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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Blood lead concentrations and children's behavioral and emotional problems: a cohort study.
JAMA Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The association between lead exposure and children's IQ has been well studied, but few studies have examined the effects of blood lead concentrations on children's behavior.
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Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Nocturnal awakening is the most frequent insomnia complaint in the general population. In contrast to a growing knowledge based on adults, little is known about its prevalence, correlated factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness in children. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and the correlate factors of frequent nocturnal awakening (FNA) among Chinese school-aged children. Furthermore, the associations of FNA with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness were examined.
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Effects of duration and timing of prenatal stress on hippocampal myelination and synaptophysin expression.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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The relationship between prenatal stress (PS) exposure and neurodevelopmental deficits remains inconclusive, especially when assessing the role of PS duration and timing and sex-dependent effects. This study explored a sex-specific association between the duration and timing of exposure and the outcomes of PS-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal microstructure, synaptophysin expression, and neurobehavioral performance in rats. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to control, PS-ML (exposed to prenatal restraint stress in the mid-to-late period of pregnancy), or PS-L (exposed in the late period of pregnancy) groups, and offspring in each group were divided into two subgroups by sex. Surface-righting reflex test, cliff avoidance test and Morris water maze test showed that neurodevelopmental levels were reduced in PS-treated pups but without significant sex differences. On postnatal day 22, hippocampal microstructure was examined by electron microscopy, and the expression of hippocampal synaptophysin was assessed by western blot. Abnormal ultrastructural appearance of hippocampal neurons and myelin sheaths, more degenerating neurons and higher G-ratios were found in young PS-ML and PS-L rats as well as reduced expression of hippocampal synaptophysin, although PS-ML pups were more greatly affected than PS-L, with males showing slightly greater impairments than females. These findings suggest that hippocampal hypo-myelination and decreased synaptophysin expression in neurodevelopment may be a duration and time-dependent effect of prenatal stress exposure, modified slightly by sex.
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Umbilical cord blood mercury levels in China.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Mercury (Hg) is a well-known neurotoxicant. Hg exposure at high levels can harm individuals of all ages. Even low level exposure to Hg can damage the brain of fetuses and young children, and affect their central nervous system and cognitive development. The aims of our study were to measure total Hg levels in infant umbilical cord blood and to investigate the risk factors associated with total Hg cord blood levels in various cities in China. Our goal was to provide clues for the prevention of Hg exposure in utero. The results indicated that the average cord blood mercury levels (CBMLs) were (1.81 +/- 1.93) microg/L, which were lower than those found in most previous studies. The concentrations also differed according to geographic region. The CBMLs were not only associated with family economic and living conditions, but also with diet in pregnant women, especially the intake of marine fish, shellfish, poultry, formula milk and fruits.
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Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children.
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Impact of low blood lead concentrations on IQ and school performance in Chinese children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and childrens intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance.
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Blood lead levels and associated sociodemographic factors among preschool children in the South Eastern region of China.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Children are especially vulnerable to lead toxicity, and exposure to lead has been linked to poor school performance and delinquency in children and adolescents. Even low-level lead exposure [blood lead level (BLL) <10 µg/dL] can cause intellectual deficit. In China, BLLs in children decreased slightly after the phasing out of lead in gasoline, but few studies have examined the sociodemographic factors associated with BLL above 10 µg/dL. In this study, we sought to examine the hypothesis that sociodemographic factors predict BLLs. We measured BLLs of 1344 preschool children (3-5 years old) from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Childrens sociodemographic and health statuses, as well as parental sociodemographic data, were collected using questionnaires. Regression models were used to explore the association between sociodemographic factors and log-transformed BLLs as well as the relationship between sociodemographic factors and the risk of BLL ?10 µg/dL. We found the median BLL to be 6.2 µg/dL (range: 1.8-32.0 µg/dL); 8% of children had BLLs ?10 µg/dL. Boys had a higher median BLL (6.4 µg/dL) than girls and were more likely to have BLL ?10 µg/dL [odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.14, 2.74]. BLLs increased as children aged, with a median BLL of 6.6 µg/dL among 5-year-old children. Children with siblings had a higher average BLL and greater prevalence of a BLL ?10 µg/dL than those without siblings. Living in a crowded neighbourhood was also associated with increased BLLs. Mothers lower education, fathers occupation (as professional worker) and parental smoking at home were associated with increased BLLs. This study shows that children in this area still have relatively high BLLs even after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Both childrens and parental factors and community condition are associated with increased BLLs. Future efforts are needed to identify other sources of exposure and develop targeted prevention strategies.
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Regular breakfast and blood lead levels among preschool children.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb) is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study.
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Prevalence and risk factors of childhood allergic diseases in eight metropolitan cities in China: a multicenter study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Several studies conducted during the past two decades suggested increasing trend of childhood allergic diseases in China. However, few studies have provided detailed description of geographic variation and explored risk factors of these diseases. This study investigated the pattern and risk factors of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in eight metropolitan cities in China.
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Lead in childrens blood is mainly caused by coal-fired ash after phasing out of leaded gasoline in Shanghai.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic element to the human body. After phasing out of leaded gasoline we find that the blood lead level of children strongly correlates with the lead concentration in atmospheric particles, and the latter correlates with the coal consumption instead of leaded gasoline. Combined with the (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratio measurements, we find that the coal consumption fly ash is a dominate source of Pb exposure to children in Shanghai, rather than vehicle exhaust, metallurgic dust, paint dust, and drinking water. Those particles are absorbed to childrens blood via breathing and digesting their deposition on ground by hand-to-mouth activities. Probably the same situation occurs in other large cities of developing countries where the structure of energy supply is mainly based on coal-combustion.
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Effects of low level of methylmercury on proliferation of cortical progenitor cells.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent environmental neurotoxin that shows toxicity to developing central nervous system (CNS), causing brain damage in children even at low exposure levels. However, the mechanisms for its effect on CNS are not well understood. In current study, primary cultures of progenitor cells from embryonic cerebral cortex were used as a model system to study the potential effect and the underlying mechanism of MeHg on neural progenitor cells. Results showed that, in cultured cortical progenitor cells, 48-h exposure to low-level of MeHg (at 2.5 nM, 5 nM and 50 nM, respectively) caused G1/S cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner without inducing cell death. Interestingly, the expression of cyclin E, which promotes G1/S transition, but not cyclin D1 and CDK2, was selectively downregulated by exposure of MeHg. In addition, low-level of MeHg inhibited the maintenance of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, possibly by abolishing the late phase ERK1/2 activation induced by bFGF. Thus, MeHg may induce proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest of neural progenitor cells via regulating cyclin E expression and perturbing a pathway that involves ERK1/2.
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Risk factors associated with short sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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To examine risk factors regarding short sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.
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Habitual snoring in school-aged children: environmental and biological predictors.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Habitual snoring, a prominent symptom of sleep-disordered breathing, is an important indicator for a number of health problems in children. Compared to adults, large epidemiological studies on childhood habitual snoring and associated predisposing factors are extremely scarce. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of habitual snoring among Chinese school-aged children.
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Determinants of urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in Chinese children with acute leukemia.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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The 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidized nucleoside of DNA, not only is a widely used biomarker for the measurement of endogenous oxidative DNA damage, but might also be a risk factor for many diseases including cancer. Elevated level of urinary 8-OHdG has been detected in patients with various malignancies. In the present study, the level of urinary 8-OHdG was examined in 116 Chinese children with acute leukemia (94 acute lymphoid leukemia, ALL, 22 acute myeloid leukemia, AML), and its correlation with urinary metal elements was investigated. Our result showed that the level of urinary 8-OHdG in children with acute leukemia before treatment was significantly elevated compared with that in normal controls (11.92 +/- 15.42 vs. 4.03 +/- 4.70 ng/mg creatinine, P < 0.05). In particular, urinary 8-OHdG was higher in children with acute leukemia aged under 3 years (20.86 +/- 21.75 ng/mg creatinine) than in those aged 3-15 years (8.09 +/- 9.65 ng/mg creatinine), whereas no differences were shown in terms of gender, parental smoking and education, household income, place of residence, and use of paracetamol. In addition, urinary 8-OHdG levels were similar among different subtypes of acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) patients. Furthermore, linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between urinary 8-OHdG and urinary Cr, but not Fe or As, in group aged <3 years compared with group aged 3-15 years (P = 0.041), indicating that the metal elements may be involved in increasing urinary 8-OHdG level in younger children with acute leukemia. Our results suggest that children with acute leukemia undergo an increased risk of oxidative DNA damage, which may be correlated with high level of Cr exposure in Chinese children with acute leukemia.
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Sleep problems in chinese school-aged children with a parent-reported history of ADHD.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China.
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The effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation and recovery on spatial reference memory of young rats.
Learn Behav
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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It is known that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep plays a crucial role in learning and memory. Previous studies have demonstrated that postlearning REM sleep deprivation (RSD) impairs memory consolidation. Most of these studies observed only the effects of RSD on learning and memory. In the present study, we not only investigated the impacts of 48-h RSD on the spatial reference memory of young rats in a Morris water maze, but also specifically examined whether an REM rebound for 24-48 h after 48-h RSD affected the maintenance of spatial reference memory. RSD was induced by the modified multiple platform method, and spatial reference memory was tested in a Morris water maze. The results demonstrated that, compared with the control groups, posttraining RSD for 48 h produced a significant impairment in the retention of acquired spatial reference memory, and the impairment continuously existed after 24 and 48 h of release from sleep deprivation, which indicates that REM sleep plays a critical role in reference memory maintenance and consolidation. Moreover, postlearning RSD may lead to a long-term impairment in the consolidation of newly acquired memories.
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Trace element profiling using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and its application in an osteoarthritis study.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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In this study, a novel method of quantitatively measuring serum trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was developed and applied successfully to the study of osteoarthritis (OA). This technology provides potential advantages over conventional targeted elemental analysis in that it achieves high throughput measurement, small sample volume, and simple operational procedure. Such an unbiased method is particularly suitable for large scale discovery research on trace element based biomarkers. The method optimization and validation study involved accuracy and perturbation testing which focused on estimating the ability of the method to resist interferences in ICP-MS analysis, particularly those of mass <82 amu, in the serum sample. The developed method was successfully applied to the study of serum samples from OA patients. As a result, the serum trace element profiles of OA patients were distinctively separated from those of the healthy controls (HC) using an Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLSDA) model. Additionally, significantly differential elements correlated with OA, such as Li and Sn, were identified as potential elemental-based biomarkers.
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Forepaw sensorimotor deprivation in early life leads to the impairments on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in rats.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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To investigate the influence of forepaw sensorimotor deprivation on memory and synaptic plasticity, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: a sham-operated group and a group deprived of forepaw sensorimotor function by microsurgical operation at postnatal day 13 (PN13). Behavioral and electrophysiological studies were performed at PN25, PN35, PN45, and PN60. Open field test was used to assess the spontaneous locomotor activity. Morris water maze was used to evaluate spatial reference learning and memory. The long-term potentiation (LTP) in the medial perforant path--dentate gyrus (MPP-DG) pathway was examined with hippocampal slices. We found that forepaw sensorimotor deprivation did not affect spontaneous activity of the rats. However, spatial reference learning and memory were significantly impaired in their early life (PN25, PN35, and PN45). In accordance with the behavior results, LTP in MPP-DG pathway was significantly suppressed in their early life. These data demonstrated that forepaw sensorimotor deprivation led to the impairments on spatial memory via inducing pronounced deficits in the MPP-DG pathway to exhibit LTP, one of the major cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory.
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A case-only study of interactions between metabolic enzyme polymorphisms and industrial pollution in childhood acute leukemia.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Cancer risk is modulated by gene-environment interactions between toxic exposure and genetic variation in carcinogen metabolism. Our objective was to assess interactions between exposure to industrial pollutants and polymorphisms affecting cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1 and CYP2E1) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTP1 and GSTT) in childhood acute leukemia (AL). A case-only design was conducted in 123 Chinese children with sporadic AL. Industrial plants in the vicinity were recorded and, if present, their size and proximity to the usual place of residence of AL children was evaluated. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed across the AL study group adjusting for age, gender, parental education, occupation and smoking, indoor and outdoor pesticide use, presence of television sets, refrigerators, microwave ovens and furniture material in childrens rooms, and electric transformers, power lines, and telecommunication transmitters within 500 m. This analysis revealed an interaction between the GSTT null allele and industrial plants within 500 m of the residences of childhood AL patients (interaction odds ratio, COR=2.96, 95% CI: 1.09-8.01). Furthermore, the COR for the interaction between GSTT null and industrial plants within 50 m was 5.99 (95% CI: 1.41-25.45). Our results suggest an association between proximity to industrial plants and the GSTT null allele in patients with childhood AL.
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Sleep and obesity in preschool children.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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To examine the relationship between sleep and obesity in children 3 to 4 years old in Shanghai, China.
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Effects of chronic lead exposure on functions of nervous system in Chinese children and developmental rats.
Neurotoxicology
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Lead pollution is a very serious problem in China with the rapid economic development. A large amount of lead has been released into the environment due to mineral processing activities and has impacted water resources, soils, vegetables, and crops. The gasoline with lead has been banned in China since July 1, 2000. Though a noticeable decrease of lead poisoning rates has been evidenced, the childrens blood lead levels are still significantly higher than those in developed countries. Therefore, lowering the lead exposure in childhood continues to be an important public health objective in China. There is also a lot that remains to be done to reduce childrens exposure to lead. In this section, five scientists from China presented latest research results regarding the current situation of lead poisoning in China, the mechanisms involved in lead-induced neurotoxicity, and the new advances related to the potential therapy methods. Their researches may pave new way not only for the prevention of lead poisoning but also for the treatment of affected children in China and other countries.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.