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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Forelimb Treatment in a Large Cohort of Dystrophic Dogs Supports Delivery of a Recombinant AAV for Exon Skipping in Duchenne Patients.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, without curative treatment yet available. Our study provides, for the first time, the overall safety profile and therapeutic dose of a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector, serotype 8 (rAAV8) carrying a modified U7snRNA sequence promoting exon skipping to restore a functional in-frame dystrophin transcript, and injected by locoregional transvenous perfusion of the forelimb. Eighteen Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dogs were exposed to increasing doses of GMP-manufactured vector. Treatment was well tolerated in all, and no acute nor delayed adverse effect, including systemic and immune toxicity was detected. There was a dose relationship for the amount of exon skipping with up to 80% of myofibers expressing dystrophin at the highest dose. Similarly, histological, nuclear magnetic resonance pathological indices and strength improvement responded in a dose-dependent manner. The systematic comparison of effects using different independent methods, allowed to define a minimum threshold of dystrophin expressing fibers (>33% for structural measures and >40% for strength) under which there was no clear-cut therapeutic effect. Altogether, these results support the concept of a phase 1/2 trial of locoregional delivery into upper limbs of nonambulatory DMD patients.
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Gene therapy prolongs survival and restores function in murine and canine models of myotubular myopathy.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Loss-of-function mutations in the myotubularin gene (MTM1) cause X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a fatal, congenital pediatric disease that affects the entire skeletal musculature. Systemic administration of a single dose of a recombinant serotype 8 adeno-associated virus (AAV8) vector expressing murine myotubularin to Mtm1-deficient knockout mice at the onset or at late stages of the disease resulted in robust improvement in motor activity and contractile force, corrected muscle pathology, and prolonged survival throughout a 6-month study. Similarly, single-dose intravascular delivery of a canine AAV8-MTM1 vector in XLMTM dogs markedly improved severe muscle weakness and respiratory impairment, and prolonged life span to more than 1 year in the absence of toxicity or a humoral or cell-mediated immune response. These results demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of AAV-mediated gene therapy for myotubular myopathy in small- and large-animal models, and provide proof of concept for future clinical trials in XLMTM patients.
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Polyinosinic acid blocks adeno-associated virus macrophage endocytosis in vitro and enhances adeno-associated virus liver-directed gene therapy in vivo.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) has been demonstrated to be effective for liver-directed gene therapy in humans. Although hepatocytes are the main target cell for AAV8, there is a loss of the viral vector because of uptake by macrophages and Kupffer cells. Reducing this loss would increase the efficacy of viral gene therapy and allow a dose reduction. The receptor mediating this uptake has not been identified; a potential candidate seems the macrophage scavenger receptor A (SR-A) that is involved in the endocytosis of, for instance, adenovirus. In this study we show that SR-A can mediate scAAV8 endocytosis and that blocking it with polyinosinic acid (poly[i]) reduces endocytosis significantly in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrate that blocking this receptor improves scAAV-mediated liver-directed gene therapy in a model for inherited hyperbilirubinemia, the uridine diphospho-glucuronyl transferase 1A1-deficient Gunn rat. In male rats, preadministration of poly[i] increases the efficacy of a low dose (1×10¹¹ gc/kg) but not of a higher dose (3×10¹¹ gc/kg) scAAV8-LP1-UT1A1. Administration of poly[i] just before the vector significantly increases the correction of serum bilirubin in female rats. In these, the effect of poly[i] is seen by both doses but is more pronounced in the females receiving the low vector, where it also results in a significant increase of bilirubin glucuronides in bile. In conclusion, this study shows that SR-A mediates the endocytosis of AAV8 in vitro and in vivo and that blocking this receptor can improve the efficacy of AAV-mediated liver-directed gene therapy.
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A single intravenous AAV9 injection mediates bilateral gene transfer to the adult mouse retina.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Widespread gene delivery to the retina is an important challenge for the treatment of retinal diseases, such as retinal dystrophies. We and others have recently shown that the intravenous injection of a self-complementary (sc) AAV9 vector can direct efficient cell transduction in the central nervous system, in both neonatal and adult animals. We show here that the intravenous injection of scAAV9 encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) resulted in gene transfer to all layers of the retina in adult mice, despite the presence of a mature blood-eye barrier. Cell morphology studies and double-labeling with retinal cell-specific markers showed that GFP was expressed in retinal pigment epithelium cells, photoreceptors, bipolar cells, Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells. The cells on the inner side of the retina, including retinal ganglion cells in particular, were transduced with the highest efficiency. Quantification of the cell population co-expressing GFP and Brn-3a showed that 45% of the retinal ganglion cells were efficiently transduced after intravenous scAAV9-GFP injection in adult mice. This study provides the first demonstration that a single intravenous scAAV9 injection can deliver transgenes to the retinas of both eyes in adult mice, suggesting that this vector serotype is able to cross mature blood-eye barriers. This intravascular gene transfer approach, by eliminating the potential invasiveness of ocular surgery, could constitute an alternative when fragility of the retina precludes subretinal or intravitreal injections of viral vectors, opening up new possibilities for gene therapy for retinal diseases.
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Characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 Reference Standard Material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus-free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?x?10¹¹ particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?x?10¹¹ to 1.05?x?10¹² particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?x?10¹? to 4.75?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?x?10? transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?x?10? to 9.60?x?10? transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?x?10? to 9.26?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.
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Intravenous administration of self-complementary AAV9 enables transgene delivery to adult motor neurons.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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Therapeutic gene delivery to the whole spinal cord is a major challenge for the treatment of motor neuron (MN) diseases. Systemic administration of viral gene vectors would provide an optimal means for the long-term delivery of therapeutic molecules from blood to the spinal cord but this approach is hindered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we describe the first successful study of MN transduction in adult animals following intravenous (i.v.) delivery of self-complementary (sc) AAV9 vectors (up to 28% in mice). Intravenous MN transduction was achieved in adults without pharmacological disruption of the BBB and transgene expression lasted at least 5 months. Importantly, this finding was successfully translated to large animals, with the demonstration of an efficient systemic scAAV9 gene delivery to the neonate and adult cat spinal cord. This new and noninvasive procedure raises the hope of whole spinal cord correction of MN diseases and may lead to the development of new gene therapy protocols in patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.