Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever-related spirochete transmitted by Ixodes ticks, has been recently shown to be a human pathogen. To characterize the prevalence of this organism in questing Ixodes ticks, we tested 2,754 ticks for a variety of tickborne pathogens by PCR and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Ticks were collected from California, New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Indiana in the United States and from Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe from 2008 through 2012. In addition, an isolate from Japan was characterized. We found 3 distinct genotypes, 1 for North America, 1 for Europe, and 1 for Japan. We found B. miyamotoi infection in ticks in 16 of the 26 sites surveyed, with infection prevalence as high as 15.4%. These results show the widespread distribution of the pathogen, indicating an exposure risk to humans in areas where Ixodes ticks reside.
Evidence linking alcohol use to injury outcomes remains inconclusive, with prehospital and police department-based studies showing negative effects and hospital-based studies showing no effect or better outcomes.
Abstract Ticks harbor numerous pathogens of significance to human and animal health. A better understanding of the pathogens carried by ticks in a given geographic area can alert health care providers of specific health risks leading to better diagnosis and treatments. In this study, we tested 226 Ixodes ricinis ticks from Southern Germany using a broad-range PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry assay (PCR/ESI-MS) designed to identify tick-borne bacterial and protozoan pathogens in a single test. We found 21.2% of the ticks tested carried Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato consisting of diverse genospecies; a surprisingly high percentage of ticks were infected with Babesia microti (3.5%). Other organisms found included Borrelia miyamotoi, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Of further significance was our finding that more than 7% of ticks were infected with more than one pathogen or putative pathogen.
Next-generation sequencing sample preparation requires nanogram to microgram quantities of DNA; however, many relevant samples are comprised of only a few cells. Genomic analysis of these samples requires a whole genome amplification method that is unbiased and free of exogenous DNA contamination. To address these challenges we have developed protocols for the production of DNA-free consumables including reagents and have improved upon multiple displacement amplification (iMDA).
Lyme disease, caused by various species of Borrelia, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in North America and Europe. Studies have shown the genotype of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) or the species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) affects the ability of the bacteria to cause local or disseminated infection in humans.
Ticks harbor numerous bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that can cause serious infections in humans and domestic animals. Active surveillance of the tick vector can provide insight into the frequency and distribution of important pathogens in the environment. Nucleic-acid based detection of tick-borne bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens requires the extraction of both DNA and RNA (total nucleic acids) from ticks. Traditional methods for nucleic acid extraction are limited to extraction of either DNA or the RNA from a sample. Here we present a simple bead-beating based protocol for extraction of DNA and RNA from a single tick and show detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Powassan virus from individual, infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We determined expected yields for total nucleic acids by this protocol for a variety of adult tick species. The method is applicable to a variety of arthropod vectors, including fleas and mosquitoes, and was partially automated on a liquid handling robot.
Flaviviruses are a highly diverse group of RNA viruses classified within the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses are arthropod-borne, requiring a mosquito or tick vector. Several flaviviruses are highly pathogenic to humans; however, their high genetic diversity and immunological relatedness makes them extremely challenging to diagnose. In this study, we developed and evaluated a broad-range Flavivirus assay designed to detect both tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses by using RT-PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) on the Ibis T5000 platform. The assay was evaluated with a panel of 13 different flaviviruses. All samples were correctly identified to the species level. To determine the limit of detection for the mosquito-borne primer sets, serial dilutions of RNA from West Nile virus (WNV) were assayed and could be detected down to an equivalent viral titer of 0.2 plaque-forming units/mL. Analysis of flaviviruses in their natural biological background included testing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that were laboratory-infected with dengue-1 virus. The assay accurately identified the virus within infected mosquitoes, and we determined the average viral genome per mosquito to be 2.0 x 10(6). Using human blood, serum, and urine spiked with WNV and mouse blood and brain tissues from Karshi virus-infected mice, we showed that these clinical matrices did not inhibit the detection of these viruses. Finally, we used the assay to test field-collected Ixodes scapularis ticks collected from sites in New York and Connecticut. We found 16/322 (5% infection rate) ticks positive for deer tick virus, a subtype of Powassan virus. In summary, we developed a single high-throughput Flavivirus assay that could detect multiple tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses and thus provides a new analytical tool for their medical diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance.
Rapid detection and identification of Ehrlichia species improves clinical outcome for patients suspected of ehrlichiosis. We describe an assay that employs multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) to detect and identify Ehrlichia species directly from blood specimens. The results were compared to those of a colorimetric microtiter PCR enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) used as a diagnostic assay. Among 213 whole-blood samples collected from patients who were clinically suspected of ehrlichiosis from 1 May to 1 August 2008 at Vanderbilt University Hospital, 40 were positive for an Ehrlichia species by PCR/ESI-MS, giving a positive rate of 18.8%. In comparison to the PCR-EIA, PCR/ESI-MS possessed a sensitivity, a specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 95.0%, 98.8%, 95.0%, and 98.8%, respectively. The 38 specimens that were positive for Ehrlichia by both PCR/ESI-MS and the PCR-EIA were further characterized to the species level, with 100% agreement between the two assays. In addition, Rickettsia rickettsii was detected by PCR/ESI-MS from four specimens that were confirmed retrospectively by serology and PCR-EIA. In three specimens, the PCR/ESI-MS assay identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria meningitidis, and Staphylococcus aureus; these were confirmed by culture and/or clinical diagnosis as being clinically relevant. From specimen processing to result reporting, the PCR/ESI-MS assay can be completed within 6 h, providing another laboratory tool for the diagnosis of ehrlichiosis. Moreover, this system may provide rapid detection and identification of additional pathogens directly from blood specimens.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.