from paddy fields differed from that of animals bred and maintained in the laboratory. Furthermore, certain biochemical endpoints of the snails collected from the paddy fields before and after agricultural activities were also different-hemolymphatic vitellogenin protein was induced in male snail after exposure to estrogen-like chemicals, the hepatic monooxygenase (1.97 +/- 0.50 deltaA(650mm) 30 min(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) and glutathione S transferase (0.02 +/- 0.01 delta A(340mm) 30 min(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) snails exposed to pesticides, as well as the hepatopancreatic levels of aspartate aminotransferase (450.00 +/- 59.40 U mg(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) and alanine aminotransferase (233.27 +/- 42.09 U mg(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) decreased the indicating that xenobiotics destroyed hepatopancreatic. The above findings reveal that apple snail could be used as a practical bioindicator to monitor anthropogenic environmental pollution.
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One-Step, Room-Temperature Synthesis of Glutathione-Capped Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles and their Application in In Vivo T1 -Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Small
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The room-temperature, aqueous-phase synthesis of iron-oxide nanoparticles (IO NPs) with glutathione (GSH) is reported. The simple, one-step reduction involves GSH as a capping agent and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC) as the reducing agent; GSH is an anti-oxidant that is abundant in the human body while THPC is commonly used in the synthesis of noble-metal clusters. Due to their low magnetization and good water-dispersibility, the resulting GSH-IO NPs, which are 3.72 ± 0.12 nm in diameter, exhibit a low r2 relaxivity (8.28 mm(-1) s(-1) ) and r2 /r1 ratio (2.28)-both of which are critical for T1 contrast agents. This, together with the excellent biocompatibility, makes these NPs an ideal candidate to be a T1 contrast agent. Its capability in cellular imaging is illustrated by the high signal intensity in the T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of treated HeLa cells. Surprisingly, the GSH-IO NPs escape ingestion by the hepatic reticuloendothelial system, enabling strong vascular enhancement at the internal carotid artery and superior sagittal sinus, where detection of the thrombus is critical for diagnosing a stroke. Moreover, serial T1 - and T2 -weighted time-dependent MR images are resolved for a rat's kidneys, unveiling detailed cortical-medullary anatomy and renal physiological functions. The newly developed GSH-IO NPs thus open a new dimension in efforts towards high-performance, long-circulating MRI contrast agents that have biotargeting potential.
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Pulmonary metastatic gastric cancer mimicking a giant mediastinal cyst.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Cysts and cavities are common radiologic abnormalities. Pulmonary metastasis comprises a rare entity of thoracic cystic diseases. We reported a case of giant cyst at the left anterior mediastinum that was pathologically confirmed as a lung metastasis from previously resected gastric cancer. The cyst was completely removed with wedge resection of the surrounding lung through a left anterior thoracotomy. One should always keep in mind the possibility of an intrathoracic cyst near or at the mediastinal region that may originate from metastatic lesions to the lungs when patients have previous cancer history.
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Linking secondary structure of individual size distribution with nonlinear size-trophic level relationship in food webs.
Ecology
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Existing individual size distribution (ISD) theories assume that the trophic level (TL) of an organism varies as a linear function of its log-transformed body size. This assumption predicts a power-law distribution of the ISD, i.e., a linear relationship between size and abundance in log space. However, the secondary structure of ISD (nonlinear dome shape structures deviating from a power-law distribution) is often observed. We propose a model that extends the metabolic theory to link the secondary structure of ISD to the nonlinear size-TL relationship. This model is tested with empirical data collected from a subtropical reservoir. The empirical ISD and size-TL relationships were constructed by FlowCAM imaging analysis and stable isotope analyses, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the secondary structure of ISD can be predicted from the nonlinear function of size-TL relationship and vice versa. Moreover, these secondary structures arise due to (1) zooplankton omnivory and (2) the trophic interactions within microbial food webs.
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Antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical outcomes of Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections in a tertiary teaching hospital in Northern Taiwan.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Candida parapsilosis is an emerging non-albicans Candida that is associated with central line-associated infection. C. parapsilosis has higher minimal inhibitory concentration to echinocandin than Candida albicans, and the effects of echinocandin on C. parapsilosis are ambiguous. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the susceptibility and the correlation between incidence and drug consumption.
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Static magnetic field increases survival rate of dental pulp stem cells during DMSO-free cryopreservation.
Electromagn Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Abstract Successful and efficient cryopreservation of living cells and organs is a key clinical application of regenerative medicine. Recently, magnetic cryopreservation has been reported for intact tooth banking and cryopreservation of dental tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the cryoprotective effects of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) during cryopreservation. Human DPSCs isolated from extracted teeth were frozen with a 0.4-T or 0.8-T SMF and then stored at -196?°C for 24?h. During freezing, the cells were suspended in freezing media containing with 0, 3 or 10% DMSO. After thawing, the changes in survival rate of the DPSCs were determined by flow cytometry. To understand the possible cryoprotective mechanisms of the SMF, the membrane fluidity of SMF-exposed DPSCs was tested. The results showed that when the freezing medium was DMSO-free, the survival rates of the thawed DPSCs increased 2- or 2.5-fold when the cells were exposed to 0.4-T or 0.8-T SMFs, respectively (p?
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Role of right upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after tri-incisional esophagectomies.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Whereas standard (infracarinal) mediastinal lymphadenectomy refers to the clearance of lymph nodes in the middle and lower posterior mediastinum, extension along right side of trachea and upper mediastinum is termed extended lymphadenectomy. The benefit of an extended versus standard lymphadenectomy in esophageal cancer is unclear.
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Compressive holographic two-dimensional localization with 1/30(2) subpixel accuracy.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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We propose the use of compressive holography for two-dimensional (2D) subpixel motion localization. Our approach is based on computational implementation of edge-extraction using a Fourier-plane spiral phase mask, followed by compressive reconstruction of the edge of the object. Using this technique and relatively low-cost computer and piezo motion stage to establish ground truth for the motion, we demonstrated localization within 1/30th of a camera pixel in each linear dimension.
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A cycle-based data aggregation scheme for grid-based wireless sensor networks.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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In a wireless sensor network (WSN), a great number of sensor nodes are deployed to gather sensed data. These sensor nodes are typically powered by batteries so their energy is restricted. Sensor nodes mainly consume energy consumption in data transmission, especially for a long distance. Since the location of the base station (BS) is remote, the energy consumed by each node to directly transmit its data to the BS is considerable and the node will die very soon. A well-designed routing protocol is thus essential to reduce the energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a Cycle-Based Data Aggregation Scheme (CBDAS) for grid-based WSNs. In CBDAS, the whole sensor field is divided into a grid of cells, each with a head. We prolong the network lifetime by linking all cell heads together to form a cyclic chain so that the gathered data can move in two directions. For data gathering in each round, the gathered data moves from node to node along the chain, getting aggregated. Finally, a designated cell head, the cycle leader, directly transmits to the BS. CBDAS performs data aggregation at every cell head so as to substantially reduce the amount of data that must be transmitted to the BS. Only cell heads need disseminate data so that the number of data transmissions is greatly diminished. Sensor nodes of each cell take turns as the cell head, and all cell heads on the cyclic chain also take turns being cycle leader. The energy depletion is evenly distributed so that the nodes' lifetime is extended. As a result, the lifetime of the whole sensor network is extended. Simulation results show that CBDAS outperforms protocols like Direct, PEGASIS, and PBDAS.
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Complications and technical pitfalls of titanium elastic nail fixation for midclavicular fractures.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Intramedullary titanium elastic nails have been reported to fix displaced midclavicular fractures with excellent functional outcomes and minor complications. This study reports and analyzes the complications and technical pitfalls associated with titanium elastic nail fixation of displaced midclavicular fractures and describes how to prevent these problems. The authors operated on 27 patients (17 men, 10 women; mean age, 45.8 years; range, 16.5-66.9 years) with marked displaced midclavicular fractures using intramedullary titanium elastic nail fixation. The mean Constant score and Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score were 93.58 (range, 66.5-100) and 6.22 (range, 0-35), respectively. The mean length difference compared with the contralateral clavicle was a shortening of 0.3 cm (range, -1.5 to 1 cm). Eight patients (30%) had different levels of difficulty at the medial entry point. Clavicular length shortening of more than 1 cm occurred in 5 patients (19%), and all of these patients experienced medial nail tip prominence/protrusion. One patient had 1-cm lengthening of the injured clavicle caused by distraction of the fracture site during titanium elastic nail insertion. Iatrogenic perforation of the posterolateral cortex occurred in 3 patients. Initial misplaced nail insertion occurred in 1 woman who underwent revision with the mini-open method. In 2 patients it was impossible to remove the full nail under general anesthesia. In conclusion, high patient satisfaction and functional outcomes were achieved after titanium elastic nail fixation of displaced midclavicular fractures. However, some complications and technical pitfalls must be considered before titanium elastic nails are used to fix displaced midclavicular fractures.
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Treatment outcomes of patients with different subtypes of large cell carcinoma of the lung.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Although large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) are the variants of large cell carcinoma (LCC) of lung, there are few studies comparing them. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristic and treatment outcomes of LCNEC, LELC, and classic LCC.
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Compact light-emitting diode lighting ring for video-assisted thoracic surgery.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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In this work, a foldable ring-shaped light-emitting diode (LED) lighting assembly, designed to attach to a rubber wound retractor, is realized and tested through porcine animal experiments. Enabled by the small size and the high efficiency of LED chips, the lighting assembly is compact, flexible, and disposable while providing direct and high brightness lighting for more uniform background illumination in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). When compared with a conventional fiber bundle coupled light source that is usually used in laparoscopy and endoscopy, the much broader solid angle of illumination enabled by the LED assembly allows greatly improved background lighting and imaging quality in VATS.
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The strength of an Ig switch region is determined by its ability to drive R loop formation and its number of WGCW sites.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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R loops exist at the murine IgH switch regions and possibly other locations, but their functional importance is unclear. In biochemical systems, R loop initiation requires DNA sequence regions containing clusters of G nucleotides, but cellular studies have not been done. Here, we vary the G-clustering, total switch region length, and the number of target sites (WGCW sites for the activation-induced deaminase) at synthetic switch regions in a murine B cell line to determine the effect on class switch recombination (CSR). G-clusters increase CSR regardless of their immediate proximity to the WGCW sites. This increase is accompanied by an increase in R loop formation. CSR efficiency correlates better with the absolute number of WGCW sites in the switch region rather than the total switch region length or density of WGCW sites. Thus, the overall strength of the switch region depends on G-clusters, which initiate R loop formation, and on the number of WGCW sites.
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CSN6 drives carcinogenesis by positively regulating Myc stability.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are critical in ubiquitinating Myc, while COP9 signalosome (CSN) controls neddylation of Cullin in CRL. The mechanistic link between Cullin neddylation and Myc ubiquitination/degradation is unclear. Here we show that Myc is a target of the CSN subunit 6 (CSN6)-Cullin signalling axis and that CSN6 is a positive regulator of Myc. CSN6 enhanced neddylation of Cullin-1 and facilitated autoubiquitination/degradation of Fbxw7, a component of CRL involved in Myc ubiquitination, thereby stabilizing Myc. Csn6 haplo-insufficiency decreased Cullin-1 neddylation but increased Fbxw7 stability to compromise Myc stability and activity in an E?-Myc mouse model, resulting in decelerated lymphomagenesis. We found that CSN6 overexpression, which leads to aberrant expression of Myc target genes, is frequent in human cancers. Together, these results define a mechanism for the regulation of Myc stability through the CSN-Cullin-Fbxw7 axis and provide insights into the correlation of CSN6 overexpression with Myc stabilization/activation during tumorigenesis.
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DNA ligase I is not essential for mammalian cell viability.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Of the three DNA ligases present in all vertebrates, DNA ligase I (Lig1) has been considered essential for ligating Okazaki fragments during DNA replication and thereby essential for cell viability. Here, we report the striking finding that a Lig1-null murine B cell line is viable. Surprisingly, the Lig1-null cells exhibit normal proliferation and normal immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination and are not hypersensitive to a wide variety of DNA damaging agents. These findings demonstrate that Lig1 is not absolutely required for cellular DNA replication and repair and that either Lig3 or Lig4 can substitute for the role of Lig1 in joining Okazaki fragments. The establishment of a Lig1-null cell line will greatly facilitate the characterization of DNA ligase function in mammalian cells, but the finding alone profoundly reprioritizes the role of ligase I in DNA replication, repair, and recombination.
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Signaling of reactive oxygen species in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.
J. Insect Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Our previous study demonstrated that mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is involved in prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in Bombyx mori prothoracic glands (PGs). In the present study, we further investigated the mechanism of ROS production and the signaling pathway mediated by ROS. PTTH-stimulated ROS production was markedly attenuated in a Ca(2+)-free medium. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, U73122, greatly inhibited PTTH-stimulated ROS production, indicating the involvement of Ca(2+) and PLC. When the PGs were treated with agents that directly elevate the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration (either A23187, or the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA)), a great increase in ROS production was observed. We further investigated the action mechanism of PTTH-stimulated ROS signaling. Results showed that in the presence of either an antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine, NAC), or the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors (rotenone, antimycin A, the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)), PTTH-regulated phosphorylation of ERK, 4E-BP, and AMPK was blocked. Treatment with 1mM of H2O2 alone activated the phosphorylation of ERK and 4E-BP, and inhibited AMPK phosphorylation. From these results, we conclude that PTTH-stimulated ROS signaling is Ca(2+)- and PLC-dependent and that ROS signaling appears to lie upstream of the phosphorylation of ERK, 4E-BP, and AMPK.
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Radiopacity and cytotoxicity of Portland cement containing zirconia doped bismuth oxide radiopacifiers.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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This study evaluates the radiopacity and cytotoxicity of Portland cements containing a radiopacifier of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) dopant.
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Simulations of DNA stretching by flow field in microchannels with complex geometry.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recently, we have reported the experimental results of DNA stretching by flow field in three microchannels (C. H. Lee and C. C. Hsieh, Biomicrofluidics 7(1), 014109 (2013)) designed specifically for the purpose of preconditioning DNA conformation for easier stretching. The experimental results do not only demonstrate the superiority of the new devices but also provides detailed observation of DNA behavior in complex flow field that was not available before. In this study, we use Brownian dynamics-finite element method (BD-FEM) to simulate DNA behavior in these microchannels, and compare the results against the experiments. Although the hydrodynamic interaction (HI) between DNA segments and between DNA and the device boundaries was not included in the simulations, the simulation results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data from either the aspect of the single molecule behavior or from the aspect of ensemble averaged properties. The discrepancy between the simulation and the experimental results can be explained by the neglect of HI effect in the simulations. Considering the huge savings on the computational cost from neglecting HI, we conclude that BD-FEM can be used as an efficient and economic designing tool for developing new microfluidic device for DNA manipulation.
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Thermosensitive hydrogel from oligopeptide-containing amphiphilic block copolymer: effect of Peptide functional group on self-assembly and gelation behavior.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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We reveal that a slight change in the functional group of the oligopeptide block incorporated into the poloxamer led to drastically different hierarchical assembly behavior and rheological properties in aqueous media. An oligo(l-Ala-co-l-Phe-co-?-benzyl l-Asp)-poloxamer-oligo(?-benzyl-l-Asp-co-l-Phe-co-l-Ala) block copolymer (OAF-(OAsp(Bzyl))-PLX-(OAsp(Bzyl))-OAF, denoted as polymer 1), which possessed benzyl group on the aspartate moiety of the peptide block, was synthesized through ring-opening polymerization. The benzyl group on aspartate was then converted to carboxylic acid to yield oligo(l-Ala-co-l-Phe-co-l-Asp)-poloxamer-oligo(l-Asp-co-l-Phe-co-l-Ala) (OAF-(OAsp)-PLX-(OAsp)-OAF, denoted as polymer 2). Characterization of the peptide secondary structure in aqueous media by circular dichroism revealed that the oligopeptide block in polymer 1 exhibited mainly an ?-helix conformation, whereas that in polymer 2 adopted predominantly a ?-sheet conformation at room temperature. The segmental dynamics of the PEG in polymer 1 remained essentially unperturbed upon heating from 10 to 50 °C; by contrast, the PEG segmental motion in polymer 2 became more constrained above ca. 35 °C, indicating an obvious change in the chemical environment of the block chains. Meanwhile, the storage modulus of the polymer 2 solution underwent an abrupt increase across this temperature, and the solution turned into a gel. Wet-cell TEM observation revealed that polymer 1 self-organized to form microgel particles of several hundred nanometers in size. The microgel particle was retained as the characteristic morphological entity such that the PEG chains did not experience a significant change of their chemical environment upon heating. The hydrogel formed by polymer 2 was found to contain networks of nanofibrils, suggesting that the hydrogen bonding between the carboxylic acid groups led to an extensive stacking of the ? sheets along the fibril axis at elevated temperature. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the polymer 2 aqueous solution was found to be low in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. The low cytotoxicity coupled with the sol-gel transition makes the corresponding hydrogel a good candidate for biomedical applications.
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Antiferromagnetic Iron Nanocolloids: A New Generation in Vivo T1 MRI Contrast Agent.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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A novel T1 agent, antiferromagnetic ?-iron oxide-hydroxide (?-FeOOH) nanocolloids with a diameter of 2-3 nm, has been successfully prepared. These nanocolloids, together with a post synthetic strategy performed in mesoporous silica, are a great improvement over the low T1-weighted contrast common in traditional magnetic silica nanocomposites. The intrinsic antiferromagnetic goethite (?-FeOOH) shows very low magnetization (Mz) of 0.05 emu g(-1) at H = 2 T at 300 K (0.0006 emu g(-1) for FeOOH/WMSN-PEG), which is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than any current ultrasmall iron oxide NPs (>5 emu g(-1)) reported to date, hence ensuring the low r2 (? Mz) (7.64 mM(-1) s(-1)) and r2/r1 ratio (2.03) at 4.7 T. These biodegradable ?-FeOOH nanocolloids also demonstrate excellent in vitro cellular imaging and in vivo MR vascular and urinary trace imaging capability with outstanding biocompatibility, which is exceptionally well secreted by the kidney and not the liver as with most nanoparticles, opening up a new avenue for designing powerful antiferromagnetic iron T1 contrast agents.
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Reproducibility and reliability of SNP analysis using human cellular DNA at or near nanogram levels.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Illumina SNP arrays have been routinely used for genome-wide association studies to identify potential biomarkers for various diseases. The recommended 200 ng of DNA for high-quality results is a roadblock to utilizing this assay when such quantities of DNA are not available. The goal of this study is to determine the reproducibility and reliability of the assay when reduced amounts of DNA are used for the SNP arrays.
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BPR0C305, an orally active microtubule-disrupting anticancer agent.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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BPR0C305 is a novel N-substituted indolyl glyoxylamide previously reported with in-vitro cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cells including P-gp-expressing multiple drug-resistant cell sublines. The present study further examined the underlying molecular mechanism of anticancer action and evaluated the in-vivo antitumor activities of BPR0C305. BPR0C305 is a novel synthetic small indole derivative that demonstrates in-vitro activities against human cancer cell growth by inhibiting tubulin polymerization, disrupting cellular microtubule assembly, and causing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. It is also orally active against leukemia and solid tumor growths in mouse models. Findings of these pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies suggest that BPR0C305 is a promising lead compound for further preclinical developments.
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A facile approach toward protein-resistant biointerfaces based on photodefinable poly-p-xylylene coating.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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A facile and versatile tool is reported that uses a photodefinable polymer, poly(4-benzoyl-p-xylylene-co-p-xylylene) to immobilize antifouling materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate, dextran, and ethanolamine. This immobilization process requires the polymers photoactivated carbonyl groups, which can facilitate light-induced molecular crosslinking and can rapidly react via insertion into CH or NH bonds upon photo-illumination at 365nm. Importantly, the process does not require additional functional groups on the antifouling materials. The immobilized fouling materials were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), and the resulting antifouling properties were examined through protein adsorption studies on fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin at surfaces that were spatially modified using a photomask during the photochemical process. In addition, the adsorbed fibrinogen was quantitatively analyzed using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and the adsorption values were reduced to 32.8±4.9ngcm(-2), 5.5±3.9ngcm(-2), 21.4±4.5ngcm(-2), and 16.9±3.4ngcm(-2) for poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA), dextran, and ethanolamine, respectively. Finally, this antifouling modification technology was demonstrated on an unconventional substrate for a stent that was modified by PEGMA at selected areas using a microscopic patterning technique during photoimmobilization. Low levels of fibrinogen and BSA adsorption were also observed at the areas where PEGMA was attached.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel C-aryl d-glucofuranosides as sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Novel C-aryl-d-glucofuranosides were synthesized and evaluated for their capacity to inhibit human sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (hSGLT2) and hSGLT1. Compound 21q demonstrated the best in vitro inhibitory activity against SGLT2 in this series (EC50=0.62?M).
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Association analysis of 9,560 prostate cancer cases from the International Consortium of Prostate Cancer Genetics confirms the role of reported prostate cancer associated SNPs for familial disease.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Previous GWAS studies have reported significant associations between various common SNPs and prostate cancer risk using cases unselected for family history. How these variants influence risk in familial prostate cancer is not well studied. Here, we analyzed 25 previously reported SNPs across 14 loci from prior prostate cancer GWAS. The International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) previously validated some of these using a family-based association method (FBAT). However, this approach suffered reduced power due to the conditional statistics implemented in FBAT. Here, we use a case-control design with an empirical analysis strategy to analyze the ICPCG resource for association between these 25 SNPs and familial prostate cancer risk. Fourteen sites contributed 12,506 samples (9,560 prostate cancer cases, 3,368 with aggressive disease, and 2,946 controls from 2,283 pedigrees). We performed association analysis with Genie software which accounts for relationships. We analyzed all familial prostate cancer cases and the subset of aggressive cases. For the familial prostate cancer phenotype, 20 of the 25 SNPs were at least nominally associated with prostate cancer and 16 remained significant after multiple testing correction (p ? 1E (-3)) occurring on chromosomal bands 6q25, 7p15, 8q24, 10q11, 11q13, 17q12, 17q24, and Xp11. For aggressive disease, 16 of the SNPs had at least nominal evidence and 8 were statistically significant including 2p15. The results indicate that the majority of common, low-risk alleles identified in GWAS studies for all prostate cancer also contribute risk for familial prostate cancer, and that some may contribute risk to aggressive disease.
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Comparison of survival among neoadjuvant chemoradiation responders, non-responders and patients receiving primary resection for locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: does neoadjuvant chemoradiation benefit all?
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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While neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery has been shown to improve the survival of patients with locally advanced oesophageal cancer, it is not known whether neoadjuvant chemoradiation has a beneficial or harmful effect on the non-responders. We aimed to compare the outcomes among neoadjuvant chemoradiation responders, non-responders and patients receiving primary oesophagectomies for resectable locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
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Detection of looseness degree of dental posts using natural frequency analysis.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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This study examines the relationship between the retention force and natural frequency of dental posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement. Forty-two decoronated maxillary incisors were collected and embedded in resin blocks. The 7-mm post spaces were prepared for all test samples prior to cementing the 13-mm Para-Posts with zinc phosphate cement. The natural frequency values and retention forces of the zinc phosphate cement-cemented Para-Posts in various liquid/powder mixing ratios were measured. Thereafter, the natural frequency values of the zinc phosphate cement-cemented posts were continuously detected during ultrasonic vibration. Moreover, both the natural frequency values and the dislodgement forces in response to ultrasonic vibrations were measured for the pretreated post samples. Results showed that the natural frequency values of the posts significantly decreased from 8.8?±?0.8 to 5.0?±?0.5?kHz (P < 0.05) before and after ultrasound treatment, respectively. The natural frequency values and the dislodgement forces of tested posts had a highly linear relationship (R²?=?0.99, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that natural frequency is a variable for monitoring the stability status of zinc phosphate cement-cemented dental posts.
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Oxidative stress enhances Axl-mediated cell migration through an Akt1/Rac1-dependent mechanism.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Persistent oxidative stress is common in cancer cells because of abnormal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has been associated with malignant phenotypes, such as chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. Both overexpression of Axl and abnormal ROS elevation have been linked to cell transformation and increased cell migration. However, the relationship between Axl and ROS in malignant cell migration has not been previously evaluated. Using an in vitro human lung cancer model, we examined the redox state of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines of low metastatic (CL1-0) and high metastatic (CL1-5) potentials. Here we report that Axl activation elicits ROS accumulation through the oxidase-coupled small GTPase Rac1. We also observed that oxidative stress could activate Axl phosphorylation to synergistically enhance cell migration. Further, Axl signaling activated by H2O2 treatment results in enhancement of cell migration via a PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. The kinase activity of Axl is required for the Axl-mediated cell migration and prolongs the half-life of phospho-Akt under oxidative stress. Finally, downregulation of Akt1, but not Akt2, by RNAi in Axl-overexpressing cells inhibits the amount of activated Rac1 and the ability to migrate induced by H2O2 treatment. Together, these results show that a novel Axl-signaling cascade induced by H2O2 treatment triggers cell migration through the PI3K/Akt1/Rac1 pathway. Elucidation of redox regulation in Axl-related malignant migration may provide new molecular insights into the mechanisms underlying tumor progression.
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Impact of body mass index on postoperative outcome of advanced gastric cancer after curative surgery.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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The impact of body mass index (BMI) on the outcome of advanced gastric cancer surgery is controversial. Between December 1987 and December 2006, a total of 947 advanced gastric cancer patients receiving curative resection with retrieved lymph node number >15 were studied and divided into three groups according to BMI (<25, 25-30, and >30 kg/m(2)).
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Regionally specific and genome-wide analyses conclusively demonstrate the absence of CpG methylation in human mitochondrial DNA.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Although CpG methylation clearly distributes genome-wide in vertebrate nuclear DNA, the state of methylation in the vertebrate mitochondrial genome has been unclear. Several recent reports using immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods concluded that human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has much more than the 2 to 5% CpG methylation previously estimated. However, these methods do not provide information as to the sites or frequency of methylation at each CpG site. Here, we have used the more definitive bisulfite genomic sequencing method to examine CpG methylation in HCT116 human cells and primary human cells to independently answer these two questions. We found no evidence of CpG methylation at a biologically significant level in these regions of the human mitochondrial genome. Furthermore, unbiased next-generation sequencing of sodium bisulfite treated total DNA from HCT116 cells and analysis of genome-wide sodium bisulfite sequencing data sets from several other DNA sources confirmed this absence of CpG methylation in mtDNA. Based on our findings using regionally specific and genome-wide approaches with multiple human cell sources, we can definitively conclude that CpG methylation is absent in mtDNA. It is highly unlikely that CpG methylation plays any role in direct control of mitochondrial function.
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Dynamics of phytoplankton communities under photoinhibition.
Bull. Math. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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We analyzed a model of phytoplankton competition for light in a well-mixed water column. The model, proposed by Gerla et al. (Oikos 120:519-527, 2011), assumed inhibition of photosynthesis at high irradiance (photoinhibition). We described the global behavior through mathematical analyses, providing a general solution to the multi-species competition for light with photoinhibition. We classified outcomes of 2- and 3-species competitions as examples, and evaluated feasibility of the theoretical predictions using empirical relationships between photosynthetic production and irradiance. Numerical simulations with published p-I curves indicate that photoinhibition may often lead to strong Allee effects and competitive facilitation among species. Hence, our results suggest that photoinhibition may play a major role in organizing phytoplankton communities.
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Surgical outcomes in lung cancer presenting as ground-glass opacities of 3 cm or less: A review of 5 years experience.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has become increasingly popular recently and more pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGOs) are being identified. However, the treatment for these GGOs remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the clinical and pathological characteristics and to demonstrate the longterm surgical outcomes in patients undergoing resection for GGOs in our institute.
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Is thymectomy necessary in nonmyasthenic patients with early thymoma?
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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In thymoma patients without myasthenia gravis, it is debatable whether thymectomy should be performed in addition to thymomectomy, the procedure in which the thymoma alone is resected. In this study, we proposed to compare the surgical results in early-stage nonmyasthenic thymoma patients who underwent thymomectomy with and without extended thymectomy.
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Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels with interpenetrating multiwalled carbon nanotubes for cell sheet engineering.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Hydrogels have been developed as artificial extracellular matrixes (ECMs) to mimic native tissue microenvironments for various applications. Unfortunately, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM)-based hydrogels are not suitable for cell culturing and cell sheet preparation. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with their mechanical strength and electrical conductivity, have been considered as additives to increase the applicability of hydrogels to cell encapsulation and advance cardiac electrophysiological functions. A simple method for fabrication of PNIPAAM hydrogels interpenetrated with multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) as substrates for cell sheet preparation is reported. The results demonstrate that PNIPAAM hydrogels with interpenetrating MWCNTs still exhibit thermosensitive behavior. It is also found that epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells can only attach and proliferate on MWCNT-interpenetrated PNIPAAM hydrogels. Furthermore, the PNIPAAM hydrogels with MWCNTs possess higher elastic moduli and hydrophobicities than those without MWCNTs, suggesting these two characteristics are necessary for the cells to attach to the hydrogel surfaces. Moreover, cell sheets can only be harvested from PNIPAAM hydrogels with MWCNTs because of their high ratio of cell attachment. Thus, this simple method provides sufficient mechanical strength to PNIPAAM hydrogels so that anchorage-dependent cells can be cultivated and provides a superior system for preparing cell sheets.
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Quantitative analysis of oligosaccharides derived from sulfated glycosaminoglycans by nanodiamond-based affinity purification and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Degraded fragments of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are key reporters for profiling the burden of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disease at baseline and during therapy. Here, we present a high-throughput assay, which combines microwave-assisted degradation, solid-phase affinity purification, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS), for quantitative analysis of sulfated oligosaccharides in biological samples. First, sulfated oligosaccharides such as chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS) were efficiently isolated from highly diluted solutions or spiked artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) using polyarginine-coated nanodiamonds (PA-coated NDs) as affinity sorbents. Next, they were degraded to disaccharides through microwave-assisted methanolysis or enzymatic digestion for subsequent MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The reaction times for GAG depolymerization were significantly reduced from a few hours to less than 7 min under the microwave irradiation. Deuterium-labeled internal standards were then mixed with the CS-derived disaccharides for quantitative analysis by MALDI-TOF MS using the N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDC) matrix. The new assay is facile, specific (with distinct chlorine-isotope trait markers), sensitive (with a detection limit of ~70 pg), and potentially useful for clinical diagnosis of MPS.
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Vapor-based tri-functional coatings.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The tri-functional coating synthesized via CVD copolymerization is comprised of distinguished anchoring sites of acetylene, maleimide, and ketone that can synergically undergo specific conjugation reactions to render surfaces with distinct biological functions, simultaneously. In addition, these tri-functional coatings can be fabricated in a micro-structured fashion on non-conventional surfaces.
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Predicting climate effects on Pacific sardine.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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For many marine species and habitats, climate change and overfishing present a double threat. To manage marine resources effectively, it is necessary to adapt management to changes in the physical environment. Simple relationships between environmental conditions and fish abundance have long been used in both fisheries and fishery management. In many cases, however, physical, biological, and human variables feed back on each other. For these systems, associations between variables can change as the system evolves in time. This can obscure relationships between population dynamics and environmental variability, undermining our ability to forecast changes in populations tied to physical processes. Here we present a methodology for identifying physical forcing variables based on nonlinear forecasting and show how the method provides a predictive understanding of the influence of physical forcing on Pacific sardine.
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High expression of high-mobility group box 1 in the blood and lungs is associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an important mediator in multiple pathological conditions, but the expression of HMGB1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not yet been completely investigated. We aimed to analyze the relationship between HMGB1 expression in blood and lung tissue and the development of COPD.
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Aspirin antagonizes the cytotoxic effect of methotrexate in lung cancer cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Methotrexate (MTX) has been widely used for the treatment of cancer and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Aspirin (ASA) is a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor that contributes to the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as RA. It has been observed that the antitumor effect of ASA can be attributed to inhibition of cell cycle progression, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. In the present study, we revealed that the treatment with a combination of MTX and ASA resulted in antagonism of the cytotoxic effect as demonstrated by SRB and colony formation assays. ASA alleviated the MTX-mediated S phase accumulation and recovered the G1 phase. MTX-mediated accumulation of the S phase marker cyclin A was also alleviated by ASA. Notably, FAS protein levels were upregulated by MTX in A549 cells. The antagonism of MTX efficacy caused by ASA was accompanied by altered expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and FAS but not dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). This suggests that the alteration of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and FAS was involved in the antagonism between ASA and MTX. Exogenously added folic acid reversed the MTX-mediated DHFR inhibition following either MTX or MTX + ASA treatments. Most importantly, we demonstrated for the first time that the commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for headache ASA and possibly other COX-1/2 inhibitors can produce a strong antagonistic effect on the growth inhibition of lung cancer cells when administered in combination with MTX. The clinical implication of our finding is obvious, i.e., the clinical efficacy of MTX therapy can be compromised by ASA and their concomitant use should be avoided.
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Mefloquine induces cell death in prostate cancer cells and provides a potential novel treatment strategy in vivo.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Mefloquine (MQ) is currently in clinical use as a prophylactic treatment for malaria. Previous studies have shown that MQ induces oxidative stress in vitro. The present study investigated the anticancer effects of MQ treatment in PC3 cells. The cell viability was evaluated using sulphorhodamine-B (SRB) staining, while annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) were used as an assay for cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was detected with 2,7-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA), a sensitive intracellular probe, and the alteration of cellular status was defined by trypan blue staining. The results of the present study indicated that MQ has a high cytotoxicity that causes cell death in PC3 cells. MQ markedly inhibited the PC3 cells through non-apoptotic cell death. MQ also induced significant ROS production. The MQ treatment mediated G1 cell cycle arrest and cyclin D1 accumulation through p21 upregulation in the PC3 cells. Moreover, the use of MQ improved the survival of the treatment group compared with the control group in the experimental mice. The present study indicates that MQ possesses potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) in vivo. These findings provide insights that may aid the further optimization and application of new and existing therapeutic options.
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Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton through diet niche partitioning.
J Anim Ecol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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The biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate is a central topic in ecology. Recently, there has been a growing interest in size diversity because body size is sensitive to environmental changes and is one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms linking many ecosystem properties. However, how size diversity affects ecosystem functioning is an important yet unclear issue. To fill the gap, with large-scale field data from the East China Sea, we tested the novel hypothesis that increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances top-down control on phytoplankton (H1) and compared it with five conventional hypotheses explaining the top-down control: flatter zooplankton size spectrum enhances the strength of top-down control (H2); nutrient enrichment lessens the strength of top-down control (H3); increasing zooplankton taxonomic diversity enhances the strength of top-down control (H4); increasing fish predation decreases the strength of top-down control of zooplankton on phytoplankton through trophic cascade (H5); increasing temperature intensifies the strength of top-down control (H6). The results of univariate analyses support the hypotheses based on zooplankton size diversity (H1), zooplankton size spectrum (H2), nutrient (H3) and zooplankton taxonomic diversity (H4), but not the hypotheses based on fish predation (H5) and temperature (H6). More in-depth analyses indicate that zooplankton size diversity is the most important factor in determining the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea. Our results suggest a new potential mechanism that increasing predator size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on prey through diet niche partitioning. This mechanism can be explained by the optimal predator-prey body-mass ratio concept. Suppose each size group of zooplankton predators has its own optimal phytoplankton prey size, increasing size diversity of zooplankton would promote diet niche partitioning of predators and thus elevates the strength of top-down control.
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Large chromosome deletions, duplications, and gene conversion events accumulate with age in normal human colon crypts.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Little is known about the types and numbers of mutations that may accumulate in normal human cells with age. Such information would require obtaining enough DNA from a single cell to accurately carry out reliable analysis despite extensive amplification; and complete genomic coverage under these circumstances is difficult. We have compared colon crypts, which are putatively clonal and contain ~2000 cells each, to determine how much somatic genetic variation occurs in vivo (without ex vivo cell culturing). Using high-density SNP microarrays, we find that chromosome deletions, duplications, and gene conversions were significantly more frequent in colons from the older individuals. These changes affected lengths ranging from 73 kb to 46 Mb. Although detection requires progeny of a single mutant stem cell to reach niche dominance over neighboring stem cells, none of the deletions appear likely to confer a selective advantage. Mutations can become fixed randomly during stem cell evolution through neutral drift in normal human crypts. The fact that chromosomal changes are detected in individual crypts with increasing age suggests that either such changes accumulate with age or single stem cell dominance increases with age, and the former is more likely. This progressive genome-wide divergence of human somatic cells with age has implications for aging and disease in multicellular organisms.
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Difference in [corrected] adaptive dispersal ability can promote species coexistence in fluctuating environments.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Theories and empirical evidence suggest that random dispersal of organisms promotes species coexistence in spatially structured environments. However, directed dispersal, where movement is adjusted with fitness-related cues, is less explored in studies of dispersal-mediated coexistence. Here, we present a metacommunity model of two consumers exhibiting directed dispersal and competing for a single resource. Our results indicated that directed dispersal promotes coexistence through two distinct mechanisms, depending on the adaptiveness of dispersal. Maladaptive directed dispersal may promote coexistence similar to random dispersal. More importantly, directed dispersal is adaptive when dispersers track patches of increased resources in fluctuating environments. Coexistence is promoted under increased adaptive dispersal ability of the inferior competitor relative to the superior competitor. This newly described dispersal-mediated coexistence mechanism is likely favored by natural selection under the trade-off between competitive and adaptive dispersal abilities.
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Relative contraindications for percutaneous tracheostomy: from the surgeons perspective.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) has gained worldwide acceptance as a bedside procedure by intensivists, but its popularity has declined based on reports of some relative contraindications. The aim of this study was to ascertain the perioperative comorbidities of PT when it is performed by surgeons with experience performing standard tracheostomy.
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Treatment of empyema and bronchopleural fistula by bovine pericardium and latissimus flap.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Management of empyema with bronchopleural fistula remains a challenge. A 38-year-old man who had bullous emphysema was hospitalized on account of a right-sided necrotizing pneumonia complicated by empyema that mandated a tube drainage. Persistent air leak from the chest tube was noted, and chest computed tomography confirmed an empyema cavity with a suspicious bronchopleural fistula. This complex condition was successfully treated using fibrin glue with buttressed bovine pericardium to seal the fistula, followed by obliteration of the empyema cavity using a pedicled muscle flap of the latissimus dorsi. There was no recurrence of empyema at a follow-up 5 years after this procedure.
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Sex differences of oxidative stress to cholestatic liver and kidney injury in young rats.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Sexual dimorphism plays a role in the liver and in renal injuries. However, whether sex is a risk factor in bile duct ligation (BDL) in young rats has never been examined.
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Surgical results of synchronous multiple primary lung cancers: similar to the stage-matched solitary primary lung cancers?
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Treatment for synchronous multiple primary lung cancers (SMPLC) remains controversial. Some surgeons treat SMPLC like advanced lung cancer, whereas other surgeons treat SMPLC as separate primary lung cancers. In this study, survival of SMPLC patients and matched-stage solitary primary lung cancer (SPLC) patients after surgical treatment were compared.
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Drug-loading capacity and nuclear targeting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes grafted with anionic amphiphilic copolymers.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In this study, three types of hybrid nanotubes (NTs), ie, oxidized multiwalled carbon NTs (COOH MWCNTs), heparin (Hep)-conjugated MWCNTs (Hep MWCNTs), and diblock copolymer polyglycolic acid (PGA)-co-heparin conjugated to MWCNTs (PGA MWCNTs), were synthesized with improved biocompatibility and drug-loading capacity. Hydrophilic Hep substituents on MWCNTs improved biocompatibility and acted as nucleus-sensitive segments on the CNT carrier, whereas the addition of PGA enhanced drug-loading capacity. In the PGA MWCNT system, the amphiphilic copolymer (PGA-Hep) formed micelles on the side walls of CNTs, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The PGA system encapsulated the hydrophobic drug with high efficiency compared to the COOH MWCNT and Hep MWCNT systems. This is because the drug was loaded onto the PGA MWCNTs through hydrophobic forces and onto the CNTs by ?-? stacking interactions. Additionally, most of the current drug-carrier designs that target cancer cells release the drug in the lysosome or cytoplasm. However, nuclear-targeted drug release is expected to kill cancer cells more directly and efficiently. In our study, PGA MWCNT carriers effectively delivered the active anticancer drug doxorubicin into targeted nuclei. This study may provide an effective strategy for the development of carbon-based drug carriers for nuclear-targeted drug delivery.
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A special method of dilating tracheal stenosis following tracheostomy.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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Several methods can be used to manage tracheal stenosis. For patients unfit for surgery, frequent dilatation with stent placement is the most common treatment. We here describe a simple and effective method using Bakes common bile duct dilators to dilate a tracheal stenosis in a patient with a tracheostomy.
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Standard uptake value of positron emission tomography in clinical stage I lung cancer: clinical application and pathological correlation.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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The aim of this study was to assess the standard uptake value in clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its correlation with pathological status and prognosis.
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Wnt signaling orchestration with a small molecule DYRK inhibitor provides long-term xeno-free human pluripotent cell expansion.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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An optimal culture system for human pluripotent stem cells should be fully defined and free of animal components. To date, most xeno-free culture systems require human feeder cells and/or highly complicated culture media that contain activators of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signaling pathways, and none provide for replacement of FGF/TGF? ligands with chemical compounds. The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in mouse embryonic stem cells in leukemia inhibitory factor-independent culture; however, the role of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in human pluripotent stem cell is still poorly understood and controversial because of the dual role of Wnts in proliferation and differentiation. Building on our previous investigations of small molecules modulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling in mouse embryonic stem cells, we identified a compound, ID-8, that could support Wnt-induced human embryonic stem cell proliferation and survival without differentiation. Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK) is the target of the small molecule ID-8. Its role in human pluripotent cell renewal was confirmed by DYRK knockdown in human embryonic stem cells. Using Wnt and the DYRK inhibitor ID-8, we have developed a novel and simple chemically defined xeno-free culture system that allows for long-term expansion of human pluripotent stem cells without FGF or TGF? activation. These culture conditions do not include xenobiotic supplements, serum, serum replacement, or albumin. Using this culture system, we have shown that several human pluripotent cell lines maintained pluripotency (>20 passages) and a normal karyotype and still retained the ability to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers. This Wnt-dependent culture system should provide a platform for complete replacement of growth factors with chemical compounds.
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Sebaceous nevus syndrome, central nervous system malformations, aplasia cutis congenita, limbal dermoid, and pigmented nevus syndrome.
Pediatr Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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SCALP syndrome is an acronym describing the coincidence of sebaceous nevus syndrome, central nervous system malformations, aplasia cutis congenita, limbal dermoid, and pigmented nevus (giant congenital melanocytic nevus). We present a fourth case of this syndrome.
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Fabrication of dendrimers toward biological application.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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Dendrimers consisting of inner core and peripheral shell are well-designed branching architectures with abundant terminal groups. Therefore, the high level of control over dendritic architectures makes dendrimers ideal carriers in biomedical application. In addition, the toxicity of dendrimers mainly comes from the high cationic charge density in the periphery, where charges interact with biological cell membrane and then result in membrane disruption. Two strategies have been utilized to minimize the toxicity of dendrimers: first, selecting neutral or anionic biocompatible dendrimers, and second, masking of peripheral charge by chemical modification. Then the focus of this chapter shifts to biomedical application of biocompatible dendrimers, including drug delivery systems of dendrimers, targeting delivery by dendrimers, and applications of dendrimers for therapy and as imaging agents for inspection.
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Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of PPh2-C2-(C6H4)n-C2-PPh2 based bimetallic Au(I) complexes.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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A family of the diphosphines PPh(2)C(2)(C(6)H(4))(n)C(2)PPh(2) (n = 0-3), which possess a dialkynyl-arene spacer between the phosphorus atoms, was used for the synthesis of a series of bimetallic gold(I) complexes 1-7. Unlike the corresponding polynuclear Au(i) clusters, which show unique phosphorescence, 1-7 reveal dual emissions consisting of fluorescence and phosphorescence. The results are rationalized, in a semi-quantitative manner, by the trace (1-3) to zero (4-7) contribution of MLCT varying with the number of conjugated phenylene rings. As a result, unlike typical polynuclear Au(I) clusters with 100% triplet state population, the rate constant of the S(1)?T(1) intersystem crossing is drastically reduced to 10(9) s(-1) (4-7)-10(10) s(-1) (1-3), so that the fluorescence radiative decay rate can compete or even dominates. The drastic O(2) quenching of phosphorescence demonstrates the unprotected nature of the emission chromophores in 1-7, as opposed to the well protected, O(2) independent phosphorescence in most multimetallic Au(I) clusters.
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Stimulated release of photosensitizers from graft and diblock micelles for photodynamic therapy.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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To understand the effect of photosensitizer (PS) release from graft copolymer based micelles in photodynamic therapy (PDT), the two pH-sensitive and non-pH-sensitive graft copolymers, (poly(N-vinyly caprolactam)-g-poly(D,L-lactide) and poly(N-vinyly caprolactam-co-N-vinyl imidazole)-g-poly(D,L-lactide)), were synthesized and utilized for the encapsulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) for in vitro and in vivo PDT studies. Photochemical internalization (PCI) was utilized to study the localization of pH- and non-pH-sensitive micelles uptake in the lysosome. After non-toxic light treatment, PPIX was found in the nucleus with pH-sensitive micelles, while PPIX was still localized in the lysosomal organism with the non-pH-sensitive micelles, as observed by confocal microscopy. Because the formation of singlet oxygen was observed for the block and graft micelles, dramatic differences in the cell viability could be ascribed to the damage occurring at the region where the PPIX was located. An in vivo study revealed that PPIX-loaded graft and diblock micelles presented prolonged blood circulation and enhanced tumor targeting ability. The PPIX released from g-CIM micelles on tumor site was further proved by ex vivo confocal image. In addition, non-pH-sensitive micelle-treated mice showed a better repression of tumor growth than PPIX-treated mice, which was likely due to the larger amount of PS localized in the tumor region still exhibiting therapeutic effects. Finally, effective PDT-induced inhibition of tumor growth was found in pH-sensitive micelle-treated mice. This work provides insight into PS-loaded graft and diblock micelles for the PDT of tumors.
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Validation of prostate cancer risk-related loci identified from genome-wide association studies using family-based association analysis: evidence from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG).
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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Multiple prostate cancer (PCa) risk-related loci have been discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on case-control designs. However, GWAS findings may be confounded by population stratification if cases and controls are inadvertently drawn from different genetic backgrounds. In addition, since these loci were identified in cases with predominantly sporadic disease, little is known about their relationships with hereditary prostate cancer (HPC). The association between seventeen reported PCa susceptibility loci was evaluated with a family-based association test using 1,979 hereditary PCa families of European descent collected by members of the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics, with a total of 5,730 affected men. The risk alleles for 8 of the 17 loci were significantly over-transmitted from parents to affected offspring, including SNPs residing in 8q24 (regions 1, 2 and 3), 10q11, 11q13, 17q12 (region 1), 17q24 and Xp11. In subgroup analyses, three loci, at 8q24 (regions 1 and 2) plus 17q12, were significantly over-transmitted in hereditary PCa families with five or more affected members, while loci at 3p12, 8q24 (region 2), 11q13, 17q12 (region 1), 17q24 and Xp11 were significantly over-transmitted in HPC families with an average age of diagnosis at 65 years or less. Our results indicate that at least a subset of PCa risk-related loci identified by case-control GWAS are also associated with disease risk in HPC families.
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Antcin B and its ester derivative from Antrodia camphorata induce apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells involves enhancing oxidative stress coincident with activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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The triterpenoids methylantcinate B (MAB) and antcin B (AB), isolated from the medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata , have been identified as strong cytotoxic agents against various type of cancer cells; however, the mechanisms of MAB- and AB-induced cytotoxicity have not been adequately explored. This study investigated the roles of caspase cascades, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, mitochondrial disruption, and Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in MAB- and AB-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. Here, we showed that MAB and AB induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as characterized by increased DNA fragmentation, cleavage of PARP, sub-G1 population, chromatin condensation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and release of cytochrome c. Increasing the levels of caspase-2, -3, -8, and -9 activities was involved in MAB- and AB-induced apoptosis, and they could be attenuated by inhibitors of specific caspases, indicating that MAB and AB triggered the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Additionally, the enhanced apoptotic effect correlates with high expression of Fas, Fas ligand, as well as Bax and decreased protein levels of Bcl-(XL) and Bcl-2, suggesting that both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways were involved in the apoptotic processes. Incubation of HepG2 cells with antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid attenuated the ROS generation and apoptosis induced by MAB and AB, which indicate that ROS plays a pivotal role in cell death. NADPH oxidase activation was observed in MAB- and AB-stimulated HepG2 cells; however, inhibition of such activation by diphenylamine significantly blocked MAB- and AB-induced ROS production and increased cell viability. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that triterpenoids MAB and AB induced a NADPH oxidase-provoked oxidative stress and extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis as a critical mechanism of cause cell death in HCC cells.
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Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer molecules bearing o-hydroxy analogues of green fluorescent protein chromophore.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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o-Hydroxy analogues, 1a-g, of the green fluorescent protein chromophore have been synthesized. Their structures and electronic properties were investigated by X-ray single-crystal analyses, electrochemistry, and luminescence properties. In solid and nonpolar solvents 1a-g exist mainly as Z conformers that possess a seven-membered-ring hydrogen bond and undergo excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reactions, resulting in a proton-transfer tautomer emission. Fluorescence upconversion dynamics have revealed a coherent type of ESIPT, followed by a fast vibrational/solvent relaxation (<1 ps) to a twisted (regarding exo-C(5)-C(4)-C(3) bonds) conformation, from which a fast population decay of a few to several tens of picoseconds was resolved in cyclohexane. Accordingly, the proton-transfer tautomer emission intensity is moderate (0.08 in 1e) to weak (?10(-4) in 1a) in cyclohexane. The stronger intramolecular hydrogen bonding in 1g suppresses the rotation of the aryl-alkene bond, resulting in a high yield of tautomer emission (?(f) ? 0.2). In the solid state, due to the inhibition of exo-C(5)-C(4)-C(3) rotation, intense tautomer emission with a quantum yield of 0.1-0.9 was obtained for 1a-g. Depending on the electronic donor or acceptor strength of the substituent in either the HOMO or LUMO site, a broad tuning range of the emission from 560 (1g) to 670 nm (1a) has been achieved.
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Peritoneal recurrence in serosa-negative gastric adenocarcinoma after curative surgery.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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The rate of recurrence increases in proportion to the degree of tumor depth, even after curative resection for gastric adenocarcinoma. Serosal exposure is considered as an important risk factor of peritoneal recurrence. However, some patients with serosa-negative cancer were found to have peritoneal recurrence. There are few reports concerning risk factors of peritoneal recurrence in serosa-negative gastric adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of peritoneal recurrence in serosa-negative gastric adenocarcinoma after curative resection.
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Comparison of the survival difference between AJCC 6th and 7th editions for gastric cancer patients.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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The AJCC 7th edition changes the classification of T- and N-factors and the TNM stage of gastric cancer. We evaluated its prognostic impact.
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Q-PCR in combination with ChIP assays to detect changes in chromatin acetylation.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) allows for the accurate and reproducible determination of the amount of target DNA in a sample through the measurement of PCR product accumulation in "real time." This method determines starting target DNA quantity over a large assay dynamic range and requires no post-PCR sample manipulation. When used in combination with the method of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), the amount of protein binding to a specific region of DNA can be accurately and rapidly determined. A method for quantifying the presence of acetylated histones H3 and H4 on different regions of a target locus using Q-PCR after ChIP is described.
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Factors associated with recurrence within 2 years after curative surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Despite curative surgery for gastric cancer, many patients die of recurrent cancer. Few studies have investigated the time to recurrence after curative resection for gastric cancer.
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Synthesis and evaluation of poly(hexamethylene-urethane) and PEG-poly(hexamethylene-urethane) and their cholesteryl oleyl carbonate composites for human blood biocompatibility.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Two new urethane-based acrylates (UAA and PEG-UAA) were synthesized as polymer blocks. The chemical composition of the two monomers was confirmed by IR and NMR. After cross-linking these blockers by radical polymerization, "hexamethylene PU" [poly(hexamethylene-urethane)] and "PEG-hexamethylene PU" [PEG-poly(hexa-methylene-urethane)] were obtained. The platelet adhesion and platelet activation of these polymers were evaluated in the presence of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) blood. The relative blood clotting indexes of the polymers were determined to measure their capability of reducing thrombogenicity. The hemolysis of red blood cells was also assessed to examine the haemocompatibility of the polymers. The hexamethylene PU and PEG-hexamethylene PU showed less platelet adhesion, platelet activation, blood clotting and hemolysis than a commercial PU (Tecoflex). The liquid crystal molecule, cholesteryl oleyl carbonate (COC), showed further improved biocompatibility to human blood, after COC was embedded in the PU polymers. PEG-hexamethylene PU + 10% COC demonstrated the best activity in reducing thrombogenicity and the best haemocompatibility. The inclusion of PEG segments into the PEG-UAA structure increased its hydrophilicity. The methylene bis(cyclohexyl) segments in Tecoflex PU decreased haemocompatibility. These observations are in good agreement with performed contact angle measurements. The PEG-hexamethylene PU loaded with COC might be a promising material for applications in bioengineering.
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Simulation of conformational preconditioning strategies for electrophoretic stretching of DNA in a microcontraction.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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We have used Brownian dynamics-finite element method to examine two conformational preconditioning approaches for improving DNA stretching in a microcontraction for the purpose of direct gene analysis. The newly proposed "pre-stretching" strategy is found to significantly improve the degree of DNA extension at the exit of the contraction. On the other hand, applying an oscillating extensional field to DNA yields no preconditioning effect. Detailed analysis of the evolution of DNA extension and conformation reveals that the success of our "pre-stretching" strategy relies on the "non-local" effect that cannot be predicted using simple kinematics analysis. In other words, accurate prediction can only be obtained using detailed simulations. Comparing to the existing preconditioning strategies, our "pre-stretching" method is easy to implement while still providing a very good performance. We hope that the insight gained from this study can be useful for future design of biomicrofluidic devices for DNA manipulation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.