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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Proliferative epithelial disease identified in nipple aspirate fluid and risk of developing breast cancer: A systematic review.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Abstract Background: Guideline panels recognize the need to increase the accuracy of identifying women at high risk of developing breast cancer who would benefit from prevention strategies. The characterization of proliferative epithelial disease found in nipple aspirate fluid (PED-NAF) may be a relevant risk factor. Objective: To comprehensively review the published literature to characterize and summarize abnormal cytology detected by NAF and the association of PED-NAF with subsequent risk of developing breast cancer. Research design and methods: Literature identified by systematic searches in MEDLINE PubMed and the Cochrane Library was screened for articles containing primary data on NAF cytology based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Main outcome measures: Study characteristics, cytological group distribution, and incidence of breast cancer. Results: Thirty articles were included after full-text review, of which 16 were analyzed, containing data on 20,808 unique aspirations from over 17,378 subjects. Seven (44%) of the studies used the King cytological classification system. Among aspirations from women free of breast cancer, 51.5% contained fluid, in which over 27.7% had PED on cytology. In the 2 prospective studies of 7,850 cancer-free women, abnormal cytology by NAF carried a 2.1-fold higher risk (95% CI, 1.6-2.6; p < 0.001) of developing breast cancer, compared with women from whom no fluid could be obtained. Conclusions: PED-NAF among women free of breast cancer, compared with no fluid being obtained, has an independent risk of developing breast cancer comparable to the risk of a woman with a positive family history of breast cancer. These findings have implications for augmenting risk prediction and clinical decisions concerning breast cancer surveillance and chemoprevention. As with all reviews, heterogeneity across studies may have influenced the results. The limited literature calls for prospective studies on asymptomatic women with long-term follow-up.
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Development, Regeneration, and Evolution of Feathers.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The feather is a complex ectodermal organ with hierarchical branching patterns. It provides functions in endothermy, communication, and flight. Studies of feather growth, cycling, and health are of fundamental importance to avian biology and poultry science. In addition, feathers are an excellent model for morphogenesis studies because of their accessibility, and their distinct patterns can be used to assay the roles of specific molecular pathways. Here we review the progress in aspects of development, regeneration, and evolution during the past three decades. We cover the development of feather buds in chicken embryos, regenerative cycling of feather follicle stem cells, formation of barb branching patterns, emergence of intrafeather pigmentation patterns, interplay of hormones and feather growth, and the genetic identification of several feather variants. The discovery of feathered dinosaurs redefines the relationship between feathers and birds. Inspiration from biomaterials and flight research further fuels biomimetic potential of feathers as a multidisciplinary research focal point. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Animal Biosciences Volume 3 is February 15, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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Genetic Analysis of a Novel Tubulin Mutation That Redirects Synaptic Vesicle Targeting and Causes Neurite Degeneration in C. elegans.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Neuronal cargos are differentially targeted to either axons or dendrites, and this polarized cargo targeting critically depends on the interaction between microtubules and molecular motors. From a forward mutagenesis screen, we identified a gain-of-function mutation in the C. elegans ?-tubulin gene mec-12 that triggered synaptic vesicle mistargeting, neurite swelling and neurodegeneration in the touch receptor neurons. This missense mutation replaced an absolutely conserved glycine in the H12 helix with glutamic acid, resulting in increased negative charges at the C-terminus of ?-tubulin. Synaptic vesicle mistargeting in the mutant neurons was suppressed by reducing dynein function, suggesting that aberrantly high dynein activity mistargeted synaptic vesicles. We demonstrated that dynein showed preference towards binding mutant microtubules over wild-type in microtubule sedimentation assay. By contrast, neurite swelling and neurodegeneration were independent of dynein and could be ameliorated by genetic paralysis of the animal. This suggests that mutant microtubules render the neurons susceptible to recurrent mechanical stress induced by muscle activity, which is consistent with the observation that microtubule network was disorganized under electron microscopy. Our work provides insights into how microtubule-dynein interaction instructs synaptic vesicle targeting and the importance of microtubule in the maintenance of neuronal structures against constant mechanical stress.
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Safety of intravenous thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke in Asian octogenarians and nonagenarians.
Age Ageing
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a major concern of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for ischaemic stroke. Asians are considered more vulnerable to ICH than non-Asians. Reports on safety of IVT for Asian octogenarians and nonagenarians are limited.
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Levels of Circulating Microparticles in Patients with Chronic Cardiorenal Disease.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Aim: Cardiac and renal diseases are common disorders that frequently coexist. We tested the hypothesis that the levels of circulating endothelial-derived apoptotic microparticles (EDA-MPs; CD31(?)CD42b(-)AN(-)V(?)) and platelet-derived apoptotic microparticles (PDA-MPs; CD31(?)CD42b(?)AN(-)V(?)) are useful biomarkers for predicting the presence of cardiorenal disease (CRD). Methods: A total of 68 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and angina pectoris (CKD-AP) undergoing cardiac catheterization were prospectively enrolled into group 1, 10 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) without CKD were enrolled into group 2 (CAD(?)CKD(-)) and 10 patients without CAD and CKD were enrolled into group 3 (CAD(-)CKD(-)). Results: The serum creatinine levels were significantly higher, whereas the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were significantly lower, in group 1 than in the other two groups (all p?0.02). The circulating levels of EDA-MPs and PDA-MPs did not differ between the patients with and without CKD (all p?0.2). However, the circulating levels of EDA-MPs and PDA-MPs were significantly higher in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3 (all p?0.03). In addition, differences were noted in the circulating EDA-MP and PDA-MP levels between groups 1 and 3, although without statistical significance (all p?0.09). Meanwhile, among the CKD patients, the subgroup analysis showed that the levels of MPs were significantly higher in those with CAD than in those without (all p=0.001), while a multivariate analysis demonstrated that CAD was the only factor independently predictive of high levels of circulating EDA-MPs and PDA-MPs (p=0.033). Conclusions: The link with increased circulating levels of MPs is more consistent in patients with CAD than in those with CKD.
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Novel triarylamine-based polybenzoxazines with a donor-acceptor system for polymeric memory devices.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Novel polybenzoxazines consisting of electron-donating triphenylamine derivatives and electron-withdrawing 4,4'-diphenyl sulfone moieties were successfully prepared by the thermally induced ring-opening reaction of the corresponding PB precursors and utilized for memory devices.
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Early radiographic response to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations: A prospective study.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Background: The time schedules for response evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase Inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are still ill-defined. Methods: Stage IIIB/IV patients with histologically proven NSCLC were enrolled in this study if the tumor cells bore EGFR mutations other than T790M. Eligible patients were treated with either 250 mg of gefitinib or 150 mg of erlotinib once daily. The early response rate [computed tomography (CT) scan on Day 14], definitive response rate determined on Day 56, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profile were assessed prospectively. Results: Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. A total of 29 patients (29/39, 74.4%) achieved partial response (PR). Twenty-one patients (21/39, 53.8%) had early radiological response on Day 14. The early radiological response rate in patients with PR was 72.4% (21/29). Only eight patients without a PR on early CT still ended with PR. Among the 29 patients with PR, the PFS (8.1 months) and OS (18.3 months) of the 21 patients with early CT response were shorter than those of the 8 patients without early CT response (11.9 and 24.0 months for PFS and OS, respectively). But the survival differences were statistically non-significant. Conclusions: A very high percentage (72.4%, 21/29) of NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations with PR demonstrates early radiological response to EGFR-TKIs, which would advocate early radiological examination for EGFR-TKI therapy in NSCLC patients.
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Platinum particles supported on mesoporous carbons: fabrication and electrocatalytic performance in methanol-tolerant oxygen-reduction reactions.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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In this report, we describe the preparation and electrochemical characterization of a Pt electrocatalyst, which was synthesized from hexachloroplatinic acid, using the incipient wetness impregnation method. This carbon mesoporous materials (Pt-CMMs) electrocatalyst was used for catalyzing the oxidation of methanol and its oxygen-reduction reaction. The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol was studied using linear-sweep voltammograms (LSV), polarization and chronoamperometric measurements. Phase characterizations and morphological analyses were performed using 3D excitation-emission fluorescent matrix (EEFM) spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) techniques; the ESEM system was equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The oxidation capacity measured using a LSV might explain the high activity exhibited by the Pt-CMM electrocatalysts in methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction, and the results demonstrated that the potential and current density of the main reaction peak of the Pt-CMMs electrocatalyst changed during the reaction. Moreover, EEFM spectroscopy and XRD were determined to be appropriate and effective methods for characterizing Pt clusters that enhance their intrinsic emission from Pt-CMMs electrocatalysts in electrocatalytic-treatment systems. Furthermore, the ESEM-EDS results showed that fresh Pt nanoparticles were highly dispersed on CMMs and featured a 20 nm diameter and a narrow particle-size distribution.
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Proteome Demonstration of Alpha-1-Acid Glycoprotein and Alpha-1-Antichymotrypsin are Candidate Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Enterovirus 71 Infection.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agents of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and frequently associated with severe complications such as encephalitis and death. Understanding the host response following enteroviral infection may facilitate the development of biomarkers for disease associated with EV71 infections.
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Prolonged clonal spreading and dynamic changes in antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli ST68 among patients who stayed in a respiratory care ward.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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From 2007 to 2009, we collected a total of 83 bacteraemic isolates of Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility or resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs). Isolates were genotyped by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The PFGE patterns revealed two highly correlated clusters (cluster E: nine isolates; cluster G: 22 isolates) associated with this prolonged clonal spreading. Compared with cluster E isolates, cluster G isolates were significantly more likely to harbour aac(6')-Ib-cr (P<0.05), and most of these isolates were isolated during a later year than cluster E isolates (P<0.05). By MLST analysis, 94?% of cluster E and G isolates (29/31) were ST68. Although no time or space clustering could be identified by the conventional hospital-acquired infection monitoring system, E. coli cases caused by cluster E and G isolates were significantly associated with having stayed in our hospital's respiratory care ward (P<0.05). Isolates obtained from patients who had stayed in the respiratory care ward had a significantly higher rate of aac(6')-Ib-cr and blaCTX-M-14 positivity, and were more likely to belong to ST68/S68-like (all P<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of prolonged clonal spreading caused by E. coli ST68 associated with a stay in a long-term care facility. Using epidemiological investigations and PFGE and MLST analyses, we have identified long-term clonal spreading caused by E. coli ST68, with extra antimicrobial-resistance genes possibly acquired during the prolonged spreading period.
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Melatonin treatment further improves adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute interstitial cystitis in rat.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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This study tests the hypothesis that combined melatonin and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC, 1.2 × 10(6) given intravenously) treatment offer superior protection against cyclophosphamide (CYP 150 mg/kg)-induced acute interstitial cystitis (AIC) in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated as follows: sham controls, AIC alone, AIC + melatonin, AIC + ADMSC, and AIC + melatonin +ADMSC. When melatonin was used, it was given as follows: 20 mg/kg at 30 min after CYP and 50 mg/kg at 6 and 18 hr after CYP. Twenty-four-hour urine volume, urine albumin level, and severity of hematuria were highest in AIC rats and lowest in the controls; likewise urine volume was higher in AIC + melatonin rats than in AIC + ADMSC and AIC + melatonin + ADMSC treated rats; in all cases, P < 0.001. The numbers of CD14+, CD74+, CD68+, MIP+, Cox-2+, substance P+, cells and protein expression of IL-6, IL-12, RANTES, TNF-?, NF-?B, MMP-9, iNOS (i.e. inflammatory biomarkers), glycosaminoglycan level, expression of oxidized protein, and protein expression of reactive oxygen species (NOX-1, NOX-2, NOX-4) in the bladder tissue exhibited an identical pattern compared with that of hematuria among the five groups (all P < 0.0001). The integrity of epithelial layer and area of collagen deposition displayed an opposite pattern compared to that of hematuria among all groups (P < 0.0001). The cellular expressions of antioxidants (GR, GPx, HO-1, NQO 1) showed a significant progressive increase form controls to AIC + melatonin + ADMSC (all P < 0.0001). Combined regimen of melatonin and ADMSC was superior to either alone in protecting against CYP-induced AIC.
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Genomic organization, transcriptomic analysis, and functional characterization of avian ?- and ?-keratins in diverse feather forms.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Feathers are hallmark avian integument appendages, although they were also present on theropods. They are composed of flexible corneous materials made of ?- and ?-keratins, but their genomic organization and their functional roles in feathers have not been well studied. First, we made an exhaustive search of ?- and ?-keratin genes in the new chicken genome assembly (Galgal4). Then, using transcriptomic analysis, we studied ?- and ?-keratin gene expression patterns in five types of feather epidermis. The expression patterns of ?-keratin genes were different in different feather types, whereas those of ?-keratin genes were less variable. In addition, we obtained extensive ?- and ?-keratin mRNA in situ hybridization data, showing that ?-keratins and ?-keratins are preferentially expressed in different parts of the feather components. Together, our data suggest that feather morphological and structural diversity can largely be attributed to differential combinations of ?- and ?-keratin genes in different intrafeather regions and/or feather types from different body parts. The expression profiles provide new insights into the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers. Finally, functional analysis using mutant chicken keratin forms based on those found in the human ?-keratin mutation database led to abnormal phenotypes. This demonstrates that the chicken can be a convenient model for studying the molecular biology of human keratin-based diseases.
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Reasoning the Causality of City Sprawl, Traffic Congestion, and Green Land Disappearance in Taiwan Using the CLD Model.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Many city governments choose to supply more developable land and transportation infrastructure with the hope of attracting people and businesses to their cities. However, like those in Taiwan, major cities worldwide suffer from traffic congestion. This study applies the system thinking logic of the causal loops diagram (CLD) model in the System Dynamics (SD) approach to analyze the issue of traffic congestion and other issues related to roads and land development in Taiwan's cities. Comparing the characteristics of development trends with yearbook data for 2002 to 2013 for all of Taiwan's cities, this study explores the developing phenomenon of unlimited city sprawl and identifies the cause and effect relationships in the characteristics of development trends in traffic congestion, high-density population aggregation in cities, land development, and green land disappearance resulting from city sprawl. This study provides conclusions for Taiwan's cities' sustainability and development (S&D). When developing S&D policies, during decision making processes concerning city planning and land use management, governments should think with a holistic view of carrying capacity with the assistance of system thinking to clarify the prejudices in favor of the unlimited developing phenomena resulting from city sprawl.
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Nasal Carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus During the First Two Years of Life in Children in Northern Taiwan.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Most reported studies of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage have represented one time point. To better understand dynamic changes of nasal MRSA carriage, we conducted this longitudinal study in Taiwan.
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Different doses of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute stroke in Chinese patients.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The relationship between the dose of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) and its safety/efficacy for ischemic stroke has not been well evaluated in the East Asian population. We assessed the safety/efficacy of different doses of r-tPA for acute ischemic stroke in Chinese patients.
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The efficacy and safety of cilostazol in ischemic stroke patients with peripheral arterial disease (SPAD): protocol of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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It is not uncommon for patients with ischemic stroke to have peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with polyvascular diseases carry greater burden of atherosclerosis and higher risks of developing vascular events and death. More effective regimens, such as dual antiplatelet agents, may be more effective for controlling progression of atherosclerosis in secondary prevention.
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Nosocomial extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia in hemodialysis patients and the implications for antibiotic therapy.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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In the face of increasing treatment options for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) hemodialysis (HD) access-related bacteremia, the difference in clinical effectiveness between ertapenem and flomoxef remains unclear. We conducted this retrospective study to determine their efficacies and treatment outcomes.
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Pharyngeal entomophthoromycosis.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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We describe a rare case of entomophthoromycosis of the pharynx in a previously healthy patient, unlike other fungal infections which are seen as opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. This infection is commonly seen in subtropical and tropical areas of Africa, America, and Asia. Painless, erythematous, indurated plaques of subcutaneous tissue are characteristic of this infection. There are currently no standard antifungal regimens for this infection, making treatment difficult. An endoscopic surgical wide resection of the lesion was performed, itraconazole was administered, and the patient improved clinically.
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All-trans retinoic acid induces DU145 cell cycle arrest through Cdk5 activation.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the active form of vitamin A, plays an important role in the growth arrest of numerous types of cancer cells. It has been indicated that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) activity can be affected by ATRA treatment. Our previous results demonstrate the involvement of Cdk5 in the fate of prostate cancer cells. The purpose of this study is to examine whether Cdk5 is involved in ATRA-induced growth arrest of the castration-resistant cancer cell line DU145 through up-regulating Cdk inhibitor protein, p27.
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Breast cancer arising within fibroadenoma: collective analysis of case reports in the literature and hints on treatment policy.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Breast cancer arising within a fibroadenoma (BcaFad) is rare; the rate varies from 0.002% to 0.125% in fibroadenoma specimens. Owing to its rarity, the clinicopathologic feature and treatment principle of BcaFad is still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a collective analysis of case reports in the literature to identify the characteristics and optimal treatment for BcaFad.
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Functions of self-assembled ultrafine TiO? nanocrystals for high efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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In this paper, we demonstrate a simple approach of self-assembled process to form a very smooth and compacted TiO2 underlayer film from ultrafine titanium oxide (TiO2) nanocrystals with dimension of 4 nm for improving the electrical properties and device performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Because the TiO2 film self-assembles by simply casting the TiO2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate, it can save a lot of materials in the process. As compared with control DSSC without the self-assembled TiO2 (SA-TiO2) layer, short-circuit current density (Jsc) improves from 14.9 mA/cm(2) for control DSSC to 17.3 mA/cm(2) for masked DSSC with the SA-TiO2 layer. With the very smooth SA-TiO2 layer, the power conversion efficiency is enhanced from 8.22% (control) to 9.35% for the DSSCs with mask and from 9.79% (control) to 11.87% for the DSSCs without mask. To explain the improvement, we have studied the optical properties, morphology, and workfunction of the SA-TiO2 layer on FTO substrate as well as the impedance spectrum of DSSCs. Importantly, we find that the SA-TiO2 layers have better morphology, uniformity, and contact with FTO electrode, increased workfunction and optical transmission, as well as reduced charge recombination at the contact of FTO substrate contributing to the improved device performances. Consequently, our results show that the simple self-assembly of TiO2 ultrafine nanocrystals forms a very good electron extraction layer with both improved optical and electrical properties for enhancing performances of DSSCs.
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Circulating endothelial-derived activated microparticle: a useful biomarker for predicting one-year mortality in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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This study tested the hypothesis that circulating microparticles (MPs) are useful biomarkers for predicting one-year mortality in patients with end-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC).
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Value of enhancement technique in 3D-T2-STIR images of the brachial plexus.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Imaging the brachial plexus is a challenge because of its complicated structure. The purpose of this study is to improve the diagnostic ability for brachial plexus via 3-dimensional T2-weighted short inversion time inversion recovery (3D-T2-STIR) technique with contrast agent administration.
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Levels and values of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, galectin-3, RhoA/ROCK, and endothelial progenitor cells in critical limb ischemia: pharmaco-therapeutic role of cilostazol and clopidogrel combination therapy.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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We tested the hypothesis that clopidogrel and cilostazol combination therapy could effectively attenuate systemic inflammatory reaction, facilitate proliferation of circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC), and improve the clinical outcomes of critical limb ischemia (CLI) in patients unsuitable for surgical revascularization or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).
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Effects of Free Carriers on Piezoelectric Nanogenerators and Piezotronic Devices Made of GaN Nanowire Arrays.
Small
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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This study investigates the role of carrier concentration in semiconducting piezoelectric single-nanowire nanogenerators (SNWNGs) and piezotronic devices. Unintentionally doped and Si-doped GaN nanowire arrays with various carrier concentrations, ranging from 10(17) (unintentionally doped) to 10(19) cm(-3) (heavily doped), are synthesized. For SNWNGs, the output current of individual nanowires starts from a negligible level and rises to the maximum of ?50 nA at a doping concentration of 5.63 × 10(18) cm(-3) and then falls off with further increase in carrier concentration, due to the competition between the reduction of inner resistance and the screening effect on piezoelectric potential. For piezotronic applications, the force sensitivity based on the change of the Schottky barrier height works best for unintentionally doped nanowires, reaching 26.20 ± 1.82 meV nN(-1) and then decreasing with carrier concentration. Although both types of devices share the same Schottky diode, they involve different characteristics in that the slope of the current-voltage characteristics governs SNWNG devices, while the turn-on voltage determines piezotronic devices. It is demonstrated that free carriers in piezotronic materials can influence the slope and turn-on voltage of the diode characteristics concurrently when subjected to strain. This work offers a design guideline for the optimum doping concentration in semiconductors for obtaining the best performance in piezotronic devices and SNWNGs.
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Thermally stable and high ON/OFF ratio non-volatile memory devices based on poly(triphenylamine) with pendent PCBM.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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High ON/OFF ratio electrically bistable non-volatile WORM memory devices were prepared based on poly(triphenylamine) with different amounts of pendent PCBM. With the introduction of 10 wt% PCBM into P-TPA via covalent bonding, a memory device with low switching-ON voltage (0.9 V) and high ON/OFF ratio (10(9)) could be obtained. The device performance remained satisfactory under the heating condition up to 100 °C which is beneficial to maintain device stability for computer application when other components produce heat.
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High cytoplasmic expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 is an independent prognostic factor of better survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Hepatocarcinogenesis is complex, with an extraordinary molecular heterogeneity. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) plays an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation, and it can function as a tumor suppressor or an oncoprotein, depending on tissue type. The role of KLF4 in HCC remains controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical significance of KLF4 expression in HCC. The study included 205 patients with surgical resection. We performed immunostaining for KLF4 and Ki-67 to investigate the correlations of the clinicopathological parameters of HCC and to examine the proliferative index. KLF4 staining was observed in the cytoplasm of non-tumorous hepatocytes and tumor cells. We subdivided the immunohistological staining results for KLF4 into low expression (Staining 0 and 1+) and high expression (Staining 2+ and 3+) subgroups. The expression of KLF4 was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation (p = 0.001). The Ki-67 proliferative index was significantly lower in well-differentiated HCCs (0.781% ± 1.02% vs. 2.16% ± 3.14%, p = 0.012), but not significantly different between low-KLF4 expression and high-KLF4 expression (1.87% ± 2.93% vs. 2.51% ± 3.28%, p = 0.32). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a high expression of KLF4 was significantly correlated with a longer disease-specific survival (p = 0.019). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that high KLF4 expression was an independent predictor of a better disease-specific survival (p = 0.017; hazard ratio = 0.398; 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.85). High cytoplasmic expression of KLF4 was associated with better disease-specific survival and was an independently favorable prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma. These promising results suggest that KLF4 may play an anti-oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis.
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Changes in protein expression in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Heat stress causes a decrease of fertility in roosters. Yet, the way acute heat stress affects protein expression remains poorly understood. This study investigated differential protein expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chickens following acute heat stress. Twelve 45-week-old roosters were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2 hours of recovery, and with 6 hours of recovery. Testis samples were collected for morphologic assay and protein analysis. Some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Abnormal and apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed at 2 hours of recovery after acute heat stress, especially among the spermatocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that 119 protein spots were differentially expressed in chicken testes following heat stress, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that these spots contained 92 distinct proteins. In the heat-stressed samples, the heat shock proteins, chaperonin containing t-complex, and proteasome subunits were downregulated, and glutathione S-transferase, transgelin, and DJ-1 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate that acute heat stress impairs the processes of translation, protein folding, and protein degradation, and thus results in apoptosis and interferes with spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase and DJ-1, may attenuate heat-induced damage. These findings may have implications for breeding chickens that can tolerate more extreme conditions.
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Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification improves prediction of post-thrombolysis symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification is a simple stroke classification system with value in predicting clinical outcomes. We investigated whether and how the addition of OCSP classification to the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke (SITS) symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) risk score improved the predictive performance.
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Round block technique is a useful oncoplastic procedure for multicentric fibroadenomas.
Surgeon
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Multicentric fibroadenomas, defined as multiple fibroadenomas located at different quadrants of the breast, occur in 10-20% of women with fibroadenoma. The surgical management of multicentric fibroadenomas may be troublesome for surgeons and patients. In this study, we report our preliminary experience using the "round block technique" in the management of women with multicentric fibroadenomas of the breast.
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Trend in vancomycin susceptibility and correlation with molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Taiwan: results from the Tigecycline in vitro Surveillance in Taiwan (TIST) study, 2006-2010.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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This study was intended to investigate the trend in vancomycin susceptibility and correlation with molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causing invasive infections. A total of 670 MRSA isolates were collected from patients with invasive infections as part of bacterial collection in the Tigecycline in vitro Surveillance in Taiwan (TIST) from 2006 to 2010. MICs of the isolates to vancomycin were determined using the agar dilution method. Characteristics of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), mec-associated hypervariable region (dru), and accessory gene regulator (agr) of the isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction methods. MRSA isolates with SCCmec types I, II, and III were molecularly defined as hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), and those with SCCmec types IV, V, and VT were assigned as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). All but 1 MRSA isolates exhibited vancomycin MICs ?1 mg/L. A declining trend in vancomycin MICs among MRSA isolates was noted, which was associated with the decline in proportion of HA-MRSA. The percentage of CA-MRSA increased from 25.6% in 2006 to 46.0% in 2010. An increase in the geometric mean of vancomycin MICs was found in MRSA with particular molecular types such as SCCmec types II and III, agr groups I and II, and dru10-14. A significant correlation among particular molecular types was found, including SCCmecII-agr group II-dru4, SCCmecIII-agr group I-dru11-14, SCCmecIV-agr group II-dru9, and SCCmecVT-agr group I-dru9 and dru11. There was no vancomycin creep among MRSA isolates, and the declining trend of vancomycin MIC against MRSA was attributed to the increasing prevalence of CA-MRSA over time.
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Electrophoresis-enhanced detection of deoxyribonucleic acids on a membrane-based lateral flow strip using avian influenza H5 genetic sequence as the model.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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This study reports a simple strategy to detect a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) on a membrane-based lateral flow (MBLF) strip without tedious gel preparation, gel electrophoresis, and EtBr-staining processes. The method also enhances the detection signal of the genetic sample. A direct electric field was applied over two ends of the MBLF strips to induce an electrophoresis of DNAs through the strips. The signal enhancement was demonstrated by the detection of the H5 subtype of avian influenza virus (H5 AIV). This approach showed an excellent selectivity of H5 AIV from other two control species, Arabidopsis thaliana and human PSMA5. It also showed an effective signal repeatability and sensitivity over a series of analyte concentrations. Its detection limit could be enhanced, from 40 ng to 0.1 ng by applying 12 V. The nano-gold particles for the color development were labeled on the capture antibody, and UV-VIS and TEM were used to check if the labeling was successful. This detection strategy could be further developed to apply on the detection of drug-allergic genes at clinics or detection of infectious substances at incident sites by a simple manipulation with an aid of a mini-PCR machine and auxiliary kits.
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Casein kinase 1 epsilon expression predicts poorer prognosis in low T-stage oral cancer patients.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Casein kinase 1 is a group of ubiquitous serine/threonine kinases that are involved in normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions, such as DNA repair, cell cycle progression, cytokinesis, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recent studies have indicated that casein kinase 1-epsilon (CK1?) and casein kinase 1-delta (CK1?) expression has a role in human cancers. We investigated the associations between CK1? and CK1? expression and the clinical parameters of oral cancer using immunohistochemical study methods on oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens. The results of our immunohistochemical analysis showed that the loss of CK1? expression was greatly associated with a poor four-year survival rate in oral cancer patients (p = 0.002). A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who had a loss of CK1? expression had a considerably poorer overall survival rate than patients who had positive CK1? expressions (p = 0.022). A univariate analysis revealed that patients who had a loss of CK1? expression had considerably poorer overall survival (OS) than patients who had positive expression (p = 0.024, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7). In conclusion, our data indicated that the loss of cytoplasmic CK1? expression is greatly associated with poor survival and might be an adverse survival factor.
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Mapping gray matter reductions in obstructive sleep apnea: an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The authors reviewed the literature on the use of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies via the use of a meta-analysis of neuroimaging to identify consistent and specific structural deficits in patients with sleep apnea compared with healthy subjects.
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Efforts to reduce the door-to-needle time of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke: Video-assisted therapeutic risk communication.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Explaining the risks and benefits of recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rtPA) to eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within a few minutes is important but difficult. We examined whether a new thrombolysis program can decrease the door-to-needle (DTN) time when treating patients with AIS.
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Is renal dysfunction associated with adverse stroke outcome after thrombolytic therapy?
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Renal dysfunction is a prevalent comorbidity in acute stroke patients requiring thrombolytic therapy. Reports studying the relationship between renal dysfunction and risk of postthrombolytic symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) are contradictory. We aimed to compare the safety and effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke patients with and without renal dysfunction.
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The safety and immunogenicity of a MF59-adjuvanted H5N1 prepandemic influenza vaccine in healthy adults primed with homologous or heterologous H5N1 vaccines: an observational study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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BackgroundWorld Health Organization (WHO) has recommended individuals with increased risk of contracting influenza A H5N1 infection to be immunized against the virus during the inter-pandemic period. Safety and immunogenicity of H5N1 vaccine among participants primed with homologous or heterologous H5N1 vaccines produced by diverse manufactures have not been reported.MethodsHealthy individuals aged 20 to 60 years old were recruited and stratified into three groups: participants without priming (control group), participants primed with A/Indonesia/05/2005 vaccine, participants primed with A/Vietnam/1194/2004 vaccine and A/Indonesia/05/2005 vaccine. Enrolled participants received two doses of MF59-adjuvanted A/Vietnam/1194/2004 vaccine (study vaccine). Solicited reactions were recorded by vaccine recipients. Blood samples were obtained for hemagglutination inhibition test.ResultsA total of 131 participants were enrolled. No significant adverse events were recorded. Tenderness, fatigue and general muscle ache were the most common solicited reactions which alleviated within one week of immunization. Three weeks after two doses of the study vaccine, 63%, 68% and 88% were in seroprotective status in the control group, A/Indonesia/05/2005 primed group and A/Vietnam/1194/2004 and A/Indonesia/05/2005 primed group, respectively. Participants primed with A/Vietnam/1194/2004 and A/Indonesia/05/2005 showed high immune response after booster with one dose of the study vaccine.ConclusionThe study vaccine did not cause severe adverse events. It elicited mostly mild to moderate reactions among participants. Participants primed with A/Vietnam/1194/2004 and A/Indonesia/05/2005 vaccine showed higher immune response than those without priming or primed with A/Indonesia/05/2005 vaccine. The report suggested those with an increased risk of influenza A H5N1 virus exposure may benefit from receiving influenza A H5N1 priming during the inter-pandemic period if the antigenicity of the pandemic influenza strain is similar to that of the priming strain.
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Melatonin augments apoptotic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment against sepsis-induced acute lung injury.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study investigated whether combining melatonin and apoptotic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (A-ADMSC) was superior to ADMSC alone in ameliorating sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=50) were randomized equally into five groups: sham controls (SC), sepsis induced by cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP), CLP-melatonin, CLP-A-ADMSC, and CLP-melatonin-A-ADMSC. Circulating interleukin (IL)-6 at 6, 18, and 72 hrs, were highest in CLP and lowest in SC groups, higher in CLP-melatonin than CLP-A-ADMSC and CLP-melatonin-A-ADMSC groups, higher in CLP-A-ADMSC than CLP-melatonin-A-ADMSC groups (all p<0.001). Immune reactivity (indicated by circulating cytotoxic-, and regulatory-T cells) and WBC count at 72 h exhibited the same pattern as that of circulating IL-6 (all p<0.001). Changes in histological scoring of lung parenchyma and the number of CD68+ and CD14+ cells showed a similar pattern compared to that of IL-6 level in all groups (all p<0.001). Changes in protein expressions of inflammatory (oxidative stress, RANTES, TNF-?, NF-?B, MMP-9, MIP-1, IL-1?), apoptotic (cleaved caspase 3 and PARP, mitochondrial Bax), fibrotic (Smad3, TGF-?) markers and those of reactive-oxygen-species (NOX-1, NOX-2) displayed an identical pattern compared to that of circulating IL-6 in all groups (all p<0.001). Anti-oxidative capacities (GR+, GPx+, HO-1, NQO-1+) and angiogenesis marker (CXCR4+ cells) were lowest in SC group but highest in CLP-melatonin-A-ADMSC group, lower in CLP than CLP-melatonin and CLP-A-ADMSC groups, and lower in CLP-melatonin than CLP-A-ADMSC groups (all p<0.001). In conclusion, combined melatonin and A-ADMSC were superior to A-ADMSC alone in protecting the lung from sepsis-induced injury.
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma in Taiwan shows a frequent gain of ITK gene.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) of follicular helper T-cell origin and is rare in Taiwan. There are overlapping features of AITL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a follicular growth pattern (PTCL-F). Around one fifth of PTCL-F exhibits t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK chromosomal translocation, which is essentially absent in AITL. We retrospectively investigated 35 cases of AITL from Taiwan with histopathology review, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK and correlated the results with overall survival. Twenty-six cases of not otherwise specified PTCL (PTCL-NOS) were also examined by FISH for comparison. Most AITL patients were male (69%) and elderly (median age at 67 years) with frequent bone marrow involvement (53%), high Ann Arbor stages (77%), and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (68%). Most cases (80%) showed a typical CD4+/CD8- phenotype and in 90% cases there were scattered EBV-positive B-cells (less than 10% cells). None of these cases showed t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation by FISH. Gain of ITK and SYK gene was identified in 38% and 14% tumors, respectively, but both were not associated with overall survival. Performance status < 2 was associated with a better outcome but not the other clinicopathological factors. All PTCL-NOS cases were negative for ITK-SYK translocation with similar rates (38% and 12%, respectively) of gains at ITK and SYK loci as that of AITL. In this so far the largest series of AITL from Taiwan, we reported the clinicopathological features and FISH findings on ITK and SYK genes. We confirmed the absence of t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation, which may serve as an additional differential diagnostic tool from PTCL-F when present. PTCL-NOS shared a similar pattern of ITK and SYK gains with AITL. More studies are warranted to elucidate the roles of SYK and ITK and other genes in the lymphomagenesis of AITL in Taiwan.
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Incidence of and factors associated with false positives in laboratory diagnosis of norovirus infection by amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene remains a used method for the rapid detection of norovirus (NV) in clinical laboratories. The incidence of and factors associated with false positives in this assay have not been previously evaluated.
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Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates in Taiwan, 2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The information of molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is essential for control and treatment of diseases caused by this medically important pathogen. A total of 577 clinical MRSA bloodstream isolates from six major hospitals in Taiwan were determined for molecular types, carriage of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and sasX genes and susceptibilities to 9 non-beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. A total of 17 genotypes were identified in 577 strains by pulsotyping. Five major pulsotypes, which included type A (26.2%, belonging to sequence type (ST) 239, carrying type III staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec), type F (18.9%, ST5-SCCmecII), type C (18.5%, ST59-SCCmecIV), type B (12.0%, ST239-SCCmecIII) and type D (10.9%, ST59-SCCmecVT/IV), prevailed in each of the six sampled hospitals. PVL and sasX genes were respectively carried by ST59-type D strains and ST239 strains with high frequencies (93.7% and 99.1%, respectively) but rarely detected in strains of other genotypes. Isolates of different genotypes and from different hospitals exhibited distinct antibiograms. Multi-resistance to ?3 non-beta-lactams was more common in ST239 isolates (100%) than in ST5 isolates (97.2%, P?=?0.0347) and ST59 isolates (8.2%, P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis further indicated that the genotype, but not the hospital, was an independent factor associated with muti-resistance of the MRSA strains. In conclusion, five common MRSA clones with distinct antibiograms prevailed in the major hospitals in Taiwan in 2010. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of invasive MRSA was mainly determined by the clonal distribution.
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Activation of JNK contributes to evodiamine-induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest in human colorectal carcinoma cells: a structure-activity study of evodiamine.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Evodiamine (EVO; 8,13,13b,14-tetrahydro-14-methylindolo[2'3'-3,4]pyrido[2,1-b]quinazolin-5-[7H]-one derived from the traditional herbal medicine Evodia rutaecarpa was reported to possess anticancer activity; however, the anticancer mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of EVO on human colon COLO205 and HT-29 cells and their potential mechanisms. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed that the viability of COLOL205 and HT-29 cells was inhibited by EVO at various concentrations in accordance with increases in the percentage of apoptotic cells and cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins. Disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential by EVO was accompanied by increased Bax, caspase-9 protein cleavage, and cytochrome (Cyt) c protein translocation in COLO205 and HT-29 cells. Application of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibited H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis, but did not affect EVO-induced apoptosis of COLO205 or HT-29 cells. Significant increases in the G2/M ratio and cyclinB1/cdc25c protein expression by EVO were respectively identified in colon carcinoma cells via a flow cytometric analysis and Western blotting. Induction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein phosphorylation was detected in EVO-treated cells, and the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not the ERK inhibitor, U0126, inhibited EVO-induced phosphorylated JNK protein expression, apoptosis, and G2/M arrest of colon carcinoma cells. Data of the structure-activity analysis showed that EVO-related chemicals containing an alkyl group at position 14 were able to induce apoptosis, G2/M arrest associated with increased DNA ladder formation, cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, and elevated cycB1 and cdc25c protein expressions in COLO205 and HT-29 cells. Evidence supporting JNK activation leading to EVO-induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest in colon carcinoma cells is provided, and alkylation at position 14 of EVO is a critical substitution for treatment of colonic cancer.
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Clinical features of coxsackievirus A4, B3 and B4 infections in children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Clinical features of coxsackievirus A4 (CA4), B3 (CB3) and B4 (CB4) infections in children have not been comprehensively described.
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Distribution and contamination status of chromium in surface sediments of northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The distribution, enrichment, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of chromium (Cr) in the surface sediments of northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan, China were investigated. Sediment samples from ten locations located between the river mouths and harbor entrance of northern Kaohsiung Harbor were collected quarterly in 2011 and characterized for Cr, aluminum, water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total grease, and grain size. Results showed that the Cr concentrations varied from 27.0 to 361.9 mg/kg with an average of (113.5 +/- 87.0) mg/kg. High Cr concentration was observed near the Jen-Gen River mouth. The mean Cr concentration was high at 255.5 mg/kg, which was at least 2 to 7 times than that of other sites. This might imply significant Cr contribution from upstream receiving tanneries wastewater into the Jen-Gen River. The spatial distribution of Cr reveals relatively high in the river mouth region, especially in Jen-Gen River, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor entrance region. This indicates that the major sources of Cr pollution from upstream industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged along the river bank; and Cr may drift with sea current and be dispersed into open sea. Moreover, Cr concentrations correlated closely to the physical-chemical properties of the sediments, which suggested the influence of industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged from the neighboring industrial parks and river basins. Results from the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index analyses imply that the Jen-Gen River sediments can be characterized as moderate enrichment and none to medium accumulation of Cr, respectively. However, results of potential ecological risk index indicate that the sediment has low ecological potential risk. The results can provide valuable information to developing future strategies for the management of river mouth and harbor.
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Neuronal aging: learning from C. elegans.
J Mol Signal
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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The heterogeneity and multigenetic nature of nervous system aging make modeling of it a formidable task in mammalian species. The powerful genetics, simple anatomy and short life span of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offer unique advantages in unraveling the molecular genetic network that regulates the integrity of neuronal structures and functions during aging. In this review, we first summarize recent breakthroughs in the morphological and functional characterization of C. elegans neuronal aging. Age-associated morphological changes include age-dependent neurite branching, axon beading or swelling, axon defasciculation, progressive distortion of the neuronal soma, and early decline in presynaptic release function. We then discuss genetic pathways that modulate the speed of neuronal aging concordant with alteration in life span, such as insulin signaling, as well as cell-autonomous factors that promote neuronal integrity during senescence, including membrane activity and JNK/MAPK signaling. As a robust genetic model for aging, insights from C. elegans neuronal aging studies will contribute to our mechanistic understanding of human brain aging.
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Reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in isogenic Staphylococcus aureus strains of sequence type 59: tracking evolution and identifying mutations by whole-genome sequencing.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA) phenotypes are increasingly reported in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains of distinct genetic backgrounds. This study tracked genetic evolution during the development of vancomycin non-susceptibility in a prevalent Asian community-associated MRSA clone of sequence type (ST) 59.
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Proton pump inhibitor usage and the associated risk of pneumonia in patients with chronic kidney disease.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious medical problem and public health issue in Taiwan. Gastrointestinal symptoms frequently occur in patients with CKD, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have therapeutic indications for gastrointestinal disorders involving excessive acid production. However, PPIs may also increase the risk of developing pneumonia through acute and irreversible gastric acid suppression. This study aimed to characterize differences in the risk of pneumonia in patients with CKD who use PPIs.
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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 modulates STAT3 and androgen receptor activation through phosphorylation of Ser?²? on STAT3 in prostate cancer cells.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is known to regulate prostate cancer metastasis. Our previous results indicated that Cdk5 activates androgen receptor (AR) and supports prostate cancer growth. We also found that STAT3 is a target of Cdk5 in promoting thyroid cancer cell growth, whereas STAT3 may play a role as a regulator to AR activation under cytokine control. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Cdk5 and its activator p35 on STAT3/AR signaling in prostate cancer cells. Our results show that Cdk5 biochemically interacts with STAT3 and that this interaction depends on Cdk5 activation in prostate cancer cells. The phosphorylation of STAT3 at Ser?²? (p-Ser?²?-STAT3) is regulated by Cdk5 in cells and xenograft tumors. The mutant of STAT3 S727A reduces its interaction with Cdk5. We further show that the nuclear distribution of p-Ser?²?-STAT3 and the expression of STAT3-regulated genes (junB, c-fos, c-myc, and survivin) are regulated by Cdk5 activation. STAT3 mutant does not further decrease cell proliferation upon Cdk5 inhibition, which implies that the role of STAT3 regulated by Cdk5 correlates to cell proliferation control. Interestingly, Cdk5 may regulate the interaction between STAT3 and AR through phosphorylation of Ser?²?-STAT3 and therefore upregulate AR protein stability and transactivation. Correspondingly, clinical evidence shows that the level of p-Ser?²?-STAT3 is significantly correlated with Gleason score and the levels of upstream regulators (Cdk5 and p35) as well as downstream protein (AR). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cdk5 regulates STAT3 activation through Ser?²? phosphorylation and further promotes AR activation by protein-protein interaction in prostate cancer cells.
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PICK1 interacts with PACSIN to regulate AMPA receptor internalization and cerebellar long-term depression.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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The dynamic trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into and out of synapses is crucial for synaptic transmission, plasticity, learning, and memory. The protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) directly interacts with GluA2/3 subunits of the AMPARs. Although the role of PICK1 in regulating AMPAR trafficking and multiple forms of synaptic plasticity is known, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here, we report a unique interaction between PICK1 and all three members of the protein kinase C and casein kinase II substrate in neurons (PACSIN) family and show that they form a complex with AMPARs. Our results reveal that knockdown of the neuronal-specific protein, PACSIN1, leads to a significant reduction in AMPAR internalization following the activation of NMDA receptors in hippocampal neurons. The interaction between PICK1 and PACSIN1 is regulated by PACSIN1 phosphorylation within the variable region and is required for AMPAR endocytosis. Similarly, the binding of PICK1 to the ubiquitously expressed PACSIN2 is also regulated by the homologous phosphorylation sites within the PACSIN2-variable region. Genetic deletion of PACSIN2, which is highly expressed in Purkinje cells, eliminates cerebellar long-term depression. This deficit can be fully rescued by overexpressing wild-type PACSIN2, but not by a PACSIN2 phosphomimetic mutant, which does not bind PICK1 efficiently. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the interaction of PICK1 and PACSIN is required for the activity-dependent internalization of AMPARs and for the expression of long-term depression in the cerebellum.
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Plasmon-enhanced near-infrared-active materials in photoelectrochemical water splitting.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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We report the near-infrared-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting using a ZnO nanorod-array decorated with CdTe quantum dots and plasmon-enhanced upconversion nanoparticles. The plasmon enhanced the intensity of the upconversion emission, which improved the photocurrent and the gas evolution rate of the photoelectrochemical reaction greatly.
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Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in two domestic chickens.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Domestic chickens are excellent models for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity, as numerous phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology, and behavior in chickens have been artificially selected. Genomic study is required to study genome-wide patterns of DNA variation for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We sequenced the genomes of the Silkie and the Taiwanese native chicken L2 at ?23- and 25-fold average coverage depth, respectively, using Illumina sequencing. The reads were mapped onto the chicken reference genome (including 5.1% Ns) to 92.32% genome coverage for the two breeds. Using a stringent filter, we identified ?7.6 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8,839 copy number variations (CNVs) in the mapped regions; 42% of the SNPs have not found in other chickens before. Among the 68,906 SNPs annotated in the chicken sequence assembly, 27,852 were nonsynonymous SNPs located in 13,537 genes. We also identified hundreds of shared and divergent structural and copy number variants in intronic and intergenic regions and in coding regions in the two breeds. Functional enrichments of identified genetic variants were discussed. Radical nsSNP-containing immunity genes were enriched in the QTL regions associated with some economic traits for both breeds. Moreover, genetic changes involved in selective sweeps were detected. From the selective sweeps identified in our two breeds, several genes associated with growth, appetite, and metabolic regulation were identified. Our study provides a framework for genetic and genomic research of domestic chickens and facilitates the domestic chicken as an avian model for genomic, biomedical, and evolutionary studies.
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National survey of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke in taiwan 2003-2010.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Data on thrombolytic therapy at the national level is scarce in Asia. Understanding current practice pattern is important for a policy maker in decision making. This cross-sectional study analyzed the utilization pattern of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in Taiwan from 2003 through 2010 and identified factors associated with post-therapy intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and mortality. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we retrieved inpatient claims for patients with AIS. The frequency of thrombolytic therapy in AIS admissions and its association with the characteristics of patients, physicians, and hospitals were analyzed. Factors predicting ICH and in-hospital mortality were also analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. Of 394,988 patients with AIS, 2385 (.60%) had received thrombolytic therapy. The utilization rate increased from .03% in 2003 to 1.51% in 2010. Thrombolytic therapy was adopted earlier in a belt of high-frequency counties across rural midwestern Taiwan, twice the rate in the Taipei and Kaohsiung cities. The neurology specialty and hospitals service volume were the most dominant factors related to higher utilization, in addition to weekend admission and the patients age and comorbidities. ICH and in-hospital mortality rates were 3.48% and 7.71%, respectively. Patients given thrombolytic therapy in hospitals with thrombolysis cases more than the 5.5/year had a lower risk of ICH (odds ratio: .53; 95% confidence interval: .31-.88). Compared with most developed countries, there is indeed much unmet need for stroke thrombolysis in Taiwan. Effective mechanism should be implemented to increase the thrombolysis rate safely and improve outcome for patients with AIS.
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Vertical profile, sources, and equivalent toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the river mouths of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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Six sediment cores collected at four contaminated river mouths and two harbor entrances in Kaohsiung Harbor (Taiwan) were analyzed to evaluate the sources and potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs presented the wide variations ranging from 369±656 to 33,772±14,378ngg(-1) at the six sampling sites. The composition of PAHs presented a uniform profile reflecting the importance of atmospheric input from vehicle exhausts or coal combustion in the river mouths. PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated a stronger influence of coal combustion in the Salt River mouth and the prevalence of petroleum combustion and mixed sources in the other rivers and harbor entrances. PAHs toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q: 0.011-1.804), benzo[a]pyrene-toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc): 22-2819ngTEQg(-1)), and dioxin-toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish): 37-5129pgTEQg(-1)) identified the Salt River mouth near the industrial area of the harbor as the most affected area.
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A rare malignancy of the parotid gland in a 13-year-old Taiwanese boy: case report of a mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland with molecular study.
Med Mol Morphol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described malignancy of the salivary glands characterized by an ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion gene. Morphologically, MASC is sometimes difficult to distinguish from acinic cell carcinoma. Consequently, identifying the chromosomal translocation is essential for diagnosis. We present a case of parotid gland MASC in a 13-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Histologic evaluation showed a tumor composed of microcysts, tubular structures, solid nests, or papillary architecture, with secretions within the lumens of the cysts or tubules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells showed diffuse positive staining of S-100 protein, cytokeratin 19, and vimentin. ETV6 rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and EN fusion transcripts were verified by reverse transcription (RT-PCR) assay.
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Decreased Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) expression may correlate with poor survival in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) play either anti- or pro-proliferation roles in different human cancers. Here, we investigated the expression of KLF4 in gastric cancers and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival. KLF4 expression was measured in 118 surgical specimens by immunohistochemical microarray assay. No association of cytoplasmic KLF4 expression with gender, TNM status, stage, survival, and pathological type was found. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, significantly higher overall survival rate was observed in patients with high cytoplasmic KLF4 expression compared to low cytoplasmic KLF4 expression. Univariate analysis revealed that cytoplasmic KLF4 expression, grade, histological type, lymph node metastasis, and stages were correlated to longer overall survival. Our results suggest that KLF4 may play an anti-oncogenic role in gastric tumorigenesis.
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Longitudinal analysis of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus carriage in healthy adolescents.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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To determine the long-term carriage patterns, strain relatedness, and incidence of subsequent infections among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) carriers, we screened 154 high school students for nasal carriage of S. aureus on 8 occasions over 11 months. Persistent carriage was defined as a positive culture on ?7 occasions. Two consecutive isolates from the same subject comprised a pair, and strain relatedness was determined for each pair by molecular typing. Of 1,232 nasal swab cultures obtained on 8 occasions, 323 (26.2%) were positive for S. aureus. Forty-five isolates (3.7%) were MRSA and 278 isolates (22.6%) were MSSA from 12 and 63 subjects, respectively. Thirty-five (77.8%) MRSA isolates harbored a type IV or VT staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec element. Among the 154 subjects, 52 (33.8%) were intermittent (1 to 6 positive swabs) carriers. Persistent carriage was identified in 23 (14.9%) subjects, and the incidence was not significantly different for MRSA and MSSA carriers (3/12 [25%] versus 20/63 [31.7%]; P=0.7449). The MRSA and MSSA isolates were composed of 33 and 215 strain pairs, respectively. Of them, an indistinguishable genotype was identified in 33 (100%) MRSA pairs and 173 (80.5%) MSSA pairs (P=0.0053). Five subjects developed cellulitis, and the incidence of this was higher for MRSA carriers (2/12 [16.7%]) than for MSSA carriers (1/63 [1.58%]; P=0.0632) and noncarriers (2/79 [2.56%]; P=0.0828). In conclusion, the long-term carriage patterns for MRSA and MSSA in healthy individuals were similar. MRSA carriers were more likely to carry a single strain, with a trend toward a higher chance of developing cellulitis than for MSSA carriers.
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Taguchi approach for co-gasification optimization of torrefied biomass and coal.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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This study employs the Taguchi method to approach the optimum co-gasification operation of torrefied biomass (eucalyptus) and coal in an entrained flow gasifier. The cold gas efficiency is adopted as the performance index of co-gasification. The influences of six parameters, namely, the biomass blending ratio, oxygen-to-fuel mass ratio (O/F ratio), biomass torrefaction temperature, gasification pressure, steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F ratio), and inlet temperature of the carrier gas, on the performance of co-gasification are considered. The analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests that the O/F ratio is the most important factor in determining the performance and the appropriate O/F ratio is 0.7. The performance is also significantly affected by biomass along with torrefaction, where a torrefaction temperature of 300°C is sufficient to upgrade eucalyptus. According to the recommended operating conditions, the values of cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion at the optimum co-gasification are 80.99% and 94.51%, respectively.
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Predicting symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis: Stroke territory as a potential pitfall.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Stroke vascular territories may influence response to thrombolysis, although supporting data are limited. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the current available prediction scores might inaccurately estimate the risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) after intravenous thrombolysis in patients with posterior circulation stroke.
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Comparison of risk-scoring systems in predicting symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Various risk score models have been developed to predict symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. In this study, we aimed to determine the prediction performance of these risk scores in a Taiwanese population
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Parametric study on the enrichment of immunoglobulin from milk by foam fractionation.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Foam fractionation is a promising method for separation and concentration of biochemicals. It is simple, easily scalable, inexpensive, and environment friendly. Foam fractionation thus represents an alternative to the traditional methods used for immunoglobulin enrichment. However, little, if any, literature exists documenting the utilization of foam fractionation in the enrichment of immunoglobulins. Milk were utilized as an immunoglobulin source to serve as examples of a real system in this study. The investigation examined the effects of varying five different process parameters: the initial pH value, the initial concentration of immunoglobulin, the nitrogen flow rate, the column height, and the foaming time. Experimental results demonstrated that immunoglobulin could effectively be enriched from milk by foam fractionation. The maximum enrichment ratio with pretreatment (using pH 4.6 precipitation) was 6.30 along with a more than 92 % recovery for IgG and an enrichment ratio of 5.1 with 85 % recovery for IgM.
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Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER ? Inhibition.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor ? (ER ? ) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER ? protein levels, thereby suppressing ER ? transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER ? and increased ER ? ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER ? dissociation and ER ? ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER ? degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER ? degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER ? distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER ? protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future.
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Virtual-image generation in 360-degree viewable image-plane disk-type multiplex holography.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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By shifting the rotational axis of the recording film and recording the individual image-plane holograms in reversed sequence with the real-image holographic system [Opt. Express 18, 14012 (2010)], the disk-type multiplex hologram can be made to generate virtual image for walk-around viewing if the recording reference source point is maintained on the symmetry axis of hologram disk. Theoretical formulation and numerical simulation show the characteristics of the reconstructed image. Experimental results are also shown for qualitative comparison.
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Clinical and pathologic risk factors of tumor recurrence in patients with node-negative early breast cancer after mastectomy.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Patients with node-negative breast cancer (NNBC) usually have a good prognosis, but tumor recurrence still compromises survival. In this study, we sought to identify clinical and pathologic factors that predict recurrence.
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Bedside immunochromatographic test for enterovirus 71 infection in children.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes frequent outbreaks worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific area. Its quick spread is a critical challenge for public health and timely preventive measures and clinical management therefore rely on early detection. There is a need for a rapid, easy-to-use, and reliable method for detecting EV71 infections.
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Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Abstract Hyperglycemia is seldom described in young patients with pituitary gigantism. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old Taiwanese boy who developed depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the presentation of pituitary gigantism. The boy complained of lethargy and dysphoric mood in June 2008. He presented at the emergency department with epigastralgia and dyspnea in January 2009. Results of laboratory tests suggested type 1 diabetes mellitus with DKA. However, serum C-peptide level was normal on follow-up. Although he had no obvious features of acral enlargement, a high level of insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected, and a 75 g oral glucose suppression test showed no suppression of serum growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroadenoma was found on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging. The pituitary adenoma was surgically removed, followed by gamma-knife radiosurgery, and Sandostatin long-acting release treatment. He was then administered metformin, 500 mg twice daily, and to date, his serum glycohemoglobin has been <7%.
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Phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes with both cyclometalate chromophores and phosphine-silanolate ancillary: concurrent conversion of organosilane to silanolate.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Ir(III) metal complexes with general formula [(C^N)2Ir(P^SiO)], where (C^N)H is 2-phenylisoquinoline (1), 2-phenylpyridine (2) or 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (3), and (P^SiO)H is an organosilanolate ancillary chelate with either diphenylsilyl (a) or dimethylsilyl (b) substituent, were synthesized, among which the structure of 3a was also confirmed using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. These complexes exhibit bright phosphorescence in the region of 489-632 nm in solution at room temperature, showing the first successful example of using organosilanolate as an ancillary chelate. For application, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using phosphors 3a and 3b doped in N,N-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) exhibited a maximum brightness of 50,800 cd m(-2) at 800 mA cm(-2) (12 V) with ?(ext) of 10.1% and a brightness of 45,900 cd m(-2) at 700 mA cm(-2) (14.5 V) with ?(ext) of 10.2%, respectively.
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Brain microbleeds: distribution and influence on hematoma and perihematomal edema in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage.
Neuroradiol J
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Brain microbleed is a marker of small vessel microhemorrhagic or microaneurysmal lesions, which may induce intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study to prospectively evaluated the association between microbleeds, hematoma and perihematomal edema volume, and various clinical data, as well as patient outcome. Thirty-one patients with ICH and 31 healthy age-matched subjects were enrolled in our study. They were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of microbleeds detected by MRI. Serial clinical and laboratory data were recorded. Modified Rankin Scale and Barthel Index were estimated three months after hemorrhage. The major location of microbleeds among patients with ICH was the basal ganglia. The volume of perihematomal edema was correlated with the initial hematoma volume on the first, fifth and seventh days after hemorrhage in patients with microbleeds. For patients without microbleeds, this correlation was also significant on the seventh day. Cerebral microbleeds in patients with ICH, especially in the basal ganglia region, represent micro-angiopathy, and are associated with leakage of blood and formation of perihemorrhage edema. Brain microbleeds found in patients with ICH warrant further investigation for evaluation of stroke risk.
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Effects of animal liver and bile extracts on biochemical values of rat ethanol-induced fatty liver.
Anim. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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The purposes of this study were to assess the improvement of fatty liver induced by ethanol with animal liver and bile extracts. This research aimed to increase the economic values of animal liver and bile extracts and used these to reduce damage of ethanol-induced fatty liver. Extracts came from animal liver and bile, including pig bile powder, pig liver extract, a mixture of pig bile powder and pig liver extract, chicken bile powder, chicken liver extract, and a mixture of chicken bile powder and chicken liver extract, and these were fed to Long-Evans rats. The results showed that rats fed ethanol for long terms could increase values of aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, ?-glutamy-transferase and alkaline phosphatase. Pig bile powder could decrease the values of aspartate transaminase, cholesterol and ?-glutamy-transferase. The significances also decreased on aspartate transaminase, ?-glutamy-transferase and aspartate transaminase, which were carried out with the pig liver extract treatment. These results suggest pig bile and liver extracts have high potential to improve rats ethanol-induced fatty liver with serum biochemical parameters.
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Risk factors of late-onset neonatal sepsis in Taiwan: A matched case-control study.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have a higher incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) than any other pediatric or adult population. The predisposing factors have not been comprehensively evaluated in this population in Taiwan.
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