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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Simultaneous Purification of Limonin, Nomilin and Isoobacunoic Acid from Pomelo Fruit (Citrus grandis) Segment Membrane.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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A method was established for purification of limonin, nomilin, and isoobacunoic acid simultaneously from segment membranes of pomelo (Citrus Grandis). This method includes 3 steps, removing most impurities by macroporous resin HZ-816, isolating limonin by High Speed Counter Current Chromatography (HSCCC), and isolating nomilin and isoobacunoic acid by semi-preparative HPLC. Naringin was partially purified as a by-product of this process using Sephadex LH-20. All limonoids purified through this method reached 95% purity. The purified limonin, nomilin and isoobacunoic acid were identified according to the retention time of the standard substances using HPLC and characteristic fragment ions of LC-MS/MS.
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Anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extract activate transcription factor Nrf2 in ? cells and negatively regulate oxidative stress-induced autophagy.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Islet replacement is a promising cure for insulin-dependent diabetes but is limited by a massive early cell death following transplantation. Overburden oxidative stress is one of the major factors causing cell damage. We have shown previously that anthocyanins in Chinese bayberry extract protected ? cells (INS-1) from hydrogen peroxide (H?O?)-induced apoptosis and decreased grafts apoptosis after transplantation partially through heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) up-regulation. In the present study, we observed that H?O? stimulation induced autophagy in ? cells. Inhibition of autophagy increased cell viability and decreased cell death. Anthocyanin pretreatment attenuated oxidative stress-mediated autophagic cell death. Anthocyanins activated antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 in INS-1 cells, and Nrf2/HO-1 negatively regulated autophagy process. Furthermore, we here demonstrate that autophagy also took place in ? cell grafts during the early post-transplantation phase. ? Cells pretreated with anthocyanins displayed decreased extent of autophagy after transplantation. Taken together, these findings further supported the conclusion that anthocyanins could serve as a protective agent of ? cells and suggested that autophagy might play a role in ? cells during transplantation.
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Biological activities of extracts from Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.): a review.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) is a subtropical fruit tree native to China and other Asian countries, and culture of this Myricaceae plant has been recorded in Chinese history for more than 2000 years. Bayberry fruit is delicious with attractive color, flavor, and high economic value. Compared with other berries, bayberry fruit is a rich source of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, e.g., 64.8 mg/100 g fresh weight in Biqi cultivar), which accounts for at least 85 % of the anthocyanins in the fruit. Bayberry is also a plant with high medicinal value since different organs have been used historically as folk medicines. Research efforts suggest bayberry extracts contain antioxidants that exhibit bioactivities counteracting inflammation, allergens, diabetes, cancer, bacterial infection, diarrhea and other health issues. Bayberry compounds have been isolated and characterized to provide a better understanding of the chemical mechanisms underlying the biological activities of bayberry extracts and to elaborate the structure-activity relationships. As the identification of compounds progresses, studies investigating the in vivo metabolism and bioavailability as well as potential toxicity of bayberry extracts in animal models are receiving more attention. In addition, breeding and genetic studies of bayberry with high accumulation of health-benefiting compounds may provide new insight for the bayberry research and industry. This review is focused on the main medicinal properties reported and the possible pharmaceutically active compounds identified in different bayberry extracts.
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Characterization, Purification of Poncirin from Edible Citrus Ougan (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima) and Its Growth Inhibitory Effect on Human Gastric Cancer Cells SGC-7901.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Poncirin is a bitter flavanone glycoside with various biological activities. Poncirin was isolated from four different tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane, and juice sac) of Ougan fruit (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima). The highest content of poncirin was found in the albedo of Ougan fruit (1.37 mg/g DW). High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with D101 resin chromatography was utilized for the separation and purification of poncirin from the albedo of Ougan fruit. After this two-step purification, poncirin purity increased from 0.14% to 96.56%. The chemical structure of the purified poncirin was identified by both HPLC-PDA and LC-MS. Poncirin showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of the human gastric cancer cells, SGC-7901, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, poncirin from Ougan fruit, may be beneficial for gastric cancer prevention. The purification method demonstrated here will be useful for further studies on the pharmacological mechanism of poncirin activity, as well as for guiding the consumption of Ougan fruit.
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Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Chinese Bayberry Fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) at Different Ripening Stages and Their Association with Fruit Quality Development.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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A total of 2000 EST sequences were produced from cDNA libraries generated from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc. cv. "Biqi") at four different ripening stages. After cluster and assembly analysis of the datasets by UniProt, 395 unigenes were identified, and their presumed functions were assigned to 14 putative cellular roles. Furthermore, a sequence BLAST was done for the top ten highly expressed genes in the ESTs, and genes associated with disease/defense and anthocyanin accumulation were analyzed. Gene-encoding elements associated with ethylene biosynthesis and signal transductions, in addition to other senescence-regulating proteins, as well as those associated with quality formation during fruit ripening, were also identified. Their possible roles were subsequently discussed.
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Separation and purification of neohesperidin from the albedo of Citrus reticulata cv. Suavissima by combination of macroporous resin and high-speed counter-current chromatography.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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In this article, a simple and efficient protocol for rapid preparation and separation of neohesperidin from the albedo of Citrus reticulata cv. Suavissima was established by the combination of macroporous resin column chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Six types of resin were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests, and D101 macroporous resin was selected for the first cleaning-up procedure, in which 55% aqueous ethanol was used to elute neohesperidin. After treatment with D101 resin, the neohesperidin purity increased 11.83-fold from 4.92% in the crude extract to 58.22% in the resin-refined sample, with a recovery of 68.97%. The resin-refined sample was directly subjected to HSCCC purification with a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (4:1:5, v/v), and 23.6 mg neohesperidin with 97.47% purity was obtained from 60 mg sample in only one run. The recovery of neohesperidin in HSCCC separation procedure was 65.85%. The chemical structure of the purified neohesperidin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS. The established purification process will be helpful for further characterization and utilization of Citrus neohesperidin.
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Flavonoids, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Capacity in the Flower of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Flavonoids and phenolics are abundant in loquat flowers. Methanol had the highest extraction efficiency among five solvents, followed by ethanol. Considering the safety and residue, ethanol is better as extraction solvent. The average content of flavonoids and phenolics of loquat flower of five cultivars were 1.59 ± 0.24 and 7.86 ± 0.87 mg/g DW, respectively, when using ethanol as extraction solvent. The contents of both bioactive components in flowers at different developmental stages and in the various flower tissues clearly differed, with the highest flavonoids and phenolics content in flowers of stage 3 (flower fully open) and petal, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS methods. The values of ABTS method was highest, followed by DPPH, the lowest was FRAP, when using vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) as unit. Correlation analysis showed that the ABTS method showed the highest correlation coefficients with flavonoids and phenolics, i.e., 0.886 and 0.973, respectively.
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Physical changes and physiological characteristics of red and green peel during nectarine (cv. Hu018) maturation.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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The aim of this study was to determine physical changes in nectarine and distinctive physiological characteristics related to red and green peel under stresses occurring during fruit maturation, information on which is currently not available.
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Anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extract protect ? cells from oxidative stress-mediated injury via HO-1 upregulation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role during the islet transplantation procedure, and antioxidant supplementation may protect grafts against oxidative injury. Chinese bayberry is one of six Myrica species native to China, and we demonstrated here that anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extract (CBE) protect pancreatic ? cells (INS-1) against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced necrosis and apoptosis. Anthocyanins time- and dose-dependently upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression in ? cells and primary islets. HO-1 knockdown increased H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and attenuated the cytoprotective effect of anthocyanins. Anthocyanin treatment activated ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling, and ERK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors partially attenuated anthocyanin-mediated induction of HO-1. Additionally, ? cells pretreated with anthocyanins displayed a decreased extent of apoptosis after transplantation. In summary, these results suggest that anthocyanins in CBE protect ? cells from H(2)O(2)-induced cell injury via ERK1/2- and PI3K/Akt-mediated HO-1 upregulation.
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Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H(2)O(2)-induced Stress.
Int J Mol Sci
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Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH(•) free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H(2)O(2) stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.
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Purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) fruit and their effects on glucose consumption in human HepG2 cells.
Food Chem
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Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) is rich in naringin and neohesperidin, which are natural flavanone glycosides with a range of biological activities. Among the different fruit parts, i.e. flavedo, albedo, segment membrane (SM), and juice sacs (JS), albedo showed the highest contents of both compounds, with 27.00 and 19.09mg/g DW for naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. Efficient simultaneous purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou albedo was established by the combination of macroporous D101 resin chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified naringin and neohesperidin were identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and their effects on glucose consumption were investigated in HepG2 cells. Cells treated with naringin and neohesperidin showed increased consumption of glucose, and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Therefore, naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou may act as potential hypoglycaemic agents through regulation of glucose metabolism.
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