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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The effects of intrauterine malnutrition on birth and fertility outcomes: evidence from the 1974 bangladesh famine.
Demography
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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This article uses the Bangladesh famine of 1974 as a natural experiment to estimate the impact of intrauterine malnutrition on sex of the child and infant mortality. In addition, we estimate the impact of malnutrition on post-famine pregnancy outcomes. Using the 1996 Matlab Health and Socioeconomic Survey (MHSS), we find that women who were pregnant during the famine were less likely to have male children. Moreover, children who were in utero during the most severe period of the Bangladesh famine were 32 % more likely to die within one month of birth compared with their siblings who were not in utero during the famine. Finally, we estimate the impacts of the famine on subsequent pregnancy outcomes. Controlling for pre-famine fertility, we find that women who were pregnant during the famine experienced a higher number of stillbirths in the post-famine years. This increase appears to be driven by an excess number of male stillbirths.
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Outcome of aplastic anemia in adolescence: a survey of the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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We analyzed the outcome of 537 adolescents (age 12-18 years) with idiopathic aplastic anemia included in the database of the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation comparing: i) matched family donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed as first-line treatment with ii) front-line immunosuppressive therapy not followed by subsequent transplant given for failure and with iii) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed after failed front-line immunosuppressive therapy. Overall survival was 86% in the matched family donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group, 90% in patients given front-line immunosuppressive alone (those who did not fail this treatment and who did not receive subsequent rescue with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and 78% in subjects who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation post failed front-line immunosuppressive therapy (P=0.14). Event-free survival in the same groups was respectively 83%, 64% and 71% (P=0.04). Cumulative incidence of rejection was 8% in matched family donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 9% in transplants post failed front-line immunosuppression (P=0.62). Cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease was 12% in matched family donor transplants and 18% in transplants post failed immunosuppression (P=0.18). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was higher in matched family donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (8%) than in transplants post failed immunosuppressive therapy (20%) (P=0.0009). Cumulative incidence of post-therapy malignancies was 0.7% in matched family donor transplantations, 7% in transplantations post failed immunosuppression and 21% after front-line immunosuppression (P=0.0017). In the whole cohort, under multivariate analysis, the diagnosis to treatment interval of two months or under positively affected overall survival whereas up-front immunosuppression alone (with no subsequent rescue transplants) negatively affected event-free survival. In transplanted patients an interval from diagnosis to treatment of 2 months or under, bone marrow as source of cells and first-line matched family donor transplants provided a significant advantage in overall and event-free survival. Aplastic anemia in adolescents has a very good outcome. If a matched family donor is available, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using bone marrow cells is the first choice treatment. If such a donor is not available, immunosuppressive treatment may still be an acceptable second choice, also because, in case of failure, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a very good rescue option.
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Treosulfan-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic HSCT in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Standard myeloablative conditioning regimens for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia are based on total body irradiation (TBI). However, TBI causes profound short-term and long-term side effects, provoking the necessity for alternative regimens. Treosulfan combines a potent immunosuppressive and antileukaemic effect with myeloablative activity and low toxicity profile. We retrospectively studied toxicity and outcome of 71 paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following treosulfan-based conditioning aiming to identify risk factors for treatment failure and dose-depending outcome differences. Early regimen-related toxicity was low. No case of veno-occlusive disease was reported. There was no association of toxicity with age or number of HSCT. Event-free survival (EFS) of infants was significantly better compared to older children. Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 51 % and not significantly influenced by number of HSCT (first HSCT 54 %, ?second HSCT 44 %, p?=?0.71). In multivariate analysis, OS and EFS were significantly worse for patients transplanted without complete remission (p?=?0.04 and 0.004). Treatment-related mortality was low at 14 %. We conclude that treosulfan-based conditioning is a safe and efficacious approach for paediatric ALL.
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in thalassemia major and sickle cell disease: indications and management recommendations from an international expert panel.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Thalassemia major and sickle cell disease are the two most widely disseminated hereditary hemoglobinopathies in the world. The outlook for affected individuals has improved in recent years due to advances in medical management in the prevention and treatment of complications. However, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still the only available curative option. The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been increasing, and outcomes today have substantially improved compared with the past three decades. Current experience world-wide is that more than 90% of patients now survive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and disease-free survival is around 80%. However, only a few controlled trials have been reported, and decisions on patient selection for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and transplant management remain principally dependent on data from retrospective analyses and on the clinical experience of the transplant centers. This consensus document from the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Inborn Error Working Party and the Paediatric Diseases Working Party aims to report new data and provide consensus-based recommendations on indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and transplant management.
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Outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients transformed to myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia from severe aplastic anemia: a report from the MDS Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party and the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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One hundred and forty patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) transformation after treatment of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) were identified in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) database. The median age at HSCT was 29 years (range, 1 to 66 years). The transplant donor was related in 49% cases and unrelated in 51% cases. The 5-year probability of relapse was 17%, and that of nonrelapse mortality was 41%. The 5-year overall survival was 45% ± 9%, better for patients untreated and patients in remission compared with patients with refractory disease. Our data indicate that allogeneic HSCT leads to prolonged survival in close to one-half of the patients transforming to MDS or AML from SAA.
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[Formation of regional relations in a global context: football rivalry between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo during the First Republic].
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The internationalization of football and the ongoing creation of a transnational sports community in the early twentieth century interacted with processes of national and regional differentiation. The article shows that, in Brazil, football served as a means for the elite of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro to forge and express their regional identities. Adopting a global and regional perspective, an attempt is made to understand these processes of differentiation between the two cities based on the analysis of given sporting events. The text starts from the assumption that regional and national identities and spaces are constructed from transnational interaction and negotiations. In the specific case of football, the aim is to ascertain the standardizing and differentiating effects that the process of its globalization implied.
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Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor: improved long-term survival with an intensive multimodal therapy and delayed radiotherapy. The Medical University of Vienna Experience 1992-2012.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) are recently defined highly aggressive embryonal central nervous system tumors with a poor prognosis and no definitive guidelines for treatment. We report on the importance of an initial correct diagnosis and disease-specific therapy on outcome in 22 consecutive patients and propose a new treatment strategy. From 1992 to 2012, nine patients initially diagnosed correctly as ATRT (cohort A, median age 24 months) were treated according to an intensive multimodal regimen (MUV-ATRT) consisting of three 9-week courses of a dose-dense regimen including doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, ifosfamide, cisplatin, etoposide, and methotrexate augmented with intrathecal therapy, followed by high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and completed with local radiotherapy. Thirteen patients were treated differently (cohort B, median age 30 months) most of whom according to protocols in use for their respective diagnoses. As of July 2013, 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) for all 22 consecutive patients was 56.3 ± 11.3% and 52.9 ± 11.0%, respectively. For MUV-ATRT regimen-treated patients (cohort A) 5-year OS was 100% and EFS was 88.9 ± 10.5%. For patients treated differently (cohort B) 5-year OS and EFS were 28.8 ± 13.1%. All nine MUV-ATRT regimen-treated patients are alive for a median of 76 months (range: 16-197), eight in first complete remission. Our results compare favorably to previously published data. The drug combination and sequence used in the proposed MUV-ATRT regimen appear to be efficacious in preventing early relapses also in young children with M1-M3 stage disease allowing postponement of radiotherapy until after HDCT.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Fanconi anemia: the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation experience.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative treatment for patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), published series mostly refer to single-center experience with limited numbers of patients. We analyzed results in 795 patients with FA who underwent first HSCT between May 1972 and January 2010. With a 6-year median follow-up, overall survival was 49% at 20 years (95% confidence interval, 38-65 years). Better outcome was observed for patients transplanted before the age of 10 years, before clonal evolution (ie, myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia), from a matched family donor, after a conditioning regimen without irradiation, the latter including fludarabine. Chronic graft-versus-host disease and secondary malignancy were deleterious when considered as time-dependent covariates. Age more than 10 years at time of HSCT, clonal evolution as an indication for transplantation, peripheral blood as source of stem cells, and chronic graft-versus-host disease were found to be independently associated with the risk for secondary malignancy. Changes in transplant protocols have significantly improved the outcome of patients with FA, who should be transplanted at a young age, with bone marrow as the source of stem cells.
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Analysis of risk factors influencing outcomes after cord blood transplantation in children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia: a EUROCORD, EBMT, EWOG-MDS, CIBMTR study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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We retrospectively analyzed 110 patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, given single-unit, unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation. Median age at diagnosis and at transplantation was 1.4 years (age range, 0.1-6.4 years) and 2.2 years (age range, 0.5-7.4 years), respectively. Before transplantation, 88 patients received chemotherapy; splenectomy was performed in 24 patients. Monosomy of chromosome 7 was the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality, found in 24% of patients. All but 8 patients received myeloablative conditioning; cyclosporine plus steroids was the most common graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Sixteen percent of units were HLA-matched with the recipient, whereas 43% and 35% had either 1 or 2 to 3 HLA disparities, respectively. The median number of nucleated cells infused was 7.1 × 10(7)/kg (range, 1.7-27.6 × 10(7)/kg). With a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 14-174 months), the 5-year cumulative incidences of transplantation-related mortality and relapse were 22% and 33%, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 44%. In multivariate analysis, factors predicting better disease-free survival were age younger than 1.4 years at diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; P = .005), 0 to 1 HLA disparities in the donor/recipient pair (HR, 0.4; P = .009), and karyotype other than monosomy 7 (HR, 0.5; P = .02). Umbilical cord blood transplantation may cure a relevant proportion of children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Because disease recurrence remains the major cause of treatment failure, strategies to reduce incidence of relapse are warranted.
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Syngeneic transplantation in aplastic anemia: pre-transplant conditioning and peripheral blood are associated with improved engraftment: an observational study on behalf of the Severe Aplastic Anemia and Pediatric Diseases Working Parties of the European
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Aplastic anemia is usually treated with immunosuppression or allogeneic transplant, depending on patient and disease characteristics. Syngeneic transplant offers a rare treatment opportunity with minimal transplant-related mortality, and offers an insight into disease mechanisms. We present here a retrospective analysis of all syngeneic transplants for aplastic anemia reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Between 1976 and 2009, 88 patients received 113 transplants. Most transplants (n=85) were preceded by a conditioning regimen, 22 of these including anti-thymocyte globulin. About half of transplants with data available (39 of 86) were followed by posttransplant immunosuppression. Graft source was bone marrow in the majority of cases (n=77). Transplant practice changed over time with more transplants with conditioning and anti-thymocyte globulin as well as peripheral blood stem cells performed in later years. Ten year overall survival was 93% with 5 transplant-related deaths. Graft failure occurred in 32% of transplants. Risk of graft failure was significantly increased in transplants without conditioning, and with bone marrow as graft source. Lack of posttransplant immunosuppression also showed a trend towards increased risk of graft failure, while anti-thymocyte globulin did not have an influence. In summary, syngeneic transplant is associated with a significant risk of graft failure when no conditioning is given, but has an excellent long-term outcome. Furthermore, our comparatively large series enables us to recommend the use of pre-transplant conditioning rather than not and possibly to prefer peripheral blood as a stem cell source.
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Challenges and opportunities for international cooperative studies in pediatric hematopoeitic cell transplantation: priorities of the Westhafen Intercontinental Group.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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More than 20% of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) are performed in children and adolescents at a large number of relatively small centers. Unlike adults, at least one-third of HCTs in children are performed for rare, nonmalignant indications. Clinical trials to improve HCT outcomes in children have been limited by small numbers and these pediatric-specific features. The need for a larger number of pediatric HCT centers to participate in trials has led to the involvement of international collaborative groups. Representatives of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantations Pediatric Working Group, International Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (iBFm) Stem Cell Transplantation Committee, and Childrens Oncology Groups Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Discipline Committee met on October 3, 2012, in Frankfurt, Germany to develop a consensus on the highest priorities in pediatric HCT. In addition, it explored the creation of an international consortium to develop studies focused on HCT in children and adolescents. This meeting led to the creation of an international HCT network, dubbed the Westhafen Intercontinental Group, to develop worldwide priorities and strategies to address pediatric HCT issues. This review outlines the priorities of need as identified by this consensus group.
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Use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation based on minimal residual disease response improves outcomes for children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the intermediate-risk group.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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In children with intermediate risk of relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it is essential to identify patients in need of treatment intensification. We hypothesized that the prognosis of patients with unsatisfactory reduction of minimal residual disease (MRD) can be improved by allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT).
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Outcome of children and adolescents with a second or third relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): a population-based analysis of the Austrian ALL-BFM (Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) study group.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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We analyzed outcome of a population-based cohort of 74 children with second and third acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) relapse and aimed to identify prognostic factors. Duration of previous remission and site of relapse appeared of prognostic relevance as patients with a second remission duration >1.5 years and isolated extramedullary relapse did better. Neither patient with a second bone marrow relapse who underwent previous allogeneic transplantation nor patients with T-cell ALL survived. Overall, 7 of 74 (9%) patients are in long-term remission. Stem cell transplantation seemed to be the only curative option for systemic relapse of B-cell precursor ALL as all 4 surviving patients with a second/third relapse involving the bone marrow received a transplant. Conclusively, patients with a second ALL relapse are ideal candidates for phase I/II trials exploring new innovative drugs.
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Consanguinity and other marriage market effects of a wealth shock in Bangladesh.
Demography
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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This paper uses a wealth shock from the construction of a flood protection embankment in rural Bangladesh coupled with data on the universe of all 52,000 marriage decisions between 1982 and 1996 to examine changes in marital prospects for households protected by the embankment relative to unprotected households living on the other side of the river. We use difference-in-difference specifications to document that brides from protected households commanded larger dowries, married wealthier households, and became less likely to marry biological relatives. Financial liquidity-constrained households appear to use within-family marriage (in which one can promise ex-post payments) as a form of credit to meet up-front dowry demands, but the resultant wealth shock for households protected by the embankment relaxed this need to marry consanguineously. Our results shed light on the socioeconomic roots of consanguinity, which carries health risks for offspring but can also carry substantial benefits for the families involved.
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Stem cell transplantation after reduced-intensity conditioning for sickle cell disease.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Sickle cell disease (SCD) is still associated with substantial morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Disease-related mortality rises to 14% in adolescents and young adults. Overall and disease-free survival following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is 90% and 95%, respectively. To reduce transplant-associated late effects, the feasibility of a highly immunosuppressive reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen was explored in children with SCD and a matched sibling donor. Eight patients (median age, 9 yr) and symptomatic SCD were included. The conditioning regimen consisted of fludarabine, melphalan and either thiotepa or total lymphoid irradiation plus antithymocyte globuline or alemtuzumab. The graft was bone marrow in seven and cord blood in one case. The conditioning regimen was well tolerated and no severe infectious complications occurred. All patients displayed mixed chimaerism on day +28. After a median follow-up of 4 yr, 3/8 patients have mixed leucocyte chimaerism and 8/8 patients have 100% donor erythropoiesis. HSCT from matched sibling donors following a RIC regimen was well tolerated and resulted in cure in all patients studied. If confirmed in larger patient cohorts, these observations will have important implications for the indications of HSCT in children with SCD.
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Risk of complications during hematopoietic stem cell collection in pediatric sibling donors: a prospective European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Pediatric Diseases Working Party study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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We investigated prospectively factors influencing the safety of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) collection in 453 pediatric donors. The children in the study donated either BM or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) according to center policy. A large variability in approach to donor issues was observed between the participating centers. Significant differences were observed between BM and PBSC donors regarding pain, blood allotransfusion, duration of hospital stay, and iron supplementation; however, differences between the groups undergoing BM vs PBSC donation preclude direct risk comparisons between the 2 procedures. The most common adverse event was pain, reported mainly by older children after BM harvest, but also observed after central venous catheter (CVC) placement for PBSC collection. With regard to severe adverse events, one patient (0.7%) developed a pneumothorax with hydrothorax after CVC placement for PBSC collection. The risk of allotransfusion after BM harvest was associated with a donor age of < 4 years and a BM harvest volume of > 20 mL/kg. Children < 4 years were at higher risk than older children for allotransfusion after BM harvest and there was a higher risk of complications from CVC placement before apheresis. We conclude that PBSC and BM collection are safe procedures in children.
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Mesenchymal stromal cells for treatment of steroid-refractory GvHD: a review of the literature and two pediatric cases.
Int Arch Med
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2011
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Severe acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in endogenous tissue repair and possess strong immune-modulatory properties making them a promising tool for the treatment of steroid-refractory GvHD. To date, a few reports exist on the use of MSCs in treatment of GvHD in children indicating that children tend to respond better than adults, albeit with heterogeneous results.We here present a review of the literature and the clinical course of two instructive pediatric patients with acute steroid-refractory GvHD after haploidentical stem cell transplantation, which exemplify the beneficial effects of third-party transplanted MSCs in treatment of acute steroid-refractory GvHD. Moreover, we provide a meta-analysis of clinical studies addressing the outcome of patients with steroid-refractory GvHD and treatment with MSCs in adults and in children (n = 183; 122 adults, 61 children). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the overall response-rate is high (73.8%) and confirms, for the first time, that children indeed respond better to treatment of GvHD with MSCs than adults (complete response 57.4% vs. 45.1%, respectively).These data emphasize the significance of this therapeutic approach especially in children and indicate that future prospective studies are needed to assess the reasons for the observed differential response-rates in pediatric and adult patients.
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Introduction of a quality management system and outcome after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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A comprehensive quality management system called JACIE (Joint Accreditation Committee International Society for Cellular Therapy and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation), was introduced to improve quality of care in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We therefore tested the hypothesis that the introduction of JACIE improved patient survival.
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High-risk pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: to transplant or not to transplant?
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Because survival with both chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) approaches to high-risk pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) generally improves through the years, regular comparisons of outcomes with either approach for a given indication are needed to decide when HSCT is indicated. Improvements in risk classification are allowing clinicians to identify patients at high risk for relapse early in their course of therapy. Whether patients defined as high risk by new methods will benefit from HSCT requires careful testing. Standardization and improvement of transplant approaches has led to equivalent survival outcomes with matched sibling and well-matched unrelated donors; however, survival using mismatched and haploidentical donors is generally worse. Trials comparing chemotherapy and HSCT must obtain sufficient data about therapy and stratify the analysis to assess the outcomes of best-chemotherapy with best-HSCT approaches.
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X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SAP/SH2D1A deficiency: a multicenter study on the manifestations, management and outcome of the disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) is a rare immunodeficiency characterized by severe immune dysregulation and caused by mutations in the SH2D1A/SAP gene. Clinical manifestations are varied and include hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia, often triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Historical data published before improved treatment regimens shows very poor outcome. We describe a large cohort of 91 genetically defined XLP1 patients collected from centers worldwide and report characteristics and outcome data for 43 patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and 48 untransplanted patients. The advent of better treatment strategies for HLH and malignancy has greatly reduced mortality for these patients, but HLH still remains the most severe feature of XLP1. Survival after allogeneic HSCT is 81.4% with good immune reconstitution in the large majority of patients and little evidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. However, survival falls to 50% in patients with HLH as a feature of disease. Untransplanted patients have an overall survival of 62.5% with the majority on immunoglobulin replacement therapy, but the outcome for those untransplanted after HLH is extremely poor (18.8%). HSCT should be undertaken in all patients with HLH, because outcome without transplant is extremely poor. The outcome of HSCT for other manifestations of XLP1 is very good, and if HSCT is not undertaken immediately, patients must be monitored closely for evidence of disease progression.
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Improved outcome with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a poor prognostic subgroup of infants with mixed-lineage-leukemia (MLL)-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the Interfant-99 Study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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To define a role for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and rearrangements of the mixed-lineage-leukemia gene (MLL(+)), we compared the outcome of MLL(+) patients from trial Interfant-99 who either received chemotherapy only or HSCT. Of 376 patients with a known MLL status in the trial, 297 (79%) were MLL(+). Among the 277 of 297 MLL(+) patients (93%) in first remission (CR), there appeared to be a significant difference in disease-free survival (adjusted by waiting time to HSCT) between the 37 (13%) who received HSCT and the 240 (87%) who received chemotherapy only (P = .03). However, the advantage was restricted to a subgroup with 2 additional unfavorable prognostic features: age less than 6 months and either poor response to steroids at day 8 or leukocytes more than or equal to 300 g/L. Ninety-seven of 297 MLL(+) patients (33%) had such high-risk criteria, with 87 achieving CR. In this group, HSCT was associated with a 64% reduction in the risk of failure resulting from relapse or death in CR (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.86). In the remaining patients, there was no advantage for HSCT over chemotherapy only. In summary, HSCT seems to be a valuable option for a subgroup of infant MLL(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia carrying further poor prognostic factors. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00015873 and at www.controlled-trials.com as #ISRCTN24251487.
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Long-term follow-up and factors influencing outcomes after related HLA-identical cord blood transplantation for patients with malignancies: an analysis on behalf of Eurocord-EBMT.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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We analyzed risk factors influencing outcomes after related (R) human leukocyte antigen-identical cord blood transplantation (CBT) for 147 patients with malignancies reported to Eurocord-European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. CBT has been performed since 1990; median follow-up was 6.7 years. Median patient age was 5 years. Acute leukemia was the most frequent diagnosis (74%). At CBT, 40 patients had early, 70 intermediate, and 37 advanced disease. CB grafts contained a median of 4.1 × 10(7)/kg total nucleated cells (TNCs) after thawing. The cumulative incidence (CI) of neutrophil recovery was 90% at day +60. CIs of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 12% and 10% at 2 years, respectively. At 5 years, CIs of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 9% and 47%, respectively; the probability of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were 44% and 55%, respectively. Among other factors, higher TNCs infused was associated with rapid neutrophil recovery and improved DFS. The use of methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis decreased the CI of engraftment. Patients without advanced disease had improved DFS. These results support banking and use of CB units for RCBT. Cell dose, GVHD prophylaxis not including methotrexate, and disease status are important factors for outcomes after RCBT.
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Stem cell source and outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children and adolescents with acute leukemia.
Pediatr. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from siblings, unrelated donors or HLA mismatched family members has become an important procedure to offer a chance of cure to children and adolescents with acute leukemia at high risk of relapse and those with certain genetic diseases. Bone marrow (BM) was the only stem cell source for many years. During the past 15 years, peripheral blood stem cells from granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized healthy donors, or umbilical cord blood from related or unrelated donors, have become available. Each stem cell source has different risks/benefits for patients and donors, the choice depending not only on availability, but also on HLA compatibility and urgency of the HSCT. This review will analyze the advantages and limitations of each of these options, and the main criteria which can be applied when choosing the appropriate stem cell source for pediatric transplant recipients with acute leukemia.
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Results and factors influencing outcome after fully haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with very high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: impact of center size: an analysis on behalf of the Acute Leukemia and Pediatric Disea
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2009
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T cell-depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haploHSCT) is an option to treat children with very high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lacking an HLA-identical donor. We analyzed 127 children with ALL who underwent haploHSCT in first (n = 22), second (n = 48), or third (n = 32), complete remission or in relapse (n = 25). The 5-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 30%, 34%, 22%, and 0%, respectively. A risk-factor analysis was performed for patients who underwent transplantation in remission (n = 102). Five-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse incidence (RI), and LFS were 37%, 36%, and 27%, respectively. A trend of improved LFS rate and decreased RI was observed for children given a graft with higher number of CD34(+) cells (adjusted P = .09 and P = .07, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, haploHSCT performed in larger centers (performing > or = 231 allotransplantations in the studied period) was associated with improved LFS rate and decreased RI (adjusted P = .01 and P = .04, respectively), adjusting for different patient-, disease-, and transplant-related factors such as number of previous autotransplantations, cytomegalovirus serology status, type of T-cell depletion, and use of total body irradiation and antithymocyte globulin. In conclusion, higher CD34(+) cell dose and better patient selection may improve outcomes of children with ALL who undergo a haploHSCT. Transplant centers initiating programs on haploHSCT for children may collaborate with more experienced centers.
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Long-term outcome of initially homogenously treated and relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Austria--a population-based report of the Austrian Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) Study Group.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common cause for a fatal outcome in paediatric oncology. Although initial ALL cure rates have improved up to 80%, the prognosis of recurrent ALL remains dismal with event-free-survival (EFS) rates about 35%. In order to analyse a population-based cohort with uniform treatment of initial disease, we examined the outcome of children suffering from relapsed ALL in Austria for the past 20 years and the validity of the currently used prognostic factors (e.g. time to and site of relapse, immunophenotype). Furthermore, we compared survival rates after chemotherapy alone with those after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). All 896 patients who suffered from ALL in Austria between 1981 and 1999 were registered in a prospectively designed database and treated according to trials ALL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM)-Austria (A) 81, ALL-A 84 and ALL-BFM-A 86, 90 and 95. Of these, 203 (23%) suffered from recurrent disease. One-hundred-and-seventy-two patients (85%) achieved second complete remission. The probability of 10-year EFS for the total group was 34 +/- 3%. Clinical prognostic markers that independently influenced survival were time to relapse, site of relapse and the immunophenotype. Additionally, a Cox regression model demonstrated that allogeneic SCT after first relapse was associated with a superior EFS compared with chemo/radiotherapy only (hazard ratio = 0.254; P = 0.0017).
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Evaluation of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation (eGFR) against simultaneous, dual-marker multi-sample measurements of glomerular filtration rate.
Ann. Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using plasma creatinine remains controversial, especially when GFR approaches normal values. The aim was to re-examine estimated GFR (eGFR) using dual-reference GFR measurements.
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Comparison of GFR measurements assessed from single versus multiple samples.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Many previous studies have evaluated single-sample glomerular filtration rate (GFR) against multisample GFR, of which the single sample was a member, but none have compared single and multisample GFRs against an independent reference method. We therefore performed this comparison by using simultaneous independent multisample GFR measured with a different indicator.
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Granulocyte transfusions in children and young adults: does the dose matter?
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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Granulocyte transfusions (GTs) may increase the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) before hematopoietic regeneration in neutropenic patients after chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and support anti-infective immunity.
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Effect of extracellular fluid volume on single-sample measurement of glomerular filtration rate.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Objective. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of extracellular fluid volume (ECV) on the accuracy of measurement of glomerular filtration rate from a single sample (GFR1).
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Prognostic value of minimal residual disease quantification before allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the ALL-REZ BFM Study Group.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Minimal residual disease (MRD) before allogeneic stem-cell transplantation was shown to predict outcome in children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in retrospective analysis. To verify this, the Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Relapse Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (ALL-REZ BFM) Study Group conducted a prospective trial.
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Minimal residual disease after induction is the strongest predictor of prognosis in intermediate risk relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia - long-term results of trial ALL-REZ BFM P95/96.
Eur. J. Cancer
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This blinded prospective study was performed to optimise the risk assessment of children with a late isolated, combined or an early combined bone marrow (BM) relapse of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The aim was to develop a reliable tool to identify patients with an intermediate risk relapse who are in need of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
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Long-term outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe treatment-resistant autoimmune cytopenia in children.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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We analyzed the long-term outcomes of pediatric patients registered in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for severe treatment refractory autoimmune cytopenia. With a median follow-up of 100 months, event-free survival was 54% overall, with no significant difference between allogeneic HSCT (n = 15) and autologous HSCT (n = 7) recipients (58% versus 42%; P = .50). Despite a trend toward failure of response or relapse after autologous HSCT compared with allogeneic HSCT, the difference was not significant (43% versus 13%; P = .30). Treatment-related mortality was high in both HSCT groups (29% and 16%; P = .09). Based on the limited numbers of subjects in this retrospective analysis, both allogeneic and autologous HSCT may induce complete and persistent responses in approximately one-half of pediatric patients with severe refractory autoimmune cytopenia, although treatment-related toxicity is high.
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Stem cell transplantation can provide durable disease control in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: a retrospective study from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Blood
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Patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) have a poor prognosis with conventional chemotherapy. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the outcome of patients with BPDCN who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) or autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). A total of 39 patients (allo-SCT, n = 34; auto-SCT, n = 5) were identified in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry. The 34 allo-SCT patients had a median age of 41 years (range, 10-70) and received transplantations from sibling (n = 11) or unrelated donors (n = 23) between 2003 and 2009. MAC was used in 74% of patients. Nineteen allo-SCT patients (56%) received transplantations in first complete remission. The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse, disease-free survival, and overall survival was 32%, 33%, and 41%, respectively. By univariate comparison, being in first remission at allo-SCT favorably influenced survival, whereas age, donor source, and chronic GVHD had no significant impact. We conclude that high-dose therapy followed by allo-SCT from related or unrelated donors can provide durable remission even in elderly patients with BPDCN. However, it remains to be shown if graft-versus-malignancy effects can contribute significantly to BPDCN control after allo-SCT.
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Clinical and immunological correction of DOCK8 deficiency by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol
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Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency disorder characterized by an expanding clinical picture with typical features of recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections, atopic eczema, food allergies, chronic viral infections of the skin, and blood eosinophilia often accompanied by elevated serum IgE levels. The only definitive treatment option is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report a patient with early severe manifestation of DOCK8 deficiency, who underwent unrelated allogeneic HSCT at the age of 3 years following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen. The transplant course was complicated by pulmonary aspergilloma pretransplantation, adenovirus (ADV) reactivation, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis 4 weeks after transplantation. With antifungal and antiviral treatment the patient recovered. Seven months after transplantation the patient is in excellent clinical condition. Eczematous rash, chronic viral skin infections, and food allergies have subsided, associated with normalization of IgE levels and absolute numbers of eosinophils. Chimerism analysis shows stable full donor chimerism. DOCK8 deficiency can be successfully cured by allogeneic HSCT. This treatment option should be considered early after diagnosis, as opportunistic infections and malignancies that occur more frequently during the natural course of the disease are associated with higher morbidity and mortality.
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Prevalence and clinical course of viral upper respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised pediatric patients with malignancies or after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
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Respiratory tract infections (RTI) in immunosuppressed pediatric patients with malignancies or after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prospective data on the incidence and clinical role of infections by respiratory viruses in this population have been lacking.
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Behavioral strategies for assessing and promoting community readiness in brain injury rehabilitation.
NeuroRehabilitation
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Individuals with acquired brain injuries often display problematic behaviors, such as impulsivity, disinhibition, lack of initiation, isolation, and aggression, that impact their readiness to return to home and/or the community. The occurrence and treatment of these behaviors is often complicated by impairments in cognition and self-awareness, as well as by co-occurring issues including substance abuse. Community reintegration for these individuals is a goal that can be both hazardous and difficult to attain. This article briefly reviews the literature and describes a treatment philosophy and methodology by which an interdisciplinary team can employ evidence-based behavioral principles and procedures to assess and promote behavioral stability toward the goal of community readiness within a residential rehabilitation setting. Assessment includes a comprehensive evaluation of individual strengths and barriers across all disciplines as well as an analysis of the function of problematic behaviors. Based upon these assessments and analyses, integrated interdisciplinary treatment efforts then support the development and implementation of specific strategies and tools to promote community readiness and ultimately reentry. These strategies and tools are intended to provide direction and support to the client and include prompts and cues to self-manage, as well as ways to assist clients and staff to collect and reflect upon relevant data. Additionally, other methods of data collection, techniques to develop self-management skills, and the use of contingencies as part of a community reentry plan are discussed.
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Nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease in children and adolescents.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for many children with life-threatening diseases. One of the most significant long-term complications of transplantation is chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Although the rates of cGVHD after HSCT are lower in the pediatric population than in adults, cGVHD remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Medicines used to prevent and treat cGVHD remain unsatisfactory, with protracted use of immune suppression necessary and high rates of first-line treatment failure. Efforts to improve salvage treatment are urgently required. Nonpharmacologic strategies attempt to modulate the cellular inflammation response and possibly allow reduction or cessation of immunosuppressive drugs. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown in vitro to mediate a wide variety of immune responses. MSC have been used in the prophylaxis of acute GVHD (aGVHD) and for the treatment of established steroid refractory aGVHD and, more recently, in the management of cGVHD. Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) has shown promising efficacy in graft-versus-host disease, and may allow a significant reduction in the use of systemic steroids and other immunosuppressants, reducing long-term morbidity and mortality. The accumulated experience shows ECP to be well tolerated, with no clinically significant side effects.
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Association Between Busulfan Exposure and Outcome in Children Receiving Intravenous Busulfan Before Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Ther Drug Monit
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Intravenous (IV) busulfan (Bu) combined with therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dosing is associated with better event-free survival (EFS), lower transplant-related mortality. But optimal target steady-state concentration (Css) of Bu in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between Css of Bu and clinical outcomes in children receiving Bu before HSCT.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.