MYC is a key transcription factor involved in central cellular processes such as regulation of the cell cycle, histone acetylation and ribosomal biogenesis. It is overexpressed in the majority of human tumors including aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Especially Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highlight example for MYC overexpression due to a chromosomal translocation involving the c-MYC gene. However, no genome-wide analysis of MYC-binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has been conducted in BL so far.
Luminal-like breast tumor cells express estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors that controls their proliferation, survival, and functional status. To identify the molecular determinants of this hormone-responsive tumor phenotype, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was performed in estrogen stimulated MCF-7 and ZR-75.1 cells by integrating time-course mRNA expression profiling with global mapping of genomic ERalpha binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel sequencing, microRNA expression profiling, and in silico analysis of transcription units and receptor binding regions identified. All 1270 genes that were found to respond to 17beta-estradiol in both cell lines cluster in 33 highly concordant groups, each of which showed defined kinetics of RNA changes. This hormone-responsive gene set includes several direct targets of ERalpha and is organized in a gene regulation cascade, stemming from ligand-activated receptor and reaching a large number of downstream targets via AP-2gamma, B-cell activating transcription factor, E2F1 and 2, E74-like factor 3, GTF2IRD1, hairy and enhancer of split homologue-1, MYB, SMAD3, RARalpha, and RXRalpha transcription factors. MicroRNAs are also integral components of this gene regulation network because miR-107, miR-424, miR-570, miR-618, and miR-760 are regulated by 17beta-estradiol along with other microRNAs that can target a significant number of transcripts belonging to one or more estrogen-responsive gene clusters.
In recent years, gene fusions have gained significant recognition as biomarkers. They can assist treatment decisions, are seldom found in normal tissue and are detectable through Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the transcriptome (RNA-seq). To transform the data provided by the sequencer into robust gene fusion detection several analysis steps are needed. Usually the first step is to map the sequenced transcript fragments (RNA-seq) to a reference genome. One standard application of this approach is to estimate expression and detect variants within known genes, e.g. SNPs and indels. In case of gene fusions, however, completely novel gene structures have to be detected. Here, we describe the detection of such gene fusion events based on our comprehensive transcript annotation (ElDorado). To demonstrate the utility of our approach, we extract gene fusion candidates from eight breast cancer cell lines, which we compare to experimentally verified gene fusions. We discuss several gene fusion events, like BCAS3-BCAS4 that was only detected in the breast cancer cell line MCF7. As supporting evidence we show that gene fusions occur more frequently in copy number enriched regions (CNV analysis). In addition, we present the Transcriptome Viewer (TViewer) a tool that allows to interactively visualize gene fusions. Finally, we support detected gene fusions through literature mining based annotations and network analyses. In conclusion, we present a platform that allows detecting gene fusions and supporting them through literature knowledge as well as rich visualization capabilities. This enables scientists to better understand molecular processes, biological functions and disease associations, which will ultimately lead to better biomedical knowledge for the development of biomarkers for diagnostics and therapies.
The abuse of anabolic substances in animal husbandry is forbidden within the EU and well controlled by detecting substance residues in different matrices. The application of newly designed drugs or substance cocktails represents big problems. Therefore developing sensitive test methods is important. The analysis of physiological changes caused by the use of anabolic agents on the molecular level, for example, by quantifying gene expression response, is a new approach to develop such screening methods. A novel technology for holistic gene expression analysis is RNA sequencing. In this study, the potential of this high-throughput method for the identification of biomarkers was evaluated. The effect of trenbolone acetate plus estradiol on gene expression in liver from Nguni heifers was analyzed with RNA sequencing. The expression of 40 selected candidate genes was verified via RT-qPCR, whereby 20 of these genes were significantly regulated. To extract the intended information from these regulated genes, biostatistical tools for pattern recognition were applied and resulted in a clear separation of the treatment groups. Those candidate genes could be verified in boars and in calves treated with anabolic substances. These results show the potential of RNA sequencing to screen for biomarker candidates to detect the abuse of anabolics. The verification of these biomarkers in boars and calves leads to the assumption that gene expression biomarkers are independent of breed or even species and that biomarkers, identified in farm animals could also act as potential biomarker candidates to detect the abuse of anabolic substances in human sports.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.