The aim of this study was to compare the composition of two deep-sea viral communities obtained from the Romanche Fracture Zone in the Atlantic Ocean (collected at 5200 m depth) and the southwest Mediterranean Sea (from 2400 m depth) using a pyro-sequencing approach. The results are based on 18.7% and 6.9% of the sequences obtained from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively, with hits to genomes in the non-redundant viral RefSeq database. The identifiable richness and relative abundance in both viromes were dominated by archaeal and bacterial viruses accounting for 92.3% of the relative abundance in the Atlantic Ocean and for 83.6% in the Mediterranean Sea. Despite characteristic differences in hydrographic features between the sampling sites in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, 440 virus genomes were found in both viromes. An additional 431 virus genomes were identified in the Atlantic Ocean and 75 virus genomes were only found in the Mediterranean Sea. The results indicate that the rather contrasting deep-sea environments of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea share a common core set of virus types constituting the majority of both virus communities in terms of relative abundance (Atlantic Ocean: 81.4%; Mediterranean Sea: 88.7%).
We hypothesized that mixing zones of deep-water masses act as ecotones leading to alterations in microbial diversity and activity due to changes in the biogeochemical characteristics of these boundary systems. We determined the changes in prokaryotic and viral abundance and production in the Vema Fracture Zone (VFZ) of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, where North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) are funneled through this narrow canyon and therefore, are subjected to intense vertical mixing. Consequently, salinity, potential temperature, oxygen, PO4, SiO4, NO3 were altered in the NADW inside the VFZ as compared to the NADW outside of the VFZ. Also, viral abundance, lytic viral production (VP) and the virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) were elevated in the NADW in the VFZ as compared to the NADW outside the VFZ. In contrast to lytic VP, lysogenic VP and both the frequency of lytically (FIC) and lysogenically infected cells (FLC) did not significantly differ between in- and outside the VFZ. Generally, FIC was higher than FLC throughout the water column. Prokaryotic (determined by T-RFLP) and viral (determined by RAPD-PCR) community composition was depth-stratified inside and outside the VFZ. The viral community was more modified both with depth and over distance inside the VFZ as compared to the northern section and to the prokaryotic communities. However, no clusters of prokaryotic and viral communities characteristic for the VFZ were identified. Based on our observations, we conclude that turbulent mixing of the deep water masses impacts not only the physico-chemical parameters of the mixing zone but also the interaction between viruses and prokaryotes due to a stimulation of the overall activity. However, only minor effects of deep water mixing were observed on the community composition of the dominant prokaryotes and viruses.
The utility of the tethered aminohydroxylation (TA) has been demonstrated by synthesis of the complex ?-amino acid residue of microsclerodermins A and B. The TA provided a regio- and stereoselective functionalization of a complex homoallylic alcohol. The route includes late-stage introduction of the aliphatic side chain via a cuprate addition and cross metathesis, a tactic designed to render the synthesis applicable to other microsclerodermins.
We investigated the influence of environmental parameters and spatial distance on bacterial, archaeal and viral community composition from 13 sites along a 3200-km long voyage from Halifax to Kugluktuk (Canada) through the Labrador Sea, Baffin Bay and the Arctic Archipelago. Variation partitioning was used to disentangle the effects of environmental parameters, spatial distance and spatially correlated environmental parameters on prokaryotic and viral communities. Viral and prokaryotic community composition were related in the Labrador Sea, but were independent of each other in Baffin Bay and the Arctic Archipelago. In oceans, the dominant dispersal mechanism for prokaryotes and viruses is the movement of water masses, thus, dispersal for both groups is passive and similar. Nevertheless, spatial distance explained 7-19% of the variation in viral community composition in the Arctic Archipelago, but was not a significant predictor of bacterial or archaeal community composition in either sampling area, suggesting a decoupling of the processes regulating community composition within these taxonomic groups. According to the metacommunity theory, patterns in bacterial and archaeal community composition suggest a role for species sorting, while patterns of virus community composition are consistent with species sorting in the Labrador Sea and suggest a potential role of mass effects in the Arctic Archipelago. Given that, a specific prokaryotic taxon may be infected by multiple viruses with high reproductive potential, our results suggest that viral community composition was subject to a high turnover relative to prokaryotic community composition in the Arctic Archipelago.
Residual tumor resection (RTR) after chemotherapy in patients with advanced germ cell tumors (GCT) is an important part of the multimodal treatment. To provide a complete resection of residual tumor, additional surgical procedures are sometimes necessary. In particular, additional vascular interventions are high-risk procedures that require multidisciplinary planning and adequate resources to optimize outcome.
In 2008 and 2009, two consecutive outbreaks of Q fever in humans were recorded in the district of Freudenstadt, northern Black Forrest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. In 2008, a total of 41 persons from a single local community fell ill and were found infected with Coxiella burnetii. Although comprehensive diagnostic and epidemiological outbreak investigations were conducted and control measures taken which included vaccination of ruminants at risk in three parts of the affected community, re-occurrence of the disease in 2009 with further 29 confirmed human Q fever cases could not be prevented. While the origin of infection of the first outbreak was probably a flock of 550 sheep moved in the surrounding of the affected villages, the source of infection for the consecutive outbreak in 2009 could not be identified. It seems possible that meadows contaminated with infectious placenta or birth fluids represented the sources of infection.
Urinary acidification in the collecting duct is mediated by the activity of H(+)-ATPases and is stimulated by various factors including angiotensin II and aldosterone. Classically, aldosterone effects are mediated via the mineralocorticoid receptor. Recently, we demonstrated a nongenomic stimulatory effect of aldosterone on H(+)-ATPase activity in acid-secretory intercalated cells of isolated mouse outer medullary collecting ducts (OMCD). Here we investigated the intracellular signaling cascade mediating this stimulatory effect. Aldosterone stimulated H(+)-ATPase activity in isolated mouse and human OMCDs. This effect was blocked by suramin, a general G protein inhibitor, and GP-2A, a specific G(?q) inhibitor, whereas pertussis toxin was without effect. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U-73122, chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) with BAPTA, and blockade of protein kinase C prevented the stimulation of H(+)-ATPases. Stimulation of PKC by DOG mimicked the effect of aldosterone on H(+)-ATPase activity. Similarly, aldosterone and DOG induced a rapid translocation of H(+)-ATPases to the luminal side of OMCD cells in vivo. In addition, PD098059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation, blocked the aldosterone and DOG effects. Inhibition of PKA with H89 or KT2750 prevented and incubation with 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP mildly increased H(+)-ATPase activity. Thus, the nongenomic modulation of H(+)-ATPase activity in OMCD-intercalated cells by aldosterone involves several intracellular pathways and may be mediated by a G(?q) protein-coupled receptor and PKC. PKA and cAMP appear to have a modulatory effect. The rapid nongenomic action of aldosterone may participate in the regulation of H(+)-ATPase activity and contribute to final urinary acidification.
Organisms alter the biotic and abiotic conditions of ecosystems. They can modulate the availability of resources to other species (ecosystem engineering) and shape selection pressures on other organisms (niche construction). Very little is known about how the engineering effects of organisms vary among and within species, and, as a result, the ecosystem consequences of species diversification and phenotypic evolution are poorly understood. Here, using a common gardening experiment, we test whether morphologically similar species and populations of Diaptomidae copepods (Leptodiaptomus ashlandi, Hesperodiaptomus franciscanus, Skistodiaptomus oregonensis) have similar or different effects on the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. We found that copepod species had contrasting effects on algal biomass, ammonium concentrations, and sedimentation rates, and that copepod populations had contrasting effects on prokaryote abundance, sedimentation rates, and gross primary productivity. The average size of ecosystem-effect contrasts between species was similar to those between populations, and was comparable to those between fish species and populations measured in previous common gardening experiments. Our results suggest that subtle morphological variation among and within species can cause multifarious and divergent ecosystem-effects. We conclude that using morphological trait variation to assess the functional similarity of organisms may underestimate the importance of species and population diversity for ecosystem functioning.
Testicular germ cell tumors represent the most common solid malignancy of young men aged 15-40 years. Histopathologically, testicular germ cell tumors are divided into two major groups: pure seminoma and nonseminoma. The pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumors remains unknown; however, cryptorchidism is the main risk factor, and molecular studies have shown strong evidence of an association between genetic alterations and testicular germ cell tumors. In cases of suspicion for testicular germ cell tumor, a surgical exploration with orchiectomy is obligatory. After completion of diagnostic procedures, levels of serum tumor markers and the clinical stage based on the International Union Against Cancer tumor-node-metastasis classification should be defined. Patients with early-stage testicular germ cell tumors are treated by individualized risk stratification within a multidisciplinary approach. The individual management (surveillance, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) has to be balanced according to clinical features and the risk of short-term and long-term toxic effects. Treatment for metastatic tumors is based on risk stratification according to International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification and is performed with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and residual tumor resection in cases of residual tumor lesion. High-dose chemotherapy represents a curative option for patients with second or subsequent relapses.
Numerous phantoms for human organs are commercially available or designed for scientific purposes. None of these combine the imaging possibility with color Doppler ultra-sound (CDU) and computer tomography (CT) while providing vessel branches with bifurcations as natural landmarks.
A large-scale cross-sectional seroprevalence study of dengue (DEN) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) was conducted in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, as part of the initial baseline health impact assessment of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric dam construction project. Health surveys were performed between May 2007 and February 2008 with serum samples collected from healthy individuals involved in the resettlement program of 16 villages (total surveyed population 4,369). Hemagglutination inhibition assay using flavivirus antigens (DENV1, DENV3, and JEV) performed on 1,708 plasma specimens revealed 30.4% (519) cross-reactive positives, and 10% (172) and 1.3% (22) positives to JEV or DENV, respectively. Entomological surveys conducted during the rainy season of 2008 indicated the presence of competent flavivirus vectors (Culex vishnui group and Aedes albopictus), although Aedes aegypti was not found. Continued surveillance and investigation is warranted to assess the clinical disease burden of flaviviruses in this area that is undergoing rapid ecological and demographic change.
The study site located in the Mediterranean Sea was visited eight times in 2005 and 2006 to collect samples from the epipelagic (5 m), mesopelagic (200 m, 600 m), and bathypelagic (1,000 m, 2,000 m) zones. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) analysis was used to obtain fingerprints from microbial and viral size fractions using two different primers each. Depending on the primer used, the number of bands in the water column varied between 12 to 24 and 6 to 19 for the microbial size fraction and between 16 to 26 and 8 to 22 for the viral size fraction. The majority of sequences from the microbial fraction was related to Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Eukaryota. Only 9% of sequences obtained from the viral fraction were of identifiable viral origin; however, 76% of sequences had no close relatives in the nr database of GenBank. Only 20.1% of complete phage genomes tested in silico resulted in potential RAPD-PCR products, and only 12% of these were targeted by both primers. Also, in silico analysis indicated that RAPD-PCR profiles obtained by the two different primers are largely representative of two different subsets of the viral community. Also, correlation analyses and Mantel tests indicate that the links between changes in the microbial and viral community were strongest in the bathypelagic. Thus, these results suggest a strong codevelopment of virus and host communities in deep waters. The data also indicate that virus communities in the bathypelagic zone can exhibit substantial temporal dynamics.
Naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids have attracted considerable interest because of their intriguing structure, their unique biosynthetic origin, and their biological activities against several pathogens causing tropical diseases. Their promising pharmacologic properties make them suitable lead structures for new agents, in particular against malaria. Since these natural products are not easy to isolate in sufficient quantities or to synthesize stereoselectively, quantitative structure-activity relationship studies were accomplished to find new antiplasmodial analogs that are structurally related to the naturally occurring naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids, but more easily accessible, more active against Plasmodium falciparum, and, last but not least, less toxic. We report on the synthesis of several simplified compounds by a Suzuki coupling between the naphthalene and the isoquinoline moieties and on their activities against different pathogens causing infectious diseases. Some structures were found to exhibit excellent--and selective--activities against P. falciparum in vitro.
Viral and prokaryotic abundance, production and diversity were determined throughout the water column of the subtropical Atlantic Ocean to assess potential variations in the relation between viruses and prokaryotes. Prokaryotic abundance and heterotrophic activity decreased by one and three orders of magnitude, respectively, from the epi- to the abyssopelagic layer. Although the lytic viral production (VP) decreased with depth, lysogenic VP was variable throughout the water column and did not show any trend with depth. The bacterial, archaeal and viral community composition were depth-stratified as determined by the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, respectively. Generally, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) did not reveal consistent trends throughout the water column. Viral and prokaryotic abundance were strongly related to heterotrophic prokaryotic production, suggesting similar linkage strength between the viral and prokaryotic communities from the lower epi- to the abyssopelagic layer in the Atlantic Ocean. Strikingly, the prokaryotic and viral parameters exhibited a similar variability throughout the water column down to the abyssopelagic layers, suggesting that the dark ocean is as dynamic a system as is the lower epipelagic layer. It also indicates that viruses are apparently having a similar role for prokaryotic mortality in the dark oceanic realm as in surface waters. The more than twofold increase in bacterial OTUs from 2750?m depth to >5000?m depth and the concurrent decrease in viral OTUs, however, suggests that viruses might exhibit a wider host range in deep waters than in surface waters.
In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed.
Up to now, laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) represents the closest surgical technique to scar-free surgery. The objective of the study is to report the first clinical experience with a LESS endoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy.
A trade-off between strategies maximizing growth and minimizing losses appears to be a fundamental property of evolving biological entities existing in environments with limited resources. In the special case of unicellular planktonic organisms, the theoretical framework describing the trade-offs between competition and defense specialists is known as the "killing the winner" hypothesis (KtW). KtW describes how the availability of resources and the actions of predators (e.g., heterotrophic flagellates) and parasites (e.g., viruses) determine the composition and biogeochemical impact of such organisms. We extend KtW conceptually by introducing size- or shape-selective grazing of protozoans on prokaryotes into an idealized food web composed of prokaryotes, lytic viruses infecting prokaryotes, and protozoans. This results in a hierarchy analogous to a Russian doll, where KtW principles are at work on a lower level due to selective viral infection and on an upper level due to size- or shape-selective grazing by protozoans. Additionally, we critically discuss predictions and limitations of KtW in light of the recent literature, with particular focus on typically neglected aspects of KtW. Many aspects of KtW have been corroborated by in situ and experimental studies of isolates and natural communities. However, a thorough test of KtW is still hampered by current methodological limitations. In particular, the quantification of nutrient uptake rates of the competing prokaryotic populations and virus population-specific adsorption and decay rates appears to be the most daunting challenge for the years to come.
Chemotherapy with docetaxel remains the standard first-line treatment in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). To date there is no recommended second-line therapy in case of progression after docetaxel treatment. Knowledge of the molecular and cellular changes that occur during the transition of hormone-native to CRPC is increasing rapidly opening new therapy strategies in CRPC patients. This article will focus on recent available therapy options for patients with progressive CRPC after first-line treatment with docetaxel and highlights promising novel substances that are currently under investigation.
Kidney proton-secreting A-intercalated cells (A-IC) respond to systemic acidosis by accumulating the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) in their apical membrane and by increasing the length and number of apical microvilli. We show here that the cell-permeant cAMP analog CPT-cAMP, infused in vivo, results in an almost twofold increase in apical V-ATPase accumulation in AE1-positive A-IC within 15 min and that these cells develop an extensive array of apical microvilli compared with controls. In contrast, no significant change in V-ATPase distribution could be detected by immunocytochemistry in B-intercalated cells at the acute time point examined. To show a direct effect of cAMP on A-IC, we prepared cell suspensions from the medulla of transgenic mice expressing EGFP in IC (driven by the B1-subunit promoter of the V-ATPase) and exposed them to cAMP analogs in vitro. Three-dimensional reconstructions of confocal images revealed that cAMP induced a time-dependent growth of apical microvilli, starting within minutes after addition. This effect was blocked by the PKA inhibitor myristoylated PKI. These morphological changes were paralleled by increased cAMP-mediated proton extrusion (pHi recovery) by A-IC in outer medullary collecting ducts measured using the ratiometric probe BCECF. These results, and our prior data showing that the bicarbonate-stimulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is highly expressed in kidney intercalated cells, support the idea that cAMP generated either by sAC, or by activation of other signaling pathways, is part of the signal transduction mechanism involved in acid-base sensing and V-ATPase membrane trafficking in kidney intercalated cells.
Flexible endoscopes based on fiber bundles are still widely used despite the recent success of so-called tipchip endoscopes. This is partly due to the costs and that for extremely thin diameters (below 3 mm) there are still only fiberscopes available. Due to the inevitable artifacts caused by the transition from the fiber bundles to the sensor chip, image and texture analysis algorithms are severely handicapped. Therefore, texture-based computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems could not be used in such domains without image preprocessing. We describe a CAD system approach that includes an image filtering algorithm to remove the fiber image artifacts first and then applies conventional color texture algorithms that have been applied to other endoscopic disciplines in the past. The concept is evaluated on an image database with artificially rendered fiber artifacts so that ground truth information is available.
Modern techniques for medical diagnosis and therapy in minimal invasive surgery scenarios as well as industrial inspection make considerable use of flexible, fiberoptic endoscopes in order to gain visual access to holes, hollows, antrums and cavities that are difficult to enter and examine. Unfortunately, fiber-optic endoscopes exhibit artifacts in the images that hinder or at worst prevent fundamental image analysis techniques. The dark comb-like artifacts originate from the opaque cladding layer surrounding each single fiber in the image conductor. Although the removal of comb structure is crucial for fiber-optic image analysis, literature covers only a few approaches. Those are based on Fourier analysis and make use of spectral masking or they operate in the spatial domain and rely on interpolation. In this paper, we concentrate on the latter type and introduce interpolation concepts known from related disciplines to the task of comb structure removal. For a quantitative evaluation, we perform experiments with real images as well as with bivariate test functions and rate an algorithms performance in terms of the normalized root mean square error - a quality metric that it is most commonly used in signal processing for this purpose. Hence, this paper counters the fact that literature lacks an objective performance comparison of the state-of-the-art interpolation based approaches for this type of application.
Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection after chemotherapy (PC-RPLND) plays a crucial role in managing patients with advanced germ cell tumours (GCTs). In the last few years improvements in radiographic staging, a better understanding of the role of serum tumour markers, and the introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy have all contributed to this surgical therapy. PC-RPLND is necessary when residual radiographic abnormalities are present after chemotherapy. The need for a PC-RPLND in the face of normal findings from computed tomography (CT) is controversial. CT criteria alone are not sufficiently reliable to distinguish viable tumour or teratoma from necrosis. No combination of variables can predict negative retroperitoneal pathology with sufficient accuracy after induction chemotherapy. Unresected teratoma or viable GCT are at least partly chemorefractory and, if untreated, will progress. So completeness of resection is an independent and consistent predictive variable of clinical outcome. In PC-RPLND surgical margins should not be compromised in an attempt to preserve ejaculation, although nerve-sparing dissections are possible in patients with marker normalization after chemotherapy and necrotic tissue in frozen-section histology. In these patients nerve-sparing techniques and the reduction of surgical field to the left- or right-sided template are applicable to preserve antegrade ejaculation and consecutive fertility. The size and location of residual masses coupled with the retroperitoneal desmoplastic reaction make PC-RPLND a technically demanding procedure that should be performed by experienced surgeons in dedicated referral centres.
Relieving the strain: The rhodium(I)-catalyzed activation of C-C bonds in functionalized cyclobutanes opens a novel route to highly substituted carbo- and heterocycles. Particularly intriguing is the differentiation of enantiotopic C-C bonds, which leads to the formation of highly enantiomerically enriched lactones, cyclopentanones, and cyclohexenones (see scheme).
One of the challenges in oceanography is to understand the influence of environmental factors on the abundances of prokaryotes and viruses. Generally, conventional statistical methods resolve trends well, but more complex relationships are difficult to explore. In such cases, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) offer an alternative way for data analysis. Here, we developed ANN-based models of prokaryotic and viral abundances in the Arctic Ocean. The models were used to identify the best predictors for prokaryotic and viral abundances including cytometrically-distinguishable populations of prokaryotes (high and low nucleic acid cells) and viruses (high- and low-fluorescent viruses) among salinity, temperature, depth, day length, and the concentration of Chlorophyll-a. The best performing ANNs to model the abundances of high and low nucleic acid cells used temperature and Chl-a as input parameters, while the abundances of high- and low-fluorescent viruses used depth, Chl-a, and day length as input parameters. Decreasing viral abundance with increasing depth and decreasing system productivity was captured well by the ANNs. Despite identifying the same predictors for the two populations of prokaryotes and viruses, respectively, the structure of the best performing ANNs differed between high and low nucleic acid cells and between high- and low-fluorescent viruses. Also, the two prokaryotic and viral groups responded differently to changes in the predictor parameters; hence, the cytometric distinction between these populations is ecologically relevant. The models imply that temperature is the main factor explaining most of the variation in the abundances of high nucleic acid cells and total prokaryotes and that the mechanisms governing the reaction to changes in the environment are distinctly different among the prokaryotic and viral populations.
Dispersal limitation is generally considered to have little influence on the spatial structure of biodiversity in microbial metacommunities. This notion derives mainly from the analysis of spatial patterns in the field, but experimental tests of dispersal limitation using natural communities are rare for prokaryotes and, to our knowledge, non-existent for viruses. We studied the effects of dispersal intensity (three levels) and patch heterogeneity (two levels) on the structure of replicate experimental metacommunities of bacteria and viruses using outdoor mesocosms with plankton communities from natural ponds and lakes. Low levels of dispersal resulted in a decrease in the compositional differences (beta diversity) among the communities of both bacteria and viruses, but we found no effects of patch heterogeneity. The reductions in beta diversity are unlikely to be a result of mass effects and only partly explained by indirect dispersal-mediated interactions with phytoplankton and zooplankton. Our results suggest that even a very limited exchange among local communities can alter the trajectory of bacterial and viral communities at small temporal and spatial scales.
To investigate the factors that determine the retentiveness of copings made of cobalt-chromium (CoCr)-alloy or zirconia luted with permanent (solid-body like) and provisional (viscous, elastic-body-like) luting agents.
Flow cytometry is set to become the standard method for enumerating prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples. However, the samples need to be flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen directly after aldehyde fixation. Because liquid nitrogen may not always be available, we tested the potential of sodium azide as a preservative for prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples as a possible alternative. For that we conducted incubation experiments with untreated and sodium azide treated marine water samples at 4°C and room temperature. The data indicate that sodium azide cannot be used to maintain marine samples used for the enumeration of prokaryotes and viruses.
Ionic liquids are of high interest for the development of safe electrolytes in modern electrochemical cells, such as batteries, supercapacitors and dye-sensitised solar cells. However, electrochemical applications of ionic liquids are still hindered by the limited understanding of the interface between electrode materials and ionic liquids. In this article, we first review the state of the art in both experiment and theory. Then we illustrate some general trends by taking the interface between the extremely pure ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate and an Au(111) electrode as an example. For the study of this interface, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was combined with in situ STM and in situ AFM techniques. In addition, we present new results for the temperature dependence of the interfacial capacitance and dynamics. Since the interfacial dynamics are characterised by different processes taking place on different time scales, the temperature dependence of the dynamics can only be reliably studied by recording and carefully analysing broadband capacitance spectra. Single-frequency experiments may lead to artefacts in the temperature dependence of the interfacial capacitance. We demonstrate that the fast capacitive process exhibits a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman temperature dependence, since its time scale is governed by the ionic conductivity of the ionic liquid. In contrast, the slower capacitive process appears to be Arrhenius activated. This suggests that the time scale of this process is determined by a temperature-independent barrier, which may be related to structural reorganisations of the Au surface and/or to charge redistributions in the strongly bound innermost ion layer.
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