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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Magnesium sulfate increases intracellular magnesium reducing inflammatory cytokine release in neonates.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) exposure reduces the risk of cerebral palsy. As neonatal inflammatory cytokine levels strongly correlate with neurologic outcome, we hypothesize that MgSO4 decreases inflammatory cytokine production.
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Magnesium decreases inflammatory cytokine production: a novel innate immunomodulatory mechanism.
J. Immunol.
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MgSO(4) exposure before preterm birth is neuroprotective, reducing the risk of cerebral palsy and major motor dysfunction. Neonatal inflammatory cytokine levels correlate with neurologic outcome, leading us to assess the effect of MgSO(4) on cytokine production in humans. We found reduced maternal TNF-? and IL-6 production following in vivo MgSO(4) treatment. Short-term exposure to a clinically effective MgSO(4) concentration in vitro substantially reduced the frequency of neonatal monocytes producing TNF-? and IL-6 under constitutive and TLR-stimulated conditions, decreasing cytokine gene and protein expression, without influencing cell viability or phagocytic function. In summary, MgSO(4) reduced cytokine production in intrapartum women, term and preterm neonates, demonstrating effectiveness in those at risk for inflammation-associated adverse perinatal outcomes. By probing the mechanism of decreased cytokine production, we found that the immunomodulatory effect was mediated by magnesium and not the sulfate moiety, and it was reversible. Cellular magnesium content increased rapidly upon MgSO(4) exposure, and reduced cytokine production occurred following stimulation with different TLR ligands as well as when magnesium was added after TLR stimulation, strongly suggesting that magnesium acts intracellularly. Magnesium increased basal I?B? levels, and upon TLR stimulation was associated with reduced NF-?B activation and nuclear localization. These findings establish a new paradigm for innate immunoregulation, whereby magnesium plays a critical regulatory role in NF-?B activation, cytokine production, and disease pathogenesis.
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Bidirectional NK/DC interactions promote CD4 expression on NK cells, DC maturation, and HIV infection.
Virology
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Interactions between natural killer (NK) and dendritic cells (DCs) are integral to immune response development, potentially leading to bidirectional NK/DC activation. We demonstrate that autologous NK/DC interactions induce CD4 expression on NK cells, influencing degranulation. Cell contact is required, with high NK:DC ratios and mature DCs most effectively inducing CD4 expression. CD4(+) NK cells, in turn, mediate DC maturation via contact-dependent and independent pathways, more effectively maturing DCs than CD4(-) NK cells. Bidirectional NK/DC interactions also impact HIV infection, as NK-matured DCs effectively deliver infectious HIV to T cells, via trans-infection. DC-induced CD4 expression also renders NK cells susceptible to HIV infection. Focusing on NK/DC interactions, DCs can transfer infectious virus and enhance HIV infection of CD4(+) NK cells, strongly suggesting that these interactions influence HIV pathogenesis. Findings provide new insight regarding NK/DC interactions, defining a mechanism by which cellular interactions in the absence of pathogens promote DC-mediated amplification of HIV infection.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.