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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Malnutrition in the nursing home.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Malnutrition in the nursing home is increasingly recognized as a major international research priority, given the expanding geriatric populations, serious consequences, and challenges conducting research in nursing homes. This review examines the recent literature and suggests implications for research and practice.
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Walking speed, physical activity, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Higher self-reported physical activity is associated with lower breast cancer incidence and mortality. Objectively measured timed walking speed, predictive of longevity in older adults, has been associated with ambulatory physical activity in small studies but definitive assessment of the association is lacking. Participants were a subset of 14 719 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative study who, at entry, had 10 m, timed walking speed determined. After 12.4 years [mean (SD) (3.5)] follow-up, 762 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed in this group. In addition, 8162 of these women self-reported physical activity. Simple linear regression was used to examine the relationship between timed walking speed and self-reported physical activity. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate age-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between timed walking speed and invasive breast cancer incidence. Although a linear regression model for self-reported physical activity [log metabolic equivalent task (MET) h/week] versus 10 m, timed walking speed had a statistically significant slope (coefficient=0.03, P<0.0001, correlation=0.20), the magnitude of the relationship was not clinically useful. Timed walking speed quintile was not associated with breast cancer incidence in age-adjusted or multivariant analyses (P for trend=0.60). Timed walking speed was not associated with self-reported physical activity in a clinically useful manner or with breast cancer incidence. Our findings do not support use of timed walking speed as an objective surrogate for self-reported physical activity.
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Factors Associated with In-Hospital Death by Site of Consultation among Elderly Inpatients Receiving Pain and Palliative Care Consultations.
J Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Abstract Background: Despite palliative care implementation, most deaths still occur in hospitals. Objectives: To identify factors associated with in-hospital death among elderly patients receiving palliative care, by site of consultation. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting/Subjects: All inpatients aged 65 years and older receiving pain and palliative care consultations in a 533-bed acute tertiary care hospital in Honolulu, Hawaii, from January 2005 through December 2009. Measurements: During consultation, demographics, diagnoses, consultation site (intensive care unit [ICU], non-ICU medical, non-ICU surgical, and rehabilitation floors), consultation indication (assistance with establishing goals of care versus pain and/or symptom management), Karnofsky scores, length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, and in-hospital death were collected. Multiple logistic regression analyses examined factors associated with in-hospital death. Results: Of 1630 elderly inpatients receiving palliative care, 305 (19%) died in-hospital. In-hospital death among non-ICU medical patients was associated with needing consultation to assist with plan of care (odds ratio [OR]=1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.27-2.80). Likelihood of in-hospital death increased 2% for each additional hospital day before consultation (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.03). Among elderly ICU patients, likelihood of in-hospital death increased 8% for each additional hospital day before consultation (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.01-1.16). Conclusion: Among elderly non-ICU medical patients receiving palliative care consultations, the need for a consultation to assist with plan of care was associated with in-hospital death, while length of stay prior to consultation was important among both elderly ICU and non-ICU medical patients. Elderly hospitalized patients may benefit from earlier identification and palliative care consultation for assistance with plan of care to avoid in-hospital death.
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Combining quality improvement and geriatrics training: the nursing home polypharmacy outcomes project.
Gerontol Geriatr Educ
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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To examine sustained effects of an educational intervention, the authors repeated a successful quality improvement (QI) project on medication safety and cost effectiveness. In October 2007 and August 2008, the facility leadership and geriatrics faculty identified all patients receiving nine or more medications (polypharmacy cohort) in a 170-bed teaching nursing home. They then taught Geriatric Medicine fellows (n = 12 in 2007, 11 in 2008) to (a) systematically collect medication data; (b) generate medication recommendations (stop, taper, or continue) based on expert criteria (Beers criteria) or drug-drug interaction programs; (c) discuss recommendations with patients' attending physicians; and (d) implement approved recommendations. Over the two projects, the polypharmacy cohorts demonstrated decreased potentially inappropriate medications (odds ratio [OR] = .78, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] [0.69, 0.88], p < .001), contraindicated medications (OR = .63, 95% CI [0.47, 0.85], p = .002) and medication costs (OR = .97, 95% CI [0.96, 0.99], p < .001). Findings suggest that programs planning educational QI projects for trainees may benefit from a multiyear approach to maximize clinical and educational benefits.
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Late-life factors associated with healthy aging in older men.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To identify potentially modifiable late-life biological, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors associated with overall and healthy survival to age 85.
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Low dietary vitamin D in mid-life predicts total mortality in men with hypertension: the Honolulu heart program.
J Am Coll Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Vitamin D deficiency was associated with total mortality in previous epidemiological studies. Little is known about the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on mortality. We examined the association between mid-life dietary vitamin D intake and 45-year total mortality.
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Proteinuria in midlife and 39-year total mortality: the Honolulu Heart Program.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Previous population-based studies have shown that proteinuria is an independent predictor of total mortality. However, no studies have examined multiple proteinuria measurements or had a follow-up period longer than two decades.
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"Youre being paged!" outcomes of a nursing home on-call role-playing and longitudinal curriculum.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Effectively handling telephone calls about nursing home (NH) residents is an important skill for healthcare professionals, but little formal training is typically provided. The objective of the current study was to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of a novel structured role-playing didactic session followed by an on-call NH longitudinal clinical experience. The effectiveness of the structured role-playing didactic session was compared in different learners, including geriatric medicine fellows (n = 10), family medicine residents and faculty (n = 14), nurse practitioner students (n = 31), and other learners (n = 7). The curriculum focused on common problems encountered while caring for NH residents during on-call periods. Learners rated themselves using an 18-item pre/post questionnaire including five attitude and 13 skills questions, using a 1-to-5 Likert scale. T-tests were used to compare means before and after sessions. Significant improvements were found in overall mean attitudes and skills scores. For all learners, the greatest improvements were seen in "comfort in managing residents at the NH," "managing feeding or gastrostomy tube dislodgement," "identifying different availability of medications, laboratory studies, and procedures in NH," and "describing steps to send NH residents to the emergency department." Geriatric medicine fellows attitudes and skills improved significantly after the longitudinal clinical experience. The faculty survey demonstrated improved documentation, communication, and fellows management of on-call problems after curriculum implementation. This novel curriculum used role-playing to provide training for on-call management of NH residents. This curriculum has been successfully disseminated on a national geriatrics educational resource website (POGOe) and is applicable to geriatric medicine fellowships, internal medicine and family medicine residency programs, and other training programs.
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Prestroke factors associated with poststroke mortality and recovery in older women in the Womens Health Initiative.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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To examine prestroke lifestyle factors associated with poststroke mortality and recovery in older women.
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Quantitative proteomics reveals the induction of mitophagy in tumor necrosis factor-?-activated (TNF?) macrophages.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Macrophages play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity as professional phagocytes capable of internalizing and degrading pathogens to derive antigens for presentation to T cells. They also produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) that mediate local and systemic responses and direct the development of adaptive immunity. The present work describes the use of label-free quantitative proteomics to profile the dynamic changes of proteins from resting and TNF-?-activated mouse macrophages. These analyses revealed that TNF-? activation of macrophages led to the down-regulation of mitochondrial proteins and the differential regulation of several proteins involved in vesicle trafficking and immune response. Importantly, we found that the down-regulation of mitochondria proteins occurred through mitophagy and was specific to TNF-?, as other cytokines such as IL-1? and IFN-? had no effect on mitochondria degradation. Furthermore, using a novel antigen presentation system, we observed that the induction of mitophagy by TNF-? enabled the processing and presentation of mitochondrial antigens at the cell surface by MHC class I molecules. These findings highlight an unsuspected role of TNF-? in mitophagy and expanded our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for MHC presentation of self-antigens.
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Aging and caregiving in the Republic of Palau.
J Cross Cult Gerontol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Aging has been an important population trend of the twentieth century, with most elderly people living in developing countries. Little has been published on the healthcare needs of elderly in the Pacific Islands. The Pacific Islands Geriatric Education Center, at the University of Hawaii, has a mission to promote training in geriatric education in the Pacific Islands to improve healthcare to the elderly. The aim of this project was to develop and test a family caregiver training program for Palau and was achieved in two phases: (1) assessing needs by interviewing key informants and surveying elders and (2) evaluating the caregiver training program that was designed based on findings from the assessment. The Ecological Systems Theory provided the theoretical framework for this study. The needs assessment identified training and education of family caregivers as a top priority, with the Palauan culture of family caring for seniors presently threatened by caregiver burnout. Nearly all of the long-term care in Palau is provided by families, and elders have high prevalence of geriatric syndromes. A family caregiver train-the-trainer workshop was subsequently conducted in February 2011. Forty-four trainers, including 12 from other Pacific Islands, attended the workshop. To assess changes in knowledge and confidence to teach, we compared scores on pre- and post-questionnaires using paired t tests. The train-the-trainer workshop resulted in significantly improved self-assessed competence and confidence to teach in all geriatric syndromes, including dealing with difficult behaviors, gait and transfer training, caregiver stress relief, and resources for caregivers (p?
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Prestroke Weight Loss Is Associated With Poststroke Mortality Among Men in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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To examine baseline prestroke weight loss and poststroke mortality among men.
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Proteomics Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Cells Reveals Dynamic Changes of Viral Protein Expression, Ubiquitylation, and Phosphorylation.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Herpesviruses are among the most complex and widespread human viruses and cause a number of diseases ranging from cold sores to genital infections and encephalitis. While the composition of viral particles has been studied, less is known about the expression of the whole viral proteome in infected cells. Here, we analyzed the proteome of the prototypical Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV1) in infected cells by mass spectrometry. Using a high sensitivity LTQ-Orbitrap, we achieved a very high level of protein coverage and identified a total of 67 structural and nonstructural viral proteins. We also identified 90 novel phosphorylation sites and 10 novel ubiquitylation sites on different viral proteins. Ubiquitylation was observed on nine HSV1 proteins. We identified phosphorylation sites on about half of the detected viral proteins; many of the highly phosphorylated ones are known to regulate gene expression. Treatment with inhibitors of DNA replication induced changes of both viral protein abundance and modifications, highlighting the interdependence of viral proteins during the life cycle. Given the importance of expression dynamics, ubiquitylation, and phosphorylation for protein function, these findings will serve as important tools for future studies on herpesvirus biology.
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Factors associated with weight loss, low BMI, and malnutrition among nursing home patients: a systematic review of the literature.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Weight loss and poor nutrition are important quality measures in long term care. Long term care professionals need to identify factors associated with weight loss and poor nutrition to target high-risk patients.
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A comprehensive characterization of membrane vesicles released by autophagic human endothelial cells.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The stress status of the apoptotic cell can promote phenotypic changes that have important consequences on the immunogenicity of the dying cell. Autophagy is one of the biological processes activated in response to a stressful condition. It is an important mediator of intercellular communications, both by regulating the unconventional secretion of molecules, including interleukin 1?, and by regulating the extracellular release of ATP from early stage apoptotic cells. Additionally, autophagic components can be released in a caspase-dependent manner by serum-starved human endothelial cells that have engaged apoptotic and autophagic processes. The nature and the components of the extracellular vesicles released by dying autophagic cells are not known. In this study, we have identified extracellular membrane vesicles that are released by human endothelial cells undergoing apoptosis and autophagy, and characterized their biochemical, ultrastructural, morphological properties as well as their proteome. These extracellular vesicles differ from classical apoptotic bodies because they do not contain nucleus components and are released independently of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 activation. Instead, they are enriched with autophagosomes and mitochondria and convey various danger signals, including ATP, suggesting that they could be involved in the modulation of innate immunity.
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Medical School Hotline: Developing communication skills for leading family meetings.
Hawaii Med J
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Good clinician-family communication is essential for the provision of high-quality patient care. Families rate the communication skills of clinicians as critical clinical skills. However, there has been no structured training of fellow communication skills while leading family meetings in the University of Hawaii Geriatric Medicine Fellowship Program. Effective training to develop communication skills with families will better prepare Geriatric Medicine fellows for this important task, and ultimately improve the quality of care they provide to these patients and patients families.
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Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteome by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based proteomics techniques: a comprehensive resource for tuberculosis research.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Approximately, one-third of the worlds population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Secreted and membrane proteins that interact with the host play important roles for the pathogenicity of the bacteria and are potential drug targets or components of vaccines. In this present study, subcellular fractionation in combination with membrane enrichment was used to comprehensively analyze the M. tuberculosis proteome. The proteome of the M. tuberculosis cell wall, membrane, cytosol, lysate, and culture filtrate was defined with a high coverage. Exceptional enrichment for membrane proteins was achieved using wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-affinity two-phase partitioning, a technique that has to date not yet been exploited for the enrichment of mycobacterial membranes. Overall, 1051 M. tuberculosis protein groups including 183 transmembrane proteins have been identified by LC-MS/MS analysis using stringent database search criteria with a minimum of two peptides and an estimated FDR of less than 1%. With many mycobacterial antigens and lipoglycoproteins identified, the results from this study suggest that many of the newly discovered proteins could represent potential candidates mediating host-pathogen interactions. In addition, this data set provides experimental information about protein localization and thus serves as a valuable resource for M. tuberculosis proteome research.
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Pain outcomes of inpatient pain and palliative care consultations: differences by race and diagnosis.
J Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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Pain management disparities exist among patients not receiving palliative care. We examined pain outcomes for disparities among patients receiving palliative care.
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White matter lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging scan and 5-year cognitive decline: the Honolulu-Asia aging study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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To study white matter lesions (WMLs) and 5-year cognitive decline in elderly Japanese-American men.
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Hospice referrals and code status: outcomes of inpatient palliative care consultations among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with cancer.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Intensive palliative care consultations for plan of care may reduce racial differences in end-of-life care.
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Physician intervention for medication reduction in a nursing home: the polypharmacy outcomes project.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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To examine the effects of a medication review project by geriatricians and geriatric medicine fellows on polypharmacy in a teaching nursing home.
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Factors associated with congruence between preferred and actual place of death.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Congruence between preferred and actual place of death may be an essential component in terminal care. Most patients prefer a home death, but many patients do not die in their preferred location. Specialized (physician, hospice, and palliative) home care visits may increase home deaths, but factors associated with congruence have not been systematically reviewed. This study sought to review the extent of congruence reported in the literature and examine factors that may influence congruence. In July 2009, a comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Reference lists, related articles, and the past five years of six palliative care journals were also searched. Overall congruence rates (percentage of met preferences for all locations of death) were calculated for each study using reported data to allow cross-study comparison. Eighteen articles described 30%-91% congruence. Eight specialized home care studies reported 59%-91% congruence. A physician-led home care program reported 91% congruence. Of the 10 studies without specialized home care for all patients, seven reported 56%-71% congruence and most reported unique care programs. Of the remaining three studies without specialized home care for all patients, two reported 43%-46% congruence among hospital inpatients, and one elicited patient preference "if everything were possible," with 30% congruence. Physician support, hospice enrollment, and family support improved congruence in multiple studies. Research in this important area must consider potential sources of bias, the method of eliciting patient preference, and the absence of a single ideal place of death.
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Factors associated with place of death for elderly Japanese-American men: the Honolulu Heart Program and Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Place of death is an indicator of health service utilization at the end of life and differs according to cause of death. Asian Americans may have a higher percentage of hospital deaths than Caucasian Americans, yet reasons for this finding are unclear. This study examined distribution of place of death and the associations between place and cause of death in elderly Japanese-American men in a longitudinal cohort: the Honolulu Heart Program and Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Data collected between 1991 and 1999 on 1,352 men aged 73 to 99 at death were analyzed for associations between cause-of-death characteristics and hospital, home, or nursing home location of death. Fifty-nine percent of men died in hospitals, 23% died at home, and 18% died in nursing homes. Of the dementia-related deaths, 43% occurred in hospitals (vs 16% in a national study), 37% occurred in nursing homes (vs 67% in a national study), and 20% occurred at home. Of the stroke deaths, 53% occurred in hospitals, 40% were in nursing homes, and 7% occurred at home. Of the cancer deaths, 53% occurred in hospitals, 34% occurred at home, and 13% were in nursing homes. Traditional family obligation to care for elderly people at home and inability to access care for dementia may account for the greater rate of hospital death and lower rate of nursing home deaths in this cohort. Attitudes of elderly Japanese Americans and their families regarding place of care at the end of life, particularly in the setting of dementia, merit future study.
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Prevalence and measures of nutritional compromise among nursing home patients: weight loss, low body mass index, malnutrition, and feeding dependency, a systematic review of the literature.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
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Weight loss and poor nutrition have been important considerations in measuring quality of nursing home care since 1987. Our purpose was to examine, synthesize, and provide a systematic review of the current literature on the prevalence and definitions of nutritional problems in nursing home residents. In the fall of 2011, we performed MEDLINE searches of English-language articles published after January 1, 1990. Articles were systematically selected for inclusion if they presented prevalence data for general nursing home populations on at least one of the following: weight loss, low body mass index, Mini-Nutritional Assessment or other measure of malnutrition, poor oral intake, or dependency for feeding. Data on each study, including study author, year, setting, population, type of study (study design), measures, and results, were systematically extracted onto standard matrix tables by consensus by a team of two fellowship-trained medical school faculty geriatrician clinician-researchers with significant experience in long term care. The MEDLINE search yielded 672 studies plus 229 studies identified through related citations and reference lists. Of the 77 studies included, 11 articles provided prevalence data from the baseline data of an intervention study, and 66 articles provided prevalence data in the context of an observational study of nutrition. There is a wide range of prevalence of low body mass index, poor appetite, malnutrition, and eating disability reported among nursing home residents. Studies demonstrate a lack of standardized definitions and great variability among countries. Of all the measures, the Minimum Data Set (MDS) weight loss definition of ?5% in 1 month or ?10% in 6 months had the narrowest range of prevalence rate: 6% to 15%. Weight loss, as measured by the MDS, may be the most easily replicated indicator of nutritional problems in nursing home residents for medical directors to follow for quality-improvement purposes. Additional studies are needed, reporting the prevalence of the MDS weight loss definition among international nursing home residents.
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A palliative care educational intervention for frontline nursing home staff: the IMPRESS project.
J Gerontol Nurs
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The purpose of this study was to examine nursing home staff perceptions of end-of-life (EOL) care skills after an educational intervention. IMPRESS (IMproving PRofessional Education and Sustaining Support) was a quality improvement EOL care educational intervention (six lectures on core palliative care concepts) for frontline nursing home staff at five community nursing homes. Questionnaires were completed to evaluate frequency of application of palliative care skills before and after the educational series. Nursing home staff reported applying palliative care skills significantly more frequently after the intervention. A significant dose-response association was noted between number of inservice sessions attended and improvement in scores: Scores increased 0.04 points for staff who attended two of the six sessions, 0.12 for four sessions attended, and 0.46 for five to six sessions attended (p = 0.03). The results indicate that frontline nursing home staff who attend inservice sessions on core palliative care topics can significantly increase self-reported application of palliative care skills.
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Reducing cost by reducing polypharmacy: the polypharmacy outcomes project.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
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To examine the effect of intervention by geriatric medicine fellows and a geriatrician on medication cost among long term care residents with polypharmacy.
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Low dietary vitamin D predicts 34-year incident stroke: the Honolulu Heart Program.
Stroke
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Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially stroke. We examined the relationship between dietary vitamin D intake and 34-year incident stroke.
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Outcomes of polypharmacy in nursing home residents.
Clin. Geriatr. Med.
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This article provides a comprehensive review of the outcomes of polypharmacy in nursing homes. Our review had some limitations. First, we only included studies beginning in 1990, and significant earlier studies are not included. Only English language articles were included. We only researched studies from MEDLINE, and may have missed studies based on our search terms and search tools. There are many definitions of polypharmacy in the literature, including number of medications or inappropriate medications. In this review, we defined polypharmacy as a high number of medications, but not inappropriate medications. It was not surprising that polypharmacy was consistently associated with an increased number of potentially inappropriate drugs. The majority of studies were viewed showed that polypharmacy was associated with increased ADEs, increased DDIs, and increased hospitalizations. We were surprised that polypharmacy was not consistently linked with falls, fractures, and mortality. For the mortality studies, it has been postulated that perhaps some patients receiving 10 or more medications may have been moribund or receiving end-of-life or hospice care. It is possible that the number of medications is not as important as the number of potentially in appropriate drugs. There need to be more studies on these outcomes, using different definitions of polypharmacy. Polypharmacy was associated with increased costs. The drug-related morbidity and mortality, including those resulting from inappropriate medications and increased staff time, led to increased costs. Use of consultant pharmacists has been shown to decrease polypharmacy costs.
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Factors associated with polypharmacy in nursing home residents.
Clin. Geriatr. Med.
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The prevalence of polypharmacy is very high in the nursing home setting. In this comprehensive review, we describe the many demographic, functional status, chronic disease, and healthcare financing factors associated with polypharmacy in nursing home patients. Recognition of the factors associated with polypharmacy is the first step for practitioners. A quality improvement intervention study previously conducted by the authors of this paper demonstrated that polypharmacy can be reduced in the nursing setting as a result of systematic review of medications by physicians.
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Quantitative proteomics reveals that only a subset of the endoplasmic reticulum contributes to the phagosome.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
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Phagosomes, by killing and degrading pathogens for antigen presentation, are organelles implicated in key aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. Although it has been well established that phagosomes consist of membranes from the plasma membrane, endosomes, and lysosomes, the notion that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane could play an important role in the formation of the phagosome is debated. However, a method to accurately estimate the contribution of potential source organelles and contaminants to the phagosome proteome has been lacking. Herein, we have developed a proteomic approach for objectively quantifying the contribution of various organelles to the early and late phagosomes by comparing these fractions to their total membrane and postnuclear supernatant of origin in the J774A.1 murine macrophage cell line. Using quantitative label-free mass spectrometry, the abundance of peptides corresponding to hundreds of proteins was estimated and attributed to one of five organelles (e.g. plasma membrane, endosomes/lysosomes, ER, Golgi, and mitochondria). These data in combination with a stable isotope labeling in cell culture method designed to detect potential contaminant sources revealed that the ER is part of the phagosomal membrane and contributes ? 20% of the early phagosome proteome. In addition, only a subset of ER proteins is recruited to the phagosome, suggesting that a specific subdomain(s) of the ER might be involved in phagocytosis. Western blotting and immunofluorescence substantially validated this conclusion; we were able to demonstrate that the fraction of the ER in which the ER marker GFP-KDEL accumulates is excluded from the phagosomes, whereas that containing the mVenus-Syntaxin 18 is recruited. These results highlight promising new avenues for the description of the pathogenic mechanisms used by Leishmania, Brucella, and Legionella spp., which thrive in ER-rich phagosomes.
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Obesity and Late-Age Survival Without Major Disease or Disability in Older Women.
JAMA Intern Med
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IMPORTANCE The effect of obesity on late-age survival in women without disease or disability is unknown. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether higher baseline body mass index and waist circumference affect womens survival to 85 years of age without major chronic disease (coronary disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes mellitus, or hip fracture) and mobility disability. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Examination of 36?611 women from the Womens Health Initiative observational study and clinical trial programs who could have reached 85 years or older if they survived to the last outcomes evaluation on September 17, 2012. Recruitment was from 40 US clinical centers from October 1993 through December 1998. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CIs for the association of baseline body mass index and waist circumference with the outcomes, adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Mutually exclusive classifications: (1) survived without major chronic disease and without mobility disability (healthy); (2) survived with 1 or more major chronic disease at baseline but without new disease or disability (prevalent diseased); (3) survived and developed 1 or more major chronic disease but not disability during study follow-up (incident diseased); (4) survived and developed mobility disability with or without disease (disabled); and (5) did not survive (died). RESULTS Mean (SD) baseline age was 72.4 (3.0) years (range, 66-81 years). The distribution of women classified as healthy, prevalent diseased, incident diseased, disabled, and died was 19.0%, 14.7%, 23.2%, 18.3%, and 24.8%, respectively. Compared with healthy-weight women, underweight and obese women were more likely to die before 85 years of age. Overweight and obese women had higher risks of incident disease and mobility disability. Disability risks were striking. Relative to healthy-weight women, adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) of mobility disability were 1.6 (1.5-1.8) for overweight women and 3.2 (2.9-3.6), 6.6 (5.4-8.1), and 6.7 (4.8-9.2) for class I, II, and III obesity, respectively. Waist circumference greater than 88 cm was also associated with higher risk of earlier death, incident disease, and mobility disability. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Overall and abdominal obesity were important and potentially modifiable factors associated with dying or developing mobility disability and major chronic disease before 85 years of age in older women.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.