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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prolonged exposure to elevated temperature induces floral transition via up-regulation of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 and subsequent reduction of ascorbate redox ratio in Oncidium hybrid orchid.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The bolting time of the Oncidium hybrid orchid is not season-dependent and so it is a useful year-round model system to study thermal-induced flowering mechanisms in planta. Previously, we reported that a low ascorbate (AsA) content is essential for floral transition in Oncidium; however, the environmental factors governing initiation of the flowering process remained to be elucidated. The current study revealed that a prolonged treatment of elevated temperature (30°C over a 14-day period) induces floral transition. This floral induction in response to thermal stress was associated with a significantly increased ROS level and lowered AsA redox ratio, as well as prominently up-regulated expression of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cytAPX1). Transcriptome analysis confirmed that increased temperature affected the differential expression of genes involved in anti-oxidation metabolism. Likewise, transgenic Arabidopsis ectopically overexpressing Oncidium cytAPX1 displayed an early-flowering phenotype and low AsA redox ratio under thermal stress, while cytAPX1 mutants, apx1-1 and apx1-2, exhibited a delayed-flowering phenotype and a high AsA redox ratio. Our present data illustrate that the floral transition response to thermal stress is mediated by the AsA redox ratio, and that CytAPX plays a pivotal role in modulating the AsA redox ratio in Oncidium hybrid orchid. Taken together, results from this investigation of the thermal-induced flowering mechanism indicated that the AsA redox ratio is a master-switch to mediate phase transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage.
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Protective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A against ischemia-injury-induced neuronal cell death via the inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and nitrotyrosine.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM) were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1?, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and homologous protein (CHOP) expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP.
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The genome-wide transcriptional response to neonatal hyperoxia identifies Ahr as a key regulator.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Premature infants requiring supplemental oxygen are at increased risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Rodent models involving neonatal exposure to excessive oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia) have helped to identify mechanisms of BPD-associated pathology. Genome-wide assessments of the effects of hyperoxia in neonatal mouse lungs could identify novel BPD-related genes and pathways. Newborn C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 100% oxygen for 10 days, and whole lung tissue RNA was used for high-throughput, sequencing-based transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq). Significance Analysis of Microarrays and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were used to identify genes and pathways affected. Expression patterns for selected genes were validated by qPCR. Mechanistic relationships between genes were further tested in cultured mouse lung epithelial cells. We identified 300 genes significantly and substantially affected following acute neonatal hyperoxia. Canonical pathways dysregulated in hyperoxia lungs included nuclear factor (erythryoid-derived-2)-like 2-mediated oxidative stress signaling, p53 signaling, eNOS signaling, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) pathways. Cluster analysis identified Ccnd1, Cdkn1a, and Ahr as critical regulatory nodes in the response to hyperoxia, with Ahr serving as the major effector node. A mechanistic role for Ahr was assessed in lung epithelial cells, and we confirmed its ability to regulate the expression of multiple hyperoxia markers, including Cdkn1a, Pdgfrb, and A2m. We conclude that a global assessment of gene regulation in the acute neonatal hyperoxia model of BPD-like pathology has identified Ahr as one driver of gene dysregulation.
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The risk of acute coronary syndrome after retinal artery occlusion: a population-based cohort study.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To investigate the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) following retinal artery occlusion (RAO).
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Drastic population fluctuations explain the rapid extinction of the passenger pigeon.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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To assess the role of human disturbances in species' extinction requires an understanding of the species population history before human impact. The passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in the world, with a population size estimated at 3-5 billion in the 1800s; its abrupt extinction in 1914 raises the question of how such an abundant bird could have been driven to extinction in mere decades. Although human exploitation is often blamed, the role of natural population dynamics in the passenger pigeon's extinction remains unexplored. Applying high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain sequences from most of the genome, we calculated that the passenger pigeon's effective population size throughout the last million years was persistently about 1/10,000 of the 1800's estimated number of individuals, a ratio 1,000-times lower than typically found. This result suggests that the passenger pigeon was not always super abundant but experienced dramatic population fluctuations, resembling those of an "outbreak" species. Ecological niche models supported inference of drastic changes in the extent of its breeding range over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. An estimate of acorn-based carrying capacity during the past 21,000 y showed great year-to-year variations. Based on our results, we hypothesize that ecological conditions that dramatically reduced population size under natural conditions could have interacted with human exploitation in causing the passenger pigeon's rapid demise. Our study illustrates that even species as abundant as the passenger pigeon can be vulnerable to human threats if they are subject to dramatic population fluctuations, and provides a new perspective on the greatest human-caused extinction in recorded history.
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Arthroplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: similar results to patients with only radiculopathy at 3 years' follow-up.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Cervical arthroplasty has been accepted as a viable option for surgical management of cervical spondylosis or degenerative disc disease (DDD). The best candidates for cervical arthroplasty are young patients who have radiculopathy caused by herniated disc with competent facet joints. However, it remains uncertain whether arthroplasty is equally effective for patients who have cervical myelopathy caused by DDD. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of arthroplasty for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and patients with radiculopathy without CSM.
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Methanol extract of Antrodia camphorata protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by suppressing NF-?B and MAPK pathways in mice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a herbal medicine for drug intoxication for the treatment of inflammation syndromes and liver-related diseases in Taiwan. This study demonstrates the protective effect of the methanol extract of AC (MAC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were treated with MAC 1 h before the intratracheal (I.T.) instillation of LPS challenge model. Lung injury was evaluated 6 h after LPS induction. Pretreatment with MAC markedly improved LPS-induced histological alterations and edema in lung tissues. Moreover, MAC also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), and IL-6 at 6 h in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during LPS-induced lung injury. Furthermore, MAC reduced total cell number and protein concentrations in the BALF the pulmonary wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in lung tissues. MAC also efficiently blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and inhibited the degradation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and I?B?. This is the first investigation in which MAC inhibited acute lung edema effectively, which may provide a potential target for treating ALI. MAC may utilize the NF-?B and MAPKs pathways and the regulation of SOD activity to attenuate LPS-induced nonspecific pulmonary inflammation.
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Different cellular responses of dexmedetomidine at infected site and peripheral blood of emdotoxemic BALB/c mice.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Various sedative agents, including dexmedetomidine (dex), induce immunosuppression, and enhance infection progression. However, there was no information on how anesthetic affects local and systemic cellular immune function. We conducted this study to examine the impact of dex on the differentiation and function of immune cells at site of inflammation and in peripheral blood during endotoxemia of mice. In BALB/c mice with and without endotoxemia, we evaluated the influence of two dosages of 5 and 50 mcg/kg/h intravenous dex on immune cells: including number of T cells (CD3), B cells (CD19), natural killer cells (CD8a), monocytes (CD11b), and macrophages (Mac-3) in peripheral blood, the activities of macrophages in peripheral blood and in peritoneal lavage, and proliferation of B and T cells and of natural killer cells activity in the spleen. Endotoxemia increased the number of CD3 T cells, CD 19 B cells and macrophages in the peripheral blood, augmented macrophage activity in the peritoneum, and increased T cell proliferation and natural killer cell activity in the spleen. Further administration of 5 mcg/kg/h dex attenuated systemic increase in number of T cells, B cells, and macrophages during endotoxemia and 50 mcg/kg/h dex significantly attenuated the increase in activity of macrophages in the peripheral blood during endotoxemia. In the peritoneum, however, 5 mcg/kg/h dex preserved and 50 mcg/kg/h dexmedetomidine enhanced the activity of macrophages during endotoxemia. Increased in proliferation of T cells in spleen during endotoxemia was attenuated by both doses of dex. Last, 50 mcg/kg/h dex enhanced natural killer cells activity during endotoxemia. While preserving the effects of endotoxemia on macrophage's activity in the infection site and natural killer cell's activity in the spleen, dex decreased systemic fulminant immune reaction in endotoxemia, by attenuating the augmented response in the number of T cells, B cells and macrophages, activity of macrophages in the peripheral blood, and proliferation of T cells in spleen during endotoxemia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
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Comparison of the effects of two phonics training programs on L2 word reading.
Psychol Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Empirical evidence shows that explicit phonics teaching is beneficial for English word reading. However, there has been controversy as to whether phonics teaching should incorporate meaning-involved decodable text instruction to facilitate children's word reading. This study compares the effects of phonics teaching with and without decodable text instruction on immediate and delayed English word reading in 117 Taiwanese children learning English, assigned to a Phonics-only group (n = 58) and a phonics plus decodable text instruction (Phonics+) group (n = 59). Results showed that although both groups significantly improved in immediate and delayed post-test word reading, the Phonics+ group performed better in both post-tests, but the difference was significant only in the delayed word reading, suggesting a better long-term retention effect produced by Phonics+ teaching. These indicated that incorporated meaning-involved decodable text reading might offer another better facilitative linking route for English word reading even for non-alphabetic child learners of English. The findings were discussed from linguistic, psycholinguistic, and reading perspectives, with implications drawn for second/foreign language teaching and research in reading instruction.
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Polysaccharide extract of Cordyceps sobolifera attenuates renal injury in endotoxemic rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Extracts derived from Cordyceps have been demonstrated to possess various pharmacological effects, including immunomodulatory, antitumor, hypoglycemic, and antioxidant activities. This study was aimed to clarify the role of CS-P, a polysaccharide fraction isolated from Cordyceps sobolifera, in modulating nephrofunctional damage in a rat model of endotoxemia. CS-P (500 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats for 4 weeks before the peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg body weight). Pre-treatment with CS-P significantly attenuated the deleterious renal functions caused by LPS, i.e., elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as urine protein. Histopathological examination of kidney tissues also demonstrated that CS-P improved LPS-induced pathological abnormalities. The induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the overproduction of nitric acid by LPS were also significantly reduced by CS-P via inhibiting nuclear factor-?B activation. In addition, CS-P pre-treatment suppressed the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. Concurrently, CS-P supplementation potently suppressed the LPS-induced rise of lipid peroxidation and markedly enhanced the antioxidant defense system by restoring the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in kidney. The present results suggested that CS-P pre-treatment could protect against LPS-triggered inflammatory responses and renal injury in rats.
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Optical coherence tomography: a new strategy to image planarian regeneration.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The planarian is widely used as a model for studying tissue regeneration. In this study, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the real-time, high-resolution imaging of planarian tissue regeneration. Five planaria were sliced transversely to produce 5 head and 5 tail fragments. During a 2-week regeneration period, OCT images of the planaria were acquired to analyze the signal attenuation rates, intensity ratios, and image texture features (including contrast, correlation, homogeneity, energy, and entropy) to compare the primitive and regenerated tissues. In the head and tail fragments, the signal attenuation rates of the regenerated fragments decreased from -0.2?dB/?m to -0.05?dB/?m, between Day 1 and Day 6, and then increased to -0.2?dB/?m on Day 14. The intensity ratios decreased to approximately 0.8 on Day 6, and increased to between 0.8 and 0.9 on Day 14. The texture parameters of contrast, correlation, and homogeneity exhibited trends similar to the signal attenuation rates and intensity ratios during the planarian regeneration. The proposed OCT parameters might provide biological information regarding cell apoptosis and the formation of a mass of new cells during planarian regeneration. Therefore, OCT imaging is a potentially effective method for planarian studies.
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Incidence of severe Dysphagia after brain surgery in pediatric traumatic brain injury: a nationwide population-based retrospective study.
J Head Trauma Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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To investigate the incidence of dysphagia and medical resource utilization in a nationwide population of pediatric patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
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Bi-directional corneal accommodation in alert chicks with experimentally-induced astigmatism.
Vision Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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This study aimed to characterize corneal accommodation in alert chicks with and without experimentally-induced astigmatism. Refraction and corneal biometry were measured in 16 chicks with experimentally-induced astigmatism (>1.00 D) and 6 age-matched control chicks (astigmatism ? 1.00 D). Corneal accommodation was detected using a Placido-ring based videokeratography system, by measuring changes in corneal curvature from a series of consecutive images acquired from alert chicks. The correlation between the magnitudes of corneal accommodation and astigmatism was analyzed by including data from all 22 chicks. Data from all eyes showed obvious bi-directional changes in corneal accommodation. There was no significant difference in corneal accommodative changes between the fellow eyes of the treated birds, and the right and left eyes of control birds. However, positive accommodation (PA) and maximum magnitude of PA (MPA) were significantly higher in the astigmatic vs. the fellow eyes of treated chicks (mean ± SE: PA=+2.24 ± 0.44 D vs. +1.26 ± 0.20 D; MPA=+7.53 ± 0.81 D vs. +4.38 ± 0.53 D, both p<0.05). This was not the case for negative accommodation (NA) or maximum magnitude of NA (MNA) (NA=-0.46 ± 0.15 D vs. -0.33 ± 0.04 D; MNA=-0.92 ± 0.23 D vs. -0.73 ± 0.12D, respectively, p>0.05). Furthermore, higher PA and MPA were found to be correlated with higher refractive astigmatism (both r=0.34, p<0.05). These results suggest that the presence of astigmatism may interfere with accommodative function in chicks.
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Mycelia glycoproteins from Cordyceps sobolifera ameliorate cyclosporine-induced renal tubule dysfunction in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Cordyceps sorbolifera has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for improving the renal function. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an important immunosuppressive agent in the prevention of renal allograft rejection, but long-term usage of CsA could lead to chronic nephrotoxicity and renal graft failure. The study was aimed to investigate whether the mycelia glycoproteins of Cordyceps sobolifera (CSP) exert prevention effects on CsA-induced nephrotoxicity.
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Evaluation of the toxicological safety of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus in a 28-day oral feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Natural products have attained great importance as they are believed to be the new alternative medicines for conventional therapy. As numerous studies have proved the tremendous medicinal values of Hericium erinaceus, it is necessary to take into account its safety as well as its risk for the recipient. However, mushroom mycelium has an identity distinct from mushrooms, as two specific classes of compounds, hericenones and erinacines, can only be extracted from both the fruit body and the cultured mycelium, respectively. Therefore, this is the first report on the evaluation of the toxicity of H.erinaceus mycelium, enriched with 5mg/g erinacine A, by a 28-day repeated oral administration study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three doses of 1 (Low), 2 (Mid) and 3 (High) g/kg body weight/day were selected for the study while distilled water served as control. All animals survived to the end of the study. No abnormal changes were observed in clinical signs. No adverse or test article-related differences were found in urinalysis, haematology and serum biochemistry parameters, between the treatment and control groups. No gross pathological findings and histopathological differences were seen. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of erinacine A-enriched H.erinaceus is greater than 3g/kgbody weight/day.
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T cell-specific BLIMP-1 deficiency exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in nonobese diabetic mice by increasing Th1 and Th17 cells.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Recently, we demonstrated that B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP-1) has a role in regulating the differentiation and effector function of Th1 and Th17 cells. As these cells play critical roles in the induction and pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we investigated the potential role of T cell BLIMP-1 in modulating MOG35-55-induced EAE. We established T cell-specific BLIMP-1 conditional knockout (CKO) NOD mice to dissect the role of BLIMP-1 in EAE using loss-of-function model. Our results indicate that EAE severity is dramatically exacerbated in CKO mice. The numbers of CNS-infiltrating Th1, Th17, IFN-?(+)IL-17A(+), and IL-21(+)IL-17A(+) CD4(+) T cells are remarkably increased in brain and spinal cord of CKO mice. Moreover, the ratio of Tregs/effectors and IL-10 production of Tregs are significantly downregulated in CNS of CKO mice. We conclude that BLIMP-1 suppresses autoimmune encephalomyelitis via downregulating Th1 and Th17 cells and impairing Treg cells.
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Phlebosclerotic colitis: A case report and review of the literature.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Phlebosclerotic colitis (PC) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease. The initial presentation may include non-specific symptoms, such as vomiting, constipation and abdominal pain; however, intestinal stenosis, gangrene and perforation may occur without appropriate management. The present report describes the case of a 56-year-old male with abdominal pain and constipation. Imaging studies revealed thread-like calcifications involving almost the entire colon, which had markedly progressed over a three-year period, and changes consistent with colonic ischemia. Angiography revealed decreased blood flow in the mesenteric veins. The patient underwent emergent subtotal colectomy, and pathological examination revealed gangrene of the colon and calcifications of the mesenteric veins. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. In conclusion, PC is a potentially life-threatening condition that may be diagnosed by the presence of serpentine calcifications on imaging studies. Management depends on the severity of the disease, ranging from close follow-up to prompt surgical intervention.
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Successful treatment of liver abscess secondary to foreign body penetration of the alimentary tract: a case report and literature review.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Hepatic abscess caused by foreign body penetration of the alimentary tract is rare. We report a case of gastric antrum penetration due to a toothpick complicated by liver abscess formation. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the chief complaint of upper abdominal pain for 2 mo. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed at a local clinic revealed a toothpick penetrating the gastric antrum. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen at our hospital revealed a gastric foreign body embedded in the posterior wall of gastric antrum with regional phlegmon over the lesser sac and adhesion to the pancreatic body without notable vascular injury, and a hepatic abscess seven cm in diameter over the left liver lobe. Endoscopic removal of the foreign body was successfully performed without complication. The liver abscess was treated with parenteral antibiotics without drainage. The patient's recovery was uneventful. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated complete resolution of the hepatic abscess six months after discharge. Relevant literature from the PubMed database was reviewed and the clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, treatment strategies and outcomes of 88 reported cases were analyzed. The results showed that only 6 patients received conservative treatment with parenteral antibiotics, while the majority underwent either image-guided abscess drainage or laparotomy. Patients receiving abscess drainage via laparotomy had a significantly shorter length of hospitalization compared with those undergoing image-guided drainage. There was no significant difference in age between those who survived and those who died, however, the latter presented to hospitals in a more critical condition than the former. The overall mortality rate was 7.95%.
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Interrelationship of postoperative delirium and cognitive impairment and their impact on the functional status in older patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The impact of postoperative delirium on post-discharge functional status of older patients remains unclear, and little is known regarding the interrelationship between cognitive impairment and post-operative delirium. Therefore, the main purpose was to evaluate the post-discharge functional status of patients who experience delirium after undergoing orthopaedic surgery and the interrelationship of postoperative delirium with underlying cognitive impairment.
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Renal transplantation: relationship between hospital/surgeon volume and postoperative severe sepsis/graft-failure. a nationwide population-based study.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTS: We explored the relationship between hospital/surgeon volume and postoperative severe sepsis/graft-failure (including death).
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Epidemiology of treated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based longitudinal study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We used insurance claims of a nationally representative population-based cohort to assess the longitudinal treated prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults.
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Increased risk of mortality among haemodialysis patients with or without prior stroke: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.
Indian J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Patients with prior stroke (PS) undergoing chronic dialysis are at a high risk of mortality. However, little is known about the cumulative risk and survival rate of dialysis patients with long-term follow up. The aim of this study was to assess risks for mortality between patients with and without PS undergoing chronic haemodialysis (HD).
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Triptolide ameliorates autoimmune diabetes and prolongs islet graft survival in nonobese diabetic mice.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Triptolide (TPL) possesses profound immunosuppressive effects and has potential in allograft transplantation. We investigated whether TPL treatment prevents autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and prolongs the survival of islet grafts against autoimmune attack or allograft rejection.
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Assembler for de novo assembly of large genomes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Assembling a large genome using next generation sequencing reads requires large computer memory and a long execution time. To reduce these requirements, we propose an extension-based assembler, called JR-Assembler, where J and R stand for "jumping" extension and read "remapping." First, it uses the read count to select good quality reads as seeds. Second, it extends each seed by a whole-read extension process, which expedites the extension process and can jump over short repeats. Third, it uses a dynamic back trimming process to avoid extension termination due to sequencing errors. Fourth, it remaps reads to each assembled sequence, and if an assembly error occurs by the presence of a repeat, it breaks the contig at the repeat boundaries. Fifth, it applies a less stringent extension criterion to connect low-coverage regions. Finally, it merges contigs by unused reads. An extensive comparison of JR-Assembler with current assemblers using datasets from small, medium, and large genomes shows that JR-Assembler achieves a better or comparable overall assembly quality and requires lower memory use and less central processing unit time, especially for large genomes. Finally, a simulation study shows that JR-Assembler achieves a superior performance on memory use and central processing unit time than most current assemblers when the read length is 150 bp or longer, indicating that the advantages of JR-Assembler over current assemblers will increase as the read length increases with advances in next generation sequencing technology.
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Differences between arthroplasty and anterior cervical fusion in two-level cervical degenerative disc disease.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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Although arthroplasty is an accepted option for two-level disease, there is a paucity of data regarding outcomes of two-level cervical arthroplasty. The current study was designed to determine differences between two-level cervical arthroplasty and anterior fusion.
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Incidence of pneumonia and risk factors among patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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This study investigated the incidence and patient- and treatment-related risk factors related to pneumonia acquired during radiotherapy (PNRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients.
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Epidemiology of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and its risk of causing spinal cord injury: a national cohort study.
Neurosurg Focus
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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This study aimed to determine the age- and sex-specific incidence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and its associated risk of causing subsequent spinal cord injury (SCI).
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Nisoxetine blocks sodium currents and elicits spinal anesthesia in rats.
Pharmacol Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Although nisoxetine has been shown to elicit infiltrative cutaneous local anesthesia, the inhibition of voltage-gated Na(+) channels by nisoxetine has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nisoxetine on Na(+) currents and its efficacy on spinal anesthesia.
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Recognizing the degree of human attention using EEG signals from mobile sensors.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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During the learning process, whether students remain attentive throughout instruction generally influences their learning efficacy. If teachers can instantly identify whether students are attentive they can be suitably reminded to remain focused, thereby improving their learning effects. Traditional teaching methods generally require that teachers observe students expressions to determine whether they are attentively learning. However, this method is often inaccurate and increases the burden on teachers. With the development of electroencephalography (EEG) detection tools, mobile brainwave sensors have become mature and affordable equipment. Therefore, in this study, whether students are attentive or inattentive during instruction is determined by observing their EEG signals. Because distinguishing between attentiveness and inattentiveness is challenging, two scenarios were developed for this study to measure the subjects EEG signals when attentive and inattentive. After collecting EEG data using mobile sensors, various common features were extracted from the raw data. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to calculate and analyze these features to identify the combination of features that best indicates whether students are attentive. Based on the experiment results, the method proposed in this study provides a classification accuracy of up to 76.82%. The study results can be used as a reference for learning system designs in the future.
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Epidemiology and mortality of new-onset diabetes after dialysis: Taiwan national cohort study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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We examined the predictors and risks associated with pre-existing versus new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) after initiation of chronic dialysis therapy in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
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End-stage renal disease after hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term postpartum risk of end-stage renal disease in women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Although most women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy recover after delivery, some may experience acute renal failure.
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The use of carbetapentane for spinal anesthesia and use-dependent block of sodium currents.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Although carbetapentane produces skin (peripheral) infiltrative analgesia, the underlying mechanism of carbetapentane in local anesthesia is not well understood. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of carbetapentane on voltage-gated Na(+) channels and its efficacy on spinal (central) anesthesia. We evaluated the effects of carbetapentane on rat motor and pain behavior (when administered intrathecally) and on voltage-gated sodium channels in differentiated neuronal NG108-15 cells. Carbetapentane exhibited dose-dependent spinal blockade with a more sensory-selective action over motor blockade (P<0.05). Carbetapentane was more potent than lidocaine (P<0.05) in spinal anesthesia. Intrathecal 5% dextrose (vehicle) elicited no spinal anesthesia. Lidocaine, used as a positive control, demonstrated concentration- and state-dependent effects on tonic block of voltage-gated Na(+) currents (IC?? of 49.6 and 194.6 µM at holding potentials of -70 and -100 mV, respectively). Carbetapentane was more potent (IC?? of 36.3 and 62.2 µM at holding potentials of -70 and -100 mV, respectively). Carbetapentane showed a much stronger frequency-dependence of block than lidocaine: with high frequency stimulation (3.33 Hz), 50 µM lidocaine produced an additional 30% blockade, while the same concentration of carbetapentane produced 70% more block. These results revealed carbetapentane had a more potent and prolonged spinal blockade with a more sensory/nociceptive-selective action over motor blockade in comparison with lidocaine. Spinal anesthesia with carbetapentane could be through inhibition of voltage-gated Na(+) currents.
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The cellular mechanisms of the antiemetic action of dexamethasone and related glucocorticoids against vomiting.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Glucocorticoids, used primarily as anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory drugs, are also effective, alone or combined with other antiemetics, for preventing nausea and vomiting. Dexamethasone, one of the glucocorticoids, has been suggested as a first-line drug for preventing low-level emetogenic chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and in patients with only one or two risks for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Dexamethasone combined with 5-HT3 or tachykinin NK1 antagonists is also suggested for higher-level emetogenic chemotherapy and radiotherapy and for patients at high risk for PONV. Glucocorticoids may act via the following mechanisms: (1) anti-inflammatory effect; (2) direct central action at the solitary tract nucleus, (3) interaction with the neurotransmitter serotonin, and receptor proteins tachykinin NK1 and NK2, alpha-adrenaline, etc.; (4) maintaining the normal physiological functions of organs and systems; (5) regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and (6) reducing pain and the concomitant use of opioids, which in turn reduces opioid-related nausea and vomiting.
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Active Component of Antrodia cinnamomea Mycelia Targeting Head and Neck Cancer Initiating Cells through Exaggerated Autophagic Cell Death.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly lethal cancer. Previously, we identify head and neck cancer initiating cells (HN-CICs), which are highly tumorigenic and resistant to conventional therapy. Therefore, development of drug candidates that effectively target HN-CICs would benefit future head and neck cancer therapy. In this study, we first successfully screened for an active component, named YMGKI-1, from natural products of Antrodia cinnamomea Mycelia (ACM), which can target the stemness properties of HNSCC. Treatment of YMGKI-1 significantly downregulated the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, one of the characteristics of CIC in HNSCC cells. Additionally, the tumorigenic properties of HNSCC cells were attenuated by YMGKI-1 treatment in vivo. Further, the stemness properties of HN-CICs, which are responsible for the malignancy of HNSCC, were also diminished by YMGKI-1 treatment. Strikingly, YMGKI-1 also effectively suppressed the cell viability of HN-CICs but not normal stem cells. Finally, YMGKI-1 induces the cell death of HN-CICs by dysregulating the exaggerated autophagic signaling pathways. Together, our results indicate that YMGKI-1 successfully lessens stemness properties and tumorigenicity of HN-CICs. These findings provide a new drug candidate from purified components of ACM as an alternative therapy for head and neck cancer in the future.
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces E2F-1-mediated growth inhibition and cell-cycle arrest in human cervical cancer cells.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) has been identified as an active component of propolis, a substance that confers diverse activities in cells of various origins. However, the molecular basis of CAPE-mediated cellular activity remains to be clarified. Here, we show that CAPE preferentially induced S- and G2 /M-phase cell-cycle arrests and initiated apoptosis in human cervical cancer lines. The effect was found to be associated with increased expression of E2F-1, as there is no CAPE-mediated induction of E2F-1 in the pre-cancerous cervical Z172 cells. CAPE also up-regulated the E2F-1 target genes cyclin A, cyclin E and apoptotic protease activating of factor 1 (Apaf-1) but down-regulated cyclin B and induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein (Mcl-1). These results suggest the involvement of E2F-1 in CAPE-mediated growth inhibition and cell-cycle arrest. Transient transfection studies with luciferase reporters revealed that CAPE altered the transcriptional activity of the apaf-1 and mcl-1 promoters. Further studies using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that E2F-1 binding to the apaf-1 and cyclin B promoters was increased and decreased, respectively, in CAPE-treated cells. Furthermore, E2F-1 silencing abolished CAPE-mediated effects on cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and related gene expression. Taken together, these results indicate a crucial role for E2F-1 in CAPE-mediated cellular activities in cervical cancer cells.
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Mutagenicity and genotoxicity effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis mushroom mycelium.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Lignosus rhinocerotis mushroom is widely used as traditional medicine and as soup ingredient in Malaysia and Hong Kong. Its sclerotium is the part of edibility and is traditionally used for the treatment of fever, cough, asthma and cancer. In view of its safety profile, very little information is found in scientific literature. Materials and methods: We evaluated the potential genotoxic and mutagenic effects of Lr in the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535 and TA1537, an in vitro chromosome aberration test in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cells and an in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus test in ICR mice.
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Small bowel intramural hematoma secondary to abdominal massage.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Oral anticoagulant therapy with warfarin is commonly used to prevent thromboembolic event in patients at risk with atrial fibrillation [1]. Spontaneous intramural hematoma of small intestine is rare complication of anticoagulant therapy and occurs in patient who receives excessive warfarin that may result in potentially serious complications. Small bowel intramural hematoma secondary to warfarin therapy is a recognized complication [2]. In the present report, we report an unusual case of small bowel intramural hemorrhage secondary to anticoagulant therapy after abdominal massage. The emergency physicians should be aware that the potential spontaneous small bowel intramural hemorrhage in the patients has a high index of suspicion because most patients are treated nonoperatively with a good outcome.
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Prolonged analgesic effect of amitriptyline base on thermal hyperalgesia in an animal model of neuropathic pain.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The best analgesic drugs for neuropathic pain have a long duration of action, can be given via multiple routes, and can be used preemptively. We evaluated the antinociceptive effects and duration of action of subcutaneously injected amitriptyline base (AMT-Base) (in oil). A plantar test in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain in rats showed that typical amitriptyline HCl (AMT-HCl) (in saline) and AMT-Base had a significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect: the antinociceptive duration of a single 100 ?mol/kg injection of AMT-HCl was 5 h and of AMT-Base was 24 h when given 7 days after a SNL, and of a single 200 ?mol/kg injection of AMT-Base was 39 days when given 1 h before and 4 days when given 7 days after a SNL. The post-ligation antinociceptive duration of AMT-Base was 4.8 times that of AMT-HCl, but the duration of preemptive (pre-ligation) AMT-Base treatment was 9.7 times that of AMT-Base. We can conclude that preemptive amitriptyline base provides long-lasting antinociception for neuropathic pain experimentally.
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The new comorbidity index for predicting survival in elderly dialysis patients: a long-term population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The worldwide elderly (? 65 years old) dialysis population has grown significantly. This population is expected to have more comorbid conditions and shorter life expectancies than the general elderly population. Predicting outcomes for this population is important for decision-making. Recently, a new comorbidity index (nCI) with good predictive value for patient outcomes was developed and validated in chronic dialysis patients regardless of age. Our study examined the nCI outcome predictability in elderly dialysis patients.
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Developmental toxicity assessment of medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea T.T. Chang et W.N. Chou (higher Basidiomycetes) submerged culture mycelium in rats.
Int J Med Mushrooms
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Antrodia cinnamomea is a Taiwanese medicinal mushroom with high antioxidant and polysaccharide content. The objective of this study is to investigate developmental toxicity of A. cinnamomea in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were daily gavaged with A. cinnamomea mycelium at dosage levels of 0 (reverse osmosis water), 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg from gestation day (GD) 6 to 15. All dams were sacrificed on GD 20 and were subjected to cesarean section. Fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal abnormalities. All copulated females survived until the end of the study. No significant differences were recorded in body weight change, food consumption, and maternal gestational parameters. Only two fetal malformations were noted in 970 fetuses from the treatment groups. Some variations, such as enlarged fontanel, split sternebrae, absent sacral, absent caudal vertebral centra, absent thoracic centra, absent 13th-14th ribs, and fused ribs, were found during the skeletal examination, but no treatment-induced abnormalities occurred. No dose dependency was observed in any of the developmental variations. Overall observation of foetal malformations from rats given A. cinnamomea mycelium during pregnancy demonstrates that this material is not teratogenic at doses up to 500 mg/kg. It is concluded that A. cinnamomea BCRC 35398 mycelium has no teratogenic effects in female rats and is safe to be used as a functional food ingredient.
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Vertebral body split fracture after a single-level cervical total disc replacement.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Cervical total disc replacement (TDR) is a viable option for the surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease. This 67-year-old nonsmoking male patient underwent single-level ProDisc-C cervical TDR at C5-6 without any intraoperative problem. His radicular pain improved and he had no neck pain immediately after the operation. However, on postoperative Day 3, a radiograph demonstrated a vertical split fracture of the C-5 vertebra. This fracture was managed conservatively, and 2 years postoperatively a follow-up CT scan demonstrated stable device position and fusion of the fracture. Although the linear fracture caused no neurological symptoms or device migration, the authors advocate prudence in selection and installation of keel-design prostheses, even in a single-level cervical TDR scenario.
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Differences between soft-disc herniation and spondylosis in cervical arthroplasty: CT-documented heterotopic ossification with minimum 2 years of follow-up.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Cervical arthroplasty is a valid option for patients with single-level symptomatic cervical disc diseases causing neural tissue compression, but postoperative heterotopic ossification (HO) can limit the mobility of an artificial disc. In the present study the authors used CT scanning to assess HO formation, and they investigated differences in radiological and clinical outcomes in patients with either a soft-disc herniation or spondylosis who underwent cervical arthroplasty.
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Epiploic appendagitis: an uncommon and easily misdiagnosed disease.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is a rare cause of focal abdominal pain in otherwise healthy patients. It may mimic diverticulitis, appendicitis or mesenteric infarction on clinical manifestation. The diagnosis of EA is very infrequent due in part to low awareness by clinical physicians. The aim of this study was to review and describe the clinical presentation and computed tomography (CT) findings of EA.
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Inhibition of TNF-?-Induced Inflammation by andrographolide via down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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Andrographolide (1), an active constituent of Andrographis paniculata, decreased tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and adhesion of HL-60 cells onto human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), which are associated with inflammatory diseases. Moreover, 1 abolished TNF-?-induced Akt phosphorylation. Transfection of an activated Akt1 cDNA vector increased Akt phosphorylation and ICAM-1 expression like TNF-?. In addition, 1 and LY294002 blocked TNF-?-induced I?B-? degradation and nuclear p65 protein accumulation, as well as the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B. Compound 1 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties through the inhibition of TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 expression. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1 may be associated with the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway and downstream target NF-?B activation in HUVEC cells.
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Triphasic computed tomography enterography with polyethylene glycol to detect renal cell carcinoma metastases to the small bowel.
Case Rep Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Enteroclysis was first used to diagnose small bowel obstruction in 1996. However, nasojejunal intubation required during enteroclysis causes discomfort to the patient. Triphasic computed tomography (CT) enterography, a noninvasive procedure that does not require intubation, was found to be an efficient method to diagnose small bowel lesions. We describe our experience of using triphasic CT enterography with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastases to the small intestine. RCC can metastasize to many organs and can cause variable clinical presentations. We report the case of a 56-year-old man with RCC who had psoas muscle involvement and lung metastasis. The patient presented with melena and intermittent abdominal pain. Two conventional CT and small bowel series examinations had shown no obstructive lesion in the small intestine. However, triphasic CT enterography with PEG detected two enhanced masses suggestive of small bowel metastasis. The patient underwent laparotomy and segmental resection of the jejunum with primary anastomosis. Histologic examination was compatible with RCC. This is the first report where RCC metastasis to the small bowel was diagnosed using triphasic CT enterography. Our study emphasizes the importance of triphasic CT enterography in cases of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, especially in patients suspected of having small bowel metastasis.
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Pedicle screw loosening in dynamic stabilization: incidence, risk, and outcome in 126 patients.
Neurosurg Focus
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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The long-term outcome of lumbar dynamic stabilization is uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with screw loosening in a dynamic stabilization system.
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Spinal anesthesia with diphenhydramine and pheniramine in rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the local anesthetic effects of pheniramine and diphenhydramine, two histamine H? receptor antagonists, on spinal anesthesia and their comparison with lidocaine, a commonly used local anesthetic. After rats were injected intrathecally with diphenhydramine and pheniramine, the dose-response curves were obtained. The potency and duration of diphenhydramine and pheniramine on spinal anesthesia were compared with lidocaine. We showed that diphenhydramine and pheniramine produced dose-dependent spinal blockades in motor function, proprioception, and nociception. On a 50% effective dose (ED??) basis, the rank of potency of drugs was diphenhydramine=pheniramine>lidocaine (p<0.05 for the differences). In equianesthetic doses (ED??, ED??, and ED??), the block duration caused by diphenhydramine was longer than that caused by pheniramine or lidocaine (p<0.01 for the differences). Diphenhydramine, but not pheniramine or lidocaine, elicited longer duration of sensory block than that of motor block at the same dose of 1.75 ?mol. These preclinical data reported that diphenhydramine with a more sensory-selective action over motor blockade demonstrated more potent and longer-lasting spinal blockades, compared with pheniramine or lidocaine.
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Anticancer agent 2-methoxyestradiol improves survival in septic mice by reducing the production of cytokines and nitric oxide.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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Cytokine production is critical in sepsis. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), an endogenous metabolite of estradiol, inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and is an antiangiogenic and antitumor agent. We investigated the effect of 2ME2 on cytokine production and survival in septic mice. Using i.p. LPS or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), sepsis was induced in BALB/c mice that were simultaneously or later treated with 2ME2 or vehicle. Twelve hours after the LPS injection, serum and peritoneal fluid cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) levels were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Griess reaction. Lung injuries were histologically analyzed, and liver and kidney injuries were biochemically analyzed. Survival was determined 7 days after LPS injection or CLP procedure. In vivo and in vitro effects of 2ME2 on LPS-induced macrophage inflammation were determined. The effect of 2ME2 on HIF-1? expression, nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line, was determined using Western blotting. 2-Methoxyestradiol treatment reduced LPS-induced lung, liver, and kidney injury. Both early and late 2ME2 treatment prolonged survival in LPS- and CLP-induced sepsis. 2-Methoxyestradiol significantly reduced IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and NO levels in septic mice as well as in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. 2-Methoxyestradiol treatment also reduced the LPS-induced expression of HIF-1?, iNOS, and pNF-?B in RAW264.7 cells, as well as iNOS and pNF-?B expression in siHIF-1?-RAW264.7 cells. 2-Methoxyestradiol prolongs survival and reduces lung, liver, and kidney injury in septic mice by inhibiting iNOS/NO and cytokines through HIF-1? and NF-?B signaling.
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Predictors of longterm mortality in patients with and without systemic lupus erythematosus on maintenance dialysis: a comparative study.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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To compare the prognosis of patients with and without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on dialysis and to determine the factors that affect survival after dialysis.
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Nisoxetine produces local but not systemic analgesia against cutaneous nociceptive stimuli in the rat.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the local anesthetic effect of nisoxetine as infiltrative cutaneous analgesic. After rats were injected subcutaneously with nisoxetine, dose-response curves were constructed. The cutaneous anesthetic effect of nisoxetine or MK-801 (dizocilpine) was compared with lidocaine, a traditional local anesthetic. We found that nisoxetine and MK-801 acted like lidocaine and elicited dose-related cutaneous (local) anesthesia. The relative potency was nisoxetine>MK-801>lidocaine (P<0.01) as infiltrative anesthesia of skin. On an equianesthetic doses (20% effective dose [ED??], ED??, and ED??), nisoxetine produced longer action of cutaneous anesthesia than that of lidocaine or MK-801 (P<0.01). Coadministration of nisoxetine or lidocaine with MK-801 showed an additive cutaneous anesthesia. Neither local injection of a large dose of nisoxetine, MK-801 nor lidocaine in the thigh area produced cutaneous anesthesia (data not shown). In conclusion, nisoxetine had a local anesthetic effect as infiltrative cutaneous analgesia with durations of actions longer than that of lidocaine or MK-801. That N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may not contribute to the cutaneous (local) anesthetic effect of nisoxetine or lidocaine.
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Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in institutionalized elderly with depressive disorder.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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To compare the differences in plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels among institutionalized ethnic Chinese elderly participants with major depression, those with subclinical depression, and a nondepressed control group.
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Class I antiarrhythmic drugs produced a spinal anesthetic effect in rats.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Class I antiarrhythmic drugs are commonly used to treat cardiac rhythm disorders. Some of those drugs were recently reported to have both a cutaneous analgesic and a neural blocking effect. We evaluated whether these drugs have a spinal anesthetic effect. Three Class I antiarrhythmic drugs (class IA: quinidine, IB: mexiletine, and IC: flecainide) were tested. After they had been intrathecally injected in rats, the potencies and durations of these drugs on spinal anesthesia were recorded. Bupivacaine, a commonly used local anesthetic, and 5% dextrose solution were used as controls. Bupivacaine, flecainide, quinidine, and mexiletine produced a dose-related spinal blockade of motor function, proprioception, and nociception, but dextrose solution produced no spinal anesthetic effect. The descending order of potency was bupivacaine>flecainide>quinidine>mexiletine (p<0.05 for all differences). On an equipotent basis, flecainide, quinidine, and bupivacaine produced similar durations of action, all of which were significantly longer than that of mexiletine (p<0.05). In conclusion, intrathecal injections of Class I antiarrhythmic drugs produced a dose-related spinal anesthetic effect. These drugs may be potential candidates for developing new local anesthetics.
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Lidocaine for prolonged and intensified spinal anesthesia by coadministration of propranolol in the rat.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Although the coadministration of lidocaine with propranolol interferes with the metabolic profile (pharmacokinetics), its pharmacodynamics is still unclear. In this report, we investigate whether propranolol can potentiate the effect of lidocaine. Rats received spinal anesthesia with lidocaine co-injected with propranolol. After intrathecal injections of drugs in rats, three neurobehavioral examinations (motor function, proprioception, and nociception) were performed. We showed that lidocaine and propranolol elicited a spinal blockade in motor function, proprioception, and nociception. Propranolol at the dose of 0.82 ?mol/kg produced no spinal anesthesia. Co-administration of lidocaine [50% effective dose (ED(50)) or ED(95)] and propranolol (0.82 ?mol/kg) produced greater spinal anesthesia than lidocaine (ED(50) or ED(95)), respectively. These preclinical findings demonstrated that propranolol and lidocaine displayed spinal anesthesia. When combined with propranolol, lidocaine elicited a supra-additive effect of spinal anesthesia.
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Intrathecal propranolol displays long-acting spinal anesthesia with a more sensory-selective action over motor blockade in rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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To prevent cardiovascular effects of peripherally administered propranolol, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spinal anesthetic effect of propranolol, a Na(±) channel blocker. After rats were injected with drugs intrathecally, the spinal anesthetic effect of propranolol was compared with that of lidocaine, which is known to produce local anesthesia. We also evaluated the effect of the addition of clonidine with propranolol on spinal anesthesia. Our results showed that propranolol produced a dose-dependent spinal blockade in motor, proprioception, and nociception. On a 50% effective dose (ED(50)) basis, the spinal anesthetic effect of propranolol in motor, proprioception, and nociception [1.16 (1.01-1.34), 1.10 (0.92-1.31), 1.05 (0.89-1.24)] was equal to lidocaine [1.03 (0.94-1.13), 0.95 (0.84-1.07), 0.87 (0.79-0.96)], respectively. On an equipotent basis (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 ?mol), the sensory/nociceptive block duration caused by propranolol was longer than that caused by lidocaine (P?0.01). Co-administration of propranolol (1.1 ?mol) and clonidine (0.5 ?mol) produced greater spinal anesthesia than propranolol (1.1 ?mol) or clonidine (0.5 ?mol) alone. These preclinical findings demonstrated that propranolol produces similar spinal anesthesia to lidocaine and that ?(2)-adrenergic receptors also contribute to improve the quality and duration of the spinal anesthetic effect of propranolol. Propranolol with a more sensory-selective action over motor blockade elicited longer spinal blockade than did lidocaine.
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Isoflurane for spinal anesthesia in the rat.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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Although isoflurane, a non-water soluble agent, has been known to block Na+ currents, its spinal anesthetic effect was not exposed. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the local anesthetic effect of isoflurane in spinal anesthesia. After intrathecal injection of isoflurane on rats, the spinal anesthetic effect in motor function, proprioception and nociception were evaluated. Lidocaine, a common used local anesthetic, was used as control. Isoflurane acted like lidocaine and produced dose-related spinal blockades of motor function, proprioception and nociception. Although isoflurane [27.6 (25.4-30.0)] had less potency when compared with lidocaine [1.0 (0.9-1.1)] (P<0.001) in spinal anesthesia, it caused a much longer duration of spinal blockades than lidocaine at equianesthetic doses (P<0.001). Our results showed that when compared with lidocaine, isoflurane produced a less potency but much longer duration in spinal anesthesia.
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Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy as fertility-sparing surgery for borderline ovarian tumors.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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To investigate recurrence rates and fertility outcomes of patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) treated with fertility-sparing surgery.
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Functional characterization of cellulases identified from the cow rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 by transcriptomic and secretomic analyses.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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Neocallimastix patriciarum is one of the common anaerobic fungi in the digestive tracts of ruminants that can actively digest cellulosic materials, and its cellulases have great potential for hydrolyzing cellulosic feedstocks. Due to the difficulty in culture and lack of a genome database, it is not easy to gain a global understanding of the glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) produced by this anaerobic fungus.
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The local anesthetic effect of memantine on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia in the rat.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Memantine blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and the Na(+) current, one principal mechanism of local anesthesia. Until now, no study mentioned that memantine had a local anesthetic effect, and therefore we investigated the local anesthetic effect of memantine.
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Nutrient deficiencies as a risk factor in Taiwanese patients with postherpetic neuralgia.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of herpes zoster (HZ). The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional status of PHN patients with that of healthy controls, and then to identify risk factors for PHN using multivariate multiple logistic regressions. In the present cross-sectional study, we prospectively enrolled fifty PHN patients for at least 3 months and fifty healthy controls. We selected nine circulating nutrients including ionised Ca, Zn, retinol, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin C, ?-tocopherol, ?-tocopherol and lycopene associated with both immunity and the modulation of neuropathic pain, and measured their concentrations in plasma/serum. Concentrations of ionised Ca, Zn, vitamin C and vitamin B12 were significantly lower in PHN patients than in controls after excluding those patients receiving supplements since the outbreak of HZ. The prevalence of either mild/marginal or severe deficiencies for any of the nine selected circulating nutrients in PHN patients (92 %) was much higher than that in controls (46 %) (P < 0·001). Lower concentrations of vitamin C ( ? 45·0 ?mol/l), ionised Ca ( ? 1·05 mmol/l) and Zn ( ? 0·91 g/l) were found to increase independently the risk of PHN using binary variable (dichotomy) analyses with both PHN patients and controls in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. No significant correlations existed between the risks of PHN and the concentrations of retinol, folic acid, vitamin B12, lycopene or ?:?-tocopherol ratios. Thus, lower concentrations of circulating nutrients, namely vitamin C, ionised Ca or Zn, are probably a risk factor in Taiwanese patients with PHN.
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Zolpidem dependence and withdrawal seizure--report of two cases.
Psychiatr Danub
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine property which binds selectively to the ?1-GABAA receptors, and has been widely prescribed to patients suffering from insomnia. We report two cases of zolpidem dependence with withdrawal seizure in the Asian population. The first case is a 43-year-old woman who took zolpidem up to the dosage of 200 to 400 mg per night. The second case is a 35-year-old woman who even began to take zolpidem every 15 to 30 minutes to get euphoric and relaxed, and she gradually increased the dosage to 400 to 500mg per day. After abrupt discontinuation of zolpidem, both cases immediately developed anxiety, global insomnia, restlessness, and tonic seizure. The purpose of this case report is to suggest that clinicians should pay close attention to the potential of zolpidem tolerance, abuse and dependence. The possibility of withdrawal seizure cannot be excluded especially at high doses.
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Comparative use of biomedicine and Chinese medicine in Taiwan: using the NHI Research Database.
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Users of Traditional Chinese Medicine (CM) and biomedicine (BM) are commonly assumed to belong to two different groups in most of the related literature. The purpose of this article is to compare the characteristics of those who use both CM and BM for the same illness (CBMS) with those who solely use BM (BMS).
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Compliance with screening mammography and breast sonography of young Asian women.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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We evaluated compliance with mammography and breast sonography and the factors related to compliance.
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Fear of falling (FF): Psychosocial and physical factors among institutionalized older Chinese men in Taiwan.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Fear of falling (FF) can have multiple adverse consequences in the elderly. Although there are various fall prevention programs, little is known of FF and its associated characteristics. This study examined FF-associated physical and psychosocial factors in older Chinese men living in a veterans home in southern Taiwan. Subjects with a recent episode of delirium, of bed-ridden or wheelchair-bound status, severe hearing impairment or impaired cognition were excluded. Overall, 371 residents (mean age 82.1 ± 5.11 years, all males) participated. The prevalence of FF was 25.3%. Univariate analysis revealed that subjects in the FF group were older age, having lower education level, poorer sitting and standing balance, poorer activities of daily living (ADL), more depressive symptoms, higher chances of using walking aids, neurologic diseases, and a history of fall within the past 6 months. Logistic regression showed that depressive symptoms (odds ratio = OR = 6.73, 95%CI: 3.03-14.93, p < 0.001), activities of daily living (OR = 2.48, 95%CI: 1.08-5.71, p = 0.033), history of fall in the past 6 months (OR = 2.47, 95%CI: 1.04-5.9, p = 0.041), and neurological diseases (OR = 2.75, 95%CI: 1.15-6.56, p = 0.023) were all independent risk factors for FF.
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Clonidine as adjuvant for oxybuprocaine, bupivacaine or dextrorphan has a significant peripheral action in intensifying and prolonging analgesia in response to local dorsal cutaneous noxious pinprick in rats.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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The aim of the study was to evaluate co-administration of clonidine with oxybuprocaine (ester type), bupivacaine (amide type) or dextrorphan (non-ester or non-amide type) and to see whether it could have a peripheral action in enhancing local anesthesia on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia in rats. Cutaneous analgesia was evaluated by a block of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTMR) in response to local dorsal cutaneous noxious pinprick in rats. The analgesic effect of the addition of clonidine with oxybuprocaine, bupivacaine or dextrorphan by subcutaneous injection was evaluated. On an ED(50) basis, the rank of drug potency was oxybuprocaine>bupivacaine>dextrorphan (P<0.01). Mixtures of clonidine (0.12?mol) with oxybuprocaine, bupivacaine or dextrorphan (ED(50) or ED(95)) extended the duration of action and increased the potency on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. Among these drugs, the addition of clonidine to bupivacaine (amide type) elicits the most effective cutaneous analgesia. Clonidine at the dose of 0.12 and 0.24?mol did not produce cutaneous analgesia. Oxybuprocaine showed more potent cutaneous analgesia than bupivacaine or dextrorphan in rats. Co-administration of oxybuprocaine, bupivacaine or dextrorphan with clonidine increased the potency and duration on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. The addition of clonidine to bupivacaine (amide type) elicits more effective cutaneous analgesia than oxybuprocaine (ester type) or dextrorphan (non-ester or non-amide type).
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Enhancement of transdermal apomorphine delivery with a diester prodrug strategy.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Diester prodrugs of apomorphine, diacetyl apomorphine (DAA), and diisobutyryl apomorphine (DIA) were synthesized, and their partition coefficients, capacity factor (log K), enzymatic hydrolysis, and in vitro permeation across nude mouse skin were characterized. The lipophilicity of the diesters was between that of apomorphine HCl and the apomorphine base. The prodrugs were chemically stable, but enzymatically unstable in esterase medium, skin homogenate, and human plasma. DAA showed a faster hydrolysis in plasma compared to DIA. Total fluxes (nmol/cm(2)/h) of the parent drug and prodrug were significantly greater after topical treatment with the diesters in aqueous solutions (water, 30% polyethylene glycol in water, and 30% glycerol in water) compared to treatment with HCl and base forms of apomorphine. DIA flux from deionized water was 51 nmol/cm(2)/h, which exceeded the flux of apomorphine HCl by 10-fold. The extent of parent drug regeneration after topical application ranged 51-88% and 34-61% for DAA and DIA, respectively, depending on the vehicles selected. Permeation measurements using intact and stratum corneum-stripped skins demonstrated that the viable epidermis/dermis was an important barrier to prodrug permeation. Nano-sized lipid emulsions were also used as carriers for apomorphine and its prodrugs. Diester prodrugs exhibited superior skin permeation compared to the parent drug when formulated into the emulsions. DAA and DIA fluxes from lipid emulsions were 11- and 3-fold higher than that of apomorphine HCl. The results in the present work suggest the feasibility of diester prodrugs for the transdermal delivery of apomorphine.
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Rapid clearance of herpes simplex virus type 2 by CD8+ T cells requires high level expression of effector T cell functions.
J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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CD8(+) T cells are important for resolution of HSV-2 lesions from the female genital epithelium. It is uncertain whether optimal clearance of viruses such as HSV-2 that cause a limited, non-systemic infection solely requires expression of effector functions by infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes, or if the clearance rate is reflective of the expression level of critical effector functions. To address this, CD8(+) T cells from normal OT-I mice or OT-I mice deficient in IFN? (IFN?(-/-)) or the IFN? receptor (IFN?R(-/-)) were activated in vitro in the presence of IFN? or IL-4 to generate a series of effector populations (Tc1 and Tc2-like respectively) that secreted different levels of IFN? and expressed different levels of HSV-specific cytolytic function. Compared with Tc1 cells, Tc2-like cells produced the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, exhibited decreased IFN? secretion, diminished proliferation in vitro, and decreased antigen-specific cytolysis in vivo. Clearance of an ovalbumin-expressing HSV-2 strain (HSV-2 tk(-) OVA) by adoptively transferred Tc2-like cells was delayed relative to Tc1 cell recipients. Because donor Tc2-like cells proliferated in vivo and infiltrated the infected genital epithelium similar to Tc1 cells, the diminished virus clearance by Tc2-like effector cells correlated with reduced expression of critical effector functions. Together, these results suggest that high level expression of protective T cell functions by effector T cells is necessary for optimal clearance of HSV-2 from the genital epithelium. These results have important implications for vaccines designed to elicit CD8(+) T cells against viruses such as HSV-2 that infect the genital tract.
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Enhanced anti-inflammatory activities of Monascus pilosus fermented products by addition of ginger to the medium.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2010
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Hypercholesterolemia initiates the atherogenic process; however, chronic inflammation promotes atherogenesis. Monascus spp. fermented products are recognized for their anti-hypercholesterolemic effect, but their anti-inflammatory activity is not as significant as that of many plant-derived foods. To enhance the anti-inflammatory function of Monascus pilosus fermented products, ginger was added to the PDB medium at a ratio of 20% (v/v). The mycelia and broth were collected, freeze-dried, and extracted by ethanol for assays. Macrophage RAW264.7 was challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and coincubated with the extracts of fermented product cultured in ginger-supplemented medium (MPG) or extracts of fermented product cultured in regular PDB medium (MP) for 18 h. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell HUVEC was challenged with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and coincubated with the extracts of either MPG or MP for 6 h. The results showed that MPG significantly (p<0.05) lowered the production of macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by 68.53%, 84.29%, 32.55%, 84.49%, and 69.49%, respectively; however, MP had no inhibitory effect. MPG significantly downregulated the expression of p-I?B, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophage by 42.16%, 50.87%, and 51.35%, respectively, while MP had no inhibition on COX-2 expression and only 16.64% and 19.22% downregulatory effect on iNOS and phosphorylated-I?B (p-I?B), respectively. Moreover, MPG significantly suppressed the expression of vessel cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and p-I?B in endothelial cell by 63.48% and 63.41%, respectively. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that 6-gingerdiol was formed in the ginger-modified medium during fermentation. The results of this study will facilitate the development of Monascus spp. fermented products as antiatherosclerotic nutraceuticals.
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Three-dimensional ultrasonic Nakagami imaging for tissue characterization.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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The two-dimensional (2D) Nakagami image complements the ultrasound B-scan image when attempting to visualize the scatterer properties of tissues. The resolution of the Nakagami image is lower than that of the B-scan image, since the former is produced by processing the raw envelope data using a 2D sliding window with side lengths typically corresponding to three times the pulse length of the incident ultrasound. This paper proposes using three-dimensional (3D) Nakagami imaging for improving the resolution of the obtained Nakagami image and providing more complete information of scatterers for a better tissue characterization. The 3D Nakagami image is based on a voxel array composed of the Nakagami parameters constructed using a 3D sliding cube to process the 3D backscattered raw data. Experiments on phantoms with different scatterer concentrations were carried out to determine the optimal size of the sliding cube for a stable estimation of the Nakagami parameter. Tissue measurements on rat livers without and with fibrosis formation were further used to explore the practical feasibility of 3D Nakagami imaging. The results indicated that the side length of the cube used to construct the 3D Nakagami image must be at least two times the pulse length, which improved the resolution for each Nakagami image frame in the 3D Nakagami image. The results further demonstrated that the 3D Nakagami image is better than the conventional 2D Nakagami image for complementing the B-scan in detecting spatial variations in the scatterer concentration and classifying normal and fibrotic livers. This study suggests that 3D Nakagami imaging has the potential to become a new 3D quantitative imaging approach.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.