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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nuclear glycolytic enzyme enolase of Toxoplasma gondii functions as a transcriptional regulator.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Apicomplexan parasites including Toxoplasma gondii have complex life cycles within different hosts and their infectivity relies on their capacity to regulate gene expression. However, little is known about the nuclear factors that regulate gene expression in these pathogens. Here, we report that T. gondii enolase TgENO2 is targeted to the nucleus of actively replicating parasites, where it specifically binds to nuclear chromatin in vivo. Using a ChIP-Seq technique, we provide evidence for TgENO2 enrichment at the 5' untranslated gene regions containing the putative promoters of 241 nuclear genes. Ectopic expression of HA-tagged TgENO1 or TgENO2 led to changes in transcript levels of numerous gene targets. Targeted disruption of TgENO1 gene results in a decrease in brain cyst burden of chronically infected mice and in changes in transcript levels of several nuclear genes. Complementation of this knockout mutant with ectopic TgENO1-HA fully restored normal transcript levels. Our findings reveal that enolase functions extend beyond glycolytic activity and include a direct role in coordinating gene regulation in T. gondii.
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Presence and function of a thick mucous layer rich in polysaccharides around Bacillus subtilis spores.
Biofouling
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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This study was designed to establish the presence and function of the mucous layer surrounding spores of Bacillus subtilis. First, an external layer of variable thickness and regularity was often observed on B. subtilis spores. Further analyses were performed on B. subtilis 98/7 spores surrounded by a thick layer. The mechanical removal of the layer did not affect their resistance to heat or their ability to germinate but rendered the spore less hydrophilic, more adherent to stainless steel, and more resistant to cleaning. This layer was mainly composed of 6-deoxyhexoses, ie rhamnose, 3-O-methyl-rhamnose and quinovose, but also of glucosamine and muramic lactam, known also to be a part of the bacterial peptidoglycan. The specific hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan using lysozyme altered the structure of the required mucous layer and affected the physico-chemical properties of the spores. Such an outermost mucous layer has also been seen on spores of B. licheniformis and B. clausii isolated from food environments.
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The lacdiNAc-specific adhesin LabA mediates adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucosa.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric mucosa is a necessary prerequisite for the pathogenesis of H. pylori-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the GalNAc?1-4GlcNAc motif (also known as N,N'-diacetyllactosediamine [lacdiNAc]) carried by MUC5AC gastric mucins as the target for bacterial binding to the human gastric mucosa. The expression of LacdiNAc carried by gastric mucins was correlated with H. pylori localization, and all strains tested adhered significantly to this motif. Proteomic analysis and mutant construction allowed the identification of a yet uncharacterized bacterial adhesin, LabA, which specifically recognizes lacdiNAc. These findings unravel a target of adhesion for H. pylori in addition to moieties recognized by the well-characterized adhesins BabA and SabA. Localization of the LabA target, restricted to the gastric mucosa, suggests a plausible explanation for the tissue tropism of these bacteria. These results pave the way for the development of alternative strategies against H. pylori infection, using adherence inhibitors.
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Cryptosporidium parvum-induced ileo-caecal adenocarcinoma and Wnt signaling in a mouse model.
Dis Model Mech
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Cryptosporidium species are apicomplexan protozoans that are found worldwide. These parasites constitute a large risk to human and animal health. They cause self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts and a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised hosts. Interestingly, Cryptosporidium parvum has been related to digestive carcinogenesis in humans. Consistent with a potential tumorigenic role of this parasite, in an original reproducible animal model of chronic cryptosporidiosis based on dexamethasone-treated or untreated adult SCID mice, we formerly reported that C. parvum (strains of animal and human origin) is able to induce digestive adenocarcinoma even in infections induced with very low inoculum. The aim of this study was to further characterize this animal model and to explore metabolic pathways potentially involved in the development of C. parvum-induced ileo-caecal oncogenesis. We searched for alterations in genes or proteins commonly involved in cell cycle, differentiation or cell migration, such as ?-catenin, Apc, E-cadherin, Kras and p53. After infection of animals with C. parvum we demonstrated immunohistochemical abnormal localization of Wnt signaling pathway components and p53. Mutations in the selected loci of studied genes were not found after high-throughput sequencing. Furthermore, alterations in the ultrastructure of adherens junctions of the ileo-caecal neoplastic epithelia of C. parvum-infected mice were recorded using transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, we found for the first time that the Wnt signaling pathway, and particularly the cytoskeleton network, seems to be pivotal for the development of the C. parvum-induced neoplastic process and cell migration of transformed cells. Furthermore, this model is a valuable tool in understanding the host-pathogen interactions associated with the intricate infection process of this parasite, which is able to modulate host cytoskeleton activities and several host-cell biological processes and remains a significant cause of infection worldwide.
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Remodeling of channel-forming ORAI proteins determines an oncogenic switch in prostate cancer.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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ORAI family channels have emerged as important players in malignant transformation, yet the way in which they reprogram cancer cells remains elusive. Here we show that the relative expression levels of ORAI proteins in prostate cancer are different from that in noncancerous tissue. By mimicking ORAI protein remodeling observed in primary tumors, we demonstrate in in vitro models that enhanced ORAI3 expression favors heteromerization with ORAI1 to form a novel channel. These channels support store-independent Ca(2+) entry, thereby promoting cell proliferation and a smaller number of functional homomeric ORAI1-based store-operated channels, which are important in supporting susceptibility to apoptosis. Thus, our findings highlight disrupted dynamic equilibrium of channel-forming proteins as an oncogenic mechanism.
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A functional fragment of Tau forms fibers without the need for an intermolecular cysteine bridge.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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We study the aggregation of a fragment of the neuronal protein Tau that contains part of the proline rich domain and of the microtubule binding repeats. When incubated at 37 °C with heparin, the fragment readily forms fibers as witnessed by Thioflavin T fluorescence. Electron microscopy and NMR spectroscopy show bundled ribbon like structures with most residues rigidly incorporated in the fibril. Without its cysteines, this fragment still forms fibers of a similar morphology, but with lesser Thioflavin T binding sites and more mobility for the C-terminal residues.
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Protein trafficking through the endosomal system prepares intracellular parasites for a home invasion.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Toxoplasma (toxoplasmosis) and Plasmodium (malaria) use unique secretory organelles for migration, cell invasion, manipulation of host cell functions, and cell egress. In particular, the apical secretory micronemes and rhoptries of apicomplexan parasites are essential for successful host infection. New findings reveal that the contents of these organelles, which are transported through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi, also require the parasite endosome-like system to access their respective organelles. In this review, we discuss recent findings that demonstrate that these parasites reduced their endosomal system and modified classical regulators of this pathway for the biogenesis of apical organelles.
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Functional coupling between large-conductance potassium channels and Cav3.2 voltage-dependent calcium channels participates in prostate cancer cell growth.
Biol Open
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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It is strongly suspected that potassium (K(+)) channels are involved in various aspects of prostate cancer development, such as cell growth. However, the molecular nature of those K(+) channels implicated in prostate cancer cell proliferation and the mechanisms through which they control proliferation are still unknown. This study uses pharmacological, biophysical and molecular approaches to show that the main voltage-dependent K(+) current in prostate cancer LNCaP cells is carried by large-conductance BK channels. Indeed, most of the voltage-dependent current was inhibited by inhibitors of BK channels (paxillin and iberiotoxin) and by siRNA targeting BK channels. In addition, we reveal that BK channels constitute the main K(+) channel family involved in setting the resting membrane potential in LNCaP cells at around -40?mV. This consequently promotes a constitutive calcium entry through T-type Cav3.2 calcium channels. We demonstrate, using single-channel recording, confocal imaging and co-immunoprecipitation approaches, that both channels form macromolecular complexes. Finally, using flow cytometry cell cycle measurements, cell survival assays and Ki67 immunofluorescent staining, we show that both BK and Cav3.2 channels participate in the proliferation of prostate cancer cells.
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Energy-dependent uptake of benzo[a]pyrene and its cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport by the telluric fungus Fusarium solani.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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In screening indigenous soil filamentous fungi for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation, an isolate of the Fusarium solani was found to incorporate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) into fungal hyphae before degradation and mineralization. The mechanisms involved in BaP uptake and intracellular transport remain unresolved. To address this, the incorporation of two PAHs, BaP, and phenanthrene (PHE) were studied in this fungus. The fungus incorporated more BaP into cells than PHE, despite the 400-fold higher aqueous solubility of PHE compared with BaP, indicating that PAH incorporation is not based on a simple diffusion mechanism. To identify the mechanism of BaP incorporation and transport, microscopic studies were undertaken with the fluorescence probes Congo Red, BODIPY®493/503, and FM®4-64, targeting different cell compartments respectively fungal cell walls, lipids, and endocytosis. The metabolic inhibitor sodium azide at 100 mM totally blocked BaP incorporation into fungal cells indicating an energy-requirement for PAH uptake into the mycelium. Cytochalasins also inhibited BaP uptake by the fungus and probably its intracellular transport into fungal hyphae. The perfect co-localization of BaP and BODIPY reveals that lipid bodies constitute the intracellular storage sites of BaP in F. solani. Our results demonstrate an energy-dependent uptake of BaP and its cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport by F. solani.
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The ferroquine antimalarial conundrum: redox activation and reinvasion inhibition.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Metal health: Ferroquine is a ferrocene-based analogue of the antimalarial drug chloroquine. In addition to the primary mechanism of quinoline action, fluorescent probe studies in infected red blood cells show another mechanism is at work. It is based on the production of HO(·) in the acidic and oxidizing environment of the digestive vacuole of the malaria parasite and implies that, with ferroquine, reinvasion can be inhibited.
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Barth syndrome: cellular compensation of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis inhibition due to changes in cardiolipin remodeling linked to tafazzin (TAZ) gene mutation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Cardiolipin is a mitochondrion-specific phospholipid that stabilizes the assembly of respiratory chain complexes, favoring full-yield operation. It also mediates key steps in apoptosis. In Barth syndrome, an X chromosome-linked cardiomyopathy caused by tafazzin mutations, cardiolipins display acyl chain modifications and are present at abnormally low concentrations, whereas monolysocardiolipin accumulates. Using immortalized lymphoblasts from Barth syndrome patients, we showed that the production of abnormal cardiolipin led to mitochondrial alterations. Indeed, the lack of normal cardiolipin led to changes in electron transport chain stability, resulting in cellular defects. We found a destabilization of the supercomplex (respirasome) I+III2+IVn but also decreased amounts of individual complexes I and IV and supercomplexes I+III and III+IV. No changes were observed in the amounts of individual complex III and complex II. We also found decreased levels of complex V. This complex is not part of the supercomplex suggesting that cardiolipin is required not only for the association/stabilization of the complexes into supercomplexes but also for the modulation of the amount of individual respiratory chain complexes. However, these alterations were compensated by an increase in mitochondrial mass, as demonstrated by electron microscopy and measurements of citrate synthase activity. We suggest that this compensatory increase in mitochondrial content prevents a decrease in mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis in the cells. We also show, by extensive flow cytometry analysis, that the type II apoptosis pathway was blocked at the mitochondrial level and that the mitochondria of patients with Barth syndrome cannot bind active caspase-8. Signal transduction is thus blocked before any mitochondrial event can occur. Remarkably, basal levels of superoxide anion production were slightly higher in patients cells than in control cells as previously evidenced via an increased protein carbonylation in the taz1? mutant in the yeast. This may be deleterious to cells in the long term. The consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations to apoptosis signal transduction are considered in light of the potential for the development of future treatments.
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Bisphenol A stimulates human prostate cancer cell migration via remodelling of calcium signalling.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Bisphenol A (BPA), the principal constituent of reusable water bottles, metal cans, and plastic food containers, has been shown to be involved in human prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of BPA on PCa cell migration and the pathways involved in these processes. Using the transwell technique, we clearly show for the first time that the pre-treatment of the cells with BPA (1-10 nM) induces human PCa cell migration. Using a calcium imaging technique, we show that BPA pre-treatment induces an amplification of Store-Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) in LNCaP cells. RT-PCR and Western blot experiments allowed the identification of the ion channel proteins which are up-regulated by BPA pre-treatments. These include the Orai1 protein, which is known as an important SOCE actor in various cell systems, including human PCa cells. Using a siRNA strategy, we observed that BPA-induced amplification of SOCE was Orai1-dependent. Interestingly, the BPA-induced PCa cell migration was suppressed when the calcium entry was impaired by the use of SOCE inhibitors (SKF96365, BTP2), or when the extracellular calcium was chelated. Taken together, the results presented here show that BPA induces PCa cells migration via a modulation of the ion channel protein expression involved in calcium entry and in cancer cell migration. The present data provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of an environmental factor on cancer cells and suggest both the necessity of preventive measures and the possibility of targeting ion channels in the treatment of PCa cell metastasis.
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Modulation of ER stress and apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum calcium leak via translocon during unfolded protein response: involvement of GRP78.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in many cellular functions, including protein folding and Ca(2+) homeostasis. The ability of cells to respond to the ER stress is critical for cell survival, and disruption in such regulation can lead to apoptosis. ER stress is accompanied by alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, and the ER Ca(2+) store depletion by itself can induce ER stress and apoptosis. Despite that, the ER Ca(2+) leak channels activated in response to the ER stress remain poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that ER Ca(2+) depletion during the ER stress occurs via translocon, the ER protein complex involved in translation. Numerous ER stress inducers stimulate the ER Ca(2+) leak that can be prevented by translocon inhibitor, anisomycin. Expression of GRP78, an ER stress marker, increased following treatment with puromycin (a translocon opener) and was suppressed by anisomycin, confirming a primary role of translocon in ER stress induction. Inhibition of ER store depletion by anisomycin significantly reduces apoptosis stimulated by the ER stress inducers. We suggest that translocon opening is physiologically modulated by GRP78, particularly during the ER stress. The ability to modulate the ER Ca(2+) permeability and subsequent ER stress can lead to development of a novel therapeutic approach.
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Calcium-permeable ion channels in control of autophagy and cancer.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Autophagy, or cellular self-eating, is a tightly regulated cellular pathway the main purpose of which is lysosomal degradation and subsequent recycling of cytoplasmic material to maintain normal cellular homeostasis. Defects in autophagy are linked to a variety of pathological states, including cancer. Cancer is the disease associated with abnormal tissue growth following an alteration in such fundamental cellular processes as apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, migration and autophagy. The role of autophagy in cancer is complex, as it can promote both tumor prevention and survival/treatment resistance. Its now clear that modulation of autophagy has a great potential in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Recent findings identified intracellular calcium as an important regulator of both basal and induced autophagy. Calcium is a ubiquitous secondary messenger which regulates plethora of physiological and pathological processes such as aging, neurodegeneration and cancer. The role of calcium and calcium-permeable channels in cancer is well-established, whereas the information about molecular nature of channels regulating autophagy and the mechanisms of this regulation is still limited. Here we review existing mechanisms of autophagy regulation by calcium and calcium-permeable ion channels. Furthermore, we will also discuss some calcium-permeable channels as the potential new candidates for autophagy regulation. Finally we will propose the possible link between calcium permeable channels, autophagy and cancer progression and therapeutic response.
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In situ nanochemical imaging of label-free drugs: a case study of antimalarials in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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We report here for the first time the in vitro localization of unlabeled antimalarial drugs with high spatial resolution. This strategy further enhances our understanding of the action mechanisms of antimalarial drugs. Our approach may be applied to a wide range of domains where quantitative chemical imaging of drugs at the sub-cellular level appears critical.
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Domains of BclA, the major surface glycoprotein of the B. cereus exosporium: glycosylation patterns and role in spore surface properties.
Biofouling
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
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The role of the BclA domains of B. cereus ATCC 14579 was investigated in order to understand the phenomena involved in the interfacial processes occurring between spores and inert surfaces. This was done by (i) creating deletions in the collagen-like region (CLR) and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of BclA, (ii) building BclA proteins with various lengths in the CLR and (iii) modifying the hydrophobic upper surface in the CTD. First, it was demonstrated that the CLR was substituted by three residues already reported in the CLR of B. anthracis, viz. rhamnose, 3-O-methyl-rhamnose, and GalNH(2) residues, while the CTD was also substituted by two additional glycosyl residues, viz. 2-O-methyl-rhamnose and 2,4-O-methyl-rhamnose. Regarding the properties of the spores, both CLR and CTD contributed to the adhesion of the spores, which was estimated by measuring the resistance to detachment of spores adhered to stainless steel plates). CLR and CTD also impacted the hydrophobic character and isoelectric point of the spores. It was then shown that the resistance to detachment of the spores was not affected by the physicochemical properties, but by the CLR length and the presence of hydrophobic amino acids on the CTD.
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Morphological and functional characterization of leech circulating blood cells: role in immunity and neural repair.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Unlike most invertebrates, annelids possess a closed vascular system distinct from the coelomic liquid. The morphology and the function of leech blood cells are reported here. We have demonstrated the presence of a unique cell type which participates in various immune processes. In contrast to the mammalian spinal cord, the leech CNS is able to regenerate and restore function after injury. The close contact of the blood with the nerve cord also led us to explore the participation of blood in neural repair. Our data evidenced that, in addition to exerting peripheral immune functions, leech blood optimizes CNS neural repair through the release of neurotrophic substances. Circulating blood cells also appeared able to infiltrate the injured CNS where, in conjunction with microglia, they limit the formation of a scar. In mammals, CNS injury leads to the generation of a glial scar that blocks the mechanism of regeneration by preventing axonal regrowth. The results presented here constitute the first description of neuroimmune functions of invertebrate blood cells. Understanding the basic function of the peripheral circulating cells and their interactions with lesioned CNS in the leech would allow us to acquire insights into the complexity of the neuroimmune response of the injured mammalian brain.
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Role played by exosporium glycoproteins in the surface properties of Bacillus cereus spores and in their adhesion to stainless steel.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Bacillus cereus spores are surrounded by a loose-fitting layer called the exosporium, whose distal part is mainly formed from glycoproteins. The role played by the exosporium glycoproteins of B. cereus ATCC 14579 (BclA and ExsH) was investigated by considering hydrophobicity and charge, as well as the properties of spore adhesion to stainless steel. The absence of BclA increased both the isoelectric point (IEP) and hydrophobicity of whole spores while simultaneously reducing the interaction between spores and stainless steel. However, neither the hydrophobicity nor the charge associated with BclA could explain the differences in the adhesion properties. Conversely, ExsH, another exosporium glycoprotein, did not play a significant role in spore surface properties. The monosaccharide analysis of B. cereus ATCC 14579 showed different glycosylation patterns on ExsH and BclA. Moreover, two specific glycosyl residues, namely, 2-O-methyl-rhamnose (2-Me-Rha) and 2,4-O-methyl-rhamnose (2,4-Me-Rha), were attached to BclA, in addition to the glycosyl residues already reported in B. anthracis.
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Unusual N-glycan structures required for trafficking Toxoplasma gondii GAP50 to the inner membrane complex regulate host cell entry through parasite motility.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Toxoplasma gondii motility, which is essential for host cell entry, migration through host tissues, and invasion, is a unique form of actin-dependent gliding. It is powered by a motor complex mainly composed of myosin heavy chain A, myosin light chain 1, gliding associated proteins GAP45, and GAP50, the only integral membrane anchor so far described. In the present study, we have combined glycomic and proteomic approaches to demonstrate that all three potential N-glycosylated sites of GAP50 are occupied by unusual N-glycan structures that are rarely found on mature mammalian glycoproteins. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we show that N-glycosylation is a prerequisite for GAP50 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus and for its subsequent delivery into the inner complex membrane. Assembly of key partners into the gliding complex, and parasite motility are severely impaired in the unglycosylated GAP50 mutants. Furthermore, comparative affinity purification using N-glycosylated and unglycosylated GAP50 as bait identified three novel hypothetical proteins including the recently described gliding associated protein GAP40, and we demonstrate that N-glycans are required for efficient binding to gliding partners. Collectively, these results provide the first detailed analyses of T. gondii N-glycosylation functions that are vital for parasite motility and host cell entry.
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A novel Toxoplasma gondii nuclear factor TgNF3 is a dynamic chromatin-associated component, modulator of nucleolar architecture and parasite virulence.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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In Toxoplasma gondii, cis-acting elements present in promoter sequences of genes that are stage-specifically regulated have been described. However, the nuclear factors that bind to these cis-acting elements and regulate promoter activities have not been identified. In the present study, we performed affinity purification, followed by proteomic analysis, to identify nuclear factors that bind to a stage-specific promoter in T. gondii. This led to the identification of several nuclear factors in T. gondii including a novel factor, designated herein as TgNF3. The N-terminal domain of TgNF3 shares similarities with the N-terminus of yeast nuclear FK506-binding protein (FKBP), known as a histone chaperone regulating gene silencing. Using anti-TgNF3 antibodies, HA-FLAG and YFP-tagged TgNF3, we show that TgNF3 is predominantly a parasite nucleolar, chromatin-associated protein that binds specifically to T. gondii gene promoters in vivo. Genome-wide analysis using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified promoter occupancies by TgNF3. In addition, TgNF3 has a direct role in transcriptional control of genes involved in parasite metabolism, transcription and translation. The ectopic expression of TgNF3 in the tachyzoites revealed dynamic changes in the size of the nucleolus, leading to a severe attenuation of virulence in vivo. We demonstrate that TgNF3 physically interacts with H3, H4 and H2A/H2B assembled into bona fide core and nucleosome-associated histones. Furthermore, TgNF3 interacts specifically to histones in the context of stage-specific gene silencing of a promoter that lacks active epigenetic acetylated histone marks. In contrast to virulent tachyzoites, which express the majority of TgNF3 in the nucleolus, the protein is exclusively located in the cytoplasm of the avirulent bradyzoites. We propose a model where TgNF3 acts essentially to coordinate nucleolus and nuclear functions by modulating nucleosome activities during the intracellular proliferation of the virulent tachyzoites of T. gondii.
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Oleuropein and derivatives from olives as Tau aggregation inhibitors.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Tau isoforms constitute a family of microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons of the central nervous system. They promote the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and modulate their stability, thus playing a key structural role in the distal portion of axons. In Alzheimers disease and related tauopathies, Tau aggregation into fibrillary tangles contributes to intraneuronal and glial lesions. We report herein the ability of three natural phenolic derivatives obtained from olives and derived food products to prevent such Tau fibrillization in vitro, namely hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and oleuropein aglycone. The latter was found to be more active than the reference Tau aggregation inhibitor methylene blue on both wild-type and P301L Tau proteins, inhibiting fibrillization at low micromolar concentrations. These findings might provide further experimental support for the beneficial nutritional properties of olives and olive oil as well as a chemical scaffold for the development of new drugs aiming at neurodegenerative tauopathies.
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The antimalarial ferroquine: role of the metal and intramolecular hydrogen bond in activity and resistance.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Inhibition of hemozoin biocrystallization is considered the main mechanism of action of 4-aminoquinoline antimalarials including chloroquine (CQ) but cannot fully explain the activity of ferroquine (FQ) which has been related to redox properties and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Analogues of FQ, methylferroquine (Me-FQ), ruthenoquine (RQ), and methylruthenoquine (Me-RQ), were prepared. Combination of physicochemical and molecular modeling methods showed that FQ and RQ favor intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the 4-aminoquinoline NH group and the terminal amino group in the absence of water, suggesting that this structure may enhance its passage through the membrane. This was further supported by the use of Me-FQ and Me-RQ where the intramolecular hydrogen bond cannot be formed. Docking studies suggest that FQ can interact specifically with the {0,0,1} and {1,0,0} faces of hemozoin, blocking crystal growth. With respect to the structure-activity relationship, the antimalarial activity on 15 different P. falciparum strains showed that the activity of FQ and RQ were correlated with each other but not with CQ, confirming lack of cross resistance. Conversely, Me-FQ and Me-RQ showed significant cross-resistance with CQ. Mutations or copy number of pfcrt, pfmrp, pfmdr1, pfmdr2, or pfnhe-1 did not exhibit significant correlations with the IC(50) of FQ or RQ. We next showed that FQ and Me-FQ were able to generate hydroxyl radicals, whereas RQ and me-RQ did not. Ultrastructural studies revealed that FQ and Me-FQ but not RQ or Me-RQ break down the parasite digestive vacuole membrane, which could be related to the ability of the former to generate hydroxyl radicals.
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Characterization and immune function of two intracellular sensors, HmTLR1 and HmNLR, in the injured CNS of an invertebrate.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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Unlike mammals, the CNS of the medicinal leech can regenerate damaged neurites, thus restoring neural functions. Our group recently demonstrated that the injured leech nerve cord is able to mount an immune response, which promotes the regenerative processes. This defense mechanism is microorganism-specific, suggesting that the leech CNS is able to discriminate among microbial components. We report here the characterization of two receptors potentially implicated in this detection: HmTLR1 and HmNLR. Interestingly, HmTLR1 presents an endosomal distribution in neurons and appears as a chimera combining the mammalian intraendosomal domain of TLR3 and the cytoplasmic section of TLR13, while HmNLR is cytosolic and has the highest homology to NLRC3 receptors. Both receptors show patterns of induction upon stimulation that suggest their involvement in the leech neuroimmune response. This work constitutes the first demonstration in an invertebrate of (i) an intracellular TLR and (ii) a cytosolic PRR related to the NLR family.
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Engineering the chloroplast targeted malarial vaccine antigens in Chlamydomonas starch granules.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Malaria, an Anopheles-borne parasitic disease, remains a major global health problem causing illness and death that disproportionately affects developing countries. Despite the incidence of malaria, which remains one of the most severe infections of human populations, there is no licensed vaccine against this life-threatening disease. In this context, we decided to explore the expression of Plasmodium vaccine antigens fused to the granule bound starch synthase (GBSS), the major protein associated to the starch matrix in all starch-accumulating plants and algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
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MnSOD upregulation induces autophagic programmed cell death in senescent keratinocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Senescence is a state of growth arrest resulting mainly from telomere attrition and oxidative stress. It ultimately leads to cell death. We have previously shown that, in keratinocytes, senescence is induced by NF-kappaB activation, MnSOD upregulation and H(2)O(2) overproduction. We have also shown that senescent keratinocytes do not die by apoptosis but as a result of high macroautophagic activity that targets the primary vital cell components. Here, we investigated the mechanisms that activate this autophagic cell death program. We show that corpses occurring at the senescence plateau display oxidatively-damaged mitochondria and nucleus that colocalize with autophagic vacuoles. The occurrence of such corpses was decreased by specifically reducing the H(2)O(2) level with catalase, and, conversely, reproduced by overexpressing MnSOD or applying subtoxic doses of H(2)O(2). This H(2)O(2)-induced cell death did occur through autophagy since it was accompanied by an accumulation of autophagic vesicles as evidenced by Lysotracker staining, LC3 vesiculation and transmission electron microscopy. Most importantly, it was partly abolished by 3-methyladenine, the specific inhibitor of autophagosome formation, and by anti-Atg5 siRNAs. Taken together these results suggest that autophagic cell death is activated in senescent keratinocytes because of the upregulation of MnSOD and the resulting accumulation of oxidative damages to nucleus and mitochondria.
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Morphology and physico-chemical properties of Bacillus spores surrounded or not with an exosporium: consequences on their ability to adhere to stainless steel.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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This study was designed to elucidate the influence of spore properties such as the presence of an exosporium, on their ability to adhere to materials. This analysis was performed on 17 strains belonging to the B. cereus group and to less related Bacillus species. We first demonstrated that spores of the B. cereus group, surrounded by an exosporium, differed in their morphological features such as exosporium size, number of appendages or hair-like nap length. We also found that the saccharidic composition of exosporium differed among strains, e.g. concerning a newly identified rhamnose derivative: the 2,4-O-dimethyl-rhamnose. Conversely, spores of distant Bacillus species shared morphological and physico-chemical properties with B. cereus spores. Some external features were also observed on these spores, such as a thin loose-fitting layer, whose nature is still to be determined, or a thick saccharidic layer (mainly composed of rhamnose and quinovose). The ability of spores to adhere to stainless steel varied among strains, those belonging to the B. cereus group generally being the most adherent. However, the presence of an exosporium is not sufficient to explain the ability of spores to adhere to inanimate surfaces. Indeed, when the 17 strains were compared, hydrophobicity and the number of appendages were the only significant adhesion parameters. Furthermore, the differences in spore adhesion observed within the B. cereus group were related to differences in the number of appendages, the exosporium length and to a lesser extent, the zeta potential.
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Role of cationic channel TRPV2 in promoting prostate cancer migration and progression to androgen resistance.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Castration resistance in prostate cancer (PCa) constitutes an advanced, aggressive disease with poor prognosis, associated with uncontrolled cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and enhanced invasive potential. The molecular mechanisms involved in the transition of PCa to castration resistance are obscure. Here, we report that the nonselective cationic channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) is a distinctive feature of castration-resistant PCa. TRPV2 transcript levels were higher in patients with metastatic cancer (stage M1) compared with primary solid tumors (stages T2a and T2b). Previous studies of the TRPV2 channel indicated that it is primarily involved in cancer cell migration and not in cell growth. Introducing TRPV2 into androgen-dependent LNCaP cells enhanced cell migration along with expression of invasion markers matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and cathepsin B. Consistent with the likelihood that TRPV2 may affect cancer cell aggressiveness by influencing basal intracellular calcium levels, small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of TRPV2 reduced the growth and invasive properties of PC3 prostate tumors established in nude mice xenografts, and diminished expression of invasive enzymes MMP2, MMP9, and cathepsin B. Our findings establish a role for TRPV2 in PCa progression to the aggressive castration-resistant stage, prompting evaluation of TRPV2 as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in the setting of advanced PCa.
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Deciphering the immune function and regulation by a TLR of the cytokine EMAPII in the lesioned central nervous system using a leech model.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2009
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A highly conserved ortholog of the human complex p43/endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAPII) was characterized in the CNS of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. As observed in mammals, the leech complex is processed to release the cytokine HmEMAPII. Taking advantages of these similarities, we have attempted to elucidate the role of EMAPII in the CNS using the leech model. Although EMAPII is considered a modulator of inflammatory reactions within the peripheral innate immune response in humans, its function in CNS immunity has yet to be described. Chemotaxis assays were conducted, revealing the ability of EMAPII to exert a chemoattractant effect on both leech and human microglial cells, indicating a novel function of this cytokine in the human brain. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis together with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry approaches showed that bacterial challenge induced the expression of HmEMAPII at the lesion site where microglial cells accumulated. Moreover, gene silencing experiments have demonstrated that the gene expression of HmEMAPII is under the control of a signaling pathway associated with the TLR HmTLR1, newly characterized in the CNS of our model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing evidence for (1) the chemoattractant properties of EMAPII on leech and human microglial cells, (2) the regulation by a TLR of the expression of a gene encoding a cytokine in the CNS of an invertebrate, and (3) an immune function of a TLR in a lophotrochozoan model.
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Cross-talk between oxysterols and glucocorticoids: differential regulation of secreted phopholipase A2 and impact on oligodendrocyte death.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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Oxysterols are oxidized forms of cholesterol. They have been shown to be implicated in cholesterol turnover, inflammation and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and multiple sclerosis. Glial cells are targets of oxysterols: they inhibit astrocyte proliferation after brain injury, and we have previously shown that 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OH) provokes oligodendrocyte apoptosis and stimulates the expression of sPLA2 type IIA (sPLA2-IIA), which has a protective effect.
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Active caspases-8 and -3 in circulating human erythrocytes purified on immobilized annexin-V: a cytometric demonstration.
Cytometry A
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Human red blood cells (RBCs) have a normal life span of 120 days in vivo and might be primed in vitro to die in response to apoptotic stimuli through a caspase-independent pathway. It is well known that, in vivo, aging RBCs externalize phosphatidylserine residues but is unknown whether these cells express active caspases at this stage. We isolated RBCs expressing phosphatidylserine on their surface from human blood by applying an original method of affinity chromatography using annexin-V fixed on gelatin or on magnetic beads. The isolated RBCs were then analyzed by flow cytometry for morphological changes (dot-plot forward scatter versus side scatter), phosphatidylserine externalization (annexin-V test), cell viability (calcein-AM test), and caspase activities using fluorescent substrates specific for caspases-3 and -8. In addition, cells were systematically visualized using phase contrast, fluorescence, and confocal microscopy. We found that the population of RBCs fixed on annexin-V is a mixture of discocytes and shrunken cells. This annexin-V-positive population showed a dramatic loss of viability based on esterase activity determination (calcein-AM test). Moreover, we demonstrated that circulating RBCs express both active caspases-8 and -3 in half of the annexin-V-positive cells. All of these results were confirmed by phase contrast, fluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate active caspases in RBC isolated from blood suggesting that caspases may participate in the regulation of in vivo RBC half-life. This finding open the door to fruitful investigations in the field of RBC pathology.
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Caveolae contribute to the apoptosis resistance induced by the alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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During androgen ablation prostate cancer cells growth and survival become independent of normal regulatory mechanisms. These androgen-independent cells acquire the remarkable ability to adapt to the surrounding microenvironment whose factors, such as neurotransmitters, influence their survival. Although findings are becoming evident about the expression of alpha(1A)-adrenoceptors in prostate cancer epithelial cells, their exact functional role in androgen-independent cells has yet to be established. Previous work has demonstrated that membrane lipid rafts associated with key signalling proteins mediate growth and survival signalling pathways in prostate cancer cells.
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GD3 synthase overexpression enhances proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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The disialoganglioside G(D3) is an oncofetal marker of a variety of human tumors including melanoma and neuroblastoma, playing a key role in tumor progression. G(D3) and 9-O-acetyl-G(D3) are overexpressed in approximately 50% of invasive ductal breast carcinoma, but no relationship has been established between disialoganglioside expression and breast cancer progression. In order to determine the effect of G(D3) expression on breast cancer development, we analyzed the biosynthesis of gangliosides in several breast epithelial cell lines including MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, BT-20, T47-D, and MCF10A, by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR. Our results show that, in comparison to tumors, cultured breast cancer cells express a limited pattern of gangliosides. Disialogangliosides were not detected in any cell line and G(M3) was only observed at the cell surface of MDA-MB-231 cells. To evaluate the influence of G(D3) in breast cancer cell behavior, we established and characterized MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing G(D3) synthase. We show that G(D3) synthase expressing cells accumulate G(D3), G(D2), and G(T3) at the cell surface. Moreover, G(D3) synthase overexpression bypasses the need of serum for cell growth and increases cell migration. This suggests that G(D3) synthase overexpression may contribute to increasing the malignant properties of breast cancer cells.
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Senescent keratinocytes die by autophagic programmed cell death.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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Normal cells reach senescence after a specific time and number of divisions, leading ultimately to cell death. Although escape from this fate may be a requisite step in neoplastic transformation, the mechanisms governing senescent cell death have not been well investigated. We show here, using normal human epidermal keratinocytes, that no apoptotic markers appear with senescence. In contrast, the expression of several proteins involved in the regulation of macroautophagy, notably Beclin-1 and Bcl-2, was found to change with senescence. The corpses occurring at the senescence growth plateau displayed a large central area delimited by the cytokeratin network that contained a huge quantity of autophagic vacuoles, the damaged nucleus, and most mitochondria. 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagosome formation, but not the caspase inhibitor zVAD, prevented senescent cell death. We conclude that senescent cells do not die by apoptosis, but as a result of high macroautophagic activity that targets the primary vital cell components.
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Differentiated pellicle organization and lipopeptide production in standing culture of Bacillus subtilis strains.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Pellicle formation and lipopeptide production was analysed in standing cultures of different Bacillus subtilis strains producing two or three families of lipopeptides. Despite its ability to produce surfactin, B. Subtilis ATCC 6633 was unable to form stable pellicle at air-water interface. For the ATTC 21332 and ATCC 9943 strains, it was shown for the first time that the lipopeptides were also produced in standing cultures at productivities similar or lower than those obtained when the culture medium is agitated. A differentiated behaviour was observed between these strains in repetitive batch cultures. B. subtilis 9943 formed a wrinkled, thinner and more resistant pellicle than B. subtilis 21332. The structure of the pellicle determined by electron microscopy observations showed that cells of B. subtilis 9943 formed microcolonies whereas those of B. subtilis 21332 rapidly died. Under these conditions, surfactin production by strain 21332 decreased after 2 days whereas it remained stable for B. subtilis 9943 during the 6 days of the cultures. These data indicate that cells of B. subtilis strains growing in pellicle can produce lipopeptides differently depending on their cellular organisation.
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Cytoskeleton reorganization as an alternative mechanism of store-operated calcium entry control in neuroendocrine-differentiated cells.
PLoS ONE
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Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) is a hallmark of advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer, for which no successful therapy exists. NED tumour cells escape apoptotic cell death by alterations of Ca(2+) homeostasis where the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is known to be a key event. We have previously shown that the downregulation of Orai1 protein representing the major molecular component of endogenous SOCE in human prostate cancer cells, and constituting the principal source of Ca(2+) influx used by the cell to trigger apoptosis, contributes to the establishment of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype (Cell Death Dis. 2010 Sep 16;1:e75.). Here, we report for the first time that the decrease of SOCE during NED may be caused by alternative NED-induced mechanism involving cytoskeleton reorganisation. NED induced by androgen deprivation resulted in a decrease of SOCE due to cortical F-actin over-polymerization which inhibits thapsigargin-induced SOCE. The disruption of F-actin polymerization by Cytochalasin D in NED cells restored SOCE, while the induction of F-actin polymerization by jasplakinolide or calyculin A diminished SOCE without changing the expression of key SOCE players: Orai1, STIM1, and TRPC1. Our data suggest that targeting cytoskeleton-induced pathways of malignant cells together with SOCE-involved channels may prove a useful strategy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
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Opening up the advantages of the ruthenocenic bioprobes of ferroquine: distribution and localization in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.
Metallomics
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A ferrocene-quinoline conjugate named ferroquine (FQ or SSR97193) is active against both chloroquine-susceptible and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax strains and/or isolates. FQ was shown to be efficient for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in humans (phase IIb of clinical trials). However, the molecular basis of FQs mechanism of action is still unknown because few approaches (such as radioactive labelling or immunofluorescence) are available for that purpose. Previous reports from our laboratory suggest that the intramolecular hydrogen bond in the lateral side chain plays a crucial role in the antimalarial activity of the drug. We used two ruthenocenic bioprobes of FQ (with and without an intramolecular hydrogen bond) to study their localization and quantification in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. We first used Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis to trace ruthenoquine (RQ, with an intramolecular hydrogen bond) and methylruthenoquine (Me-RQ, without an intramolecular hydrogen bond) in the infected red blood cells (iRBCs). We showed that RQ accumulates faster in the digestive vacuole of the iRBCs than Me-RQ. We next examined the ruthenium distribution at the ultrastructural level by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We showed that RQ accumulates faster in the parasitic digestive vacuole (DV) close to its membranes than Me-RQ.
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Toxoplasma sortilin-like receptor regulates protein transport and is essential for apical secretory organelle biogenesis and host infection.
Cell Host Microbe
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Apicomplexan parasites have an assortment of unique apical secretory organelles (rhoptries and micronemes), which have crucial functions in host infection. Here, we show that a Toxoplasma gondii sortilin-like receptor (TgSORTLR) is required for the subcellular localization and formation of apical secretory organelles. TgSORTLR is a transmembrane protein that resides within Golgi-endosomal related compartments. The lumenal domain specifically interacts with rhoptry and microneme proteins, while the cytoplasmic tail of TgSORTLR recruits cytosolic sorting machinery involved in anterograde and retrograde protein transport. Ectopic expression of the N-terminal TgSORTLR lumenal domain results in dominant negative effects with the mislocalization of both endogenous TgSORTLR as well as rhoptry and microneme proteins. Conditional ablation of TgSORTLR disrupts rhoptry and microneme biogenesis, inhibits parasite motility, and blocks both invasion into and egress from host cells. Thus, the sortilin-like receptor is essential for protein trafficking and the biogenesis of key secretory organelles in Toxoplasma.
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Functional intestinal stem cells after Paneth cell ablation induced by the loss of transcription factor Math1 (Atoh1).
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Intestinal epithelium has the capacity to self-renew and generate differentiated cells through the existence of two types of epithelial stem cells: active crypt base columnar cells (CBCs) and quiescent +4 cells. The behaviors of these cells are regulated both by intrinsic programs and by extrinsic signals sent by neighboring cells, which define the niche. It is clear that the ?-catenin pathway acts as an essential intrinsic signal for the maintenance and proliferation of CBC, and it was recently proposed that Paneth cells provide a crucial niche by secreting Wingless/Int (Wnt) ligands. Here, we examined the effect of disrupting the intestinal stem cell niche by inducible deletion of the transcription factor Math1 (Atoh1), an essential driver of secretory cell differentiation. We found that complete loss of Paneth cells attributable to Math1 deficiency did not perturb the crypt architecture and allowed the maintenance and proliferation of CBCs. Indeed, Math1-deficient crypt cells tolerated in vivo Paneth cell loss and maintained active ?-catenin signaling but could not grow ex vivo without exogenous Wnt, implying that, in vivo, underlying mucosal cells act as potential niche. Upon irradiation, Math1-deficient crypt cells regenerated and CBCs continued cycling. Finally, CBC stem cells deficient in adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) and Math1 were able to promote intestinal tumorigenesis. We conclude that in vivo, Math1-deficient crypts counteract the absence of Paneth cell-derived Wnts and prevent CBC stem cell exhaustion.
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Mapping the expressed glycome and glycosyltransferases of zebrafish liver cells as a relevant model system for glycosylation studies.
J. Proteome Res.
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The emergence of zebrafish as a model organism for human diseases was accompanied by the development of cellular model systems that extended the possibilities for in vitro manipulation and in vivo studies after cell implantation. The exploitation of zebrafish cell systems is, however, still hampered by the lack of genomic and biochemical data. Here, we lay a path toward the efficient use of ZFL, a zebrafish liver-derived cell system, as a platform for studying glycosylation. To achieve this, we established the glycomic profile of ZFL by a combination of mass spectrometry and NMR. We demonstrated that glycoproteins were substituted by highly sialylated multiantennary N-glycans, some of them comprising the unusual zebrafish epitope Gal?1-4[Neu5Ac(?2,3)]Gal?1-4[Fuc(?1,3)]GlcNAc, and core 1 multisialylated O-glycans. Similarly, these analyses established that glycolipids were dominated by sialylated gangliosides. In parallel, analyzing the expression patterns of all putative sialyl- and fucosyltransferases, we directly correlated the identified structures to the set of enzymes involved in ZFL glycome. Finally, we demonstrated that this cell system was amenable to metabolic labeling using functionalized monosaccharides that permit in vivo imaging of glycosylation processes. Altogether, glycomics, genomics, and functional studies established ZFL as a relevant cellular model for the study of glycosylation.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.