JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
High Id1 expression, a generally negative prognostic factor, paradoxically predicts a favorable prognosis for adjuvant paclitaxel plus cisplatin therapy in surgically treated lung cancer patients.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly given to surgically treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, the prerequisite for chemotherapy needs to be scrutinized in order to maximize the benefits to patients. In this study, we observed that NSCLC cells with high Id1 protein expression were vulnerable to the treatment of paclitaxel and cisplatin. In addition, paclitaxel and cisplatin caused Id1 protein degradation through ubiquitination. In the nude mice xenograft model, the tumor growth was reduced to a large degree in the Id1-overexpressing group upon treatment with paclitaxel and cisplatin. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining for Id1 followed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that surgically treated NSCLC patients with high Id1 expression in primary tumor tissues had better disease-free and overall survivals after adjuvant paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy. In summary, our current data suggest that Id1, a generally negative prognostic factor, predicts a favorable prognosis in the case of surgically treated NSCLC patients receiving the definitive adjuvant chemotherapy. The distinct role of Id1 reported in this study may arise from the phenomenon of Id1 dependence of NSCLC cells for survival, which renders the cancer cells additionally susceptive to the adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin.
Related JoVE Video
Application of strong transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect on high sensitive surface plasmon grating sensors.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A high sensitive sensor is demonstrated by exploiting strong transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect on a ferromagnetic surface plasmon grating. The surface plasmon grating, made of a hybridized Au/Fe/Au layer, exhibits a very dispersive Kerr parameter variation near the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wavelength via coherent scattering of the SPP on the grating structure. Interrogating this Kerr parameter can be utilized for detecting chemical or biological objects in a fluid medium. The experiment results show the minimal detectable mass concentration of sodium chloride in a saline solution is 4.27 × 10-3 %, corresponding to a refractive index change of 7.60 × 10-6 RIU. For an avidin-biotin interaction experiment, the sensitivity of avidin detection in PBS solution is 1.97 nM, which is limited by the index fluctuation of flowing media during measurement.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors and long-term outcome of seizures in human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)-negative cryptococcal meningitis.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Seizures are one of the most important neurologic complications of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)-negative cryptococcal meningitis. A better understanding of the risk associated factors can help predict those who will require treatment.
Related JoVE Video
[The long road home: a discussion of the autonomy of schizophrenia patients after their discharge from the hospital].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Every adult has the right to self-determination and to have his or her autonomy respected. While schizophrenia patients have the right to be discharged from the hospital, their needs subject their caregivers to high care loadings. This situation presents a dilemma for the medical team. The authors justify the patient's autonomy to request and to be granted a discharge. Then, present the decision-making process related to discharge for the reference of medical teams. Capacity is necessary to autonomy. There is currently no standard for assessing the capacity of patients that clearly defines their competence. A sliding scale approach to decision making distinguishes between decisions involving significant potential risk and, therefore, involving higher level of capacity requirements and decisions on minimal potential risk. In order to protect the interests of patients, the sliding scale approach takes into account different decisions. Cases in which schizophrenia patients choose to self-discharge involve a high-level of risk. Poor preparations for follow-up care lead to poor-quality patient care and may cause harm to the patients. In a share decision model, the medical team plays the role of negotiator between the patient and the family and respects the autonomy of the patient while supporting the family through the hospital discharge process. Medical team must have a discharge planning for the patient and family, follow-up care system, and support network. During hospitalization, the discharge plan aims to facilitate the life adaptation and disease recovery for patients with the goal of restoring their normal home life.
Related JoVE Video
Functional gold nanoparticles coupled with microporous membranes: a flow controlled assay for colorimetric visualization of proteins.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a rapid and simple assay for colorimetric visualization of thrombin at nanomolar levels using functional gold nanoparticles (FAuNPs) coupled with microporous membranes. We used a 29-mer thiolated-thrombin-binding-aptamer (TBA29) to prepare TBA29 functionalized AuNPs (TBA29-AuNPs) for the selective detection of human thrombin. The sensing mechanism is based on the principle of TBA29-AuNPs flowing down through the nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) pores at different flow rates after binding to thrombin. Compared with free TBA29-AuNPs, when thrombin-TBA29-AuNPs were dropped on the NCM, the particles flowed down more easily through the NCM pores along with the buffer solution due to the increase in the gravity of particles. Therefore, color intensities of TBA29-AuNPs on the NCM depended on the concentration of thrombin; the color intensity was lighter when the concentration of thrombin was higher. Thrombin can be detected at the nanomolar level with the naked eye using this colorimetric probe. A protein G modified AuNP based probe (PG-AuNPs/NCM) was employed to detect human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) in plasma samples to demonstrate the practicality of our sensing system. Also, fibrinogen modified Au NPs were analyzed to demonstrate that this concept of detection could be extended to other proteins or systems, by functionalizing with suitable molecules.
Related JoVE Video
Mutual Effect of rs688 and rs5925 in Regulating Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Splicing.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Analysis of the LDLR gene based on the rs688 and rs5925 genetic polymorphisms has provided evidence suggesting that haplotypes related to rs688 and rs5925 are associated with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Both rs688 and rs5925 have been empirically identified as exon-splicing enhancers in silico, and rs688 has been shown to be a functional polymorphism that modulates LDLR exon 12 splicing efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rs688 and rs5925 and their haplotypes may alter the splicing efficiency of exons 12 and 13 both in vivo and in vitro. When the minigenes were evaluated for splicing efficiency, we found that converting rs688C to the T allele reduced exon 12 splicing efficiency. In parallel, converting rs688T to the C allele increased the efficiency of exon 12 inclusion. The apparent difference in splicing efficiency was 9.36%±2.58% between the C and T alleles. When rs688C existed in the minigene, the major and minor rs5925 alleles were also sufficient to account for the differences in splicing efficiency of LDLR involving exon 13. The apparent splicing efficiency difference was 5.43%±2.87%. Sequential mutations of rs688 and rs5925 were performed to generate four different haplotypes in the LDLR minigene system. The splicing efficiencies for the haplotypes CC, CT, TC, and TT were 79.60%±1.38%, 76.68%±0.85%, 69.02%±1.79%, and 68.54%±1.38%, respectively. The splicing efficiency of the four haplotype groups differed significantly. In vivo analysis of human leukocyte samples was also compatible with in vitro analysis, indicating a mutual effect between rs688 and rs5925 in regulating LDLR splicing efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Self-assembly of hybridized ligands on gold nanodots: tunable photoluminescence and sensing of nitrite.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Highly photoluminescent gold nanodots (Au NDs) via etching and co-deposition of hybridized ligands [11-mercaptoundecanol (11-MU) and its complexes with amphiphilic ligands] on gold nanoparticles (?3 nm) have been prepared and employed for the detection of nitrite based on the analyte-induced photoluminescence quenching.
Related JoVE Video
Monitoring thrombin generation and screening anticoagulants through pulse laser-induced fragmentation of biofunctional nanogold on cellulose membranes.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thrombin generation (TG) has an important part in the blood coagulation system, and monitoring TG is useful for diagnosing various health issues related to hypo-coagulability and hyper-coagulability. In this study, we constructed probes by using mixed cellulose ester membranes (MCEMs) modified with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for monitoring thrombin activity using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). The LDI process produced Au cationic clusters ([Au(n)](+); n = 1-3) that we detected through MS. When thrombin reacted with fibrinogen on the Au NPs-MCEMs, insoluble fibrin was formed, hindering the formation of Au cationic clusters and, thereby, decreasing the intensity of their signals in the mass spectrum. Accordingly, we incorporated fibrinogen onto the Au NPs-MCEMs to form Fib-Au NPs-MCEM probes to monitor TG with good selectivity (>1000-fold toward thrombin with respect to other proteins or enzymes) and sensitivity (limit of detection for thrombin of ca. 2.5 pM in human plasma samples). Our probe exhibited remarkable performance in monitoring the inhibition of thrombin activity by direct thrombin inhibitors. Analyses of real samples using our new membrane-based probe suggested that it will be highly useful in practical applications for the effective management of hemostatic complications.
Related JoVE Video
[Consent vs. Assent: Ethical Considerations Related to Bone Marrow Transplantation in Adolescents].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a frequently considered treatment option for terminal childhood cancer. However, the side effects of BMT frequently cause short- and long-term physical discomfort and spiritual suffering, which significantly impact patient quality of life. In Taiwan, parental consent is typically given priority over the assent of children in medical decisions. This article uses a case of an adolescent patient with neuroblastoma undergoing BMT to discuss the best interest standard and contradictions between the consent of parents and the assent of their children. This article argues that medical staffs are responsible to protect the right of children to fully consider and influence the decisions related to their treatment options. Medical staffs should communicate to parents the importance of their children's assent and promote better communication between parents and their children in order to achieve the best outcome for the family as a whole. When mutual communication is unable to resolve conflicts between parents and their children, we recommend seeking assistance from the ethics committee in the hospital.
Related JoVE Video
Radioprotective effects of Antrodia cinnamomea are enhanced on immune cells and inhibited on cancer cells.
Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Purpose: The radioprotective effects of Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) were investigated for understanding the potential usefulness of AC as an adjunct treatment for reducing radiation side-effects.
Related JoVE Video
Using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to evaluate the location reliability of the highest-skin dose area detected by treatment planning in radiotherapy for breast cancer.
Med Dosim
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute skin reaction during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer is an inevitable process, and its severity is related to the skin dose. A high-skin dose area can be speculated based on the isodose distribution shown on a treatment planning. To determine whether treatment planning can reflect high-skin dose location, 80 patients were collected and their skin doses in different areas were measured using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to locate the highest-skin dose area in each patient. We determined whether the skin dose is consistent with the highest-dose area estimated by the treatment planning of the same patient. The ?(2) and Fisher exact tests revealed that these 2 methods yielded more consistent results when the highest-dose spots were located in the axillary and breast areas but not in the inframammary area. We suggest that skin doses shown on the treatment planning might be a reliable and simple alternative method for estimating the highest skin doses in some areas.
Related JoVE Video
Formulation and stability of an extemporaneous 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate ophthalmic solution.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acanthamoeba keratitis is difficult to treat because Acanthamoeba cysts are resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents. Despite the efficacy of 0.02% chlorhexidine in treating Acanthamoeba keratitis, a lack of data in the literature regarding the formulation's stability limits its clinical use. The objective of this study was to develop an optimal extemporaneous 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate ophthalmic formulation for patients in need.
Related JoVE Video
Brefeldin A Reduces Anchorage-Independent Survival, Cancer Stem Cell Potential and Migration of MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of cancer cells in tumors or established cancer cell lines that can initiate and sustain the growth of tumors in vivo. Cancer stem cells can be enriched in serum-free, suspended cultures that allow the formation of tumorspheres over several days to weeks. Brefeldin A (BFA) is a mycotoxin that induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in eukaryotic cells. We found that BFA, at sub-microgram per milliliter concentrations, preferentially induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 suspension cultures (EC50: 0.016 µg/mL) compared to adhesion cultures. BFA also effectively inhibited clonogenic activity and the migration and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) activity of MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blotting analysis indicated that the effects of BFA may be mediated by the down-regulation of breast CSC marker CD44 and anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, as well as the reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, BFA also displayed selective cytotoxicity toward suspended MDA-MB-468 cells, and suppressed tumorsphere formation in T47D and MDA-MB-453 cells, suggesting that BFA may be effective against breast cancer cells of various phenotypes.
Related JoVE Video
Investigation of the caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in mononuclear cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundThis study aimed to explore the role of apoptosis initiators, caspase-9, caspase-10, mitochondrial anti-viral signaling protein (MAVS), and interferon regulatory factor 7 (pIRF7), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).MethodsLeukocyte apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, including annexin V, APO2.7, and 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) on each subtype of leukocyte in 35 patients with SLE, 15 disease controls, and 17 volunteer normal controls. Levels of caspase-9, caspase-10, MAVS, and pIRF7 in mononuclear cells and the disease activity index (SLEDAI) in the SLE patients were determined. Correlation among intracellular adaptor proteins and caspase levels were calculated.ResultsThe SLE patients had higher APO2.7 in total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocytes, and higher late apoptosis markers in total leukocytes and neutrophils than normal controls (all p¿<¿0.05). Disease activity was positively associated with the APO2.7 of CD19+ cells in SLE, but negatively associated with MAVS and caspase-9 levels (all p¿<¿0.05). Markers of viral infection and anti-virus transcription factors like MDA5, MAVS, and pIRF7 were significantly higher in SLE patients than in disease controls (p¿<¿0.05). Caspase-9 and caspase-10 levels positively correlated with MAVS and pIRF7 in SLE patients (p¿<¿0.05).ConclusionsThe disease activity of SLE is positively associated with APO2.7 level of CD19+ cells but negatively associated with MAVS and caspase-9 levels, which all point to a mitochondrial pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Modulation of nitrosative stress via glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GFD) from Taiwanofungus camphorata plays important roles in formaldehyde detoxification and antioxidation. The enzyme is bifunctional. In addition to the GFD activity, it also functions as an effective S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) against nitrosative stress. We investigated the modulation of HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293T cells under nitrosative stress by transfecting a codon optimized GFD cDNA from Taiwanofungus camphorata (Tc-GFD-O) to these cells. The parental and transfected HEK 293T cells were then subjected to S-nitrosoglutathione treatment to induce nitrosative stress. The results showed that in Tc-GFD-O-transfected 293T cells, the expression and activity of GFD increased. Additionally, these cells under the nitrosative stress induced by S-nitrosoglutathione showed both higher viability and less apoptosis than the parental 293T cells. This finding suggests that the Tc-GFD-O in HEK 293T cells may provide a protective function under nitrosative stress.
Related JoVE Video
Incorporation of ligand-receptor binding-site models and transistor-based sensors for resolving dissociation constants and number of binding sites.
IET Nanobiotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ligand-receptor binding site model is used to elucidate the binding affinity between ligands and receptors, with transistor-based sensors. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were immobilised with antibodies and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase enzymes to detect peptides and human immunodeficiency virus drugs, respectively. The signals generated by the sensors because of the binding of the ligands to the receptors were fitted into the binding-site models and analysed. The dissociation constants of the ligand-receptor pairs and the number of the binding sites on the receptors were revealed. The results are very consistent with the data reported by the other methods from the literatures. The incorporation of the HEMTs and the binding-site models is demonstrated to be useful for studying the mechanism of the biomolecular interaction and the application for quick and cost-effective drug developments.
Related JoVE Video
Chromosome 20q13.2 ZNF217 locus amplification correlates with decreased E-cadherin expression in ovarian clear cell carcinoma with PI3K-Akt pathway alterations.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the relationships between chromosome 20q13.2 zinc finger protein 217 (ZNF217) locus amplification, ZNF217 expression, E-cadherin expression, and PI3K-Akt pathway alterations (activating PIK3CA mutations or loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN] expression), and whether these molecular alterations can predict the clinical survival data in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) patients. Samples and clinical data of 72 OCCC patients were collected. Chromosome 20q13.2 ZNF217 locus amplification was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. ZNF217, E-cadherin and PTEN expression were assessed using immunohistochemical stain. PIK3CA mutation was identified by PCR-amplified gene sequencing. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios of survival. Chromosome 20q13.2 ZNF217 locus amplification was detected in 31% (22/72) of cases, and ZNF217 expression was increased in 40% (27/68) of cases. E-cadherin and PTEN expressions were decreased or lost in 44% (32/72) and 14% (10/72) of cases, respectively. Activating PIK3CA mutations were present in 35% (25/72) of cases. Thirty-three OCCC patients (46%) showed activating PI3K-Akt pathway alterations. Chromosome 20q13.2 ZNF217 locus amplification was significantly associated with decreased E-cadherin expression (P = .001). In contrast, ZNF217 expression was not related to ZNF217 amplification or E-cadherin expression. In OCCC patients with activating PI3k-Akt pathway, decreased E-cadherin expression (P = .033) and advanced Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = .014) predicted shorter overall survival. Two conclusions were raised in our study. First, ZNF217 plays a role in down-regulating E-cadherin expression and is a potential therapeutic target for OCCC patients. Second, E-cadherin expression is a prognostic marker for OCCC patients with activating PI3K-Akt pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in biophysical properties of the skin following radiotherapy for breast cancer.
J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute radiation dermatitis is a common adverse effect in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. However, the effects of radiotherapy on biophysical properties of the skin have rarely been investigated. In this prospective cohort study, we seek to determine the effects of radiotherapy for breast cancer on skin biophysical parameters. We measured various skin biophysical parameters (skin hydration, pH, sebum level, pigmentation, and blood flow) in 144 breast cancer patients by non-invasive techniques before and after radiotherapy. The measurements were simultaneously performed on the irradiated breast and the corresponding contralateral unirradiated breast for comparison. Following radiotherapy, the irradiated breast showed a significant decrease in skin hydration, increase in skin pH, increase in pigmentation, and increase in cutaneous blood flow. The contralateral unirradiated breast showed a slight increase in pigmentation but no significant changes in any of the other biophysical parameters after radiotherapy. No significant associations were found between patient characteristics (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, type of surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy) and changes in skin biophysical parameters following radiotherapy. In conclusion, radiation therapy for breast cancer induces measurable and significant changes in biophysical properties of the skin including hydration, pH, pigmentation, and blood flow. These findings give us a greater understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on skin physiology, and provide non-invasive and objective methods to assess radiation dermatitis.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of gold/silver-tellurium nanostructures.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gold-tellurium nanostructures (Au-Te NSs), silver-tellurium nanostructures (Ag-Te NSs), and gold/silver-tellurium nanostructures (Au/Ag-Te NSs) have been prepared through galvanic reactions of tellurium nanotubes (Te NTs) with Au(3+), Ag(+), and both ions, respectively. Unlike the use of less environmentally friendly hydrazine, fructose as a reducing agent has been used to prepare Te NTs from TeO2 powders under alkaline conditions. The Au/Ag-Te NSs have highly catlaytic activity to convert nonfluorescent Amplex Red to form fluorescent product, revealing their great strength of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Au/Ag-Te NSs relative to the other two NSs exhibit greater antimicrobial activity toward the growth of E. coli, S. enteritidis, and S. aureus; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Au/Ag-Te NSs were much lower (>10-fold) than that of Ag-Te NSs and Au-Te NSs. The antibacterial activity of Au/Ag-Te NSs is mainly due to the release of Ag(+) ions and Te-related ions and also may be due to the generated ROS which destroys the bacteria membrane. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolysis analyses have revealed their low toxicity in selected human cell lines and insignificant hemolysis in red blood cells. In addition, inhibition zone measurements using a Au/Ag-Te NSs-loaded konjac jelly film have suggested that it has great potential in practial application such as wound dressing for reducing bacterial wound infection. Having great antibacterial activitiy and excellent biocompatibility, the low-cost Au/Ag-Te NSs hold great potential as effective antimicrobial drugs.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of microRNA in Tumor Cells using Exonuclease III and Graphene Oxide-Regulated Signal Amplification.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we developed a label-free, ultrasensitive graphene oxide (GO)-based probe for the detection of oligonucleotides by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). On the basis of simple ?-? stacking and electrostatic interactions between rhodamine 6G (R6G) and GO, we prepared the nanocomposite R6G-modified GO (R6G-GO). Signal intensities of R6G increased in mass spectra in the presence of single-stranded oligonucleotides under pulsed laser irradiation (355 nm) of R6G-GO. In addition, the signal intensity of R6G was stronger in the presence of short oligonucleotides. Because small oligonucleotides improve the LDI efficiency of R6G on GO, we designed an enzyme-amplified signal transduction probe system for the detection of microRNA (miRNA). After specific digestion of the probe DNA (pDNA) strand from pDNA/miRNA-hybridized complexes by exonuclease III (Exo III), the resulting small oligonucleotide fragments increased the R6G signal during LDI-MS of R6G-GO. In addition, the signal intensity of the R6G ions increased with increasing concentrations of the target miRNA. Coupling this enzyme reaction and R6G-GO with LDI-MS enabled the detection of miRNA at concentrations of the femtomolar (fM) level. We also demonstrated the analysis of miRNA in tumor cells and utilized this R6G-GO probe in the detection of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Arg249Ser unit of the TP53 gene. This simple, rapid, and sensitive detection system based on the coupling of functional GO with LDI-MS appears to have great potential as a tool for the bioanalyses of oligonucleotides and proteins.
Related JoVE Video
Systematic analysis of the association between gut flora and obesity through high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Eighty-one stool samples from Taiwanese were collected for analysis of the association between the gut flora and obesity. The supervised analysis showed that the most, abundant genera of bacteria in normal samples (from people with a body mass index (BMI) ? 24) were Bacteroides (27.7%), Prevotella (19.4%), Escherichia (12%), Phascolarctobacterium (3.9%), and Eubacterium (3.5%). The most abundant genera of bacteria in case samples (with a BMI ? 27) were Bacteroides (29%), Prevotella (21%), Escherichia (7.4%), Megamonas (5.1%), and Phascolarctobacterium (3.8%). A principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) demonstrated that normal samples were clustered more compactly than case samples. An unsupervised analysis demonstrated that bacterial communities in the gut were clustered into two main groups: N-like and OB-like groups. Remarkably, most normal samples (78%) were clustered in the N-like group, and most case samples (81%) were clustered in the OB-like group (Fisher's P??value = 1.61E - 07). The results showed that bacterial communities in the gut were highly associated with obesity. This is the first study in Taiwan to investigate the association between human gut flora and obesity, and the results provide new insights into the correlation of bacteria with the rising trend in obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases in lung tissue of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.
Respiration
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although blebs and bullae are frequently found in the apexes of lungs of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), its pathogens remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Nitrite ion-induced fluorescence quenching of luminescent BSA-Au(25) nanoclusters: mechanism and application.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fluorescence quenching is an interesting phenomenon which is highly useful in developing fluorescence based sensors. A thorough understanding of the fluorescence quenching mechanism is essential to develop efficient sensors. In this work, we investigate different aspects governing the nitrite ion-induced fluorescence quenching of luminescent bovine serum albumin stabilized gold nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs) and their application for detection of nitrite in urine. The probable events leading to photoluminescence (PL) quenching by nitrite ions were discussed on the basis of the results obtained from ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence measurements, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies. These studies suggested that PL quenching mainly occurred through the oxidation of Au(0) atoms to Au(i) atoms in the core of BSA-Au NCs mediated by nitrite ions. The interference caused by certain species such as Hg(2+), Cu(2+), CN(-), S(2-), glutathione, cysteine, etc. during the nitrite determination by fluorescence quenching was eliminated by using masking agents and optimising the conditions. Based on these findings we proposed a BSA-Au NC-modified membrane based sensor which would be more convenient for the real life applications such as nitrite detection in urine samples. The BSA-Au NC-modified nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) enabled the detection of nitrite at a level as low as 100 nM in aqueous solutions. This Au NC-based paper probe was validated to exhibit good performance for nitrite analysis in environmental water and urine samples, which makes it useful in practical applications.
Related JoVE Video
Preterm induction of labor: predictors of vaginal delivery and labor curves.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the labor curves of patients who undergo preterm induction of labor (IOL) and to assess possible predictors of vaginal delivery (VD).
Related JoVE Video
Detection of arsenic(III) through pulsed laser-induced desorption/ionization of gold nanoparticles on cellulose membranes.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have developed an assay based on gold nanoparticle-modified mixed cellulose ester membrane (Au NPs-MCEM) coupled with laser-induced desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS)-for the detection of arsenic(III) ions (arsenite, AsO2(-)) in aqueous solution. When the Au NPs reacted with lead ions (Pb(2+)) in alkaline solution (5 mM glycine-NaOH, pH 12), Au-Pb complexes, PbO, and Pb(OH) were formed immediately on the Au NP surfaces. The Pb species reacted rapidly with subsequently added AsO2(-) to form PbOAs2O3, (PbO)2As2O3, and/or (PbO)3As2O3 shells (2-5 nm) on the Au NPs' surfaces. As a result, significant observable aggregation of the Au NPs occurred in the solution. This Pb(2+)/Au NP probe allowed the detection of AsO2(-) at concentrations as low as 0.6 ?M with high selectivity (at least 100-fold over other anions and metal ions). To further improve the sensitivity, we prepared Au NPs-MCEM for the LDI-MS-based detection of AsO2(-) ions. The intensity of the signal for the [Pb](+) ions in the mass spectra increased when the Au NPs-MCEM reacted with AsO2(-); in contrast, the intensity of the signal for [Au](+) ions decreased. Accordingly, the [Pb](+)/[Au](+) peak ratio increased upon increasing the AsO2(-) concentration over the range from 10 nM to 10 ?M. The limit of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 2.5 nM, far below the action level of As (133 nM, ca. 10 ppb) permitted by the US EPA for drinking water. Relative to other nanoparticle-based arsenic sensors, this approach is rapid, specific, and sensitive; in addition, it can be applied to the detection of AsO2(-) in natural water samples (in this case, streamwater, lake water, tap water, groundwater, and mineral water).
Related JoVE Video
Association between oxidative stress and outcome in different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and free thiol levels in different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and evaluated their association with clinical outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
The roles of biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper aims to examine whether biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidants could be useful biomarkers in AD, which might form the bases of future clinical studies.
Related JoVE Video
The association among antioxidant enzymes, autoantibodies, and disease severity score in systemic lupus erythematosus: comparison of neuropsychiatric and nonneuropsychiatric groups.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antioxidative capacity plays an important role in the severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is characterized by autoantibodies. This study aimed to determine the relationship among autoantibody titers, antioxidative stress reserve, and severity of SLE.
Related JoVE Video
Safety Evaluation of Multiple Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus in Wistar Rats Based on the Ames Test and a 28-Day Feeding Study.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three lactic acid bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, HK006, and HK109, and Pediococcus pentosaceus PP31 exhibit probiotic potential as antiallergy agents, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the safety of these new strains requires evaluation when isolated from infant faeces or pickled cabbage. Multiple strains (HK006, HK109, and PP31) were subject to a bacterial reverse mutation assay and a short-term oral toxicity study. The powder product exhibited mutagenic potential in Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA98 and TA1535 (with or without metabolic activation). In the short-term oral toxicity study, rats received a normal dosage of 390?mg/kg/d (approximately 9 × 10(9)?CFU/kg/d) or a high dosage of 1950?mg/kg/d (approximately 4.5 × 10(10)?CFU/kg/d) for 28?d. No adverse effects were observed regarding the general condition, behaviour, growth, feed and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry indices, organ weights, or histopathologic analysis of the rats. These studies have demonstrated that the consumption of multiple bacterial strains is not associated with any signs of mutagenicity of S. Typhimurium or toxicity in Wistar rats, even after consuming large quantities of bacteria.
Related JoVE Video
Membrane-based assay for iodide ions based on anti-leaching of gold nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a label-free colorimetric strategy for the highly selective and sensitive detection of iodide (I(-)) ions in human urine sample, seawater and edible salt. A poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-stabilized Au nanoparticle (34.2-nm) was prepared to detect I(-) ions using silver (Ag(+)) and cyanide (CN(-)) ions as leaching agents in a glycine-NaOH (pH 9.0) solution. For the visual detection of the I(-) ions by naked eye, and for long time stability of the probe, Au nanoparticles (NPs) decorated mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM) was prepared (Au NPs/MCEM). The Au NPs-based probe (CN(-)/Ag(+)-Au NPs/MCEM) operates on the principle that Ag(+) ions form a monolyar silver atoms/ions by aurophilic/argentophilic interactions on the Au NPs and it accelerates the leaching rate of Au atoms in presence of CN(-) ions. However, when I(-) is introduced into this system, it inhibits the leaching of Au atoms because of the strong interactions between Ag/Au ions and I(-) ions. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface properties of the Au NPs in the presence of Ag(+) and I(-). Under optimal solution conditions, the CN(-)/Ag(+)-Au NPs/MCEM probe enabled the detection of I(-) by the naked eye at nanomolar concentrations with high selectivity (at least 1000-fold over other anions). In addition, this cost-effective probe allowed the determination of I(-) ions in complex samples, such as urine, seawater, and edible salt samples.
Related JoVE Video
Helical tomotherapy combined with capecitabine in the preoperative treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical tomotherapy plus capecitabine as a preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Thirty-six LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT were analyzed. Radiotherapy (RT) consisted of 45 Gy to the regional lymph nodes and simultaneous-integrated boost (SIB) 50.4 Gy to the tumor, 5 days/week for 5 weeks. Chemotherapy consisted of capecitabine 850 mg/m(2), twice daily, during the RT days. Patients underwent surgery 6-8 weeks after completion of CRT. Information was collected for patient characteristics, treatment response, and acute and late toxicities. Grade 3/4 (G3+) toxicities occurred in 11.1% of patients (4/36). Sphincter preservation rate was 85.2% (23/27). Five patients (14.3%) achieved pathological complete response. Tumor, nodal, and ypT0-2N0 downstaging were noted in 60% (21/35), 69.6% (16/23), and 57.1% (20/35). Tumor regression grade 2~4 was achieved in 28 patients (80%). After a median follow-up time of 35 months, the most common G3+ late morbidity was ileus and fistula (5.7%, 2/35). The study showed that capecitabine plus helical tomotherapy with an SIB is feasible in treatment of LARC. The treatment modality can achieve a very encouraging sphincter preservation rate and a favorable ypT0-2N0 downstaging rate without excessive toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
The association between autoantibodies and peripheral neuropathy in lupus nephritis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers used for predicting peripheral neuropathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephritis (SLE-LN) remain unsatisfactory. This study aimed to determine the autoantibodies levels in SLE-LN patients with peripheral neuropathy.
Related JoVE Video
Logic control of enzyme-like gold nanoparticles for selective detection of lead and mercury ions.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Functional logic gates based on lead ions (Pb(2+)) and mercury ions (Hg(2+)) that induce peroxidase-like activities in gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in the presence of platinum (Pt(4+)) and bismuth ions (Bi(3+)) are presented. The "AND" logic gate is constructed using Pt(4+)/Pb(2+) as the input and the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output; this logic gate is denoted as "Pt(4+)/Pb(2+)(AND)-Au NPPOX". When Pt(4+) and Pb(2+) coexist, strong metallophilic interactions (between Pt and Pb atoms/ions) and aurophilic interactions (between Au and Pb/Pt atoms/ions) result in significant increases in the deposition of Pt and Pb atoms/ions onto the Au NPs, leading to enhanced peroxidase-like activity. The "INHIBIT" logic gate is fabricated by using Bi(3+) and Hg(2+) as the input and the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output; this logic gate is denoted as "Bi(3+)/Hg(2+)(INHIBIT)-Au NPPOX". High peroxidase-like activity of Au NPs in the presence of Bi(3+) is a result of the various valence (oxidation) states of Bi(3+) and Au (Au(+)/Au(0)) atoms on the nanoparticle's surface. When Bi(3+) and Hg(2+) coexist, strong Hg-Au amalgamation results in a large decrease in the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs. These two probes (Pt(4+)/Pb(2+)(AND)-Au NPPOX and Bi(3+)/Hg(2+)(INHIBIT)-Au NPPOX) allow selective detection of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) down to nanomolar quantities. The practicality of these two probes has been validated by analysis of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) in environmental water samples (tap water, river water, and lake water). In addition, an integrated logic circuit based on the color change (formation of reddish resorufin product) and generation of O2 bubbles from these two probes has been constructed, allowing visual detection of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) in aqueous solution.
Related JoVE Video
Metformin sensitizes anticancer effect of dasatinib in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells through AMPK-dependent ER stress.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an important endemic disease in Taiwan with aggressive course and dismal outcome. Dasatinib is a Bcr-bl and Src kinase inhibitor that has potential against HNSCC. We recently disclosed that EGFR degradation is critical for dasatinib-induced apoptosis. Here, we further demonstrate that AMPK-dependent ER stress is responsible for this event. Dasatinib induced ER stress which mediated EGFR degradation in a c-cbl-dependent manner. AMPK activation induced by dasatinib might be due to ATP decrease through the up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4). Furthermore, activation of AMPK by metformin sensitized dasatinib-induced in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effect. The correlation of AMPK activation and EGFR expression was seen in HNSCC cells and human tumor specimens. Our results disclose that AMPK-dependent ER stress plays a crucial role in the anti-cancer effect of dasatinib in HNSCC and further activation of AMPK by metformin might enhance dasatinib efficacy.
Related JoVE Video
5-azacytidine induces anoikis, inhibits mammosphere formation and reduces metalloproteinase 9 activity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer stem cells are a subset of cancer cells that initiate the growth of tumors. Low levels of cancer stem cells also exist in established cancer cell lines, and can be enriched in serum-free tumorsphere cultures. Since cancer stem cells have been reported to be resilient to common chemotherapeutic drugs in comparison to regular cancer cells, screening for compounds selectively targeting cancer stem cells may provide an effective therapeutic strategy. We found that 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) selectively induced anoikis of MCF-7 in suspension cultures with an EC?? of 8.014 µM, and effectively inhibited tumorsphere formation, as well as the migration and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) activity of MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, 5-AzaC and radiation collaboratively inhibited MCF-7 tumorsphere formation at clinically relevant radiation doses. Investigating the underlying mechanism may provide insight into signaling pathways crucial for cancer stem cell survival and pave the way to novel potential therapeutic targets.
Related JoVE Video
Racial disparities in outcomes of twin pregnancies: elective cesarean or trial of labor?
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the study was to determine the relationships between maternal race and obstetric outcomes in twin gestations by planned mode of delivery.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical detection of human probiotics and human pathogenic bacteria by using a novel high-throughput platform based on next generation sequencing.
J Clin Bioinforma
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The human body plays host to a vast array of bacteria, found in oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. Some bacteria are harmful while others are beneficial to the host. Despite the availability of many methods to identify bacteria, most of them are only applicable to specific and cultivable bacteria and are also tedious. Based on high throughput sequencing technology, this work derives 16S rRNA sequences of bacteria and analyzes probiotics and pathogens species.
Related JoVE Video
Realization of an ultra-sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor with conductance change of horseradish peroxidase-immobilized polyaniline and investigation of the sensing mechanism.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we fabricate an ultra-sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-immobilized conducting polymer, polyaniline (PANI). With the proposed detection mechanism, hydrogen peroxide first oxidizes HRP, which then oxidizes polyaniline, thus resulting in decreased conductivity of the polyaniline thin film. The reduced HRP can be further oxidized by hydrogen peroxide and the cycle of the oxidation/reduction would continue until all hydrogen peroxide are reacted, leading to the high sensitivity of the sensor due to the signal contributed from all hydrogen peroxide molecule. The detection limit of this sensor is only 0.7 nM. The detectable concentration of H2O2 is from 0.7 nM to 1 ?M. Beyond 1 ?M, the sensor gradually saturates and some H2O2 remains, indicating the inhibition of HRP activity at high concentration of H2O2. There is no response to hydrogen peroxide once the PANI is standalone without HRP immobilized, showing the enzymatic reaction is required in the process of hydrogen peroxide detection. The simple process for the sensor fabrication allows the sensor to be cost-effective and disposable. This electronic hydrogen peroxide sensor is promising in applications for low concentration hydrogen peroxide detections, such as the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oxidative stress studies.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors and outcome analysis of acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteremia in critical patients.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteremia has been identified increasingly in critical patients admitted in ICUs. Notably, A. baumannii complex bacteremia has a high mortality rate, yet the risk factors associated with mortality remain unclear and controversial.
Related JoVE Video
Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system.
Front Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments.
Related JoVE Video
Taxonomic revision of Aegistasubchinensis (Möllendorff, 1884) (Stylommatophora, Bradybaenidae) and a description of a new species of Aegista from eastern Taiwan based on multilocus phylogeny and comparative morphology.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aegistasubchinensis (Möllendorff, 1884) is a widely distributed land snail species with morphological variation and endemic to Taiwan. Three genetic markers (partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI], the 16S rDNA and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 [ITS2]) were analysed to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic divergence of closely related species of the genus Aegista, Aegistavermis (Reeve, 1852) and Aegistaoculus (Pfeiffer, 1850). A new species from Aegistasubchinensis has been recognized on the basis of phylogenetic and morphological evidences. The nominal new species, Aegistadiversifamilia sp. n. is distinguished from Aegistasubchinensis (Möllendorff, 1884) by its larger shell size, aperture and apex angle; wider umbilicus and flatter shell shape. The northernmost distribution of Aegistadiversifamilia sp. n. is limited by the Lanyang River, which is presumed to mark the geographic barrier between Aegistadiversifamilia sp. n. and Aegistasubchinensis.
Related JoVE Video
Hemodynamic Factors May Play a Critical Role in Neurological Deterioration Occurring within 72 hrs after Lacunar Stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether a perfusion defect exists in lacunar infarct and whether it is related to early neurological deterioration (END) is still under debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether END in lacunar infarct is related to a perfusion defect using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and perfusion MR imaging.
Related JoVE Video
Bacterial communities in semen from men of infertile couples: metagenomic sequencing reveals relationships of seminal microbiota to semen quality.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. However, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using PCR-based or culturing methods. Here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. Ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven clinical criteria for semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, Kruger's strict morphology, antisperm antibody (IgA), Atypical, and leukocytes). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was also performed. Results showed that the most abundant genera among all samples were Lactobacillus (19.9%), Pseudomonas (9.85%), Prevotella (8.51%) and Gardnerella (4.21%). The proportion of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella was significantly higher in the normal samples, while that of Prevotella was significantly higher in the low quality samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that the seminal bacterial communities were clustered into three main groups: Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella predominant group. Remarkably, most normal samples (80.6%) were clustered in Lactobacillus predominant group. The analysis results showed seminal bacteria community types were highly associated with semen health. Lactobacillus might not only be a potential probiotic for semen quality maintenance, but also might be helpful in countering the negative influence of Prevotella and Pseudomonas. In this study, we investigated whole seminal bacterial communities and provided the most comprehensive analysis of the association between bacterial community and semen quality. The study significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of male fertility.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition effect of a custom Peptide on lung tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cecropin B is a natural antimicrobial peptide and CB1a is a custom, engineered modification of it. In vitro, CB1a can kill lung cancer cells at concentrations that do not kill normal lung cells. Furthermore, in vitro, CB1a can disrupt cancer cells from adhering together to form tumor-like spheroids. Mice were xenografted with human lung cancer cells; CB1a could significantly inhibit the growth of tumors in this in vivo model. Docetaxel is a drug in present clinical use against lung cancers; it can have serious side effects because its toxicity is not sufficiently limited to cancer cells. In our studies in mice: CB1a is more toxic to cancer cells than docetaxel, but dramatically less toxic to healthy cells.
Related JoVE Video
SNP 1772 C?>?T of HIF-1? gene associates with breast cancer risk in a Taiwanese population.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypoxia inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) is a stress-responsive transcription factor to hypoxia and its expression is correlated to tumor progression and angiogenesis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of HIF-1? gene in the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain was reportedly associated with increased HIF-1? activity.
Related JoVE Video
CloudDOE: a user-friendly tool for deploying Hadoop clouds and analyzing high-throughput sequencing data with MapReduce.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Explosive growth of next-generation sequencing data has resulted in ultra-large-scale data sets and ensuing computational problems. Cloud computing provides an on-demand and scalable environment for large-scale data analysis. Using a MapReduce framework, data and workload can be distributed via a network to computers in the cloud to substantially reduce computational latency. Hadoop/MapReduce has been successfully adopted in bioinformatics for genome assembly, mapping reads to genomes, and finding single nucleotide polymorphisms. Major cloud providers offer Hadoop cloud services to their users. However, it remains technically challenging to deploy a Hadoop cloud for those who prefer to run MapReduce programs in a cluster without built-in Hadoop/MapReduce.
Related JoVE Video
Favorable circulatory system outcomes as adjuvant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for cerebrovascular diseases in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study searches the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) used in a previous project, aiming for reconstructing possible cerebrovascular disease-related groups (DRG),and estimating the costs between cerebrovascular disease and related diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Information derived from cluster ions from DNA-modified gold nanoparticles under laser desorption/ionization: analysis of coverage, structure, and single-nucleotide polymorphism.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we employed laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) to explore the interactions between thiolated DNA (HS-DNA) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Under nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation (Nd:YAG, 355 nm), the efficiency of Au cluster ion formation from the Au NPs decreased in the presence of HS-DNA. At the optimal laser power density (2.1 × 10(4) W cm(-2)), the intensity of the Au cluster signal was sensitive to the DNA coverage and the length of the DNA strands on the Au NPs (diameter: 13 nm). Using this information, we developed a simple and specific DNA sensor that operates through analysis of the Au cluster ions formed from the fragmentation of Au NPs under LDI conditions. The coverage of the thiolated probe DNA (pDNA) on the Au NPs increased in the presence of its perfectly matched DNA (DNA(pm)). As a result, the intensity of the signal of Au cluster ions decreased upon increasing the concentration of DNA(pm). Coupling these pDNA-Au NPs with LDI-MS allowed the detection of DNA(pm) at concentrations down to the nanomolar regime. Furthermore, we applied this pDNA-Au NP probe to the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Arg249Ser unit in the TP53 gene. To the best of our knowledge, this paper provides the first example of the use of LDI to analyze the coverage and structure of DNA strands on metal NPs. This simple, rapid, high-throughput detection system, based on the coupling of biofunctional Au NPs with LDI-MS, appears to hold great practicality for bioanalyses of oligonucleotides and proteins.
Related JoVE Video
Flexible Miniaturized Nickel Oxide Thermistor Arrays via Inkjet Printing Technology.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, an inkjet printing process was developed to produce thermistor arrays for temperature sensing applications. First, a formulation process was carefully performed to generate a stable nanoparticle ink for nickel oxide, a material with a large temperature coefficient of resistance. The thermistor was then fabricated by printing a square NiO thin film in between two parallel silver conductive tracks on either glass plates or polyimide films. The printed thermistor, which has an adjustable dimension with a sub-millimeter scale, can operate over a wide range from room temperature to 200 °C with great sensitivity (B values ?4300 K) without hysteretic effects. When printed on polyimide films, the thermistors can also be bent or attached to curved surfaces to provide accurate and reliable temperature measurements. Moreover, the thermistor responds quickly to small temperature changes and provides an effective tool for transient temperature measurements. Finally, a thermistor array was fabricated to show the flexibility of this inkjet printing process and to demonstrate the applicability of the printed devices for temperature sensing applications.
Related JoVE Video
[Breast- and bottle-feeding in preterm infants: a comparison of behavioral cues].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Developmental care has been broadly applied to identify the behavioral cues and care needs of preterm infants. Past studies indicate a significantly higher level of physical distress in bottle-fed preterm infants than in preterm infants who are breastfed. However, no evidence has yet been reported that supports the influence of feeding methods on behavioral cues.
Related JoVE Video
Parental knowledge, concerns, and management of childhood fever in Taiwan.
J Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Childhood fever is a commonly treated condition in medical settings. Many studies around the world have reported on the phenomenon of parental fever phobia. Studies of parental knowledge regarding childhood fever are lacking in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Obstetric complications, neonatal morbidity, and indications for cesarean delivery by maternal age.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To delineate adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes as well as indications for cesarean delivery by maternal age in a contemporaneous large national cohort.
Related JoVE Video
A peroxiredoxin cDNA from Taiwanofungus camphorata: role of Cys(31) in dimerization.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) play important roles in antioxidant defense and redox signaling pathways. A Prx isozyme cDNA (TcPrx2, 745 bp, EF552425) was cloned from Taiwanofungus camphorata and its recombinant protein was overexpressed. The purified protein was shown to exist predominantly as a dimer by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrolysis in the absence of a reducing agent. The protein in its dimeric form showed no detectable Prx activity. However, the protein showed increased Prx activity with increasing dithiothreitol concentration which correlates with dissociation of the dimer into monomer. The TcPrx2 contains two Cys residues. The Cys(60) located in the conserved active site is the putative active peroxidatic Cys. The role of Cys(31) was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The C31S mutant (C(31) ? S(31)) exists predominantly as a monomer with noticeable Prx activity. The Prx activity of the mutant was higher than that of the corresponding wild-type protein by nearly twofold at 12 ?g/mL. The substrate preference of the mutant was H2O2 > cumene peroxide > t-butyl peroxide. The Michaelis constant (K M) value for H2O2 of the mutant was 0.11 mM. The mutant enzyme was active under a broad pH range from 6 to 10. The results suggest a role of Cys(31) in dimerization of the TcPrx2, a role which, at least in part, may be involved in determining the activity of Prx. The C(31) residue does not function as a resolving Cys and therefore the TcPrx2 must follow the reaction mechanism of 1-Cys Prx. This TcPrx2 represents a new isoform of Prx family.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of adenosine triphosphate through polymerization-induced aggregation of actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have developed a simple and selective nanosensor for the optical detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using globular actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods (G-actin-Au/Ag NRs). By simply mixing G-actin and Au/Ag NRs (length ~56 nm and diameter ~12 nm), G-actin-Au/Ag NRs were prepared which were stable in physiological solutions (25 mM Tris-HCl, 150 mM NaCl, 5.0 mM KCl, 3.0 mM MgCl2 and 1.0 mM CaCl2; pH 7.4). Introduction of ATP into the G-actin-Au/Ag NR solutions in the presence of excess G-actin induced the formation of filamentous actin-conjugated Au/Ag NR aggregates through ATP-induced polymerization of G-actin. When compared to G-actin-modified spherical Au nanoparticles having a size of 13 nm or 56 nm, G-actin-Au/Ag NRs provided better sensitivity for ATP, mainly because the longitudinal surface plasmon absorbance of the Au/Ag NR has a more sensitive response to aggregation. This G-actin-Au/Ag NR probe provided high sensitivity (limit of detection 25 nM) for ATP with remarkable selectivity (>10-fold) over other adenine nucleotides (adenosine, adenosine monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate) and nucleoside triphosphates (guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate). It also allowed the determination of ATP concentrations in plasma samples without conducting tedious sample pretreatments; the only necessary step was simple dilution. Our experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained from a commercial luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Our simple, sensitive and selective approach appears to have a practical potential for the clinical diagnosis of diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis) associated with changes in ATP concentrations.
Related JoVE Video
Can arousing feedback rectify lapses in driving? Prediction from EEG power spectra.
J Neural Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study explores the neurophysiological changes, measured using an electroencephalogram (EEG), in response to an arousing warning signal delivered to drowsy drivers, and predicts the efficacy of the feedback based on changes in the EEG.
Related JoVE Video
Gold-nanoparticles-modified cellulose membrane coupled with laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for detection of iodide in urine.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report an efficient method for the determination of iodide (I(-)) ions by using gold-iodide hybrid cluster ions on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modified mixed cellulose ester membrane (Au NPs-MCEM) by pulsed laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). When I(-) ions were deposited and concentrated on the surfaces of Au NPs (32 nm) via strong Au(+)-I(-) interaction on the MECM, the Au NPs-MCEM was observed to function as an efficient surface-assisted LDI substrate with very low background noise. When pulsed laser radiation (355 nm) was applied, I(-) binding to Au NPs ions induced the enhancement of the desorption and ionization efficiency of gold-iodide hybrid cluster ions from the Au NPs surfaces. The reproducibility of the probe for both shot-to-shot and sample-to-sample (both less than 10%) ion production was also improved by the homogeneous nature of the substrate surface. Thus, it allows the accurate and precise quantification of I(-) ions in high-salinity real samples (i.e., edible salt samples and urine) at the nanomolar range. This novel LDI-MS approach provides a simple route for the high-speed analysis of I(-) ions with high sensitivity and selectivity in real biological samples.
Related JoVE Video
Racial Disparities in Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in HIV-1 Positive Mothers.
Am J Perinatol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective To compare obstetric and neonatal outcomes between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) women and to determine if racial disparities exist among pregnancies complicated by HIV infection.Study Design This was a retrospective analysis of data from the Consortium of Safe Labor between 2002 and 2008. Comparisons of obstetric morbidity, neonatal morbidity, and indications for cesarean delivery were examined. Included were singletons with documented HIV status, race, and antepartum admission. Chi-square, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results Included were 178,972 patients (178,210 HIV-, 762 HIV+, 464 HIV+ black, 298 HIV+ nonblack). HIV+ women were more likely to have a cesarean delivery, preterm premature rupture of membranes, another sexually transmitted infection, and delivery at an earlier gestational age. Obstetric outcomes were similar between HIV+ black and HIV+ nonblack women. Neonates of HIV+ mothers had lower birth weights and higher rates of neonatal intensive care admissions. HIV+ black women had lower birth weight neonates than HIV+ nonblack women.Conclusion HIV+ women have higher rates of obstetric complications and deliver at an earlier gestational age than HIV- mothers. Lower birth weight was the only notable complication among HIV+ black women compared with HIV+ nonblack women.
Related JoVE Video
Systematic screening of glycosylation- and trafficking-associated gene knockouts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies mutants with improved heterologous exocellulase activity and host secretion.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As a strong fermentator, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the potential to be an excellent host for ethanol production by consolidated bioprocessing. For this purpose, it is necessary to transform cellulose genes into the yeast genome because it contains no cellulose genes. However, heterologous protein expression in S. cerevisiae often suffers from hyper-glycosylation and/or poor secretion. Thus, there is a need to genetically engineer the yeast to reduce its glycosylation strength and to increase its secretion ability.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis of fluorescent gold nanodot-liposome hybrids for detection of phospholipase C and its inhibitor.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the synthesis of fluorescent 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-gold nanodot-liposome (11-MUA-Au ND/Lip) hybrids by incorporation of gold nanoparticles (?3 nm) and 11-MUA molecules in hydrophobic phospholipid membranes that self-assemble to form small unilamellar vesicles. A simple and homogeneous fluorescence assay for phospholipase C (PLC) was developed on the basis of the fluorescence quenching of 11-MUA-Au ND/Lip hybrids in aqueous solution. The fluorescence of the 11-MUA-Au ND/Lip hybrids is quenched by oxygen (O2) molecules in solution, and quenching is reduced in the presence of PLC. PLC catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine units from Lip to yield diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphocholine (PC) products, leading to the decomposition of Lip. The diacylglycerol further interacts with 11-MUA-Au NDs via hydrophobic interactions, leading to inhibition of O2 quenching. The 11-MUA-Au ND/Lip probe provides a limit of detection (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 0.21 nM for PLC, with high selectivity over other proteins, enzymes, and phospholipases. We have validated the practicality of using this probe for the determination of PLC concentrations in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and nontumor cells (MCF-10A cell line), revealing that the PLC activity in the first two is at least 1.5-fold higher than that in the third. An inhibitor assay using 11-MUA-Au ND/Lip hybrids demonstrated that tricyclodecan-9-yl potassium xanthate (D609) inhibits PLC (10 nM) with an IC50 value of 3.81 ± 0.22 ?M. This simple, sensitive, and selective approach holds great potential for detection of PLC in cancer cells and for the screening of anti-PLC drugs.
Related JoVE Video
Non-antireflective scheme for efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip array solar cells.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present systematic works in characterization of CIGS nanotip arrays (CIGS NTRs). CIGS NTRs are obtained by a one-step ion-milling process by a direct-sputtering process of CIGS thin films (CIGS TF) without a postselenization process. At the surface of CIGS NTRs, a region extending to 100 nm in depth with a lower copper concentration compared to that of CIGS TF has been discovered. After KCN washing, removal of secondary phases can be achieved and a layer with abundant copper vacancy (V(Cu)) was left. Such compositional changes can be a benefit for a CIGS solar cell by promoting formation of Cd-occupied Cu sites (Cd(Cu)) at the CdS/CIGS interface and creates a type-inversion layer to enhance interface passivation and carrier extraction. The raised V(Cu) concentration and enhanced Cd diffusion in CIGS NTRs have been verified by energy dispersive spectrometry. Strengthened adhesion of Al:ZnO (AZO) thin film on CIGS NTRs capped with CdS has also been observed in SEM images and can explain the suppressed series resistance of the device with CIGS NTRs. Those improvements in electrical characteristics are the main factors for efficiency enhancement rather than antireflection.
Related JoVE Video
Loss of ARID1A expression and its relationship with PI3K-Akt pathway alterations and ZNF217 amplification in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is a subunit of switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex. Recently, alterations of ARID1A gene, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt) pathway and zinc-finger protein 217 (ZNF217) gene have been identified as frequent molecular genetic changes in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. The relationships between these events have not been studied and integrated in the same cohort. This study was aimed at determining the correlation between these molecular events and other clinicopathological factors, including the prognostic impacts of these clinicopathological factors. A total of 68 ovarian clear cell carcinoma cases were collected and subjected to immunohistochemistry testing for ARID1A, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, SMARCB1 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), mutation analysis for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization for ZNF217 amplification. The correlations between ARID1A expression, PI3K-Akt pathway, ZNF217 amplification and other clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Loss of ARID1A expression was present in 35 cases (52%) and loss of SMARCA2 expression occurred in 1 case. SMARCA4 and SMARCB1 expressions were preserved in all cases. PIK3CA mutations were present in 23 cases (34%) and loss of PTEN expression occurred in 8 cases (12%). Alterations in the PI3K-Akt pathway (PIK3CA mutations or loss of PTEN expression) were found in 42 cases (62%). ZNF217 amplification was detected in 21 cases (31%). Loss of ARID1A expression was significantly related to younger patient age (P=0.048), PI3K-Akt pathway activation (P=0.046) and ZNF217 amplification (P=0.028). All of the clinicopathological factors were not prognostic factors for ovarian clear cell carcinoma after multivariate analysis, except International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging (P=0.001). Our results showed that loss of ARID1A expression usually coexisted with PI3K-Akt pathway activation and/or ZNF217 amplification. Synergic effects of loss of ARID1A and PI3K-Akt pathway activation as well as ZNF217 amplification may be related to the development of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 13 December 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.216.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of cell adhesion by a cadherin-11 antibody thwarts bone metastasis.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cadherin-11 (CDH11) is a member of the cadherin superfamily mainly expressed in osteoblasts but not in epithelial cells. However, prostate cancer cells with a propensity for bone metastasis express high levels of cadherin-11 and reduced levels of E-cadherin. Downregulation of cadherin-11 inhibits interaction of prostate cancer cells with osteoblasts in vitro and homing of prostate cancer cells to bone in an animal model of metastasis. These findings indicate that targeting cadherin-11 may prevent prostate cancer bone metastasis. To explore this possibility, a panel of 21 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) was generated against the extracellular (EC) domain of cadherin-11. Two antibodies, mAbs 2C7 and 1A5, inhibited cadherin-11-mediated cell-cell aggregation in vitro using L-cells transfected with cadherin-11. Both antibodies demonstrated specificity to cadherin-11, and neither antibody recognized E-cadherin or N-cadherin on C4-2B or PC3 cells, respectively. Furthermore, mAb 2C7 inhibited cadherin-11-mediated aggregation between the highly metastatic PC3-mm2 cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Mechanistically, a series of deletion mutants revealed a unique motif, aa 343-348, in the cadherin-11 EC3 domain that is recognized by mAb 2C7 and that this motif coordinated cell-cell adhesion. Importantly, administration of mAb 2C7 in a prophylactic setting effectively prevented metastasis of PC3-mm2 cells to bone in an in vivo mouse model. These results show that targeting the extracellular domain of cadherin-11 can limit cellular adhesion and metastatic dissemination of prostate cancer cells. Implications: Monotherapy using a cadherin-11 antibody is a suitable option for the prevention of bone metastases.
Related JoVE Video
Logical regulation of the enzyme-like activity of gold nanoparticles by using heavy metal ions.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study we employed self-deposition and competitive or synergistic interactions between metal ions and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to develop OR, AND, INHIBIT, and XOR logic gates through regulation of the enzyme-like activity of Au NPs. In the presence of various metal ions (Ag(+), Bi(3+), Pb(2+), Pt(4+), and Hg(2+)), we found that Au NPs (13 nm) exhibited peroxidase-, oxidase-, or catalase-like activity. After Ag(+), Bi(3+), or Pb(2+) ions had been deposited on the Au NPs, the particles displayed strong peroxidase-like activity; on the other hand, they exhibited strong oxidase- and catalase-like activities after reactions with Ag(+)/Hg(2+) and Hg(2+)/Bi(3+) ions, respectively. The catalytic activities of these Au NPs arose mainly from the various oxidation states of the surface metal atoms/ions. Taking advantage of this behavior, we constructed multiplex logic operations-OR, AND, INHIBIT, and XOR logic gates-through regulation of the enzyme-like activity after the introduction of metal ions into the Au NP solution. When we deposited Hg(2+) and/or Bi(3+) ions onto the Au NPs, the catalase-like activities of the Au NPs were strongly enhanced (>100-fold). Therefore, we could construct an OR logic gate by using Hg(2+)/Bi(3+) as inputs and the catalase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output. Likewise, we constructed an AND logic gate by using Pt(4+) and Hg(2+) as inputs and the oxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output; the co-deposition of Pt and Hg atoms/ions on the Au NPs was responsible for this oxidase-like activity. Competition between Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) ions for the Au NPs allowed us to develop an INHIBIT logic gate-using Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) as inputs and the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output. Finally, regulation of the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs through the two inputs Ag(+) and Bi(3+) enabled us to construct an XOR logic gate.
Related JoVE Video
The association among leukocyte apoptosis, autoantibodies and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both apoptosis and autoantibodies are important factors associated with disease activity in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study tested the hypothesis that increased leukocyte apoptosis is associated with elevated levels of autoantibodies and the disease activity of SLE.
Related JoVE Video
Combining fibrinogen-conjugated gold nanoparticles with a cellulose membrane for the mass spectrometry-based detection of fibrinolytic-related proteins.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, we describe a pulsed-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) approach for the detection of plasmin with subnanomolar sensitivity through the analysis of gold (Au) clusters desorbed from fibrinogen-modified gold nanoparticles (Fib-Au NPs) on a mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM). The mechanism of action of this probe is based on the plasmin-mediated cleavage of the Fib-Au NPs and the reduced interaction between Fib-Au NPs and MCEM. The Fib-Au NPs were deposited onto the MCEM to form a highly efficient background-free surface-assisted LDI substrate. Under pulsed laser irradiation (355 nm), the cleaved Fib-Au NPs decreased the adsorbed on MCEM. As a result, the intensities of the signals of the Au clusters decreased in the mass spectra. This approach provided a highly amplified target-labeling indicator for the analysis of plasmin. Under optimized conditions, this probe was highly sensitive (limit of detection: ca. 0.1 nM) and selective (by at least 1000-fold over other enzymes and proteins) toward plasmin; it also improved the reproducibility (<5%) of ion production by presenting a more-homogeneous substrate surface relative to surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) analysis, thereby enabling LDI-MS to be used for the accurate and precise quantification of plasminogen in human serum in the presence of urokinase (an activator that converts plasminogen to plasmin). Relative to conventional assays, this new probe for plasmin offers the advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity and high throughput, with great potential for practical studies of fibrinolytic-related proteins.
Related JoVE Video
Metastasizing Ameloblastoma With Localized Interstitial Spread in the Lung: Report of Two Cases.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive, epithelial odontogenic tumor involving mandibles and maxillas. Distant metastasis is a very rare condition and is designated as metastasizing (malignant) ameloblastoma despite its benign histological appearance. Up to now, only 27 well-documented cases of metastasizing ameloblastomas are reported in the literature, and lung is the most commonly involved organ. In previous reports of pulmonary metastasizing ameloblastomas, there was little description of the histopathologic finding. Here, the authors report 2 cases of pulmonary metastasizing ameloblastomas with special emphasis on their interesting, interstitial spread along alveolar septa, resulting in a unique 2-cell pattern under microscopic examination. Pulmonary metastasizing ameloblastoma may pose difficulty in diagnosis if the pathologist is not aware of patients clinical history of ameloblastoma.
Related JoVE Video
Primary cesarean delivery in the United States.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To characterize the indications for primary cesarean delivery in a large national cohort and to identify opportunities to lower the U.S. primary cesarean delivery rate.
Related JoVE Video
Tuning the formation and functionalities of ultrafine CoFe2O4 nanocrystals via interfacial coherent strain.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Complex oxide nanocrystals with a spinel structure show their remarkable optical, electronic, mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. In this study, we present a simple yet versatile strategy to grow self-assembled epitaxial CoFe2O4 nanocrystals with well-controlled size (less than 10 nm) and single orientation. CoFe2O4 nanocrystals were fabricated via phase separation in a BiFeO3-CoF2O4 ultrathin film by pulsed laser deposition. The coherent strain at the BiFeO3-CoF2O4 interface suppressed the growth of the nanocrystals regardless of substrate temperatures. This strain also resulted in the ferromagnetic anisotropy and interesting conducting behaviors of ultrafine CFO nanocrystals.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.