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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Update on the molecular pathogenesis and targeted approaches of mantle cell lymphoma: summary of the 12th annual conference of the European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct subtype of malignant lymphoma which is characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) resulting in constitutional overexpression of cyclin D1 and cell cycle dysregulation in almost all cases. Clinically, MCL shows an aggressive clinical course with a continuous relapse pattern and a median survival of only 3-5 years. However, recently a subset of 15% long-term survivors has been identified with a rather indolent clinical course. Targeted strategies include the proteasome inhibitors, immune modulatory drugs (IMiDs), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and especially inhibitors of the B-cell receptor pathway. Our recent annual conference focused on the molecular pathogenesis of the disease and how these underlying molecular alterations may guide the selection and integration of innovative approaches for therapy. This review of the meeting covers in particular the identification of indolent cases, and deals with the role of the B-cell receptor pathway in MCL, as well as the detection of minimal residual disease and implementation of molecular approaches in current clinical trials.
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Confirmation of the mantle-cell lymphoma International Prognostic Index in randomized trials of the European Mantle-Cell Lymphoma Network.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct B-cell lymphoma associated with poor outcome. In 2008, the MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) was developed as the first prognostic stratification tool specifically directed to patients with MCL. External validation was planned to be performed on the cohort of the two recently completed randomized trials of the European MCL Network.
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Cellular uptake of imatinib into leukemic cells is independent of human organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1).
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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In addition to mutated BCR-ABL1 kinase, the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, encoded by SLC22A1) has been considered to contribute to imatinib resistance in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Since data are conflicting as to whether OCT1 transports imatinib and may serve as clinical biomarker we used a combination of different approaches including animal experiments to elucidate comprehensively the impact of OCT1 on cellular imatinib uptake.
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Biologic characterization of adult MYC-translocation positive mature B-cell lymphomas other than molecular Burkitt lymphoma.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Chromosomal translocations affecting the MYC oncogene are the biologic hallmark of Burkitt lymphomas but also occur in a subset of other mature B-cell lymphomas. If accompanied by a chromosomal break targeting the BCL2 and/or BCL6 oncogene these MYC translocation positive (MYC+) lymphomas are called double-hit lymphomas, otherwise the term single-hit lymphomas is applied. In order to characterize the biologic features of these MYC+ lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphoma we explored, after exclusion of molecular Burkitt lymphoma as defined by gene expression profiling, the molecular, pathological and clinical aspects of 80 MYC-translocation positive lymphomas (31 single-hit, 46 double-hit & 3 MYC+-lymphomas with unknown BCL6 status). Comparison of single-hit and double-hit lymphomas revealed no difference in MYC partner (IG/non-IG), genomic complexity, MYC expression or gene expression profile. Double-hit lymphomas showed more frequent GCB-like gene expression profile and higher IGH and MYC mutation frequencies. Gene expression profiling revealed 130 differentially expressed genes between BCL6+/MYC+ and BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit lymphomas. BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit lymphomas showed a more frequent GCB-like gene expression profile. Analysis of all lymphomas according to MYC partner (IG/non-IG) revealed no substantial differences. In this series of lymphomas, in which immunochemotherapy was administered in only a minority of cases, single-hit and double-hit lymphomas had a similar poor outcome in contrast with molecular Burkitt lymphoma and lymphomas without MYC break. Our data suggest that, after excluding molecular Burkitt lymphoma and pediatric cases, MYC+ lymphomas are biologically quite homogenous with single-hit and double-hit lymphomas as well as IG-MYC and non-IG-MYC+ lymphomas sharing various molecular characteristics.
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Long-term clinical and molecular remissions in patients with mantle cell lymphoma following high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Long-term clinical and molecular remissions in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) following high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) have been evaluated in only a few studies. Thirty-six patients with MCL received ASCT in our institution (27 patients undergoing first-line therapy, 8 patients undergoing second-line therapy, and 1 patient undergoing third-line therapy). In the case of long-term remission (?5 years; n?=?8), peripheral blood was tested for minimal residual disease (MRD) by t(11; 14) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) PCR at the last follow-up. Ten-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and freedom from progression (FFP) after first-line ASCT were 42 %, 43 %, and 54 %; after second-line ASCT, these were all 0 %. Four-year OS, PFS, and FFP for the first-line cohort were 75 %, 48 %, and 61 %, respectively. Four-year OS, PFS, and FFP after second-line ASCT were 55 %, 30 %, and 30 %, respectively. Treatment-related mortality (3 months after ASCT) was 0 %. The only prognostic factor for OS, PFS, and FFP was treatment line (p?=?0.011, p?=?0.046, and p?=?0.023, respectively). No relapses occurred after 5 years following ASCT. So far, eight patients developed sustained long-term clinical and molecular complete remissions of up to 14.6 years following ASCT in the first treatment line. Sustained long-term clinical and molecular remissions can be achieved following ASCT in the first treatment line and apparently less frequent in the second treatment line.
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MRD detection in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas using Ig gene rearrangements and chromosomal translocations as targets for real-time quantitative PCR.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Minimal residual disease (MRD) diagnostics is of high clinical relevance in patients with indolent B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) and serves as a surrogate parameter to evaluate treatment effectiveness and long-term prognosis. MRD diagnostics performed by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) is the gold-standard and currently the most sensitive and the most broadly applied method in follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). RQ-PCR analysis of the junctional regions of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (IgH) serves as the most broadly applicable MRD target in B-NHL (?80%). Chromosomal translocations as t(14;18) translocation in FL and t(11;14) translocation in MCL can be used in selected lymphoma subtypes. In patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, both flow-cytometry as well as RQ-PCR are equally suitable for MRD assessment as long as a sensitivity of ?10(-4) shall be achieved.MRD diagnostics targeting the IgH gene is complex and requires extensive knowledge and experience because the junctional regions of each lymphoma have to be identified before the patient-specific RQ-PCR assays can be designed for MRD monitoring. Furthermore, somatic mutations of the IgH region occurring during B-cell development of germinal center and post-germinal center lymphomas may hamper appropriate primer binding leading to false negative results. The translocations mentioned above have the advantage that consensus forward primers and probes, both placed in the breakpoint regions of chromosome 18 in FL and chromosome 11 in MCL, can be used in combination with a reverse primer placed in the IgH joining region of chromosome 14. RQ-PCR-based methods can reach a good sensitivity (?10(-4)). This chapter provides all relevant background information and technical aspects for the complete laboratory process from detection of the clonal IgH gene rearrangement and the chromosomal translocations at diagnosis to the actual MRD measurements in clinical follow-up samples of B-NHL. However, it should be noted that MRD diagnostics for clinical treatment protocols has to be accompanied by regular international quality control rounds to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the MRD results.
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Update on the molecular pathogenesis and clinical treatment of mantle cell lymphoma: report of the 10th annual conference of the European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct subtype of malignant lymphoma characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32), resulting in constitutional overexpression of cyclin D1 and cell cycle dysregulation in virtually all cases. Clinically, MCL shows an aggressive clinical course with a continuous relapse pattern and a median survival of only 3-5 years. However, recently a subset of up to 15% long-term survivors has been identified with a rather indolent clinical course. Advanced stage disease is usually apparent already at first clinical manifestation; in general, conventional chemotherapy is only palliative and median duration of remissions is only 1-2 years. In 2000, the European MCL Network ( http://www.european-mcl.net ) was founded, which consists of 15 national lymphoma study groups supplemented by experts in hematopathology, cytogenetics and molecular genetics. During the last decade, the European consortium has successfully initiated the largest phase III trials in MCL worldwide. In the current study generation, the addition of high-dose Ara-C to a rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP)-like regimen followed by myeloablative consolidation achieved a significant improvement of progression-free survival. Similarly, in elderly patients, rituximab maintenance until progression led to a marked prolongation of remission duration. Emerging strategies include proteasome inhibitors, immune modulatory drugs (IMiDs), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and others, all based on the dysregulated control of cell cycle machinery and impairment of several apoptotic pathways. Combination strategies are currently being investigated in numerous trials, but their introduction into clinical practice and current treatment algorithms remains a challenge. Future strategies will apply individualized approaches according to the molecular risk profile of the patient. At the annual conference in Warsaw, recent results of molecular pathogenesis, analyses of current clinical trials and new study concepts were discussed.
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Is there a role for antigen selection in mantle cell lymphoma? Immunogenetic support from a series of 807 cases.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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We examined 807 productive IGHV-IGHD-IGHJ gene rearrangements from mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cases, by far the largest series to date. The IGHV gene repertoire was remarkably biased, with IGHV3-21, IGHV4-34, IGHV1-8, and IGHV3-23 accounting for 46.3% of the cohort. Eighty-four of 807 (10.4%) cases, mainly using the IGHV3-21 and IGHV4-34 genes, were found to bear stereotyped heavy complementarity-determining region 3 (VH CDR3) sequences and were placed in 38 clusters. Notably, the MCL stereotypes were distinct from those reported for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Based on somatic hypermutation (SHM) status, 238/807 sequences (29.5%) carried IGHV genes with 100% germ line identity; the remainder (569/807; 70.5%) exhibited different SHM impact, ranging from minimal (in most cases) to pronounced. Shared replacement mutations across the IGHV gene were identified for certain subgroups, especially those using IGHV3-21, IGHV1-8, and IGHV3-23. Comparison with other entities, in particular CLL, revealed that several of these mutations were "MCL-biased." In conclusion, MCL is characterized by a highly restricted immunoglobulin gene repertoire with stereotyped VH CDR3s and very precise SHM targeting, strongly implying a role for antigen-driven selection of the clonogenic progenitors. Hence, an antigen-driven origin of MCL could be envisaged, at least for subsets of cases.
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Minimal residual disease detection in mantle cell lymphoma: technical aspects and clinical relevance.
Semin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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The prognostic impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) has been demonstrated for several hematologic malignancies. While in acute lymphoblastic leukemias MRD assessment by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods has been established as an important tool for clinical risk assessment and is part of clinical management, data demonstrating a prognostic value of MRD in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) were sparse and results from randomized trials have been published only recently. In the present review technical aspects of different MRD detection methods are discussed, as well as the prognostic relevance of MRD in the context of clinical trials in patients with MCL. Furthermore, recommendations are given for workflow and useful implication of MRD in future clinical trials design.
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Translocations activating IRF4 identify a subtype of germinal center-derived B-cell lymphoma affecting predominantly children and young adults.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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The prognosis of germinal center-derived B-cell (GCB) lymphomas, including follicular lymphoma and diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), strongly depends on age. Children have a more favorable outcome than adults. It is not known whether this is because of differences in host characteristics, treatment protocols, or tumor biology, including the presence of chromosomal alterations. By screening for novel IGH translocation partners in pediatric and adult lymphomas, we identified chromosomal translocations juxtaposing the IRF4 oncogene next to one of the immunoglobulin (IG) loci as a novel recurrent aberration in mature B-cell lymphoma. FISH revealed 20 of 427 lymphomas to carry an IG/IRF4-fusion. Those were predominantly GCB-type DLBCL or follicular lymphoma grade 3, shared strong expression of IRF4/MUM1 and BCL6, and lacked PRDM1/BLIMP1 expression and t(14;18)/BCL2 breaks. BCL6 aberrations were common. The gene expression profile of IG/IRF4-positive lymphomas differed from other subtypes of DLBCL. A classifier for IG/IRF4 positivity containing 27 genes allowed accurate prediction. IG/IRF4 positivity was associated with young age and a favorable outcome. Our results suggest IRF4 translocations to be primary alterations in a molecularly defined subset of GCB-derived lymphomas. The probability for this subtype of lymphoma significantly decreases with age, suggesting that diversity in tumor biology might contribute to the age-dependent differences in prognosis of lymphoma.
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Inhibition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) activity provides a therapeutic approach for CLTC-ALK-positive human diffuse large B cell lymphomas.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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ALK positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are a distinct lymphoma subtype associated with a poor outcome. Most of them feature a t(2;17) encoding a clathrin (CLTC)-ALK fusion protein. The contribution of deregulated ALK-activity in the pathogenesis and maintenance of these DLBCLs is not yet known. We established and characterized the first CLTC-ALK positive DLBCL cell line (LM1). LM1 formed tumors in NOD-SCID mice. The selective ALK inhibitor NVP-TAE684 inhibited growth of LM1 cells in vitro at nanomolar concentrations. NVP-TAE684 repressed ALK-activated signalling pathways and induced apoptosis of LM1 DLBCL cells. Inhibition of ALK-activity resulted in sustained tumor regression in the xenotransplant tumor model. These data indicate a role of CLTC-ALK in the maintenance of the malignant phenotype thereby providing a rationale therapeutic target for these otherwise refractory tumors.
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A multiplex MALDI-TOF MS approach facilitates genotyping of DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour specimens.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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The impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on tumour susceptibility and pathogenesis has gained enormous attention. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based genotyping facilitates the analysis of short DNA amplicons and is, therefore, a promising tool for the investigation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples, particularly in targeted genotyping analysis.
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Update on the molecular pathogenesis and clinical treatment of Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL): minutes of the 9th European MCL Network conference.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct subtype of malignant lymphoma which is characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32), resulting in constitutional overexpression of cyclin D1 and cell cycle dysregulation in virtually all cases. Clinically, MCL shows an aggressive clinical course with a continuous relapse pattern and a median survival of only 3-5 years. However, recently a subset of 15% long-term survivors has been identified with a rather indolent clinical course, even after conventional treatment strategies only. Advanced stage disease is usually apparent already at first clinical manifestation; thus, conventional chemotherapy is only palliative, and the median duration of remissions is only 1-2 years. Emerging strategies including proteasome inhibitors, immune modulatory drugs (IMiDs), mTOR inhibitors, and others are based on the dysregulated control of cell cycle machinery and impaired apoptotic pathways. Monotherapy of these compounds achieves efficacy comparable to conventional chemotherapy in relapsed MCL, and combination strategies are currently being investigated in numerous trials; however, their introduction into clinical practice and current treatment algorithms remain a challenge. In 2000 the European MCL Network ( http://www.european-mcl.net ) was founded, consisting of 15 national lymphoma study groups supplemented by experts in histopathology and molecular genetics. During the past decade, the European consortium has successfully initiated the largest phase III trials in MCL worldwide, with a current annual recruitment of almost 200 patients per year in first-line studies. In detail, in prospective randomized studies, the addition of a B-lymphocyte specific antibody doubled the median progression-free survival from 14 to 28 months, and a dose-intensified consolidation with high-dose radiochemotherapy and subsequent autologous stem cell transplant resulted in superior response duration (3.7 vs. 1.6 years) and even improved overall survival in a recent analysis. Future strategies will apply individualized approaches according to the molecular risk profile of the patient. At the recent annual conference in Jerusalem, recent results of molecular pathogenesis, analyses of current clinical trials, and new study concepts were discussed.
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Patterns and outcome of relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) has improved the outcome of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) considerably. However, little is known about the patterns and outcome of MCL recurrence after autoSCT.
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Molecular remission is an independent predictor of clinical outcome in patients with mantle cell lymphoma after combined immunochemotherapy: a European MCL intergroup study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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The prognostic impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) was analyzed in 259 patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) treated within 2 randomized trials of the European MCL Network (MCL Younger and MCL Elderly trial). After rituximab-based induction treatment, 106 of 190 evaluable patients (56%) achieved a molecular remission (MR) based on blood and/or bone marrow (BM) analysis. MR resulted in a significantly improved response duration (RD; 87% vs 61% patients in remission at 2 years, P = .004) and emerged to be an independent prognostic factor for RD (hazard ratio = 0.4, 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.9, P = .028). MR was highly predictive for prolonged RD independent of clinical response (complete response [CR], complete response unconfirmed [CRu], partial response [PR]; RD at 2 years: 94% in BM MRD-negative CR/CRu and 100% in BM MRD-negative PR, compared with 71% in BM MRD-positive CR/CRu and 51% in BM MRD-positive PR, P = .002). Sustained MR during the postinduction period was predictive for outcome in MCL Younger after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT; RD at 2 years 100% vs 65%, P = .001) and during maintenance in MCL Elderly (RD at 2 years: 76% vs 36%, P = .015). ASCT increased the proportion of patients in MR from 55% before high-dose therapy to 72% thereafter. Sequential MRD monitoring is a powerful predictor for treatment outcome in MCL. These trials are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00209222 and #NCT00209209.
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A comprehensive microarray-based DNA methylation study of 367 hematological neoplasms.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Alterations in the DNA methylation pattern are a hallmark of leukemias and lymphomas. However, most epigenetic studies in hematologic neoplasms (HNs) have focused either on the analysis of few candidate genes or many genes and few HN entities, and comprehensive studies are required.
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New insights into the biology and origin of mature aggressive B-cell lymphomas by combined epigenomic, genomic, and transcriptional profiling.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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Lymphomas are assumed to originate at different stages of lymphocyte development through chromosomal aberrations. Thus, different lymphomas resemble lymphocytes at distinct differentiation stages and show characteristic morphologic, genetic, and transcriptional features. Here, we have performed a microarray-based DNA methylation profiling of 83 mature aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (maB-NHLs) characterized for their morphologic, genetic, and transcriptional features, including molecular Burkitt lymphomas and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Hierarchic clustering indicated that methylation patterns in maB-NHLs were not strictly associated with morphologic, genetic, or transcriptional features. By supervised analyses, we identified 56 genes de novo methylated in all lymphoma subtypes studied and 22 methylated in a lymphoma subtype-specific manner. Remarkably, the group of genes de novo methylated in all lymphoma subtypes was significantly enriched for polycomb targets in embryonic stem cells. De novo methylated genes in all maB-NHLs studied were expressed at low levels in lymphomas and normal hematopoietic tissues but not in nonhematopoietic tissues. These findings, especially the enrichment for polycomb targets in stem cells, indicate that maB-NHLs with different morphologic, genetic, and transcriptional background share a similar stem cell-like epigenetic pattern. This suggests that maB-NHLs originate from cells with stem cell features or that stemness was acquired during lymphomagenesis by epigenetic remodeling.
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GeneChip analyses point to novel pathogenetic mechanisms in mantle cell lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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The translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) is the genetic hallmark of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) but is not sufficient for inducing lymphomagenesis. Here we performed genome-wide 100K GeneChip Mapping in 26 t(11;14)-positive MCL and six MCL cell lines. Partial uniparental disomy (pUPD) was shown to be a recurrent chromosomal event not only in MCL cell lines but also in primary MCL. Remarkably, pUPD affected recurrent targets of deletion like 11q, 13q and 17p. Moreover, we identified 12 novel regions of recurrent gain and loss as well as 12 high-level amplifications and eight homozygously deleted regions hitherto undescribed in MCL. Interestingly, GeneChip analyses identified different genes, encoding proteins involved in microtubule dynamics, such as MAP2, MAP6 and TP53, as targets for chromosomal aberration in MCL. Further investigation, including mutation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridisation as well as epigenetic and expression studies, revealed additional aberrations frequently affecting these genes. In total, 19 of 20 MCL cases, which were subjected to genetic and epigenetic analyses, and five of six MCL cell lines harboured at least one aberration in MAP2, MAP6 or TP53. These findings provide evidence that alterations of microtubule dynamics might be one of the critical events in MCL lymphomagenesis contributing to chromosomal instability.
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Recurrent mutation of the ID3 gene in Burkitt lymphoma identified by integrated genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing.
Nat. Genet.
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Burkitt lymphoma is a mature aggressive B-cell lymphoma derived from germinal center B cells. Its cytogenetic hallmark is the Burkitt translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants, which juxtapose the MYC oncogene with one of the three immunoglobulin loci. Consequently, MYC is deregulated, resulting in massive perturbation of gene expression. Nevertheless, MYC deregulation alone seems not to be sufficient to drive Burkitt lymphomagenesis. By whole-genome, whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing of four prototypical Burkitt lymphomas with immunoglobulin gene (IG)-MYC translocation, we identified seven recurrently mutated genes. One of these genes, ID3, mapped to a region of focal homozygous loss in Burkitt lymphoma. In an extended cohort, 36 of 53 molecularly defined Burkitt lymphomas (68%) carried potentially damaging mutations of ID3. These were strongly enriched at somatic hypermutation motifs. Only 6 of 47 other B-cell lymphomas with the IG-MYC translocation (13%) carried ID3 mutations. These findings suggest that cooperation between ID3 inactivation and IG-MYC translocation is a hallmark of Burkitt lymphomagenesis.
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Update on the molecular pathogenesis and clinical treatment of mantle cell lymphoma: report of the 11th annual conference of the European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network.
Leuk. Lymphoma
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct subtype of malignant lymphoma characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32), resulting in constitutional overexpression of cyclin D1 and cell cycle dysregulation in virtually all cases. Clinically, MCL displays an aggressive course, with a continuous relapse pattern and a median survival of only 3-7 years. However, a subset of up to 15% long-term survivors has recently been identified with a rather indolent clinical course. In general, conventional chemotherapy is only palliative and the median duration of remissions is only 1-2 years. In 2000, the European MCL Network (http://www.european-mcl.net) was founded, which consists of 15 national lymphoma study groups supplemented by experts in hematopathology, cytogenetics and molecular genetics. During the last decade, the European consortium has successfully initiated the largest phase III trials in MCL worldwide. In the current study generation, the addition of high dose cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) to an R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone)-like regimen followed by myeloablative consolidation achieved a significant improvement of progression-free survival. Similarly, in elderly patients, rituximab maintenance until progression led to a marked prolongation of remission duration. Emerging strategies include proteasome inhibitors, immune modulatory drugs (IMiDs), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and others, all based on the dysregulated cell cycle machinery and impairment of several signaling transduction and apoptotic pathways. Future strategies will apply individualized approaches according to the molecular risk profile of the patient. At the annual conference in Lisbon, recent results of molecular pathogenesis, analyses of current clinical trials and new study concepts were discussed.
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Molecular subsets of mantle cell lymphoma defined by the IGHV mutational status and SOX11 expression have distinct biologic and clinical features.
Cancer Res.
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogeneous disease with most patients following an aggressive clinical course, whereas others having an indolent behavior. We conducted an integrative and multidisciplinary analysis of 177 MCL to determine whether the immunogenetic features of the clonotypic B-cell receptors (BcR) may identify different subsets of tumors. Truly unmutated (100% identity) IGHV genes were found in 24% cases, 40% were minimally/borderline mutated (99.9%-97%), 19% significantly mutated (96.9%-95%), and 17% hypermutated (<95%). Tumors with high or low mutational load used different IGHV genes, and their gene expression profiles were also different for several gene pathways. A gene set enrichment analysis showed that MCL with high and low IGHV mutations were enriched in memory and naive B-cell signatures, respectively. Furthermore, the highly mutated tumors had less genomic complexity, were preferentially SOX11-negative, and showed more frequent nonnodal disease. The best cut-off of germline identity of IGHV genes to predict survival was 97%. Patients with high and low mutational load had significant different outcome with 5-year overall survival (OS) of 59% and 40%, respectively (P = 0.004). Nodal presentation and SOX11 expression also predicted for poor OS. In a multivariate analysis, IGHV gene status and SOX11 expression were independent risk factors. In conclusion, these observations suggest the idea that MCL with mutated IGHV, SOX11-negativity, and nonnodal presentation correspond to a subtype of the disease with more indolent behavior.
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