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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Results of Nurse Navigator Follow-up After Positive Colorectal Cancer Screening Test: A Randomized Trial.
J Am Board Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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Follow-up after a positive colorectal cancer screening test is necessary for screening to be effective. We hypothesized that nurse navigation would increase the completion of colonoscopy after a positive screening test.
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White Spot Syndrome Virus Protein Kinase 1 (PK1) Defeats the Host Cell's Iron Withholding Defense Mechanism by Interacting with Host Ferritin.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all living organisms, including both hosts and invaders. Proteins such as ferritin regulate the iron levels in a cell, and in the event of a pathogenic invasion, the host can use an iron withholding mechanism to restrict the availability of this essential nutrient to the invading pathogens. However, pathogens use various strategies to overcome this host defense. In this study, we demonstrated that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) protein kinase 1 (PK1) interacted with shrimp ferritin by the yeast two-hybrid system. A pull-down assay and 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) confirmed the interaction between PK1 and both ferritin and apoferritin. PK1 did not promote the release of iron ions from ferritin, but it prevented apoferritin from binding ferrous ions. When PK1 was overexpressed in Sf9 cells, the cellular labile iron pool (LIP) levels were elevated significantly. Immunoprecipitation and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) further showed that the number of iron ions bound by ferritin decreased significantly at 24 h post-WSSV infection. Taken together, these results suggest that PK1 prevents apoferritin from iron loading and thus stabilizes the cellular LIP levels, and that WSSV uses this novel mechanism to counteract the host cell's iron withholding defense mechanism.
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The Arctic mutation accelerates A? aggregation in SDS through reducing the helical propensity of residues 15-25.
Amyloid
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Abstract Mutations within the ?-amyloid peptide (A?) sequence that cause early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) have been shown to promote A? aggregation. How these FAD-related mutants increase the aggregative ability of A? is not fully understood. Here, we characterized the effect of the Arctic variant (E22G) on the conformational stability of A? using various forms of spectroscopy and kinetic analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The E22G mutation in the Arctic variant reduced the ?-helical propensity and conformational stability of A? on residues 15-25. This mutation also caused an increase in both ?-helix-to-?-strand conversion and fibril nucleation rates. Our results suggest that the ?-helical propensity of residues 15-25 may play a determinant role in the aggregative ability of A?. This may provide a structural basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of A? aggregation.
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Influence of Superior Laryngeal Nerve Injury on Glottal Configuration/Function of Thyroidectomy-Induced Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury may induce unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). During thyroidectomy, the most common cause of UVFP, the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), is also at risk of injury. In the literature, the influence of SLN injury on glottal configuration and function in patients with UVFP remains controversial. The present study investigates SLN injury influence on glottal configuration and function in patients with UVFP after thyroidectomy.
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A population-based study of primary chemoradiotherapy in clinical stage III non-small cell lung cancer: intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus 3D conformal radiotherapy.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To compare the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for clinical stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with primary chemoradiotherapy via a population-based retrospective cohort analysis.
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Functional Outcomes of Uni-knee Arthroplasty for Medial Compartment Knee Arthropathy in Asian Patients.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Background: Uni-knee arthroplasty (UKA) has shown better knee kinematics and motion that may better suit the activities of daily living in Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of UKA for medial compartment knee arthropathy in Asian patients. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 48 patie nts with 51 UK A knees. Only one type of prosthesis was used and all components were cemented. Postoperative management included ambulation with weight bearing, range of motion, and muscle strengthening exercises as tolerated until full recovery. The average follow-up was 52.0 ± 24.0 (range 12-92) months. The evaluation included functional assessment, the Knee Society knee and functional scores, the International Knee Document Committee (IKDC) subjective and objective scores, and radiographs of the knee. Results: The overall clinical outcomes of the knee showed the functional outcome of the knee to be normal in 51%, nearly normal in 37%, abnormal in 8%, and severely abnormal in 4%. The functional activities included stair climbing in 96%, squatting in 76%, jogging in 71% and kneeling in 47%. Three-quarters of the patients were able to kneel for daily activities. Approximately 98% of the patients were satisfied with the operation. The survivorship of the prosthesis was 98% with one revision pending. Radiographic evaluations revealed the components were centered in 82% and off-centered in 18%. Osteoarthritis was 22% preoperative and 27% postoperative for the patellofemoral compartment, and 0% before and 4% after surgery for the lateral compartment. The functional outcomes showed no difference between patients with and without patellofemoral arthritis. The complications included one component malposition and one knee pain of undetermined origin. Conclusions: UKA provides excellent pain relief and restoration of knee function including kneeling, squatting, and sit-to-stand activities that perfectly fit the oriental lifestyle and high patient satisfaction in Asian patients at medium-term follow-up. The complications were rare and the survival rate was 98% at medium-term follow-up.
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Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Drug-Induced Hepatitis in a Critically ill Patient During Antituberculosis Therapy.
Hepat Mon
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Although hepatitis is frequently observed during antituberculosis (anti-TB) therapy, acute viral hepatitis should be ruled out first, especially in the endemic areas. In addition to common types of viral hepatitis, ie, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may result in hepatitis in some cases.
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Laryngeal electromyography and prognosis of unilateral vocal fold paralysis-A long-term prospective study.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To confirm the value of using laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) to predict the long-term prognosis of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), and elucidate the adequate timing of LEMG.
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EM for regularized zero-inflated regression models with applications to postoperative morbidity after cardiac surgery in children.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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This paper proposes a new statistical approach for predicting postoperative morbidity such as intensive care unit length of stay and number of complications after cardiac surgery in children. In a recent multi-center study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, 311 children undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled. Morbidity data are count data in which the observations take only nonnegative integer values. Often, the number of zeros in the sample cannot be accommodated properly by a simple model, thus requiring a more complex model such as the zero-inflated Poisson regression model. We are interested in identifying important risk factors for postoperative morbidity among many candidate predictors. There is only limited methodological work on variable selection for the zero-inflated regression models. In this paper, we consider regularized zero-inflated Poisson models through penalized likelihood function and develop a new expectation-maximization algorithm for numerical optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed method has better performance than some competing methods. Using the proposed methods, we analyzed the postoperative morbidity, which improved the model fitting and identified important clinical and biomarker risk factors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Cruciferous vegetables have variable effects on biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a randomized controlled trial in healthy young adults.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables modulate signaling pathways critical to carcinogenesis, including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B), a central regulator of inflammation. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and GSTT1 metabolize isothiocyanates; genetic variants may result in differences in biologic response.
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No Effect of Caloric Restriction or Exercise on Radiation Repair Capacity.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Maintenance of normal weight and higher levels of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of several types of cancer. As genomic instability is regarded as a hallmark of cancer development, one proposed mechanism is improvement of DNA repair function. We investigated links between dietary weight loss, exercise, and strand break rejoining in an ancillary study to a randomized-controlled trial.
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Airway pH monitoring in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea using the Dx-pH oropharyngeal probe: preliminary report of a prospective cohort study.
Clin Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To investigate the laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) episodes and pH values in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using the Dx-pH oropharyngeal probe.
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The T4 phage DNA mimic protein Arn inhibits the DNA binding activity of the bacterial histone-like protein H-NS.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The T4 phage protein Arn (Anti restriction nuclease) was identified as an inhibitor of the restriction enzyme McrBC. However, until now its molecular mechanism remained unclear. In the present study we used structural approaches to investigate biological properties of Arn. A structural analysis of Arn revealed that its shape and negative charge distribution are similar to dsDNA, suggesting that this protein could act as a DNA mimic. In a subsequent proteomic analysis, we found that the bacterial histone-like protein H-NS interacts with Arn, implying a new function. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that Arn prevents H-NS from binding to the Escherichia coli hns and T4 p8.1 promoters. In vitro gene expression and electron microscopy analyses also indicated that Arn counteracts the gene-silencing effect of H-NS on a reporter gene. Because McrBC and H-NS both participate in the host defense system, our findings suggest that T4 Arn might knock down these mechanisms using its DNA mimicking properties.
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Pathophysiology of blast-induced ocular trauma in rats after repeated exposure to low-level blast overpressure.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The incidence of blast-induced ocular injury has dramatically increased due to advances in weaponry and military tactics. A single exposure to blast overpressure (BOP) has been shown to cause damage to the eye in animal models; however, on the battlefield, military personnel are exposed to BOP multiple times. The effects of repeated exposures to BOP on ocular tissues have not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to characterize the effects of single or repeated exposure on ocular tissues.
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Risk factors of recipient site infection in head and neck cancer patients undergoing pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with infection at the recipient site of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) of head and neck cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed head and neck cancer patients who underwent PMMF reconstruction and identified those with recipient site infection. Variables of patients with and without infection were compared and associated factors were investigated by logistic regression model. A total of 478 patients were included in the final analysis and 183 patients (38.3 %) developed recipient site infection. Lower margin of skin island, concurrent tracheotomy, diabetes mellitus, mandibular plate reconstruction, prior radiation, and peri-operative blood transfusion were independent factors associated with recipient site infection of PMMF. Skin island of PMMF beyond the eighth intercostal space markedly increased the risk of recipient site infection after major head and neck cancer surgery. Recognition of relevant factors associated with infection may help surgeons to identify those at risk.
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Coordination Chemistry of Highly Hemilabile Bidentate Sulfoxide N-Heterocyclic Carbenes with Palladium(II).
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Imidazolium salts, [RS(O)?CH2 (C3 H3 N2 )Mes]Cl (R=Me (L1?a), Ph (L1?b)); Mes=mesityl), make convenient carbene precursors. Palladation of L1?a affords the monodentate dinuclear complex, [(PdCl2 {MeS(O)CH2 (C3 H2 N2 )Mes})2 ] (2?a), which is converted into trans-[PdCl2 (NHC)2 ] (trans-4?a; N-heterocyclic carbene) with two rotamers in anti and syn configurations. Complex trans-4?a can isomerize into cis-4?a(anti) at reflux in acetonitrile. Abstraction of chlorides from 4?a or 4?b leads to the formation of a new dication: trans-[Pd{RS(O)CH2 (C3 H2 N2 )Mes}2 ](PF6 )2 (R=Me (5?a), Ph (5?b)). The X-ray structure of 5?a provides evidence that the two bidentate SO?NHC ligands at palladium(II) are in square-planar geometry. Two sulfoxides are sulfur- and oxygen-bound, and constitute five- and six-membered chelate rings with the metal center, respectively. In acetonitrile, complexes 5?a or 5?b spontaneously transform into cis-[Pd(NHC)2 (NCMe)2 ](PF6 )2 . Similar studies of thioether-NHCs have also been examined for comparison. The results indicate that sulfoxides are more labile than thioethers.
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MicroRNA expression profiles of human iPS cells, retinal pigment epithelium derived from iPS, and fetal retinal pigment epithelium.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The objective of this report is to describe the protocols for comparing the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from human iPS cells (iPS-RPE), and fetal RPE. The protocols include collection of RNA for analysis by microarray, and the analysis of microarray data to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed among three cell types. The methods for culture of iPS cells and fetal RPE are explained. The protocol used for differentiation of RPE from human iPS is also described. The RNA extraction technique we describe was selected to allow maximal recovery of very small RNA for use in a miRNA microarray. Finally, cellular pathway and network analysis of microarray data is explained. These techniques will facilitate the comparison of the miRNA profiles of three different cell types.
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Healthy Young Minds: The Effects of a 1-hour Classroom Workshop on Mental Illness Stigma in High School Students.
Community Ment Health J
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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This study aimed to test the effects of a 1-h classroom-based workshop, led by medical students, on mental illness stigma amongst secondary school students. Students (aged 14-17) from three public secondary schools in British Columbia participated in the workshop. A questionnaire measuring stigma (including stereotype endorsement and desire for social distance) was administered immediately before (T1), immediately after (T2), and 1-month after the workshop (T3). A total of 279 students met the study inclusion criteria. Total scores on the stigma scale decreased by 23 % between T1 and T2 (p < 0.01). This was sustained 1-month post-workshop with a 21 % stigma reduction compared to pre-intervention (p < 0.01). This effect was primarily due to improvements in scores that measured desire for social distance. There were no significant changes in scores that measured stereotype endorsement. Adolescents' stigmatizing attitudes can be effectively reduced through a 1-h easily implementable and cost-effective classroom-based workshop led by medical students.
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Avian oncogenic virus differential diagnosis in chickens using oligonucleotide microarray.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Avian oncogenic viruses include the avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV). Multiple oncogenic viral infections are frequently seen, with even Marek's disease vaccines reported to be contaminated with ALV and REV. The gross lesions caused by avian oncogenic viruses often overlap, making differentiation diagnosis based on histopathology difficult. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid approach to simultaneously differentiate, subgroup and pathotype the avian oncogenic viruses. The oligonucleotide microarray was employed in this study. Particular DNA sequences were recognized using specific hybridization between the DNA target and probe on the microarray, followed with colorimetric development through enzyme reaction. With 10 designed probes, ALV-A, ALV-E, ALV-J, REV, MDV pathogenic and vaccine strains were clearly discriminated on the microarray with the naked eyes. The detection limit was 27 copy numbers, which was 10-100 times lower than multiplex PCR. Of 102 field samples screened using the oligonucleotide microarray, 32 samples were positive for ALV-E, 17 samples were positive for ALV-J, 6 samples were positive for REV, 4 samples were positive for MDV, 7 samples were positive for both ALV-A and ALV-E, 5 samples were positive for ALV-A, ALV-E and ALV-J, one sample was positive for both ALV-J and MDV, and 3 samples were positive for both REV and MDV. The oligonucleotide microarray, an easy-to-use, high-specificity, high-sensitivity and extendable assay, presents a potent technique for rapid differential diagnosis of avian oncogenic viruses and the detection of multiple avian oncogenic viral infections under field conditions.
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Safety and Efficacy of Edoxaban, an Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor, Versus Enoxaparin for Thromboprophylaxis After Total Knee Arthroplasty: The STARS E-3 Trial.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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This phase 3 trial compared the safety and efficacy of edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, with enoxaparin sodium (enoxaparin) for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients in Japan and Taiwan.
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Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in osteoporotic osteoarthritis of the knee in rats: an experiment in animals.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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This study investigated the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in osteoporotic (OP) osteoarthritis (OA) of rat knee.
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Aspirin and serum estrogens in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled clinical trial.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Epidemiologic studies suggest a reduced risk of breast cancer among women who use aspirin. A plausible mechanism is through aspirin's effect on estrogens, possibly mediated through interference with estrogen synthesis via reduction in inflammation, which is increased in adipose tissues, including breast. In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the effects of six-month administration of 325 mg/day aspirin on serum estrogens (estradiol, estrone, free estradiol, and bioavailable estradiol) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Eligible participants, recruited 2005-2007, were not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, including aspirin >2 times/week or menopausal hormone therapy, and had a Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) mammographic density classification of 2, 3, or 4. The intervention effects (intent-to-treat) were evaluated by differences in the geometric mean outcome changes at six months between aspirin and placebo groups using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Participants were a mean 59.4 (SD, 5.4) years of age, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.4 (SD, 5.4) kg/m(2). Between baseline and six months, none of the serum estrogens or SHBG changed substantially and there were no differences between groups. Stratifying by BMI did not change results. In conclusion, a single daily administration of 325 mg of aspirin for six months had no effect on serum estrogens or SHBG in postmenopausal women. Larger doses or longer duration of aspirin administration may be needed to affect circulating estrogens. Alternately, if aspirin influences breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, it may do so through direct breast tissue effects, or through pathways other than estrogens.
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Time to screening in the systems of support to increase colorectal cancer screening trial.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Understanding how interventions affect time to completion of colorectal cancer screening might assist in planning and delivering population-based screening interventions. The Systems of Support to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening (SOS) study was conducted between 2008 and 2011 at 21 primary care medical centers in Western Washington. Participants in the study, ages 50 to 73 years, were eligible if they were enrolled in Group Health (Seattle, WA) and were due for colorectal cancer screening. Of note, 4,675 recruited participants were randomized to usual care or one of three interventions with incremental levels of systems of support for completion of colorectal cancer screening. We conducted time to screening analyses of the SOS data in years 1 and 2. We investigated whether these effects were time-varying. For year 1, the intervention effects on the time to completion of colorectal cancer screening were the strongest during the first two post-randomization months and then decreased, with no significant effect after the fifth month. For year 2, the intervention effects on the time to colorectal cancer screening increased from the first to the third month and then decreased, with no significant effect after the fifth month. Hence, each of the interventions to increase colorectal cancer screening had its greatest effect within the first 3 months after being offered to participants. Future studies should test whether booster interventions offered later could increase screening rate among those who remain unscreened. Additional research is needed to develop intervention strategies for colorectal cancer screening that focus on sustained behavior over time.
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Microtia Reconstruction and Postsurgical Grisel's Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Torticollis in a Child.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Grisel's syndrome is an unusual but important cause of torticollis which may be encountered in a pediatric plastic surgery practice, where craniofacial and oropharyngeal surgeries are commonly performed. Grisel's syndrome is characterized by painful torticollis and limited cervical rotation, and the diagnosis is confirmed via radiologic imaging. Initial management of Grisel's syndrome is with anti-inflammatories and in some cases antibiotics. In unresolving or recurrent cases, more invasive treatments, such as cervical collar, halo, or surgical arthrodesis, may be considered.
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Crowning Proteins: Modulating the Protein Surface Properties using Crown Ethers.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Crown ethers are small, cyclic polyethers that have found wide-spread use in phase-transfer catalysis and, to a certain degree, in protein chemistry. Crown ethers readily bind metallic and organic cations, including positively charged amino acid side chains. We elucidated the crystal structures of several protein-crown ether co-crystals grown in the presence of 18-crown-6. We then employed biophysical methods and molecular dynamics simulations to compare these complexes with the corresponding apoproteins and with similar complexes with ring-shaped low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycols. Our studies show that crown ethers can modify protein surface behavior dramatically by stabilizing either intra- or intermolecular interactions. Consequently, we propose that crown ethers can be used to modulate a wide variety of protein surface behaviors, such as oligomerization, domain-domain interactions, stabilization in organic solvents, and crystallization.
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Motion freeze for respiration motion correction in PET/CT: a preliminary investigation with lung cancer patient data.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Respiratory motion presents significant challenges for accurate PET/CT. It often introduces apparent increase of lesion size, reduction of measured standardized uptake value (SUV), and the mismatch in PET/CT fusion images. In this study, we developed the motion freeze method to use 100% of the counts collected by recombining the counts acquired from all phases of gated PET data into a single 3D PET data, with correction of respiration by deformable image registration.
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DNA mimic proteins: functions, structures, and bioinformatic analysis.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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DNA mimic proteins have DNA-like negative surface charge distributions, and they function by occupying the DNA binding sites of DNA binding proteins to prevent these sites from being accessed by DNA. DNA mimic proteins control the activities of a variety of DNA binding proteins and are involved in a wide range of cellular mechanisms such as chromatin assembly, DNA repair, transcription regulation, and gene recombination. However, the sequences and structures of DNA mimic proteins are diverse, making them difficult to predict by bioinformatic search. To date, only a few DNA mimic proteins have been reported. These DNA mimics were not found by searching for functional motifs in their sequences but were revealed only by structural analysis of their charge distribution. This review highlights the biological roles and structures of 16 reported DNA mimic proteins. We also discuss approaches that might be used to discover new DNA mimic proteins.
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The emerging role of hepatitis B virus Pre-S2 deletion mutant proteins in HBV tumorigenesis.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of HBV tumorigenesis, including inflammation and liver regeneration associated with cytotoxic immune injuries and transcriptional activators of mutant HBV gene products. The mutant viral oncoprotein-driven tumorigenesis is prevailed at the advanced stage or anti-HBe-positive phase of chronic HBV infection. Besides HBx, the pre-S2 (deletion) mutant protein represents a newly recognized oncoprotein that is accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and manifests as type II ground glass hepatocytes (GGH). The retention of pre-S2 mutant protein in ER can induce ER stress and initiate an ER stress-dependent VEGF/Akt/mTOR and NF?B/COX-2 signal pathway. Additionally, the pre-S2 mutant large surface protein can induce an ER stress-independent pathway to transactivate JAB-1/p27/RB/cyclin A,D pathway, leading to growth advantage of type II GGH. The pre-S2 mutant protein-induced ER stress can also cause DNA damage, centrosome overduplication, and genomic instability. In 5-10% of type II GGHs, there is co-expression of pre-S2 mutant protein and HBx antigen which exhibited enhanced oncogenic effects in transgenic mice. The mTOR signal cascade is consistently activated throughout the course of pre-S2 mutant transgenic livers and in human HCC tissues, leading to metabolic disorders and HCC tumorigenesis. Clinically, the presence of pre-S2 deletion mutants in sera frequently develop resistance to nucleoside analogues anti-virals and predict HCC development. The pre-S2 deletion mutants and type II GGHs therefore represent novel biomarkers of HBV-related HCCs. A versatile DNA array chip has been developed to detect pre-S2 mutants in serum. Overall, the presence of pre-S2 mutants in serum has implications for anti-viral treatment and can predict HCC development. Targeting at pre-S2 mutant protein-induced, ER stress-dependent, mTOR signal cascade and metabolic disorders may offer potential strategy for chemoprevention or therapy in high risk chronic HBV carriers.
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Interim FDG PET/CT for predicting the outcome in patients with head and neck cancer.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The study aimed to investigate the prognostic effects of interim (18) fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) during definitive radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with head and neck cancer.
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Penalized count data regression with application to hospital stay after pediatric cardiac surgery.
Stat Methods Med Res
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Pediatric cardiac surgery may lead to poor outcomes such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). Plasma and urine biomarkers may help with early identification and prediction of these adverse clinical outcomes. In a recent multi-center study, 311 children undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled to evaluate multiple biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of AKI and other clinical outcomes. LOS is often analyzed as count data, thus Poisson regression and negative binomial (NB) regression are common choices for developing predictive models. With many correlated prognostic factors and biomarkers, variable selection is an important step. The present paper proposes new variable selection methods for Poisson and NB regression. We evaluated regularized regression through penalized likelihood function. We first extend the elastic net (Enet) Poisson to two penalized Poisson regression: Mnet, a combination of minimax concave and ridge penalties; and Snet, a combination of smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) and ridge penalties. Furthermore, we extend the above methods to the penalized NB regression. For the Enet, Mnet, and Snet penalties (EMSnet), we develop a unified algorithm to estimate the parameters and conduct variable selection simultaneously. Simulation studies show that the proposed methods have advantages with highly correlated predictors, against some of the competing methods. Applying the proposed methods to the aforementioned data, it is discovered that early postoperative urine biomarkers including NGAL, IL18, and KIM-1 independently predict LOS, after adjusting for risk and biomarker variables.
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Comparisons between patients with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-susceptible and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia monomicrobial bacteremia: A 10-year retrospective study.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The impact of bacteremia due to the resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SXT) is uncertain. This study compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with TMP-SXT-susceptible (TSSSM) and TMP-SXT-resistant S. maltophilia (TSRSM) monomicrobial bacteremia.
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Robust estimation for secondary trait association in case-control genetic studies.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Secondary trait genetic association provides insight into the genetic architecture of disease etiology but requires caution in estimation. Ignoring case-control sampling may introduce bias into secondary trait association. In this paper, we compare the efficiency and robustness of various inverse probability weighted (IPW) estimators and maximum likelihood (ML) estimators. ML methods have been proposed but require correct modeling of both the secondary and the primary trait associations for valid inference. We show that ML methods using a misspecified primary trait model can severely inflate the type I error. IPW estimators are typically less efficient than ML estimators but are robust against model misspecification. When the secondary trait is available for the entire cohort, the IPW estimator with selection probabilities estimated nonparametrically and the augmented IPW estimator improve efficiency over the simple IPW estimator. We conclude that in large genetic association studies with complex sampling schemes, IPW-based estimators offer flexibility and robustness, and therefore are a viable option for analysis.
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Vitamin D3 supplementation during weight loss: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Vitamin D deficiency is associated with obesity; whether repletion supports weight loss and changes obesity-related biomarkers is unknown.
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Serum proteomic analysis of extracorporeal shock wave therapy-enhanced diabetic wound healing in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Previous studies have demonstrated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a significant positive effect on accelerating diabetic wound healing. However, the systemic effect after therapy is still unclear.
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Ground-glass hepatocytes co-expressing hepatitis B virus X protein and surface antigens exhibit enhanced oncogenic effects and tumorigenesis.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) and pre-S2 deletion mutant large surface antigens are oncoproteins that induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The interaction of these two oncoproteins in hepatocytes and its significance in tumorigenesis remain to be elucidated. In this study, we observed the co-expression of HBx with surface antigens in ground-glass hepatocytes in 5 of 20 hepatitis B surface antigen-positive livers. In vitro, hepatocytes co-expressing HBx and a pre-S2 mutant showed enhanced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, phosphorylated Akt 1/2/3, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin signals. Transgenic mice harboring both HBx and pre-S2 mutant construct plasmids developed HCCs at an average of 15.1 months, earlier than animals carrying either HBx (16.9 months) or pre-S2 mutant (24.5 months) alone. The oncogenic signals of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, phosphorylated Akt 1/2/3, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin were sequentially and differentially activated at different stages in tumorigenesis. Phosphorylated mTOR was consistently activated in transgenic and human HCCs. We conclude that ground-glass hepatocytes co-expressing HBx and surface antigens exhibit enhanced oncogenic effects and tumorigenesis in chronic HBV infections. The mTOR signal cascade may be the key regulator in HBV tumorigenesis and may be useful targets in the design of HCC therapy.
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Long-term outcomes of extracorporeal shockwave therapy for chronic foot ulcers.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Recent studies showed that extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is effective in the treatment of chronic foot ulcers in short term. However, the long-term effects of ESWT in chronic foot ulcers are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of ESWT in chronic foot ulcers with 5-y follow-up.
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Anti-Jo-1 myositis and the antiphospholipid syndrome showing right ventricular thrombus: a novel overlap syndrome with atypical presentation.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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It has long been recognized that patients with myositis and positive anti-Jo1 antibody tend to be associated with interstitial lung disease. Recent studies revealed that such patients may also have fever, Raynaud's phenomenon, mechanic's hand, polyarthralgia, or usually mild, self-limiting, non-erosive or erosive polyarthritis known as antisynthetase syndrome. The hallmark of this disorder is the presence of the autoantibodies that recognize the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which play a critical role in protein synthesis. The most well recognized of the autoantibodies is anti-histidyl (Jo-1). Antisynthetase syndrome cases associated with other autoimmune diseases are rarely reported. We here present a case of antisynthetase syndrome presented with right ventricle thrombus and deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs. Secondary antiphospholipid syndrome was then diagnosed after a series of examinations. The patient was successfully treated with anticoagulant alone without surgical thrombectomy. Our case revealed that clinical physicians should watch for thrombotic complications when facing patients with antisynthetase syndrome. Medical therapy with anticoagulants alone may be an alternative treatment option in patients with right ventricle thrombus who cannot tolerate surgical thrombectomy.
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Cholesterol glucosylation by Helicobacter pylori delays internalization and arrests phagosome maturation in macrophages.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and contributes to chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa. H. pylori persistence occurs because of insufficient eradication by phagocytic cells. A key factor of H. pylori, cholesterol-?-glucosyltransferase encoded by capJ that extracts host cholesterol and converts it to cholesteryl glucosides, is important to evade host immunity. Here, we examined whether phagocytic trafficking in macrophages was perturbed by capJ-carrying H. pylori.
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Effect of a 12-month exercise intervention on serum biomarkers of angiogenesis in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Increased physical activity is associated with decreased risk of several types of cancer, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Angiogenesis, in which new blood vessels are formed, is common to adipose tissue formation/remodeling and tumor vascularization.
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The effects of separate and combined dietary weight loss and exercise on fasting ghrelin concentrations in overweight and obese women: a randomized controlled trial.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Compensatory metabolic changes that accompany weight loss, for example, increased ghrelin, contribute to weight regain and difficulty in long-term weight loss maintenance; however, the separate effects of long-term caloric restriction and exercise on total circulating ghrelin in humans are unknown.
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Effect of age-related cartilage turnover on serum C-telopeptide of collagen type II and osteocalcin levels in growing rabbits with and without surgically induced osteoarthritis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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This study aims to determine the effect of age-related cartilage turnover on the serum C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) and osteocalcin (OC) levels in growing rabbits with and without surgically induced osteoarthritis. Twenty-four New Zealand male 3-month-old rabbits were randomized into three operated groups (n=6 per group, with surgically induced osteroarthritis in the right knee; after blood sampling, the knees were harvested following euthanization at 2, 3, and 6 months after surgery) and a control group (n=6, blood samples were obtained monthly between 3 and 15 months). Histomorphologically, the medial femoral condyles, particularly the central parts, harbored the most severe osteoarthritic changes among the operated rabbits. The serum levels of CTX-II and OC decreased in the controls from 3 to 11 months and then remained stable. No significant differences in the serum CTX-II and OC levels between the osteoarthritic rabbits and controls were observed. The osteoarthritic-to-normal ratios (ONRs, the ratios of serum CTX-II or OC levels in osteoarthritic rabbits to those of the controls at same ages) enabled an overall assessment of osteoarthritis and age-related cartilage turnover. Elevated CTX-II ONRs were observed in rabbits with mild to advanced osteoarthritis. However, the OC ONRs were unhelpful in assessing osteoarthritic growing rabbits.
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Shockwave therapy improves anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Shockwave was shown to enhance the healing of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in rabbits. This study evaluated the effect of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) on ACL reconstruction in human subjects. We hypothesized that ESWT may improve human ACL reconstruction.
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Progress in central nervous system lymphomas.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Until recently, primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) was associated with a uniformly dismal prognosis. It is now reasonable to anticipate long-term survival and possibly cure for a significant proportion of patients diagnosed with PCNSL. Accumulated data generated over the past 10 years has provided evidence that long-term progression-free survival (PFS) can reproducibly be attained in a significant fraction of PCNSL patients that receive dose-intensive chemotherapy consolidation, without whole brain radiotherapy. One consolidative regimen that has reproducibly demonstrated promise is the combination of infusional etoposide plus high-dose cytarabine (EA), administered in first complete remission after methotrexate, temozolomide and rituximab-based induction. Given evolving principles of management and the mounting evidence for reproducible improvements in survival rates in prospective clinical series, our goal in this review is to highlight and update principles in diagnosis, staging and management as well as to review data regarding the pathogenesis of central nervous system lymphomas, information that is likely to constitute a basis for the implementation of novel therapies that are requisite for further progress in this unique phenotype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
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Sedentary behavior and mortality in older women: the Women's Health Initiative.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Although epidemiologic studies have shown associations between sedentary behavior and mortality, few have focused on older women with adequate minority representation and few have controlled for both physical activity and functional status.
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Profiling the microRNA Expression in Human iPS and iPS-derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium.
Cancer Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study is to characterize the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE). MiRNAs have been demonstrated to play critical roles in both maintaining pluripotency and facilitating differentiation. Gene expression networks accountable for maintenance and induction of pluripotency are linked and share components with those networks implicated in oncogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that miRNA expression profiling will distinguish iPS cells from their iPS-RPE progeny. To identify and analyze differentially expressed miRNAs, RPE was derived from iPS using a spontaneous differentiation method. MiRNA microarray analysis identified 155 probes that were statistically differentially expressed between iPS and iPS-RPE cells. Up-regulated miRNAs including miR-181c and miR-129-5p may play a role in promoting differentiation, while down-regulated miRNAs such as miR-367, miR-18b, and miR-20b are implicated in cell proliferation. Subsequent miRNA-target and network analysis revealed that these miRNAs are involved in cellular development, cell cycle progression, cell death, and survival. A systematic interrogation of temporal and spatial expression of iPS-RPE miRNAs and their associated target mRNAs will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, eye differentiation and development.
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Relationship between Lung Function and Metabolic Syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although the link between impaired lung function and cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been recognized, the association between impaired lung function and metabolic syndrome has not been comprehensively assessed in the United States (U.S.) population. The aim of our study was to explore the association between impaired lung function and metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample of men and women. This cross-sectional population-based study included 8602 participants aged 20-65 years in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). We examined the relationship between the different features of metabolic syndrome and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). After adjusting for potential confounders such as age, body mass index, inflammatory factors, medical condition, and smoking status, participants with more components of metabolic syndrome had lower predicted values of FVC and FEV1 (p for trend <0.001 for both). Impaired pulmonary function was also associated with individual components of metabolic syndrome, such as abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, and low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p<0.05 for all parameters). These results from a nationally representative sample of US adults suggest that a greater number of features of metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with poorer FVC and FEV1. In clinical practice, more comprehensive management strategies to address subjects with metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function need to be developed and investigated.
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YTRP: a repository for yeast transcriptional regulatory pathways.
Database (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Regulatory targets of transcription factors (TFs) can be identified by the TF perturbation experiments, which reveal the expression changes owing to the perturbation (deletion or overexpression) of TFs. But the identified targets of a given TF consist of both direct and indirect regulatory targets. It has been shown that most of the TFPE-identified regulatory targets are indirect, indicating that TF-gene regulation is mainly through transcriptional regulatory pathways (TRPs) consisting of intermediate TFs. Without identification of these TRPs, it is not easy to understand how a TF regulates its indirect targets. Because there is no such database depositing the potential TRPs for Saccharomyces cerevisiae now, this motivates us to construct the YTRP (Yeast Transcriptional Regulatory Pathway) database. For each TF-gene regulatory pair under different experimental conditions, all possible TRPs in two underlying networks (constructed using experimentally verified TF-gene binding pairs and TF-gene regulatory pairs from the literature) for the specified experimental conditions were automatically enumerated by TRP mining procedures developed from the graph theory. The enumerated TRPs of a TF-gene regulatory pair provide experimentally testable hypotheses for the molecular mechanisms behind a TF and its regulatory target. YTRP is available online at http://cosbi3.ee.ncku.edu.tw/YTRP/. We believe that the TRPs deposited in this database will greatly improve the usefulness of TFPE data for yeast biologists to study the regulatory mechanisms between a TF and its knocked-out targets. Database URL: http://cosbi3.ee.ncku.edu.tw/YTRP/.
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Influence of diet, exercise, and serum vitamin d on sarcopenia in postmenopausal women.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 12 months of dietary weight loss and/or aerobic exercise on lean mass and the measurements defining sarcopenia in postmenopausal women and to examine the potential moderating effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and age.
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Predicting Adherence of Adults to a 12-Month Exercise Intervention.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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The purpose of this study was to (a) examine demographic, psychosocial, and physiological predictors of exercise adherence in a yearlong exercise intervention and (b) describe the trajectory of adherence over time.
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Staphylococcus aureus protein SAUGI acts as a uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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DNA mimic proteins are unique factors that control the DNA binding activity of target proteins by directly occupying their DNA binding sites. The extremely divergent amino acid sequences of the DNA mimics make these proteins hard to predict, and although they are likely to be ubiquitous, to date, only a few have been reported and functionally analyzed. Here we used a bioinformatic approach to look for potential DNA mimic proteins among previously reported protein structures. From ?14 candidates, we selected the Staphylococcus conserved hypothetical protein SSP0047, and used proteomic and structural approaches to show that it is a novel DNA mimic protein. In Staphylococcus aureus, we found that this protein acts as a uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor, and therefore named it S. aureus uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor (SAUGI). We also determined and analyzed the complex structure of SAUGI and S. aureus uracil-DNA glycosylase (SAUDG). Subsequent BIAcore studies further showed that SAUGI has a high binding affinity to both S. aureus and human UDG. The two uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitors (UGI and p56) previously known to science were both found in Bacillus phages, and this is the first report of a bacterial DNA mimic that may regulate SAUDGs functional roles in DNA repair and host defense.
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Microtubule depolymerization activates the Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle through protein kinase C pathways in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Elevated levels of antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the presence of viral DNA in plasma are reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in high-prevalence areas, such as South-East Asia. The presence of these viral markers in the circulation suggests that a minimal level of virus reactivation may have occurred in an infected individual, although the underlying mechanism of reactivation remains to be elucidated. Here, we showed that treatment with nocodazole, which provokes the depolymerization of microtubules, induces the expression of two EBV lytic cycle proteins, Zta and EA-D, in EBV-positive NPC cells. This effect was independent of mitotic arrest, as viral reactivation was not abolished in cells synchronized at interphase. Notably, the induction of Zta by nocodazole was mediated by transcriptional upregulation via protein kinase C (PKC). Pre-treatment with inhibitors for PKC or its downstream signalling partners p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) abolished the nocodazole-mediated induction of Zta and EA-D. Interestingly, the effect of nocodazole, as well as colchicine and vinblastine, on lytic gene expression occurred only in NPC epithelial cells but not in cells derived from lymphocytes. These results establish a novel role of microtubule integrity in controlling the EBV life cycle through PKC and its downstream pathways, which represents a tissue-specific mechanism for controlling the life-cycle switch of EBV.
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Expected estimating equation using calibration data for generalized linear models with a mixture of Berkson and classical errors in covariates.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Data collected in many epidemiological or clinical research studies are often contaminated with measurement errors that may be of classical or Berkson error type. The measurement error may also be a combination of both classical and Berkson errors and failure to account for both errors could lead to unreliable inference in many situations. We consider regression analysis in generalized linear models when some covariates are prone to a mixture of Berkson and classical errors, and calibration data are available only for some subjects in a subsample. We propose an expected estimating equation approach to accommodate both errors in generalized linear regression analyses. The proposed method can consistently estimate the classical and Berkson error variances based on the available data, without knowing the mixture percentage. We investigated its finite-sample performance numerically. Our method is illustrated by an application to real data from an HIV vaccine study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The use of demineralized bone matrix for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a radiographic, histologic, and immunohistochemical study in rabbits.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Tendon-bone healing is crucial in success of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a physiological component that has the inherent potential of bone regeneration. We hypothesized that the alternative bone substitute can affect the structural properties of tendon graft in tibial tunnel healing. Five 12-week-old New Zealand white rabbits in study group underwent unilateral ACL reconstructions plus the application of 0.5 cc DBM in the tibial tunnel. The assessment included radiological assessment and histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Radiological examination revealed that DBM group had the least displacement of tendon in tibial tunnel (0.4 ± 0.12; P = 0.03). Histologic examination showed significantly better integration between tendon and bone in DBM group (77.62 ± 2.08; P = 0.001). On immunohistochemical analysis, the DBM group showed significantly higher expressions of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor than control group (51.98 ± 3.02, 84.06 ± 1.86; P = 0.001, P < 0.001). DBM enhances the tendon-bone healing in ACL reconstruction. DBM has the potential use in ACL surgery.
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Weight and metabolic effects of dietary weight loss and exercise interventions in postmenopausal antidepressant medication users and non-users: a randomized controlled trial.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Antidepressants may attenuate the effects of diet and exercise programs. We compared adherence and changes in body measures and biomarkers of glucose metabolism and inflammation between antidepressant users and non-users in a 12-month randomized controlled trial.
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Graft failure versus graft fixation in ACL reconstruction: histological and immunohistochemical studies in rabbits.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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The causes of graft failure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are multifactorial including the methods of graft fixation. The purpose of this study was to examine the ACL graft failure in three different methods of graft fixations including interference screw fixation, suture-post fixation and combined interference screw and suture-post fixation. We hypothesized that the fixation method after ACL reconstruction can affect the graft healing in tibial tunnel. Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were categorized into three groups according to the method of fixation in unilateral ACL reconstruction with long digital extensor autograft. Histological examination demonstrated that the combined fixation and suture-post fixation groups showed significantly better integration between tendon and bone (P = 0.04). In immunohistochemical analysis, the combined fixation and suture-post fixation groups showed significantly higher BMP-2 and VEGF expressions than interference screw (P < 0.01). The tendon-bone healing after ACL reconstruction was affected by the method of graft fixation. Combined fixation with interference screw and suture-post reduced graft-tunnel micromotion and improved the graft healing in tibial tunnel.
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Carotid blowout in head and neck cancer patients - associated factors and treatment outcomes.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Background: We investigate factors associated with carotid blowout in the cervical portion of head and neck patients in a large cohort. Methods: We reviewed head and neck cancer patients and identified those with carotid blowout. Variables of patients with and without carotid blowout were compared and associated factors were investigated by logistic regression model. Results: A total of 2590 patients were included in the final analysis and 102 patients (3.9%) developed carotid blowout in the cervical region. Body mass index < 22.5 kg/M(2) , primary site of hypopharynx or oropharynx, open wound in the neck requiring wet dressing, radical neck dissection, and total radiation dose to the neck >= 70 Gy were independent factors associated with carotid blowout. Conclusions: After completion of treatment in head and neck cancer patients, carotid blowout was an uncommon complication with catastrophic results. Recognition of associated factors helps physician to identify those in risk. Head Neck, 2013.
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Inhibitory and combinatorial effect of diphyllin, a v-ATPase blocker, on influenza viruses.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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An influenza pandemic poses a serious threat to humans and animals. Conventional treatments against influenza include two classes of pathogen-targeting antivirals: M2 ion channel blockers (such as amantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (such as oseltamivir). Examination of the mechanism of influenza viral infection has shown that endosomal acidification plays a major role in facilitating the fusion between viral and endosomal membranes. This pathway has led to investigations on vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase) activity, whose role as a regulating factor on influenza virus replication has been verified in extensive genome-wide screenings. Blocking v-ATPase activity thus presents the opportunity to interfere with influenza viral infection by preventing the pH-dependent membrane fusion between endosomes and virions. This study aims to apply diphyllin, a natural compound shown to be as a novel v-ATPase inhibitor, as a potential antiviral for various influenza virus strains using cell-based assays. The results show that diphyllin alters cellular susceptibility to influenza viruses through the inhibition of endosomal acidification, thus interfering with downstream virus replication, including that of known drug-resistant strains. In addition, combinatorial treatment of the host-targeting diphyllin with pathogen-targeting therapeutics (oseltamivir and amantadine) demonstrates enhanced antiviral effects and cell protection in vitro.
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Effects of dietary weight loss and exercise on insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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High levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I may increase the risk of common cancers in humans. We hypothesized that weight loss induced by diet and/or exercise would reduce IGF-I in postmenopausal women. Four hundred and thirty nine overweight or obese [body mass index (BMI) ? 25 kg/m(2)] women (50-75 years) were randomly assigned to: (i) exercise (N = 117), (ii) dietary weight loss (N = 118), (iii) diet + exercise (N = 117), or (iv) control (N = 87). The diet intervention was a group-based program with a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention was 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity. Fasting serum IGF-I and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 were measured at baseline and 12 months by radioimmunoassay. Higher baseline BMI was associated with lower IGF-I and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. Although no significant changes in either IGF-I or IGFBP-3 were detected in any intervention arm compared with control, the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio increased significantly in the diet (+5.0%, P < 0.01) and diet + exercise (+5.4%, P < 0.01) groups compared with control. Greater weight loss was positively associated with change in both IGF-I (P(trend) = 0.017) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio (P(trend) < 0.001) in the diet group, but inversely with change in IGFBP-3 in the diet + exercise group (P(trend) = 0.01). No consistent interaction effects with baseline BMI were detected. Modified IGF-I bioavailability is unlikely to be a mechanism through which caloric restriction reduces cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
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Functional outcomes of Y-graft double-bundle and single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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The purpose of this study was to compare the functional outcome, ligament laxity, and tibial tunnel enlargement between 3-tunnel double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and single-bundle (SB) ACL reconstruction.
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Detection of anti-reticuloendotheliosis virus antibody by blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with expression envelope protein.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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The current reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) antibody detection kit that uses enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) needs concentrated virus, which is difficult to obtain due to its poor propagation in cells. In addition, this kit detects only chicken antibody but not other species. To overcome these disadvantages, we cloned and expressed REV env gene to develop monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which we used for antibody detection in ELISA. Three mAbs were prepared from mice. These three mAbs could recognize REVs from ducks and geese by immunodot assay. In addition, the epitopes that the three mAbs recognized were determined by using three different env protein fragments by western blotting. One mAb was used to develop a blocking ELISA (bELISA) coated with expressed env protein to detect anti-REV antibody in chicken serum. This assay had a 98.8% (79/80) agreement with a commercial ELISA kit. Another 146 chicken sera with known neutralization antibodies were used as positive controls to evaluate this bELISA. The sensitivity and specificity this bELISA were 88.9% (40/45) and 94.8% (91/96), respectively. Thus, this bELISA could be used for anti-REV antibody detection in birds.
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Predictors of adherence to a 26-week viniyoga intervention among post-treatment breast cancer survivors.
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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This study aimed to identify demographic, psychological, health-related, and geographic predictors of adherence to home-based and supervised components of a yoga intervention in breast cancer survivors.
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Weight, inflammation, cancer-related symptoms and healthrelated quality of life among breast cancer survivors.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Maintaining weight is important for better prognosis of breast cancer survivors. The associations between weight and cancer-related symptoms are not known. We examined associations among weight, weight change, inflammation, cancer-related symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of stage 0-IIIA breast cancer survivors. Participants were recruited on average 6 months (2–12 months) after diagnosis. Height, weight, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed at approximately 30 months post-diagnosis; cancer-related symptoms (chest wall and arm symptoms, vasomotor symptoms, urinary incontinence, vaginal symptoms, cognition/mood problems, sleep, sexual interest/function), and HRQOL (SF-36) were assessed at approximately 40 months post-diagnosis. Weight was measured at baseline in a subset. Data on 661 participants were evaluable for body mass index (BMI); 483 were evaluable for weight change. We assessed associations between BMI (<25.0, 25.0–29.9, ?30.0 kg/m2), post-diagnosis weight change (lost ?5 %, weight change <5 %, gained ?5 %), and CRP (tertile) with cancer-related symptoms and HRQOL using analysis of covariance. Higher symptoms scores indicate more frequent or severe symptoms. Higher HRQOL scores indicate better HRQOL. Compared with those with BMI <25 kg/m2, women with BMI ?30 kg/m2 had the following scores: increased for arm symptoms (+25.0 %), urinary incontinence (+40.0 %), tendency to nap (+18.9 %), and poorer physical functioning (?15.6 %, all p < 0.05). Obese women had lower scores in trouble falling asleep (?9.9 %; p < 0.05). Compared with weight change <5 %, participants with ?5 % weight gain had lower scores in physical functioning (?7.2 %), role-physical (?15.5 %) and vitality (?11.2 %), and those with weight loss ?5 % had lower chest wall (?33.0 %) and arm symptom scores (?35.5 %, all p < 0.05). Increasing CRP tertile was associated with worse scores for chest wall symptoms, urinary incontinence, physical functioning, role-physical, vitality and physical component summary scores (all P trend < 0.05). Future studies should examine whether interventions to maintain a healthy weight and reduce inflammation could alleviate cancer-related symptoms and improve HRQOL.
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Long-term physical activity trends in breast cancer survivors.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Physical activity is associated with reduced mortality and higher quality of life in breast cancer survivors; however, limited data on the prevalence of activity and long-term trends after diagnosis are available.
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The central role of comorbidity in predicting ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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BACKGROUND: Ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSHs) are commonly used as measures of access to and quality of care. They are defined as hospitalizations for certain acute and chronic conditions; yet, they are most commonly used in analyses comparing different groups without adjustment for individual-level comorbidity. We present an exploration of their roles in predicting ACSHs for acute and chronic conditions. METHODS: Using 1998-99 US Medicare claims for 1 06 930 SEER-Medicare control subjects and 1999 Area Resource File data, we modelled occurrence of acute and chronic ACSHs with logistic regression, examining effects of different predictors on model discriminatory power. RESULTS: Flags for the presence of a few comorbid conditions-congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, hypertension and, for acute ACSHs, dementia-contributed virtually all of the discriminative ability for predicting ACSHs. C-statistics were up to 0.96 for models predicting chronic ACSHs and up to 0.87 for predicting acute ACSHs. C-statistics for models lacking comorbidity flags were lower, at best 0.73, for both acute and chronic ACSHs. CONCLUSION: Comorbidity is far more important in predicting ACSH risk than any other factor, both for acute and chronic ACSHs. Imputations about quality and access should not be made from analyses that do not control for presence of important comorbid conditions. Acute and chronic ACSHs differ enough that they should be modelled separately. Unaggregated models restricted to persons with the relevant diagnoses are most appropriate for chronic ACSHs.
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Neisseria conserved hypothetical protein DMP12 is a DNA mimic that binds to histone-like HU protein.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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DNA mimic proteins are unique factors that control the DNA-binding activity of target proteins by directly occupying their DNA-binding sites. To date, only a few DNA mimic proteins have been reported and their functions analyzed. Here, we present evidence that the Neisseria conserved hypothetical protein DMP12 should be added to this list. Our gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation results showed that the DMP12 monomer interacts with the dimeric form of the bacterial histone-like protein HU. Subsequent structural analysis of DMP12 showed that the shape and electrostatic surface of the DMP12 monomer are similar to those of the straight portion of the bent HU-bound DNA and complementary to those of HU protein dimer. DMP12 also protects HU protein from limited digestion by trypsin and enhances the growth rate Escherichia coli. Functionally, HU proteins participate in bacterial nucleoid formation, as well as recombination, gene regulation and DNA replication. The interaction between DMP12 and HU protein might, therefore, play important roles in these DNA-related mechanisms.
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Preoperative templating and computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty for arthritic valgus knee.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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We reported the functional outcomes, component alignment and optimal thickness of the tibial inserts and joint line changes of 21 arthritic valgus knee deformities using preoperative templating and computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty(TKA). The osseous cut was modified using a novel preoperative templating technique. Soft tissue balance and component implantation were implemented with the aid of a computed tomography-free navigation system. The arthritic valgus knees had clinical, and functional improvement of the knee Society scores and Lysholm scores postoperatively, at an average of 37.8 ± 7.2 months. The mean anatomic axis (15.2° ± 4.5° vs. 6.1° ± 1.4°) and mechanical axis (8.3° ± 5.2° vs. 0.28° ± 1.6°) were also significantly improved postoperatively. The mean thickness of tibial inserts and joint line changes was 10.7 ± 1.46 mm and 0.1 ± 1.4 mm. This computer-assisted technique with preoperative radiographic templating is an alternative strategy to improve TKA results in arthritic valgus knees.
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Survival analysis of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with simultaneous second primary tumors.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of simultaneous second primary tumor (SPT) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The survival of patients with simultaneous SPT was also compared with patients without.
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An automated intervention with stepped increases in support to increase uptake of colorectal cancer screening: a randomized trial.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Screening decreases colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, yet almost half of age-eligible patients are not screened at recommended intervals.
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Treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures with combined transarticular external fixation and minimal internal fixation.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes after surgery for displaced intra-articular fractures using an external fixator and minimal internal fixation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.