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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Two cycles of risk-adapted consolidation therapy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Results from the SAL-AIDA2000 trial.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and idarubicin (AIDA) for induction therapy followed by three cycles of risk-adapted consolidation cycles is considered standard of care for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We report the outcome of 141 patients (median age 51 years; range, 19-82, 31 % ?60 years) enrolled into the prospective Study Alliance Leukemia (SAL)-AIDA2000 trial, which comprised AIDA-based induction followed by only two courses of risk-adapted consolidation (daunorubicin or mitoxantrone?±?cytarabine) followed by 2-year maintenance treatment. The early death rate was 7 % (median age 66 years), and additional 9 % stopped further treatment after induction. The estimated 6-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 80 % in all patients, 84 % in patients ?60 and 72 % in patients >60 years (p?=?0.140). No significant survival differences were observed between the high-risk and the non-high-risk patients (6-year OS 78 vs. 81 %, p?=?0.625). Our results confirm the efficacy of a risk-adapted approach in APL patients. Furthermore, long-term outcomes are comparable to the results obtained with three cycles of consolidation. A modification of the number and intensity of conventional consolidation treatment may be a less toxic but equally effective approach and should be considered for further evaluation in randomized clinical trials in APL.
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Sustained complete molecular remission after imatinib discontinuation in children with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Approximately 40% of adults with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in prolonged complete molecular response (CMR) remain in CMR after imatinib discontinuation. Corresponding information in children is lacking. Two children with CML in CMR for 48 and 19 months after imatinib discontinuation showed low-level fluctuating disease at RNA transcript and genomic DNA levels. Both patients were low risk according to adult criteria. Since adults with molecular relapse responded to re-introduction of imatinib, we postulated that treatment discontinuation in low risk children might be justified within clinical trials with close monitoring. This may help to minimize exposure to imatinib and its potential side effects.
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Comparing cancer vs. normal gene expression profiles identifies new disease entities and common transcriptional programs in AML patients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Gene expression profiling has been used extensively to characterize cancer, identify novel subtypes and improve patient stratification. However, it has largely failed to identify transcriptional programs that differ between cancer and corresponding normal cells, and has not been efficient in identifying expression changes fundamental to disease etiology. Here we present a method that facilitates the comparison of any cancer sample to its nearest normal cellular counterpart using acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as a model. We first generated a gene expression-based landscape of the normal hematopoietic hierarchy using expression profiles from normal stem/progenitor cells and next mapped the AML patient samples to this landscape. This allowed us to identify the closest normal counterpart of individual AML samples and determine gene expression changes between cancer and normal. We find the cancer vs. normal method (CvN-method) to be superior to conventional methods in stratifying AML patients with aberrant-karyotype and in identifying common aberrant transcriptional programs with potential importance for AML etiology. Moreover, the CvN-method uncovered a novel poor-outcome subtype of normal-karyotype AML, which allowed for the generation of a highly prognostic survival signature. Collectively, our CvN-method holds great potential as a tool for the analysis of gene expression profiles of cancer patients.
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Monitoring of acute myeloid leukemia patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation employing semi-automated CD34+ donor cell chimerism analysis.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Determination of donor chimerism profiles in blood or bone marrow from patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is useful for monitoring engraftment or predicting relapse, when specific molecular markers are lacking. CD34+ donor cell chimerism (DCC) analysis in peripheral blood samples from CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myleodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients proved to be a highly sensitive diagnostic tool that is useful to detect imminent relapse significantly earlier compared to total white blood cell donor cell chimerism monitoring. However, flow-cytometric enrichment of CD34+ cells requires high efforts to human resources and equipment. We present a novel semi-automated CD34+ DCC analysis procedure-employing a magnetic cell-enrichment device, DNA extraction, and short tandem repeat profiling-without the need for flow-cytometric cell sorting. Monitoring 85 patients with AML and MDS over a period of 4 years 24 relapses were detected. Semi-automated peripheral blood CD34+ DCC was diminished below 80 % in all cases of systemic relapse. Significant decrease of the CD34+ DCC value was detected 29-42 days before overt cytological relapse. Our method provides a rapid and sensitive tool for monitoring AML and MDS patients after allogeneic SCT with regard to engraftment and early detection of relapse. Here, we propose a novel semi-automated procedure for CD34+ DCC analysis after allogeneic SCT that is simple, reliable, and therefore applicable in all hematologic laboratories.
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Features of Ras activation by a mislocalized oncogenic tyrosine kinase: FLT3 ITD signals through K-Ras at the plasma membrane of acute myeloid leukemia cells.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 with internal tandem duplication (FLT3 ITD) is an important oncoprotein in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Owing to its constitutive kinase activity FLT3 ITD partially accumulates at endomembranes, a feature shared with other disease-associated, mutated receptor tyrosine kinases. Because Ras proteins also transit through endomembranes we have investigated the possible existence of an intracellular FLT3-ITD/Ras signaling pathway by comparing Ras signaling of FLT3 ITD with that of wild-type FLT3. Ligand stimulation activated both K- and N-Ras in cells expressing wild-type FLT3. Live-cell Ras-GTP imaging revealed ligand-induced Ras activation at the plasma membrane (PM). FLT3-ITD-dependent constitutive activation of K-Ras and N-Ras was also observed primarily at the PM, supporting the view that the PM-resident pool of FLT3 ITD engaged the Ras/Erk pathway in AML cells. Accordingly, specific interference with FLT3-ITD/Ras signaling at the PM using PM-restricted dominant negative K-RasS17N potently inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. In conclusion, Ras signaling is crucial for FLT3-ITD-dependent cell transformation and FLT3 ITD addresses PM-bound Ras despite its pronounced mislocalization to endomembranes.
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Sorafenib in combination with intensive chemotherapy in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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The prognosis of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still dismal even with intensive chemotherapy. In this trial, we compared the antileukemic activity of standard induction and consolidation therapy with or without the addition of the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in elderly patients with AML.
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The level of residual disease based on mutant NPM1 is an independent prognostic factor for relapse and survival in AML.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Mutations of the NPM1 gene (NPM1mut) are among the most common genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia and are suitable for minimal residual disease detection. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic impact of NPM1mut-based minimal residual disease detection from bone marrow for development of relapse by using a newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction based on locked nucleic acid-containing primers in 174 patients, 155 of whom were treated within prospective protocols. The prognostic value of 5 cutoff values after completion of treatment or after allogeneic transplantation was studied by using cause-specific hazard models. Subsequent validation using cross-validated partial likelihood analysis revealed that an increase of more than 1% NPM1mut/ABL1 was most prognostic for relapse after chemotherapy, whereas an increase of more than 10% NPM1mut/ABL1 was most prognostic for relapse after allogeneic transplantation. Univariate and multivariate analysis of disease-free survival and overall survival revealed a significantly worse outcome in patients with >1% NPM1mut/ABL1 and >10% NPM1mut/ABL1, respectively, which remained significant after adjustment for FLT3-internal tandem duplication status. Our results in a large data set define and optimize cutoff values for early diagnosis of molecular relapse. These results may be especially important for defining triggers for early therapeutic intervention.
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Sex and body mass index but not CXCL12 801 G/A polymorphism determine the efficacy of hematopoietic cell mobilization: a study in healthy volunteer donors.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Analyses of healthy donors of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation have suggested that individuals harboring the CXCL12-A allele mobilize a higher number of CD34 + HSPCs after G-CSF administration. We typed 463 healthy unrelated donors (376 men and 87 women) who had received daily subcutaneous injections at a mean dose of 7.36 ± 1.71 ?g/kg G-CSF for 5 days for CXCL12 801 G/A using a real-time PCR assay. Interestingly, the median concentration of mobilized CD34 + cells on day 5 was almost identical in donors with the A-allele (79/?L; range, 11 to 249/?L) and the G/G-group (82/?L; range, 15 to 268/?L). In addition, the allelic distribution was not different in donors (n = 11) who mobilized less than 20/?L CD34 + cells. No difference in the overall yield of CD34 + cells in the apheresis product and in the number of CD34 + cells/kg recipient could be detected between both groups. In a multivariate regression model for the endpoint CD34 + cells/?L at day 5, only male sex (regression coefficient, 11.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 21.2, P = .021) and body mass index as continuous variables (regression coefficient, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 4.5, P = .0001) but not age, smoking status, or CXCL12 allelic status represented independent variables. Our data derived from a large well-controlled cohort contradict previous analyses suggesting an association between CXCL12 allelic status and the yield of CD34 + HSPC after G-CSF mobilization. Concentration of CD34 + cells in the peripheral blood, the most objective parameter, could not be predicted by CXCL12 genotype.
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Autotaxin is expressed in FLT3-ITD positive acute myeloid leukemia and hematopoietic stem cells and promotes cell migration and proliferation.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Autotaxin (ATX) has been reported to act as a motility and growth factor in a variety of cancer cells. The ATX protein acts as a secreted lysophospholipase D by converting lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which signals via G-protein-coupled receptors and has important functions in cell migration and proliferation. This study demonstrates that ATX expression is specifically upregulated and functionally active in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring an internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation of the FLT3 receptor gene. Moreover, ATX expression was also found in normal human CD34+ progenitor cells and selected myeloid and lymphoid subpopulations. Enforced expression of mutant FLT3-ITD by retroviral vector transduction increased ATX mRNA in selected cell lines, whereas inhibition of FLT3-ITD signaling by sublethal doses of PKC412 or SU5614 led to a significant downregulation of ATX mRNA and protein levels. In the presence of LPC, ATX expression significantly increased proliferation. LPA induced proliferation, regardless of ATX expression, and induced chemotaxis in all tested human leukemic cell lines and human CD34(+) progenitors. LPC increased chemotaxis only in cells with high expression of endogenous ATX by at least 80%, demonstrating the autocrine action of ATX. Inhibition of ATX using a small molecule inhibitor selectively induced killing of ATX-expressing cell lines and reduced motility in these cells. Our data suggest that the production of bioactive LPA through ATX is involved in controlling proliferation and migration during hematopoiesis and that deregulation of ATX contributes to the pathogenesis of AML.
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Association of Oesophageal Varices and Splanchnic Vein Thromboses in Patients with JAK2-Positive Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Presentation of Two Cases and Data from a Retrospective Analysis.
Case Rep Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Oesophageal varices and gastrointestinal bleeding are common complications of liver cirrhosis. More rarely, oesophageal varices occur in patients with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension that results from thromboses of portal or splanchnic veins.
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In vivo expansion of co-transplanted T cells impacts on tumor re-initiating activity of human acute myeloid leukemia in NSG mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Human cells from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients are frequently transplanted into immune-compromised mouse strains to provide an in vivo environment for studies on the biology of the disease. Since frequencies of leukemia re-initiating cells are low and a unique cell surface phenotype that includes all tumor re-initiating activity remains unknown, the underlying mechanisms leading to limitations in the xenotransplantation assay need to be understood and overcome to obtain robust engraftment of AML-containing samples. We report here that in the NSG xenotransplantation assay, the large majority of mononucleated cells from patients with AML fail to establish a reproducible myeloid engraftment despite high donor chimerism. Instead, donor-derived cells mainly consist of polyclonal disease-unrelated expanded co-transplanted human T lymphocytes that induce xenogeneic graft versus host disease and mask the engraftment of human AML in mice. Engraftment of mainly myeloid cell types can be enforced by the prevention of T cell expansion through the depletion of lymphocytes from the graft prior transplantation.
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Genome-wide analysis of histone H3 acetylation patterns in AML identifies PRDX2 as an epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor gene.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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With the use of ChIP on microarray assays in primary leukemia samples, we report that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts exhibit significant alterations in histone H3 acetylation (H3Ac) levels at > 1000 genomic loci compared with CD34(+) progenitor cells. Importantly, core promoter regions tended to have lower H3Ac levels in AML compared with progenitor cells, which suggested that a large number of genes are epigenetically silenced in AML. Intriguingly, we identified peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) as a novel potential tumor suppressor gene in AML. H3Ac was decreased at the PRDX2 gene promoter in AML, which correlated with low mRNA and protein expression. We also observed DNA hypermethylation at the PRDX2 promoter in AML. Low protein expression of the antioxidant PRDX2 gene was clinically associated with poor prognosis in patients with AML. Functionally, PRDX2 acted as inhibitor of myeloid cell growth by reducing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in response to cytokines. Forced PRDX2 expression inhibited c-Myc-induced leukemogenesis in vivo on BM transplantation in mice. Taken together, epigenome-wide analyses of H3Ac in AML led to the identification of PRDX2 as an epigenetically silenced growth suppressor, suggesting a possible role of ROS in the malignant phenotype in AML.
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Prediction of post-remission survival in acute myeloid leukaemia: a post-hoc analysis of the AML96 trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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The optimum post-remission treatment (PRT) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is still a matter of debate. Consolidation treatments include chemotherapy with high-dose cytarabine, or allogeneic or autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In a post-hoc analysis of the AML96 trial (NCT00180115), our aim was to differentiate groups of patients according to the treatments that would provide them optimum benefit.
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Targeted isolation of cloned genomic regions by recombineering for haplotype phasing and isogenic targeting.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Studying genetic variations in the human genome is important for understanding phenotypes and complex traits, including rare personal variations and their associations with disease. The interpretation of polymorphisms requires reliable methods to isolate natural genetic variations, including combinations of variations, in a format suitable for downstream analysis. Here, we describe a strategy for targeted isolation of large regions (?35?kb) from human genomes that is also applicable to any genome of interest. The method relies on recombineering to fish out target fosmid clones from pools and thereby circumvents the laborious need to plate and screen thousands of individual clones. To optimize the method, a new highly recombineering-efficient bacterial host, including inducible TrfA for fosmid copy number amplification, was developed. Various regions were isolated from human embryonic stem cell lines and a personal genome, including highly repetitive and duplicated ones. The maternal and paternal alleles at the MECP2/IRAK 1 loci were distinguished based on identification of novel allele-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory regions. Additionally, we applied further recombineering to construct isogenic targeting vectors for patient-specific applications. These methods will facilitate work to understand the linkage between personal variations and disease propensity, as well as possibilities for personal genome surgery.
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Long-term prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia according to the new genetic risk classification of the European LeukemiaNet recommendations: evaluation of the proposed reporting system.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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The current European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) propose a new risk reporting system, integrating molecular and cytogenetic factors and subdividing the large heterogenous group of intermediate-risk patients into intermediate-I (IR-I) and intermediate-II (IR-II). We assessed the prognostic value of the new risk classification in a large cohort of patients.
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Prophylactic transfer of BCR-ABL-, PR1-, and WT1-reactive donor T cells after T cell-depleted allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Donor lymphocyte infusions have been effective in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but their use is associated with the risk of graft-versus-host disease. We investigated the effects of prophylactic infusion of in vitro-generated donor T cells reactive against peptides derived from CML-associated antigens. Fourteen CML patients received conditioning therapy followed by CD34(+)-selected peripheral blood stem cells from matched siblings (n = 7) or unrelated (n = 7) donors. Donor-derived mature dendritic cells generated in vitro from CD14(+) monocytes were loaded with human leukocyte Ag-restricted peptides derived from PR1, WT1, and/or B-cell receptor-ABL and used to repetitively stimulate donor CD8(+) T cells in the presence of IL-2 and IL-7. Stimulated T cells were infused 28, 56, and 112 days after transplantation. Thirteen patients are alive and 7 remain in molecular remission (median follow-up, 45 months). Interestingly, all 4 patients receiving CD8(+) T cells displaying marked cytotoxic activity in vitro and detectable peptide-reactive CD8(+) T cells during follow-up have not experienced graft-versus-host disease or relapse. Our study reveals that prophylactic infusion of allogeneic CD8(+) T cells reactive against peptides derived from CML-associated antigens is a safe and promising therapeutic strategy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00460629.
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miR-10a overexpression is associated with NPM1 mutations and MDM4 downregulation in intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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The study investigated differential microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with intermediate-risk (IR) characteristics. After characterization and validation of miR-10a, which was specifically upregulated in nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutant AML samples, functional consequences of miR-10a overexpression were further delineated in vitro.
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Age-dependent frequencies of NPM1 mutations and FLT3-ITD in patients with normal karyotype AML (NK-AML).
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Prognosis of AML in elderly patients is poor due to adverse patient characteristics and comorbidities. In addition, disease-associated parameters reveal differences between older and younger patients with AML. Survival in normal karyotype AML (NK-AML) is influenced by different clinical and molecular markers. The aim of this work was to investigate the frequencies of molecular markers in patients with NK-AML with a focus on NPM1 mutations and FLT3-ITD in different age groups. In the present study, we analyzed the frequencies of mutations of NPM1 and FLT3-ITD in a cohort of 1,321 adult patients and 148 children with AML treated within the AMLCG99, the AML98, and AML04 trials and their distribution in different age groups. Additionally, the frequencies of mutations in CEBPA genes, FLT3-TKD, and MLL-PTD were analyzed in the cohort with NK-AML (n?=?729). Our data show that the presence of mutations of NPM1 (from 60% to 40%) and FLT3-ITD (from 50% to 20%) significantly decreased with age in adult AML. Consequently, the proportion of NPM1-/FLT3-ITD- patients increased with age. The decreasing frequency of NPM1 mutations in elderly patients was paralleled by a reduced complete remission (CR) rate in the elderly of 55% compared to 80% in the younger patients. By contrast, the frequencies of other gene mutations, like FLT3-TKD and MLL-PTD, and mutations in CEBPA were not age-dependent. The decreasing frequency of the favorable NPM1 mutations with increasing age may partially explain the worse outcome in the elderly patients. Furthermore, the increasing amount of elderly patients without NPM1 mutations or FLT3-ITD suggests that other molecular and clinical risk factors may influence prognosis in this age group.
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Complete remission and early death after intensive chemotherapy in patients aged 60 years or older with acute myeloid leukaemia: a web-based application for prediction of outcomes.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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About 50% of patients (age ?60 years) who have acute myeloid leukaemia and are otherwise medically healthy (ie, able to undergo intensive chemotherapy) achieve a complete remission (CR) after intensive chemotherapy, but with a substantially increased risk of early death (ED) compared with younger patients. We verified the association of standard clinical and laboratory variables with CR and ED and developed a web-based application for risk assessment of intensive chemotherapy in these patients.
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Immunohistochemical surrogates for genetic alterations of CCDN1, PML, ALK, and NPM1 genes in lymphomas and acute myeloid leukemia.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
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The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lympho-hemopoietic neoplasms is increasingly based on genetic criteria. Detection of tumor-associated primary genetic lesions is usually performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). This review focuses on alternative techniques for detecting genetic lesions in biopsy samples. Immunohistochemical surrogates for the detection of genetic alterations involving the CCND1, PML, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and nucleophosmin (NPM1) genes are presented as examples for this approach. Because of their high specificity, rapidity, low costs and ease of performance, these assays have the potential for being extensively applied in developing countries. In some instances (e.g. detection of ALK protein) immunohistochemistry has fully replaced molecular studies for routine diagnosis in paraffin-embedded specimens. Genome wide based discovery of new tumor-associated genetic lesions that are suitable for antibody targeting promises to further expand the application of immunohistochemistry for the molecular classification of hematological neoplasms.
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CD34+ cells from AML with mutated NPM1 harbor cytoplasmic mutated nucleophosmin and generate leukemia in immunocompromised mice.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with mutated NPM1 shows distinctive biologic and clinical features, including absent/low CD34 expression, the significance of which remains unclear. Therefore, we analyzed CD34(+) cells from 41 NPM1-mutated AML. At flow cytometry, 31 of 41 samples contained less than 10% cells showing low intensity CD34 positivity and variable expression of CD38. Mutational analysis and/or Western blotting of purified CD34(+) cells from 17 patients revealed NPM1-mutated gene and/or protein in all. Immunohistochemistry of trephine bone marrow biopsies and/or flow cytometry proved CD34(+) leukemia cells from NPM1-mutated AML had aberrant nucleophosmin expression in cytoplasm. NPM1-mutated gene and/or protein was also confirmed in a CD34(+) subfraction exhibiting the phenotype (CD34(+)/CD38(-)/CD123(+)/CD33(+)/CD90(-)) of leukemic stem cells. When transplanted into immunocompromised mice, CD34(+) cells generated a leukemia recapitulating, both morphologically and immunohistochemically (aberrant cytoplasmic nucleophosmin, CD34 negativity), the original patients disease. These results indicate that the CD34(+) fraction in NPM1-mutated AML belongs to the leukemic clone and contains NPM1-mutated cells exhibiting properties typical of leukemia-initiating cells. CD34(-) cells from few cases (2/15) also showed significant leukemia-initiating cell potential in immunocompromised mice. This study provides further evidence that NPM1 mutation is a founder genetic lesion and has potential implications for the cell-of-origin and targeted therapy of NPM1-mutated AML.
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Increased HDAC1 deposition at hematopoietic promoters in AML and its association with patient survival.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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Epigenetic changes play a crucial role in leukemogenesis. HDACs are frequently recruited to target gene promoters by balanced translocation derived oncogenic fusion proteins. As important epigenetic effector mechanisms, histone deacetylases (HDAC) have emerged as potential therapeutic targets. However, the patterns of HDAC1 localization and the role of HDACs in leukemia pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. Using ChIP-Chip analyses we analyzed HDAC1 deposition patterns at more than 10,000 gene promoters in a large cohort of leukemia patients and CD34+ controls. HDAC1 binding was significantly increased in AML blasts compared to CD34+ progenitor cells at 130 gene promoters whereas decreased binding was observed at 66 gene promoters. Distinct HDAC1 binding patterns occurred in AML subtypes with balanced translocations t(15;17), t(8;21) and inv(16). In addition, a more generalized signature was established, that revealed an AML specific pattern of HDAC1 distribution. Many of the HDAC1-binding altered promoters regulate genes involved in hematopoiesis, transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. HDAC1 binding patterns were associated with patients event free survival. This is the first study to determine HDAC1 modification patterns in a large number of AML and ALL specimens. Our findings suggest that dyslocalization of HDAC1 is a common feature in AML. Importantly, HDAC1 modifications possess prognostic power for patient survival. Our findings suggest that altered HDAC1 localization is an explanation for the observed benefit of HDAC inhibitors in AML therapy.
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Profiling of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation levels predicts transcription factor activity and survival in acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is commonly associated with alterations in transcription factors because of altered expression or gene mutations. These changes might induce leukemia-specific patterns of histone modifications. We used chromatin-immunoprecipitation on microarray to analyze histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) patterns in primary AML (n = 108), acute lymphoid leukemia (n = 28), CD34(+) cells (n = 21) and white blood cells (n = 15) specimens. Hundreds of promoter regions in AML showed significant alterations in H3K9me3 levels. H3K9me3 deregulation in AML occurred preferentially as a decrease in H3K9me3 levels at core promoter regions. The altered genomic regions showed an overrepresentation of cis-binding sites for ETS and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response elements (CREs) for transcription factors of the CREB/CREM/ATF1 family. The decrease in H3K9me3 levels at CREs was associated with increased CRE-driven promoter activity in AML blasts in vivo. AML-specific H3K9me3 patterns were not associated with known cytogenetic abnormalities. But a signature derived from H3K9me3 patterns predicted event-free survival in AML patients. When the H3K9me3 signature was combined with established clinical prognostic markers, it outperformed prognosis prediction based on clinical parameters alone. These findings demonstrate widespread changes of H3K9me3 levels at gene promoters in AML. Signatures of histone modification patterns are associated with patient prognosis in AML.
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Impact of JAK2V617F mutation status, allele burden, and clearance after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelofibrosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) after reduced-intensity conditioning has become a reasonable treatment option for patients with advanced myelofibrosis. The role of characteristic molecular genetic abnormalities, such as JAK2V617F on outcome of ASCT, is not yet elucidated. In 139 of 162 myelofibrosis patients with known JAK2V617F mutation status who received ASCT after reduced-intensity conditioning, the impact of JAK2 genotype, JAK2V617F allele burden, and clearance of mutation after ASCT was evaluated. Overall survival was significantly reduced in multivariate analysis in patients harboring JAK2 wild-type (hazard ratio = 2.14, P = .01) compared with JAK2 mutated patients. No significant influence on outcome was noted for the mutated allele burden analyzed either as continuous variable or after dividing into quartiles. Achievement of JAK2V617F negativity after ASCT was significantly associated with a decreased incidence of relapse (hazard ratio = 0.22, P = .04). In a landmark analysis, patients who cleared JAK2 mutation level in peripheral blood 6 months after ASCT had a significant lower risk of relapse (5% vs 35%, P = .03). We conclude that JAK2V617F-mutated status, but not allele frequency, resulted in an improved survival and rapid clearance after allografting reduces the risk of relapse.
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A novel prognostic model in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia: results of 909 patients entered into the prospective AML96 trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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We present an analysis of prognostic factors derived from a trial in patients with acute myeloid leukemia older than 60 years. The AML96 trial included 909 patients with a median age of 67 years (range, 61-87 years). Treatment included cytarabine-based induction therapy followed by 1 consolidation. The median follow-up time for all patients is 68 months (5.7 years). A total of 454 of all 909 patients reached a complete remission (50%). Five-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival were 9.7% and 14%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that karyotype, age, NPM1 mutation status, white blood cell count, lactate dehydrogenase, and CD34 expression were of independent prognostic significance for OS. On the basis of the multivariate Cox model, an additive risk score was developed that allowed the subdivision of the largest group of patients with an intermediate-risk karyotype into 2 groups. We are, therefore, able to distinguish 4 prognostic groups: favorable risk, good intermediate risk, adverse intermediate risk, and high risk. The corresponding 3-year OS rates were 39.5%, 30%, 10.6%, and 3.3%, respectively. The risk model allows further stratification of patients with intermediate-risk karyotype into 2 prognostic groups with implications for the therapeutic strategy.
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Pim2 cooperates with PML-RARalpha to induce acute myeloid leukemia in a bone marrow transplantation model.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Although the potential role of Pim2 as a cooperative oncogene has been well described in lymphoma, its role in leukemia has remained largely unexplored. Here we show that high expression of Pim2 is observed in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). To further characterize the cooperative role of Pim2 with promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML/RARalpha), we used a well-established PML-RARalpha (PRalpha) mouse model. Pim2 coexpression in PRalpha-positive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) induces leukemia in recipient mice after a short latency. Pim2-PRalpha cells were able to repopulate mice in serial transplantations and to induce disease in all recipients. Neither Pim2 nor PRalpha alone was sufficient to induce leukemia upon transplantation in this model. The disease induced by Pim2 overexpression in PRalpha cells contained a slightly higher fraction of immature myeloid cells, compared with the previously described APL disease induced by PRalpha. However, it also clearly resembled an APL-like phenotype and showed signs of differentiation upon all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment in vitro. These results support the hypothesis that Pim2, which is also a known target of Flt3-ITD (another gene that cooperates with PML-RARalpha), cooperates with PRalpha to induce APL-like disease.
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Genetic variations of interleukin-23R (1143A>G) and BPI (A645G), but not of NOD2, are associated with acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the immune system predict for aGVHD and mortality after allo-SCT. We investigated the effect of SNPs in the NOD2, BPI, and IL-23R genes on posttransplantation outcome in a cohort of 304 patients. NOD2 patient and donor genotype and BPI recipient genotype were not associated with the occurrence of aGVHD. However, IL-23R-SNP in the donor was correlated with less aGVHD. This association could be confirmed in multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; P = .039), which identified in vivo T cell depletion (OR, 0.32; P < .001) and multiagent GVHD prophylaxis (OR, 0.51; P = .031) as other independent factors predicting for less-severe aGVHD. This multivariate model also revealed a trend toward less aGVHD in patients receiving a BPI G allele transplant (OR, 0.60; P = .067) and in those receiving a transplant from an HLA-matched donor (OR, 0.57; P = .058). In contrast, relapse was more frequent in patients with NOD2-SNPs (46.2% for SNP vs 33.2% for wild-type; P = .020). This association was found to be of borderline significance in multivariate analysis. Neither BPI nor IL-23R genotype predicted for relapse, and none of the investigated SNPs was correlated with 5-year overall survival. In our analysis, NOD2 SNPs did not predict aGVHD, but IL-23R(1142A>G) and BPI(A645G) SNPs appeared to be promising markers in this regard. The importance of these markers in prediction models for GVHD and relapse remain to be defined in large prospective clinical trials.
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General transcription factor binding at CpG islands in normal cells correlates with resistance to de novo DNA methylation in cancer cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Aberrant DNA methylation at CpG islands is thought to contribute to cancer initiation and progression, but mechanisms that establish and maintain DNA methylation status during tumorigenesis or normal development remain poorly understood. In this study, we used methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation to generate comparative DNA methylation profiles of healthy and malignant cells (acute leukemia and colorectal carcinoma) for human CpG islands across the genome. While searching for sequence patterns that characterize DNA methylation states, we discovered several nonredundant sequences in CpG islands that were resistant to aberrant de novo methylation in cancer and that resembled consensus binding sites for general transcription factors (TF). Comparing methylation profiles with global CpG island binding data for specific protein 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and yin-yang 1 revealed that their DNA binding activity in normal blood cells correlated strictly with an absence of de novo methylation in cancer. In addition, global evidence showed that binding of any of these TFs to their consensus motif depended on their co-occurrence with neighboring consensus motifs. In summary, our results had two major implications. First, they pointed to a major role for cooperative binding of TFs in maintaining the unmethylated status of CpG islands in health and disease. Second, our results suggest that the majority of de novo methylated CpG islands are characterized by the lack of sequence motif combinations and the absence of activating TF binding.
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Mechanisms of resistance against PKC412 in resistant FLT3-ITD positive human acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains challenging with many patients harboring unfavorable prognostic parameters such as FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutations leading to a constitutively activated FLT3-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). Activation of proteins by phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a common mechanism in leukemia development. Therefore, specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have been developed for AML therapy and are currently under investigation. The staurosporine derivate PKC412 (Midostaurin) was found to be an effective inhibitor of the FLT3-RTK and is currently undergoing clinical trials for FLT3-mutated AML patients. Since resistance towards TKIs has been observed in vitro and in clinical trials, we have generated a PKC412-resistant clone (MV4-11r) of the human myelomonoblastic cell line MV4-11, which carries a homozygous FLT3-ITD mutation. MV4-11r displayed higher vitality after addition of PKC412 compared with MV4-11 with a pronounced reduction of apoptotic cells. Cytogenetic characterization revealed the acquisition of additional aberrations in the resistant cell line such as clonal alterations at chromosome 13q with additional FLT3 signals. Microarray analysis revealed significant expression changes in several genes prior to and after incubation with PKC412. The expression status of candidate genes being regulated by FLT-ITD like JAG1, p53, MCL-1, C-KIT, and FLT3/-L was confirmed by real-time PCR. In summary, resistance against PKC412 appears to be mediated by up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of proapoptotic signals as well as genes that are involved in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.
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A variant allele of Growth Factor Independence 1 (GFI1) is associated with acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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The GFI1 gene encodes a transcriptional repressor, which regulates myeloid differentiation. In the mouse, Gfi1 deficiency causes neutropenia and an accumulation of granulomonocytic precursor cells that is reminiscent of a myelodysplastic syndrome. We report here that a variant allele of GFI1 (GFI1(36N)) is associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in white subjects with an odds ratio of 1.6 (P < 8 x 10(-5)). The GFI1(36N) variant occurred in 1806 AML patients with an allele frequency of 0.055 compared with 0.035 in 1691 healthy control patients in 2 independent cohorts. We observed that both GFI1 variants maintain the same activity as transcriptional repressors but differ in their regulation by the AML1/ETO (RUNX1/RUNX1T1) fusion protein produced in AML patients with a t(8;21) translocation. AML1/ETO interacts and colocalizes with the more common GFI1(36S) form in the nucleus and inhibits its repressor activity. However, the variant GFI1(36N) protein has a different subnuclear localization than GFI1(36S). As a consequence, AML1/ETO does not colocalize with GFI1(36N) and is unable to inhibit its repressor activity. We conclude that both variants of GFI1 differ in their ability to be regulated by interacting proteins and that the GFI1(36N) variant form exhibits distinct biochemical features that may confer a predisposition to AML.
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188Re anti-CD66 radioimmunotherapy combined with reduced-intensity conditioning and in-vivo T cell depletion in elderly patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2009
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The addition of radioimmunotherapy to conventional and reduced-intensity conditioning has been shown to be feasible and effective. Within an ongoing prospective phase II trial, 22 patients with advanced myeloid malignancies and a median age of 65 years (range 54-76) received anti-CD66 Rhenium radioimmunotherapy followed by fludarabine (150 mg/m(2)), busulfan (8 mg/kg) and alemtuzumab (75 mg) before allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from matched sibling (n = 7) and unrelated donors (n = 15). The extramedullary toxicity in the first 100 d post-transplantation was limited and all patients engrafted with complete donor chimaerism. The incidence of non-relapse mortality at day 100 and after 2 years was 4.5% and 23%, respectively. The probability of overall survival at 2 years was 40%. A comparison with a younger historical cohort (median age 57 years) having received the same dose of fludarabine and busulfan but neither radioimmunotherapy nor alemtuzumab showed no difference in outcome. Although the use of alemtuzumab reduced the incidence of acute graft-versus-host-disease, it was associated with a relapse incidence of 40% despite the incorporation of radioimmmunotherapy. In summary, we confirmed the feasibility of combined radioimmunotherapy and reduced-intensity conditioning in elderly patients. Further optimisation, probably involving less T cell depletion, is necessary before a randomized comparison with standard conditioning can be planned.
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Monitoring of donor chimerism in sorted CD34+ peripheral blood cells allows the sensitive detection of imminent relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Analysis of donor chimerism is an important diagnostic tool to assess the risk of relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, especially in patients lacking a specific marker suitable for monitoring of minimal residual disease. We prospectively investigated the predictive value of donor chimerism analyses in sorted CD34(+) peripheral blood cells in 90 patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. The cumulative incidence of relapse after four years was significantly increased in cases with decreasing or incomplete CD34(+) donor chimerism (57% vs. 18%, p=0.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed decreasing CD34(+) donor chimerism as an independent predictor of relapse and inferior survival. The interval between a decrease of CD34(+) chimerism of less than 80% and hematologic relapse was 61 days (range 0-567). Monitoring of CD34(+) donor chimerism in the peripheral blood allows prediction of imminent relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation even when a disease-specific marker is lacking.
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Impact of CXCR4 inhibition on FLT3-ITD-positive human AML blasts.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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Internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations of the FLT3 receptor are associated with a high incidence of relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Expression of the CXCR4 receptor in FLT3-ITD-positive AML is correlated with poor outcome, and inhibition of CXCR4 was shown to sensitize AML blasts toward chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of FLT3-ITD on cell proliferation and CXCR4-dependent migration in human hematopoietic progenitor cells and to investigate their response to CXCR4 inhibition.
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Elevated AF1q expression is a poor prognostic marker for adult acute myeloid leukemia patients with normal cytogenetics.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Nearly half of the patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia have normal cytogenetics (NC-AML) and are classified as intermediate risk, but their 5-year overall survival (OS) ranges from 24 to 42%. Therefore, molecular biomarkers to identify poor-risk patients are needed. Elevated AF1q expression in the absence of specific poor cytogenetics is associated with poor outcomes in pediatric patients with AML and adult patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. We examined AF1q expression in 290 patients with NC-AML. We found that patients with low AF1q (n = 73) expression (AF1q(low)) have better OS (P = 0.026), disease-free survival (P = 0.1), and complete remission rate (P = 0.06) when compared with patients with high AF1q expression (AF1q(high) n = 217). The patients with AF1q(high) had significantly greater incidence of concurrent tyrosine kinase3 internal tandem duplication. A subgroup of the patients with AF1q(high) who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) had a significant better relapse-free survival when compared with patients who received chemotherapy/autologous SCT (P = 0.04). This study suggests that high AF1q expression is a poor prognostic marker for adult patients with NC-AML.
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Quantitative comparison of microarray experiments with published leukemia related gene expression signatures.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Multiple gene expression signatures derived from microarray experiments have been published in the field of leukemia research. A comparison of these signatures with results from new experiments is useful for verification as well as for interpretation of the results obtained. Currently, the percentage of overlapping genes is frequently used to compare published gene signatures against a signature derived from a new experiment. However, it has been shown that the percentage of overlapping genes is of limited use for comparing two experiments due to the variability of gene signatures caused by different array platforms or assay-specific influencing parameters. Here, we present a robust approach for a systematic and quantitative comparison of published gene expression signatures with an exemplary query dataset.
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HLA-DRneg patients without acute promyelocytic leukemia show distinct immunophenotypic, genetic, molecular, and cytomorphologic characteristics compared to acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Loss of HLA-DR and CD34 is a well-known characteristic of malignant promyelocytes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, this immunophenotype is not specific for APL. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether further biological characterization of the HLA-DR(neg) acute myeloid leukemia patients would allow more clearly define criteria to separate APL from non-APL patients.
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Anchoring of FLT3 in the endoplasmic reticulum alters signaling quality.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
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The mechanism of cell transformation by Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is incompletely understood. The most prevalent activated mutant FLT3 ITD exhibits an altered signaling quality, including strong activation of the STAT5 transcription factor. FLT3 ITD has also been found partially retained as a high-mannose precursor in an intracellular compartment. To analyze the role of intracellular retention of FLT3 for transformation, we have generated FLT3 versions that are anchored in the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by appending an ER retention sequence containing a RRR (R3) motif. ER retention of R3, but not of corresponding A3 FLT3 versions, is shown by biochemical, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and immunocytochemical analyses. ER anchoring reduced global autophosphorylation and diminished constitutive activation of ERK1/2 and AKT of the constitutively active FLT3 versions. ER anchoring was, however, associated with elevated signaling to STAT3. Transforming activity of the FLT3 D835Y mutant was suppressed by ER anchoring. In contrast, ER-anchored FLT3 ITD retained STAT5-activating capacity and was transforming in vitro and in vivo. The findings highlight another aspect of the different signaling quality of FLT3 ITD: It can transform cells from an intracellular location.
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Efficient production of bioactive recombinant human Flt3 ligand in E. coli.
Protein J.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Flt3 ligand (FL) is an early-acting hematopoietic cytokine that stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells by activating its cognate receptor, Flt3. Recently, FL was shown to potently contribute to the development and expansion of antigen-presenting dendritic cells and CD34(+) natural killer cell progenitors in vivo. Here, we report a comprehensive method for the production of bioactive recombinant human FL (rhFL) in E. coli, suitable for structural, biophysical and physiological studies. A soluble form of human FL capable of binding to the Ftl3 receptor could be overexpressed in the E. coli strain Rosetta-gami(DE3) as inclusion bodies. We have established protocols for the efficient in vitro refolding and ensuing purification of rhFL to homogeneity (>95%), with yields approaching 5 mg of pure rhFL per liter of culture. The ability of rhFL to adopt a bioactive conformation was confirmed via a cell-proliferation assay and the activation of the Flt3 receptor in the human leukemic cell line, OCI-AML3.
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Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with everolimus and tacrolimus is associated with a high incidence of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome and microangiopathy: results of the EVTAC trial.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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A calcineurin inhibitor combined with methotrexate is the standard prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Everolimus, a derivative of sirolimus, seems to mediate antileukemia effects. We report on a combination of everolimus and tacrolimus in 24 patients (median age, 62 years) with either myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 17) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 7) undergoing intensive conditioning followed by HSCT from related (n = 4) or unrelated (n = 20) donors. All patients engrafted, and only 1 patient experienced grade IV mucositis. Nine patients (37%) developed acute grade II-IV GVHD, and 11 of 17 evaluable patients (64%) developed chronic extensive GVHD. Transplantation-associated microangiopathy (TMA) occurred in 7 patients (29%), with 2 cases of acute renal failure. The study was terminated prematurely because an additional 6 patients (25%) developed sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), which was fatal in 2 cases. With a median follow-up of 26 months, the 2-year overall survival rate was 47%. Although this new combination appears to be effective as a prophylactic regimen for acute GVHD, the incidence of TMA and SOS is considerably higher than seen with other regimens.
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Feasibility of azacitidine added to standard chemotherapy in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia--a randomised SAL pilot study.
PLoS ONE
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Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) experience short survival despite intensive chemotherapy. Azacitidine has promising activity in patients with low proliferating AML. The aim of this dose-finding part of this trial was to evaluate feasibility and safety of azacitidine combined with a cytarabine- and daunorubicin-based chemotherapy in older patients with AML.
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Aberrant methylation of the M-type phospholipase A(2) receptor gene in leukemic cells.
BMC Cancer
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The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) plays a crucial role in several signaling pathways and may act as tumor-suppressor. This study examined the expression and methylation of the PLA2R1 gene in Jurkat and U937 leukemic cell lines and its methylation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute leukemia.
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Enzymatic assay for quantitative analysis of (D)-2-hydroxyglutarate.
Acta Neuropathol.
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Levels of (D)-2-hydroxyglutarate [D2HG, (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate] are increased in some metabolic diseases and in neoplasms with mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) genes. Determination of D2HG is of relevance to diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Standard detection methods of D2HG levels are liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Here we present a rapid, inexpensive and sensitive enzymatic assay for the detection of D2HG levels. The assay is based on the conversion of D2HG to ?-ketoglutarate (?KG) in the presence of the enzyme (D)-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (HGDH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). Determination of D2HG concentration is based on the detection of stoichiometrically generated NADH. The quantification limit of the enzymatic assay for D2HG in tumor tissue is 0.44 ?M and in serum 2.77 ?M. These limits enable detection of basal D2HG levels in human tumor tissues and serum without IDH mutations. Levels of D2HG in frozen and paraffin-embedded tumor tissues containing IDH mutations or in serum from acute myeloid leukemia patients with IDH mutations are significantly higher and can be easily identified with this assay. In conclusion, the assay presented is useful for differentiating basal from elevated D2HG levels in tumor tissue, serum, urine, cultured cells and culture supernatants.
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Terminal myeloid differentiation in vivo is induced by FLT3 inhibition in FLT3/ITD AML.
Blood
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A hallmark of cancer is the disruption of differentiation within tumor cells. Internal tandem duplication mutations of the FLT3 kinase (FLT3/ITD) occur commonly in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with poor survival, leading to efforts to develop FLT3 kinase inhibitors. However, FLT3 inhibitors have thus far met with limited success, inducing only a clearance of peripheral blasts with minimal BM responses. Quizartinib is a novel potent and selective FLT3 inhibitor currently being studied in clinical trials. In 13 of 14 FLT3/ITD AML patients with normal karyotype treated with quizartinib, we observed terminal myeloid differentiation of BM blasts in association with a clinical differentiation syndrome. The single patient whose blasts failed to differentiate had a preexisting C/EBP? mutation and another developed a C/EBP? mutation at disease progression, suggesting a mechanism of resistance to FLT3 inhibition. In vitro, in primary blasts cocultured with human BM stroma, FLT3 inhibition with quizartinib induced cell-cycle arrest and differentiation rather than apoptosis. The present study is the first description of terminal differentiation of cancer cells in patients treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. These data highlight the importance of the differentiation block in the patho-genesis of AML.
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Genomic BCR-ABL1 breakpoints in pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a rare disease in children and adolescents and various aspects-from molecular genesis to therapy regimen-have been taken over from studies on the more prevalent adult CML. However, differences have been observed between malignancies with identical underlying chromosomal translocations, but occurring at different age groups, suggesting some diversity in the mechanisms of formation and leukemogenesis. A multiplex long-range PCR-based assay was developed to allow fast and reliable amplification of patient-specific BCR-ABL1 fusion sequences from genomic DNA. The localization of breakpoints was analyzed with respect to distribution within the breakpoint cluster regions, sequence features, and association to repetitive elements or motifs associated with DNA recombination. The genomic fusion sites of 59 pediatric CML patients showed a bimodal breakpoint distribution in BCR that was different from the distribution in adult CML cases, but with similarities to BCR-ABL1-positive, acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults. BCR breakpoints were found more frequently positioned within, or close to, Alu repeats than would be expected based on their overall sequence proportion. Technical aspects of the highly sensitive DNA-based quantification of residual CML cells by specific fusion sequence during tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are exemplified in a subcohort of pediatric CML patients.
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Second cancers and residual disease in patients treated for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma by Helicobacter pylori eradication and followed for 10 years.
Gastroenterology
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Cure of Helicobacter pylori infection induces remission in most patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (GML) that is associated with these bacteria. We determined the long-term outcomes of these patients in a prospective multicenter trial and investigated whether they developed second cancers or had histologic residual disease.
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Reconstitution of 6-sulfo LacNAc dendritic cells after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation.
Transplantation
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Infections and acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) represent major complications of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Dendritic cells (DCs) display an extraordinary capacity to induce innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, they play a crucial role in the elimination of pathogens and in the pathogenesis of acute GvHD. 6-Sulfo LacNAc DCs (slanDCs) are a major subpopulation of human blood DCs with a high proinflammatory capacity. We investigated for the first time the reconstitution of slanDCs in the blood of patients after SCT and the modulation of their frequency by bacterial infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation, and acute GvHD.
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Clonal evolution including partial loss of human leukocyte antigen genes favoring extramedullary acute myeloid leukemia relapse after matched related allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Transplantation
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Relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) leaves few therapeutic options, and mechanisms of immune escape of recurring leukemic cells remain poorly understood. Recently, acquired loss of mismatched human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was demonstrated in patients with AML undergoing haploidentical allogeneic HSCT and was suggested not to occur in HLA-matched HSCT. We hypothesized that this mechanism applies to extramedullary AML relapse which occurs frequently after allogeneic HSCT and might also not be restricted to haploidentical HSCT.
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