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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Selection of aptamers specific for glycated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin using on-chip SELEX.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels reflecting average glucose concentrations over the past three months are fundamental for the diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment of diabetes. It has been hypothesized that aptamers, which are single-stranded DNAs or RNAs that demonstrate high affinity to a large variety of molecules ranging from small drugs, metabolites, or proteins, could be used for the measurement of HbA1c. Aptamers are selected through an in vitro process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and they can be chemically synthesized with high reproducibility at relatively low costs. This study therefore aimed to select HbA1c- and hemoglobin (Hb)-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers using an on-chip SELEX protocol. A microfluidic SELEX chip was developed to continuously and automatically carry out multiple rounds of SELEX to screen specific aptamers for HbA1c and Hb. HbA1c and Hb were first coated onto magnetic beads. Following several rounds of selection and enrichment with a randomized 40-mer DNA library, specific oligonucleotides were selected. The binding specificity and affinity were assessed by competitive and binding assays. Using the developed microfluidic system, the incubation and partitioning times were greatly decreased, and the entire process was shortened dramatically. Both HbA1c- and Hb-specific aptamers selected by the microfluidic system showed high specificity and affinity (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.6 ± 3.0 nM and 7.3 ± 2.2 nM for HbA1c and Hb, respectively). With further refinements in the assay, these aptamers may replace the conventional antibodies for in vitro diagnostics applications in the near future.
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Prognostic Value of Metastatic N1 Lymph Node Ratio and Angiolymphatic Invasion in Patients With Pathologic Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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With regard to pathologic stage IIA (pIIA) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there is a paucity of literature evaluating the risk factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors of DFS and OS in patients with NSCLC pIIA.We performed a retrospective review of 98 stage II patients (7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer) who underwent lung resection from January 2005 to February 2011. Of these, 23 patients were excluded for this study because of loss of follow-up or different substage, and 75 patients with pIIA were included for further univariate and multivariate analysis. Risk factors for DFS and OS were analyzed, including age, gender, smoking history, operation method, histology, differential grade, visceral pleural invasion, angiolymphatic invasion, and metastatic N1 lymph node ratio (LNR).Of the 75 patients with pIIA NSCLC who were examined, 29 were female and 46 were male, with a mean age of 61.8 years (range: 34-83 years). The average tumor size was 3.188?cm (range: 1.10-6.0?cm). Under univariate analysis, angiolymphatic invasion and metastatic N1 LNR were risk factors for DFS (P?=?0.011, P?=?0.007). Under multivariate analysis, angiolymphatic invasion and metastatic N1 LNR were all independent risk factors for DFS, while adjuvant chemotherapy and higher metastatic N1 LNR were independent prognostic factors for OS.For patients with pIIA, higher metastatic N1 LNR and angiolymphatic invasion were related to poor DFS. In addition to DFS, higher metastatic N1 LNR was also a poor prognostic factor for OS rates and adjuvant therapy effectiveness. Clinical physicians should devise different postsurgical follow-up programs depending on these factors, especially for patients with high risk.
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Progesterone receptor-NF?B complex formation is required for progesterone-induced NF?-B nuclear translocation and binding onto the p53 promoter.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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We previously demonstrated that progesterone (P4) up-regulates p53 expression in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) through P4 receptor (PR) activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways. However, the involvement of nuclear PR in P4-increased p53 expression is still unclear. Here, the molecular mechanism underlying PR-regulated p53 expression in HUVEC was investigated. Treatment with P4 increased I?B? phosphorylation and NF?-B nuclear translocation. Interestingly, P4 also increased PR-A, but not PR-B, nuclear translocation in HUVEC. Immunoprecipitation assay illustrated that P4 increased the formation of PR-A-NF?-B complex in both the cytosol and the nucleus of HUVEC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed an interaction between PR and the NF?-B binding mortif on the p53 promoter. Ablation of the NF?-B binding motif in the p53 promoter completely abolished P4-increased the p53 promoter activity. In the absence of P4, overexpression of NF?-B did not increase NF?-B nuclear translocation. In contrast, treatment of NF?-B overexpressing HUVEC with P4 for only 4 h, which is much shorter than the time (21.5 h) required for P4-induced I?B? phosphorylation, increased NF?-B nuclear translocation. Blockade of PR activity abolished this effect. Taken together, these results uncover a novel role of PR for P4-induced NF?-B nuclear translocation and suggest that PR-A-NF?-B complex formation is required for NF?-B nuclear translocation and binding onto the p53 promoter in HUVEC. Our data indicate that both nuclear and extra-nuclear signaling pathways of PR are involved in P4-regulated p53 expression in HUVEC.
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Factors Related to Self-Reported Attention Deficit Among Incoming University Students.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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This study was designed to explore physical, social/behavioral, and mental health factors among incoming university students with elevated self-reported ADHD symptoms.
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The impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder.
J Headache Pain
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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No study has simultaneously investigated the impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms (PPS) among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The study aimed to investigate this issue.
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The Contribution of Class 1 Integron to Antimicrobial Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Two hundred clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were examined for the presence of class 1 integron and for the susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobials and detergents. The prevalence of class 1 integron in S. maltophilia isolates was 11%. The class 1 integron-positive isolates exhibited a higher resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) than the class 1 integron-negative ones. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), amplifying the variable region of the class 1 integron, showed the existence of six different amplicon sizes, indicating that there are at least six different class 1 integrons distributed in the 23 class 1 integron-positive isolates. Sequence analysis of six representative PCR amplicons revealed that qacK, aac(6')-Ib', qacK-aac(6')-Ib, qacK-aac(6')-Ib-aac(6')-Ib, and qacL-aadB-cmlA-aadA2 were identified in the 550-, 800-, 1,200-, 1,800, and 3,600-bp amplicons, respectively. The sequence analysis of the 150-bp PCR amplicon demonstrated no additional resistance-associated genes except the basic genetic elements of class 1 integron. The impact of class 1 integron acquisition on the antimicrobials susceptibility was assayed by isogenic integron deletion mutant construction and the susceptibility test. The most significant contribution of the class 1 integron acquisition to S. maltophilia is the increased resistance to SXT.
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Leiomyosarcoma With Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Is Associated With Aggressive Histologic Features, Loss of ATRX Expression, and Poor Clinical Outcome.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with poor patient survival. Recently, it was shown that 53% to 62% of leiomyosarcomas use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as their telomere maintenance mechanism. The molecular basis of this mechanism has not been elucidated. Studies of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor have suggested that the inactivation of either ?-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated (DAXX) protein is associated with the ALT phenotype. In this study, we sought to determine the clinicopathologic features of leiomyosarcoma with the ALT phenotype and the possible relationship between this phenotype and ATRX/DAXX expression. Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) promoter mutation analysis was also performed. Ninety-two leiomyosarcomas derived from the uterus, retroperitoneum/intra-abdomen, and various other sites were analyzed. Telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that 59% (51/86) of leiomyosarcomas had the ALT phenotype. Loss of ATRX expression was observed in 33% of the tumors (30/92), and all but 2 ATRX-deficient tumors were ALT positive. Both the ALT phenotype and loss of ATRX expression were associated with epithelioid/pleomorphic cell morphology, tumor necrosis, and poor differentiation. None of the 92 cases lost DAXX expression. No TERT promoter mutation was detected (n=39). For survival analysis, poor differentiation, high FNCLCC grade, tumor size, and ALT phenotype were correlated with poor overall survival in univariate analysis. Tumor size and ALT phenotype remained independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. We concluded that the ALT phenotype in the leiomyosarcoma is associated with aggressive histologic features, loss of ATRX expression, and poor clinical outcome.
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miR326 Maturation Is Crucial for VEGF-C-Driven Cortactin Expression and Esophageal Cancer Progression.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Esophageal cancer is an aggressive human malignancy with increasing incidence in the developed world. VEGF-C makes crucial contributions to esophageal cancer progression that are not well understood. Here, we report the discovery of regulatory relationship in esophageal cancers between the expression of VEGF-C and cortactin (CTTN), a regulator of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Upregulation of CTTN expression by VEGF-C enhanced the invasive properties of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic investigations showed that VEGF-C increased CTTN expression by downregulating Dicer-mediated maturation of miR326, thereby relieving the suppressive effect of miR326 on CTTN expression. Clinically, expression of Dicer and miR326 correlated with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer. Our findings offer insights into how VEGF-C enhances the robust invasive and metastatic properties of esophageal cancer, which has potential implications for the development of new biomarkers or therapies in this setting. Cancer Res; 74(21); 6280-90. ©2014 AACR.
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Deciphering the components that coordinately regulate virulence factors of the soft rot pathogen Dickeya dadantii.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The bacterial soft rot pathogen Dickeya dadantii utilizes the type III secretion system (T3SS) to suppress host defense responses, and secretes pectate lyase (Pel) to disintegrate the plant cell wall. A transposon mutagenesis fluorescence-activated cell sorting screen was used to identify mutants with altered promoter activities of the T3SS pilus gene hrpA. Several insertion mutations, resulting in changes in hrpA expression, were mapped to a new locus, opgGH, which encodes the gene cluster responsible for osmoregulated periplasmic glucan (OPG) synthesis proteins. Our data showed that OPG was involved in T3SS and Pel regulation by altering the expression of the regulatory small RNA RsmB. Through genome searching, the mechanism of two novel regulatory components, the RcsCD-RcsB phosphorelay and CsrD on OPG and the rsmB gene, was further investigated. The Rcs phosphorelay and OPG inversely regulated rsmB at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, respectively. CsrD exhibited dual functionality in T3SS and Pel regulation by manipulating levels of RsmB RNA and cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP). CsrD positively regulated the promoter activity of the rsmB gene but negatively controlled RsmB RNA at the post-transcriptional level via OpgGH. In addition, CsrD contains both GGDEF and EAL domains but acted as a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. When the expression of the csrD gene was induced, CsrD regulated T3SS expression and Pel production through controlling intracellular c-di-GMP levels.
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Perception of premenstrual syndrome and attitude of evaluations of work performance among incoming university female students.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common condition, and for 5% of women, the influence is so severe as to interfere with their mental health, interpersonal relationships, or studies. Severe PMS may result in decreased occupational productivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perception of PMS on evaluation of work performance. Methods: A total of 1971 incoming female university students were recruited in September 2009. A simulated clinical scenario was used, with a test battery including measurement of psychological symptoms and the Chinese Premenstrual Symptom Questionnaire. Results: When evaluating employee performance in the simulated scenario, 1565 (79.4%) students neglected the impact of PMS, while 136 (6.9%) students considered it. Multivariate logistic regression showed that perception of daily function impairment due to PMS and frequency of measuring body weight were significantly associated with consideration of the influence of PMS on evaluation of work performance. Conclusion: It is important to increase the awareness of functional impairments related to severe PMS.
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MacABCsm, an ABC-type tripartite efflux pump of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia involved in drug resistance, oxidative and envelope stress tolerances and biofilm formation.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To characterize a five gene cluster, macRS-macABCsm, in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
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Comparison and validation of International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis from pancreatic cancer in a Taiwanese cohort.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria (ICDC) designed to diagnosis autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been proposed recently. The diagnostic performance of ICDC has not been previously evaluated in diffuse-type and focal-type AIP, respectively, in comparison with the revised HISORt and Asian criteria in Taiwan.
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Problems and fall risk determinants of quality of life in older adults with increased risk of falling.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Determine quality of life and its association with fall risk factors in older adults with increased risk of falling.
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Long sleep duration associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness in males.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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We aimed to examine the association between sleep duration and arterial stiffness among adults of different ages, because to date there has been only one study on this relationship, which was confined to middle-aged civil servants.
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High uric acid level associated with increased arterial stiffness in apparently healthy women.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Increased serum uric acid level is regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and found to be associated with increased arterial stiffness. While previous studies investigated the relationship between serum uric acid and arterial stiffness, most did not exclude the confounding factors, such as history or medications of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to explore the association of uric acid with arterial stiffness in an apparently healthy population.
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Genotyping the GALNT14 gene by joint analysis of two linked single nucleotide polymorphisms using liver tissues for clinical and geographical comparisons.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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A GALNT14 single nucleotide polymorphism, rs9679162, has recently been found to be capable of predicting chemotherapy responses in patients with far-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, a novel assay was designed and genotyping was performed on 244 surgically removed liver tissues. This assay employed two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated restriction enzyme sites to simultaneously determine the genotypes of two adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs9679162 and rs6752303, on the GALNT14 gene. Genotypes determined by this assay reached 100% concordance with those detected by the direct sequencing method. Clinical analysis showed that the TT genotype of rs9679162 was lower in percentage among patients with virus-originated HCC compared with those with non-viral HCC (22.57 vs. 47.06%, respectively; P=0.023). The proportion of the TT genotype in the 244 HCC patients (24.18%) did not deviate significantly from those of two public-domain (HapMap) Chinese cohorts from Denver, Colorado, USA (28.44%) and Beijing, China (30.15%) (P>0.05). The proportion of the TT genotype was significantly higher in Japanese and African populations (42.11-54.55%; P<0.0001) but significantly lower in an Italian cohort (7.84%; P=0.0004). In conclusion, the novel PCR-generated double restriction enzyme sites method could correctly determine the genotypes of two target SNPs in GALNT14 in liver tissues. The TT genotype was associated with the non-viral etiology of HCC. A marked variation in ethnicity was found for the distribution of this genotype.
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Activation of free fatty acid receptor 1 improves hepatic steatosis through a p38-dependent pathway.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Hepatic steatosis is highly correlated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Although, it has been demonstrated that activation of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) by agonists showed benefits for the improvement of diabetes, the effects of FFAR1 agonists on hepatic steatosis were unknown. In this study, a high fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis animal model was utilized to evaluate the effects of an FFAR1 agonist, GW9508, on hepatic lipid accumulation, and HepG2 hepatoma cells were also used to clarify the possible mechanisms. Administration of GW9508 significantly decreased the hepatic lipid accumulation with decreased expressions of lipogenesis-related proteins in HFD mice. Knockdown of hepatic Ffar1 by lentiviral vectors containing short hairpin RNA targeted to Ffar1 diminished the effect of GW9508 in HFD mice. In addition, GW9508 decreased oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells by decreases in the expression of lipogenesis-related proteins. Moreover, GW9508 downregulated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) through a p38-dependent pathway, whereas knockdown of Ffar1 in HepG2 cells diminished the effect of GW9508 on the decrease in SREBP1. Considering all these results together, GW9508 exerts a therapeutic effect to improve hepatic steatosis through a p38-dependent pathway. Thus, investigation of chemicals that act on FFAR1 might be a new strategy for the treatment of hepatic steatosis.
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Moderate to severe, but not mild, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with increased risk of gallstone disease.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and gallstone disease (GSD) share some of the same risk factors. The association between NAFLD and GSD was inconsistent. Moreover, there are no studies on the association between GSD and the severity of NAFLD in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of NAFLD and GSD in a Taiwanese population.
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Derivative of plant phenolic compound inhibits the type III secretion system of Dickeya dadantii via HrpX/HrpY two-component signal transduction and Rsm systems.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence factor in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and represents a particularly appealing target for antimicrobial agents. Previous studies have shown that the plant phenolic compound p-coumaric acid (PCA) plays a role in the inhibition of T3SS expression of the phytopathogen Dickeya dadantii 3937. This study screened a series of derivatives of plant phenolic compounds and identified that trans-4-hydroxycinnamohydroxamic acid (TS103) has an eight-fold higher inhibitory potency than PCA on the T3SS of D.?dadantii. The effect of TS103 on regulatory components of the T3SS was further elucidated. Our results suggest that TS103 inhibits HrpY phosphorylation and leads to reduced levels of hrpS and hrpL transcripts. In addition, through a reduction in the RNA levels of the regulatory small RNA RsmB, TS103 also inhibits hrpL at the post-transcriptional level via the rsmB-RsmA regulatory pathway. Finally, TS103 inhibits hrpL transcription and mRNA stability, which leads to reduced expression of HrpL regulon genes, such as hrpA and hrpN. To our knowledge, this is the first inhibitor to affect the T3SS through both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional pathways in the soft-rot phytopathogen D.?dadantii 3937.
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NagZ is required for beta-lactamase expression and full pathogenicity in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. 17.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris expresses a chromosomally encoded class A ?-lactamase Blaxc. Basal expression and induction of blaxc require the transcriptional factor AmpRxc and the peptidoglycan-monomers permease AmpGxc. NagZ is a ?-GlcNAcase which cleaves GlcNAc-anhMurNAc peptides (peptidoglycan-monomers) to generate anhMurNAc-peptides. In many bacteria, anhMurNAc-peptides act as activation ligands for AmpR. Nevertheless, the role of NagZ in ?-lactamase induction differs among species. In this paper, we studied the roles of nagZxc in the regulation of blaxc and pathogenicity in X. campestris pv. campestris. Our data showed that cells lacking nagZxc dramatically reduced the basal expression and induction of blaxc, suggesting that anhMurNAc-peptides, products of NagZxc, are required for blaxc expression regardless of the presence or absence of inducers. Expression of blaxc is regulated via an ampG-nagZ-ampR pathway. Pathogenicity assay demonstrated that an ampGxc mutant excited more severe symptoms than the wild-type; on the contrary, the nagZxc mutant became less virulent. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a link between the ampG or nagZ defects and the pathogenicity in a plant pathogen.
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Low socioeconomic status may increase the risk of central obesity in incoming university students in Taiwan.
Obes Res Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Obesity is related to social disparity. The objective of the study was to evaluate different indicators of parental SES with the association of central obesity in young adult Taiwanese students.
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The efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy on huge hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for other local modalities.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients with unresectable huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable of other standard treatment option.
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Analysis of chest X-ray plain film images of intravenous ports inserted via the superior vena cava.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The optimal tip position for an intravenous port and the angle between the locking nut and the catheter are still debatable. This study evaluates the use of chest X-ray plain films for screening patients with potential intravenous port complications.
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease vs. obesity on the risk of erosive oesophagitis.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Erosive oesophagitis (EE) may be complicated by oesophageal ulcers, peptic stricture, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. There have been few studies examining the influence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on EE, and even fewer exploring the simultaneous effects of NAFLD, general and central obesity on EE. We thus aim to clarify the relationship between NAFLD and EE when general and/or central obesity are considered simultaneously.
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Gastric Helicobacter pylori infection associated with risk of diabetes mellitus, but not prediabetes.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and diabetes was inconsistent in previous studies. Moreover, there are no studies on the relationship between H.?pylori infection and prediabetes in the literature. The aim of this study is thus to assess the association of Helicobacter infection, diagnosed by pathology from gastric biopsy, with diabetes and prediabetes.
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Persistence of Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 strains in agricultural soils.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups are known to cause serious diseases in human. However, research on the persistence of E. coli non-O157 serogroups in preharvest environment is limited. In the current study, we compared the survival behavior of E. coli O157 to that of non-O157 E. coli strains in agricultural soils collected from three major fresh produce growing areas of California (CA) and Arizona (AZ). Results showed that the nonpathogenic E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived longer than the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in Imperial Valley CA and Yuma AZ, but not in soils from the Salinas area. However, E. coli O157:NM was found to persist significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soil tested from the three regions. Furthermore, two non-O157 (E. coli O26:H21 and E. coli O103:H2) survived significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soils tested. Pearson correlation analysis showed that survival of the E. coli strains was affected by different environmental factors. Our data suggest that survival of E. coli O157 and non-O157 may be strain and soil specific, and therefore, care must be taken in data interpretation with respect to survival of this pathogen in different soils.
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Design of a real-time and continua-based framework for care guideline recommendations.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Telehealth is an important issue in the medical and healthcare domains. Although a number of systems have been developed to meet the demands of emerging telehealth services, the following problems still remain to be addressed: (1) most systems do not monitor/predict the vital signs states so that they are able to send alarms to caregivers in real-time; (2) most systems do not focus on reducing the amount of work that caregivers need to do, and provide patients with remote care; and (3) most systems do not recommend guidelines for caregivers. This study thus proposes a framework for a real-time and Continua-based Care Guideline Recommendation System (Cagurs) which utilizes mobile device platforms to provide caregivers of chronic patients with real-time care guideline recommendations, and that enables vital signs data to be transmitted between different devices automatically, using the Continua standard. Moreover, the proposed system adopts the episode mining approach to monitor/predict anomalous conditions of patients, and then offers related recommended care guidelines to caregivers so that they can offer preventive care in a timely manner.
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Improved stability and half-life of fluorinated phosphotriesterase using Rosetta.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Recently we demonstrated that incorporating p-fluorophenylalanine (pFF) into phosphotriesterase dramatically improved folding, thereby leading to enhanced stability and function at elevated temperatures. To further improve the stability of the fluorinated enzyme, Rosetta was used to identify multiple potential stabilizing mutations. One such variant, pFF-F104A, exhibited enhanced activity at elevated temperature and maintained activity over many days in solution at room temperature.
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The degenerate EAL-GGDEF domain protein Filp functions as a cyclic di-GMP receptor and specifically interacts with the PilZ-domain protein PXO_02715 to regulate virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Degenerate GGDEF and EAL domain proteins represent major types of cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) receptors in pathogenic bacteria. Here, we characterized a FimX-like protein (Filp) which possesses both GGDEF and EAL domains in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice. Both in silico analysis and enzyme assays indicated that the GGDEF and EAL domains of Filp were degenerate and enzymatically inactive. However, Filp bound to c-di-GMP efficiently within the EAL domain, where Q(477), E(653), and F(654) residues were crucial for the binding. Deletion of the filp gene in X. oryzae pv. oryzae resulted in attenuated virulence in rice and reduced type III secretion system (T3SS) gene expression. Complementation analysis with different truncated proteins indicated that REC, PAS, and EAL domains but not the GGDEF domain were required for the full activity of Filp in vivo. In addition, a PilZ-domain protein (PXO_02715) was identified as a Filp interactor by yeast two-hybrid and glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays. Deletion of the PXO_02715 gene demonstrated changes in bacterial virulence and T3SS gene expression similar to ?filp. Moreover, both mutants were impaired in their ability to induce hypersensitive response in nonhost plants. Thus, we concluded that Filp was a novel c-di-GMP receptor of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, and its function to regulate bacterial virulence expression might be via the interaction with PXO_02715.
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Laparoscopic resection for large gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST): intermediate follow-up results.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Laparoscopic wedge resection has become a widely accepted treatment for small gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach. However, its feasibility as treatment for large gastric GIST is not known. In this retrospective study, the perioperative and oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic wedge resection for gastric GIST (5-8 cm) were reviewed.
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Ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease: clinical features, outcome, and factors associated with response to systemic steroids.
Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate clinical characteristics, outcome, and factors associated with response to systemic administration of steroids in patients with ocular adnexal immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease.
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Influenza vaccination coverage and factors affecting adherence to influenza vaccination among patients with diabetes in Taiwan.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate influenza vaccination coverage and the factors influencing acceptance of influenza vaccination among patients with diabetes in Taiwan using the Health Belief Model (HBM). From January 1 to February 28, 2012, 700 patients with diabetes who visited National Cheng Kung University Hospital were invited to participate in the study. A total of 691 (99%) patients with diabetes were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 64.7 years (SD = 10.7). The percentages of patients with diabetes who received seasonal influenza vaccination were 31%, 33%, and 35% in 2009-2010, 2010-2011, and 2011-2012, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that patients with diabetes who were female, were older, had comorbidities, had a more positive perception of the benefits of the influenza vaccine and had lower perceived barriers to influenza vaccination were more likely to receive the influenza vaccine in 2011-2012 (adjusted R(2) = 0.47; Chi-square = 276.50; P<0.001). Patients with diabetes perceived the risk of swine influenza to be similar to that of seasonal influenza. Consequently, in the absence of an increase in the perceived risk of influenza, a low level of actual vaccination against seasonal influenza is forecasted. Strategies to improve the uptake of influenza vaccination include interventions that highlight the risk posed by pandemic influenza while simultaneously offering tactics to ameliorate this risk.
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Antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against influenza A virus via galectin-3 up-regulation.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Novel influenza A H7N9 virus, which emerged in 2013, and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, identified since 2003, pose challenges to public health and necessitate quest for new anti-influenza compounds. Anthraquinone derivatives like aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol, reportedly exhibit antiviral activity. This study probes their inhibitory mechanism and effect against influenza A virus. Of three anthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emodin, with a lower cytotoxicity showed concentration-dependently reducing virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibiting replication of influenza A in MDCK cells. 50% inhibitory concentration value of aloe-emodin on virus yield was less than 0.05 ?g/ml. Proteomics and Western blot of MDCK cells indicated aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3, and thioredoxin as well as down-regulating nucleoside diphosphate kinase A. Western blot and quantitative PCR confirmed aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3 expression; recombinant galectin-3 augmented expression of antiviral genes IFN-?, IFN-?, PKR and 2'5',-OAS in infected cells, agreeing with expression pattern of those treated with aloe-emodin. Galectin-3 also inhibited influenza A virus replication. Proteomic analysis of treated cells indicated galectin-3 up-regulation as one anti-influenza A virus action by aloe-emodin. Since galectin-3 exhibited cytokine-like regulatory actions via JAK/STAT pathways, aloe-emodin also restored NS1-inhibited STAT1-mediated antiviral responses in transfected cells: e.g., STAT1 phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) stimulation response element (ISRE)-driven promoter, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2'5',-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5',-OAS) expression. Treatment with aloe-emodin could control influenza infection in humans.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in stage I non-small cell lung cancer that underwent anatomic resection: the role of a recurrence promoter.
COPD
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Despite the use of anatomic resection, the post-surgical recurrence rate remains high in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Chronic inflammation plays a role in the mechanism that promotes tumor initiation. This study aimed to investigate the association between recurrence outcome and chronic inflammation-related co-morbidities in early-stage resected NSCLC.
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Tea-drinking habit among new university students: associated factors.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The habit of drinking tea is highly prevalent in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tea drinking and to explore the correlated factors on tea drinking among young new students in the university, using a validated self-reported questionnaire. This study was carried out with 5936 new students in a university in Taiwan. It comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including items related to personal and medical history, and lifestyle habits, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12). Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were also performed. In total, 2065 (36.1%) students were in the tea-drinking group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the following factors were significant predictors of tea drinking: postgraduate students (p < 0.001), coffee drinking (p < 0.001), alcohol drinking (p < 0.001), minor mental morbidity (p = 0.009), poorer sleepers (p = 0.037), higher body mass index (p = 0.004), and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p < 0.001). Our data showed that the tea-drinking habit was correlated with higher body mass index, which was contrary to the findings of a previous study. In clinical practice, perhaps we could consider more tea-drinking-related factors when we suggest tea consumption.
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The relationship between different glycemic statuses and colon polyps in a Taiwanese population.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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While diabetes is considered as a risk factor for colorectal cancer, there are few studies that address the association between glycemic statuses and different colon polyps, ranging from non-neoplastic polyps to advanced adenomatous polyps.
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Programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression in surgically resected stage I pulmonary adenocarcinoma and its correlation with driver mutations and clinical outcomes.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed in a group of cancers that may be suitable targets for specific immunotherapy. This study investigated the expression of PD-L1 in surgically resected stage I adenocarcinomas and correlated this with known major driver mutations and clinical outcomes.
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Impaired baroreflex sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, but not isolated impaired fasting glucose.
Acta Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. There are currently no studies on BRS changes in subjects with different glycemic statuses, including normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NDD, IGT and isolated IFG on BRS, based on a community-based data. A total of 768 subjects were classified as NGT (n = 498), isolated IFG (n = 61), IGT (n = 126) and NDD (n = 83). Spontaneous BRS was determined by the spectral ? coefficient method, i.e., the square root of the ratio between the power of the RR interval and the power of systolic blood pressure in the LF frequency region (0.04-0.15 Hz) after the subjects had rested in a supine position for 5 min. Valsalva ratio was calculated as the longest RR interval after release of the Valsalva maneuver, divided by the shortest RR interval during the maneuver. As compared with NGT subjects, NDD (p = 0.039) and IGT (p = 0.041) subjects had a reduced spontaneous BRS in multivariate analysis based on analysis of covariance. NDD subjects exhibited a lower Valsalva ratio than NGT subjects (p = 0.043). However, there were no significant differences in spontaneous BRS and Valsalva ratio between subjects with isolated IFG and NGT. In conclusion, NDD and IGT subjects had an impaired BRS as compared to NGT subjects. However, reduced BRS was not apparent in subjects with isolated IFG.
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Impact of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl on the initial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to sand.
Biofouling
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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In this study, the impact of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl on the cell surface electron donor-electron acceptor (acid-base) properties and adhesion to quartz sand was investigated by using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and its isogenic EPS-mutant strains ?pel, ?psl and ?pel/?psl. The microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon (MATH) test and titration results showed that both Pel and Psl contribute to the surface hydrophobicity of the cell. The results of contact angle measurement, however, showed no correlation with the cell surface hydrophobicity measured by the MATH test and the titration method. Packed-bed column experiments indicated that the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl are involved in the initial cell attachment to the sand surface and the extent of their impact is dependent on the ionic strength (IS) of the solution. Overall, the ?pel/?psl double mutant had the lowest adhesion coefficient to sand compared with the wild-type PAO1, the ?pel mutant and the ?psl mutant. It is hypothesized that in addition to bacterial surface hydrophobicity and DLVO forces, other factors, eg steric repulsion caused by extracellular macromolecules, and cell surface appendages (flagella and pili) also contribute significantly to the interaction between the cell surface and a sand grain.
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Menopause is associated with self-reported poor sleep quality in women without vasomotor symptoms.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between menopause and self-reported sleep quality in Chinese women without vasomotor symptoms.
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Increase diagnostic accuracy in differentiating focal type autoimmune pancreatitis from pancreatic cancer with combined serum IgG4 and CA19-9 levels.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To distinguish autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), especially focal type, from pancreatic cancer, is a greatest challenge for clinician. The aim of the study is to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of combined serum IgG4 and CA19-9 levels to differentiate AIP from pancreatic cancer by HISORt, Asian and international consensus diagnostic criteria.
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In vivo and in vitro anti-tumor effects of fungal extracts.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Fungal extracts are extensively used as nutritional supplements in Far-Eastern Asia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer activities of some different fungal species against different cancer cell lines. The water or ethanol extracts of Fomitopsis pinicola (F. pinicola), Ganoderma sinense, Fomitopsis officinalis, Polyporus melanopus, and Taiwanofungus camphorates were used to evaluate the anti-cancer activities in various cancer cells. We found that all of the fungi ethanol extracts used in this study exert anti-cancer activities in vitro, whereas water extracts show lower inhibitory activities as determined by 3-(4,5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Among the tested fungi species, F. pinicola ethanol extract exerts the most significant anti-cancer activity (growth inhibitory ratio 82.8%, p < 0.001) by increasing cell apoptosis. Moreover, F. pinicola ethanol extract significantly decreased tumor size (tumor growth inhibitory ratio 54%, p < 0.05) and increased the lifespan in mice bearing sarcoma-180 tumors. Taken together, this is the first study indicating the anti-tumor effect of F. pinicola in vivo and in vitro. F. pinicola ethanol extract induces cell apoptosis to exert a significant anti-tumor activity, with potential to be a new alternative anti-tumor medicine.
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SmeOP-TolCSm efflux pump contributes to the multidrug resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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A five-gene cluster, tolCSm-pcm-smeRo-smeO-smeP, of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was characterized. The presence of smeOP and smeRo-pcm-tolCSm operons was verified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Both operons were negatively regulated by the TetR-type transcriptional regulator SmeRo, as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR and a promoter-fusion assay. SmeO and SmeP were associated with TolCSm (the TolC protein of S. maltophilia) for the assembly of a resistance-nodulation-cell-division (RND)-type pump. The compounds extruded by SmeOP-TolCSm mainly included nalidixic acid, doxycycline, amikacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, leucomycin, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, crystal violet, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and tetrachlorosalicylanilide.
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Robot-assisted renal transplantation in the retroperitoneum.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Minimally invasive surgery for renal transplantation is still under development. We employed the robotic surgical system to perform renal transplantation with a minimally invasive wound. The operation was performed with a Gibson incision and two working ports. The space for the transplantation was created by retroperitoneal dissection with the robot lifting the abdominal wall. Vascular reconstruction was performed with two robotic needle drivers. We successfully performed robot-assisted renal transplantation in five female and five male patients with an average wound length of 7.7 ± 1.04 cm. Nine of the renal allografts functioned immediately, but one with prolonged warm ischemia during the live donor nephrectomy had delayed function. The average creatinine level and estimated glomerular filtration rate at discharge were 1.31 ± 0.31 mg/dl and 58.2 ± 8.1 ml/min, respectively. All the transplants are currently functioning at 6.9 ± 3.9 months after operations. In conclusion, with robot assistance, minimal invasive renal transplantation can be performed successfully in the retroperitoneum.
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A Linkage between SmeIJK Efflux Pump, Cell Envelope Integrity, and ?E-Mediated Envelope Stress Response in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Resistance nodulation division (RND) efflux pumps, such as the SmeIJK pump of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, are known to contribute to the multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. However, some RND pumps are constitutively expressed even though no antimicrobial stresses occur, implying that there should be some physical implications for these RND pumps. In this study, the role of SmeIJK in antimicrobials resistance, envelope integrity, and ?E-mediated envelope stress response (ESR) of S. maltophilia was assessed. SmeIJK was involved in the intrinsic resistance of S. maltophilia KJ to aminoglycosides and leucomycin. Compared with the wild-type KJ, the smeIJK deletion mutant exhibited growth retardation in the MH medium, an increased sensitivity to membrane-damaging agents (MDAs), as well as activation of an ?E-mediated ESR. Moreover, the expression of smeIJK was further induced by sub-lethal concentrations of MDAs or surfactants in an ?E-dependent manner. These data collectively suggested an alternative physiological role of smeIJK in cell envelope integrity maintenance and ?E-mediated ESR beyond the efflux of antibiotics. Because of the necessity of the physiological role of SmeIJK in protecting S. maltophilia from the envelope stress, smeIJK is constitutively expressed, which, in turn, contributes the intrinsic resistance to aminoglycoside and leucomycin. This is the first demonstration of the linkage among RND-type efflux pump, cell envelope integrity, and ?E-mediated ESR in S. maltophilia.
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Nuclear Export of Human Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein and Pregenomic RNA Depends on the Cellular NXF1-p15 Machinery.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. Cytoplasm-predominant HBc is clinically associated with severe liver inflammation. Previously, we found that HBc arginine-rich domain (ARD) can associate with a host factor NXF1 (TAP) by coimmunoprecipitation. It is well known that NXF1-p15 heterodimer can serve as a major export receptor of nuclear mRNA as a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). In the NXF1-p15 pathway, TREX (transcription/export) complex plays an important role in coupling nuclear pre-mRNA processing with mRNA export in mammalian cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis whether HBc and HBV specific RNA can be exported via the TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated pathway. We demonstrated here that HBc can physically and specifically associate with TREX components, and the NXF1-p15 export receptor by coimmunoprecipitation. Accumulation of HBc protein in the nucleus can be induced by the interference with TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated RNA export machinery. HBV transcripts encodes a non-spliced 3.5 kb pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) which can serve as a template for reverse transcription. Cytoplasmic HBV pgRNA appeared to be reduced by siRNA treatment specific for the NXF1-p15 complex by quantitative RT-qPCR and Northern blot analyses. This result suggests that the pgRNA was also exported via the NXF1-p15 machinery. We entertain the hypothesis that HBc protein can be exported as an RNP cargo via the mRNA export pathway by hijacking the TREX and NXF1-p15 complex. In our current and previous studies, HBc is not required for pgRNA accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, HBc ARD can mediate nuclear export of a chimeric protein containing HBc ARD in a pgRNA-independent manner. Taken together, it suggests that while both pgRNA and HBc protein exports are dependent on NXF1-p15, they are using the same export machinery in a manner independent of each other.
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Factors predict prolonged wait time and longer duration of radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multilevel analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). It wastes time from diagnosis to treatment. Treatment time of radiotherapy generally takes at least seven weeks. The current study aimed to evaluate factors associated with prolonged wait time and longer duration of radiotherapy in NPC patients.
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Topological data analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 survival in soils.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 have been implicated in many foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of contaminated fresh produce. However, data on their persistence in soils are limited due to the complexity in datasets generated from different environmental variables and bacterial taxa. There is a continuing need to distinguish the various environmental variables and different bacterial groups to understand the relationships among these factors and the pathogen survival. Using an approach called Topological Data Analysis (TDA); we reconstructed the relationship structure of E. coli O157 and non-O157 survival in 32 soils (16 organic and 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) with a multi-resolution output. In our study, we took a community approach based on total soil microbiome to study community level survival and examining the network of the community as a whole and the relationship between its topology and biological processes. TDA produces a geometric representation of complex data sets. Network analysis showed that Shiga toxin negative strain E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived significantly longer in comparison to E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933, while the survival time of E. coli O157:NM was comparable to that of E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933 in all of the tested soils. Two non-O157 strains, E. coli O26:H11 and E. coli O103:H2 survived much longer than E. coli O91:H21 and the three strains of E. coli O157. We show that there are complex interactions between E. coli strain survival, microbial community structures, and soil parameters.
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The number of metabolic abnormalities associated with the risk of gallstones in a non-diabetic population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with gallstones, independent of hepatitis C infection or chronic kidney disease (CKD), in a non-diabetic population.
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Increased tea consumption is associated with decreased arterial stiffness in a Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tea has attracted considerable attention for its potential cardioprotective effects. The primary chemical components of tea are thought to have a beneficial effect by reducing arterial stiffness. The objective of this study was to assess the association between tea consumption and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in a relatively healthy Chinese population.
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Inflammatory response attenuation in patients undergoing gasless laparoscopic gastrectomy.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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It has been a matter of debate whether the advantage of gasless laparoscope setting is obvious when compared with the conventional operation. Thus, we compare the systemic response of proinflammatory markers and the adhesion molecules in serum levels after surgery between these two procedures.
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Mild chronic kidney disease associated with greater risk of arterial stiffness in elderly adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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To assess the association between arterial stiffness and mild and moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), independent of other cardiometabolic factors in an elderly population.
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The relationship between impaired fasting glucose and self-reported sleep quality in a Chinese population.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Decreased sleep quality and duration predicts the development of type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there is limited research on the association between prediabetes and sleep quality. The aim of this study is to investigate this relationship in a Chinese population.
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Multi-gene analyses from waste brushing specimens for patients with peripheral lung cancer receiving EBUS-assisted bronchoscopy.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Although flexible bronchoscopy with the assistance of miniature radial-probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is increasingly employed to diagnose peripheral lung cancer, transbronchial biopsies typically offer an insufficient amount of tissue to conduct additional molecular analysis. We evaluated the feasibility of multi-gene analyses from waste brushing samples obtained by EBUS-assisted bronchoscopy.
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Characterization of a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) tripartite efflux pump EmrCABsm from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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To characterize the emrRCABsm operon of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
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Discovery of plant phenolic compounds that act as type III secretion system inhibitors or inducers of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Erwinia amylovora causes a devastating disease called fire blight in rosaceous plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is one of the important virulence factors utilized by E. amylovora in order to successfully infect its hosts. By using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct combined with a high-throughput flow cytometry assay, a library of phenolic compounds and their derivatives was studied for their ability to alter the expression of the T3SS. Based on the effectiveness of the compounds on the expression of the T3SS pilus, the T3SS inhibitors 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid (TMCA) and benzoic acid (BA) and one T3SS inducer, trans-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenylsulfonate (EHPES), were chosen for further study. Both the T3SS inhibitors (TMCA and BA) and the T3SS inducer (EHPES) were found to alter the expression of T3SS through the HrpS-HrpL pathway. Additionally, TMCA altered T3SS expression through the rsmBEa-RsmAEa system. Finally, we found that TMCA and BA weakened the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco by suppressing the T3SS of E. amylovora. In our study, we identified phenolic compounds that specifically targeted the T3SS. The T3SS inhibitor may offer an alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy by targeting virulence factors of bacterial pathogens.
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Tonsil surface epithelium is ideal for monitoring Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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To identify an easily obtainable non-neoplastic tissue that can be used as control material for monitoring optimal Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining.
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Residual symptoms related to physical and panic symptoms at baseline predict remission of depression at follow-up.
Psychopathology
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Aims: The study aimed to investigate whether common residual symptoms at baseline were able to predict full remission of depression at 6-month and 2-year follow-up examinations in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: This study enrolled 135 outpatients with MDD. The depression (DS) and somatic subscales (SS) of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale and the depression and anxiety (HADS-A) subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to investigate residual symptoms, which were divided into the common residual part (CRP) and the other residual part (ORP). Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare the ability to predict full remission between the CRP and ORP scores at baseline. Results: One hundred and nineteen and 106 outpatients completed the two follow-up examinations. The CRP of the DS and the ORP of the SS and HADS-A at baseline had a good ability to predict full remission among patients without pharmacotherapy. The three residual parts included physical and anxiety symptoms of depression and panic symptoms. Conclusions: Physicians should pay attention to physical, anxiety, and panic symptoms, because these symptoms are related to remission of depression. Future studies should explore how these symptoms affect the prognosis of depression.
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Role of the pcm-tolCsm operon in the multidrug resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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To elucidate the role of the pcm-tolCsm operon in the multidrug resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
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Arsenic induces reactive oxygen species-caused neuronal cell apoptosis through JNK/ERK-mediated mitochondria-dependent and GRP 78/CHOP-regulated pathways.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Arsenic (As), a well-known high toxic metal, is an important environmental and industrial contaminant, and it induces oxidative stress, which causes many adverse health effects and diseases in humans, particularly in inorganic As (iAs) more harmful than organic As. Recently, epidemiological studies have suggested a possible relationship between iAs exposure and neurodegenerative disease development. However, the toxicological effects and underlying mechanisms of iAs-induced neuronal cell injuries are mostly unknown. The present study demonstrated that iAs significantly decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in Neuro-2a cells. iAs also increased oxidative stress damage (production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, and reduction of Nrf2 and thioredoxin protein expression) and induced several features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals, including: mitochondrial dysfunction, the activations of PARP and caspase cascades, and the increase in caspase-3 activity. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively reversed these iAs-induced responses. iAs also increased the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK1/2, but did not that p38-MAPK, in treated Neuro-2a cells. NAC and the specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) abrogated iAs-induced cell cytotoxicity, caspase-3/-7 activity, and JNK and ERK1/2 activation. Additionally, exposure of Neuro-2a cells to iAs triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress identified through several key molecules (GRP 78, CHOP, XBP-1, and caspase-12), which was prevented by NAC. Transfection with GRP 78- and CHOP-specific si-RNA dramatically suppressed GRP 78 and CHOP expression, respectively, and attenuated the activations of caspase-12, -7, and -3 in iAs-exposed cells. Therefore, these results indicate that iAs induces ROS causing neuronal cell death via both JNK/ERK-mediated mitochondria-dependent and GRP 78/CHOP-triggered apoptosis pathways.
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A single-center study of vascular access sites for intravenous ports.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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PURPOSE: This study evaluated the use of intravenous ports and provides a guide related to clinical decision making. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed 1505 patients who had received intravenous ports at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in 2006. The relationships between the complications and entry routes were assessed. The intervention-free periods were also determined and compared. The patients were followed up until June 2010. RESULTS: Of the 1543 procedures performed, 412 were reinterventions to treat complications, most of which corresponded to fewer than 0.1 episodes per 1000 catheter-days; these were not associated with any particular entry route. There was a higher catheter fracture rate when the right subclavian vein was chosen as the entry vessel (p < 0.05). The intervention-free period ranged from 207 to 533 days. CONCLUSION: The subclavian vein is not recommended for the use of intravenous ports. There is not only a higher risk of iatrogenic pneumothorax or hemothorax using this entry route but also a higher fracture rate, which may be caused by pinch-off syndrome. The greater saphenous vein should only be considered when the patient has superior vena cava syndrome. However, a higher incidence of infection and a lower device survival rate should be expected with this location.
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The association between self-reported sleep quality and overweight in a Chinese population.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Sleep quality and obesity are associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. However, there is limited research on the association between sleep quality and obesity, and thus the aim of this study is to investigate this relationship in a Chinese population.
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Feasibility of Transumbilical Surgical Lung Biopsy and Pericardial Window Creation.
Surg Innov
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Background. To date there are no practical platforms for performing natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery in the thoracic cavity. This study evaluates the feasibility of transumbilical thoracosopy for lung biopsy and pericardial window creation. Methods. Eleven dogs (6 in the nonsurvival group and 5 in the survival group) were used for this study. A homemade metallic tube was advanced into the abdominal cavity via a 12-mm umbilical incision. The metallic tube was advanced into the thoracic cavity through a subxyphoid diaphragmatic incision under video guidance. Access to the thoracic cavity was achieved by a flexible bronchoscope via the metallic tube. Surgical lung biopsy and pericardial window creation were performed using an electrocautery loop and needle knife. The animals were euthanized 20 minutes after the surgery was complete (nonsurvival group) or 14 days postsurgery (survival group) for necropsy evaluation. Results. Eight pericardial window creations and 21 of 22 preplanned lung biopsies were completed in a median time of 72.18 minutes (range 50-105 minutes). One dog in the nonsurvival group died after tension pneumothorax due to postprocedure massive air leaks. In the survival group, the postoperative period was uneventful in all 5 dogs. Autopsies revealed no signs of vital organ injury and complete healing of the diaphragmatic incision occurred in all animals. Conclusions. The study demonstrated that transumbilical thoracoscopic surgical lung biopsy and pericardial window creation is feasible. The safety and efficacy of the transumbilical approach need to be verified by a more detailed survival study.
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Gender differences in renal transplant graft survival.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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A long-term retrospective study was conducted to assess the risk factors of renal transplant graft failure focusing on the effects of gender of both the donor and the recipient.
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Ultrasonic-assisted self-assembly of monolayer graphene oxide for rapid detection of Escherichia coli bacteria.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Due to potential risks to the environment and human health arising from pathogens/chemical contaminants, novel devices are being developed for rapid and precise detection of those contaminants. Here, we demonstrate highly sensitive and selective field-effect transistor (FET) sensor devices for detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria using thermally reduced monolayer graphene oxide (TRMGO) sheets as semiconducting channels. The graphene oxide (GO) sheets are assembled on the aminoethanethiol (AET)-functionalized gold (Au) electrodes through electrostatic interactions with ultrasonic assistance. Anti-Escherichia coli (anti-E. coli) antibodies are used as receptors for selective detection of E. coli cells and integrated on the FET device through covalent bonding with Au nanoparticles on the GO surface. The TRMGO FET device shows great electronic stability and high sensitivity to E. coli cells with a concentration as low as 10 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL. The biosensing platform reported here is promising for large-scale, sensitive, selective, low-cost, and real-time detection of E. coli bacteria.
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The role of Hepassocin in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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While non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common risk factor of chronic liver disease, the mechanisms that initiate its development are obscure. Hepassocin (HPS) is a hepatokine that has been reported to be involved in liver regeneration. In addition to the mitogenic activity of HPS, HPS expression is decreased in patients with hepatoma. However, the role of HPS in NAFLD is still unknown.
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A gasless laparoscopic technique of wide excision for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor versus open method.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Traditional open surgery for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) requires a long incision. Moreover, the gas-filling laparoscopic technique used in GIST surgery still has its limitations. Therefore, we developed a gasless laparoscopic (GL) surgery for GIST and compared it with traditional open surgery.
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The impacts of using community health volunteers to coach medication safety behaviors among rural elders with chronic illnesses.
Geriatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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It is a challenge for rural health professionals to promote medication safety among older adults taking multiple medications. A volunteer coaching program to promote medication safety among rural elders with chronic illnesses was designed and evaluated. A community-based interventional study randomly assigned 62 rural elders with at least two chronic illnesses to routine care plus volunteer coaching or routine care alone. The volunteer coaching group received a medication safety program, including a coach and reminders by well-trained volunteers, as well as three home visits and five telephone calls over a two-month period. All the subjects received routine medication safety instructions for their chronic illnesses. The program was evaluated using pre- and post-tests of knowledge, attitude and behaviors with regard to medication safety. Results show the volunteer coaching group improved their knowledge of medication safety, but there was no change in attitude after the two-month study period. Moreover, the group demonstrated three improved medication safety behaviors compared to the routine care group. The volunteer coaching program and instructions with pictorial aids can provide a reference for community health professionals who wish to improve the medication safety of chronically ill elders.
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Multiple and large simple renal cysts are associated with prehypertension and hypertension.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Although simple renal cysts are thought to be related to hypertension, no reports have examined the relationship between simple renal cysts and prehypertension. Here, we evaluated the effects of simple renal cysts on prehypertension and hypertension and the role of serum renin levels in the cyst-related prehypertension/hypertension in adults. A total of 14,995 patients were enrolled and divided into normotension, prehypertension, and hypertension groups. Simple renal cysts were classified into different categories based on number (1 vs. ? 2 cm) and size (<2 vs. ? 2 cm). In multivariate analysis, simple renal cysts were independently related to prehypertension/hypertension. Two or more simple renal cysts or cyst of ? 2 cm were independently associated with prehypertension/hypertension. However, the association between cyst of ? 2 cm and prehypertension/hypertension disappeared after further adjusting for serum renin level in an exposure-matched subgroup analysis. Thus, the presence of two or more simple renal cysts and cyst of ? 2 cm were the important determinants of prehypertension and hypertension in adults. One possible mechanism of cyst-related prehypertension/hypertension may be related to an increased serum renin level. We recommend close monitoring of blood pressure routinely among patients with two or more simple renal cysts.
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